WorldWideScience

Sample records for comparative study tratamento

  1. Estudo comparativo entre tratamento convencional e tratamento com heparina tópica para a analgesia de queimaduras Comparative study of conventional and topical heparin treatments for burns analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guilherme Praxedes Barretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo prospectivo, randomizado, aberto e controlado por comparador ativo teve o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia analgésica e tolerabilidade da heparina não-fracionada administrada topicamente no tratamento de queimaduras. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e oito pacientes do sexo masculino ou feminino foram randomizados para tratamento convencional (C ou tratamento com heparina tópica (HT. Foram incluídos pacientes com: idade entre 18 e 55 anos, queimaduras de 2º e 3º graus por fogo ou escaldo em 10% a 30% da superfície corpórea (SC, sem história de diáteses hemorrágicas ou hipersensibilidade à heparina e com área queimada em 3º grau menor de 10% da SC. O grupo C realizou periodicamente balneoterapia terapêutica para desbridamento das lesões seguida de curativos com sulfadiazina de prata. O grupo HT realizou o primeiro desbridamento e teve suas áreas queimadas deixadas expostas para receber três vezes ao dia heparina não fracionada em spray na dose de 4200 UI para cada 1% de SC queimada. A eficácia analgésica foi avaliada nos 38 pacientes que completaram o estudo pela demanda de medicamentos analgésicos e pela Escala Analógico Visual de Dor (EAV. A tolerabilidade foi avaliada nos 58 pacientes randomizados pela incidência comparativa de reações adversas nos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: O grupo HT solicitou menos analgésicos (11,83 ± 9,38 por paciente no grupo HT contra 33,35 ± 20,63 no grupo C, pOBJECTIVE: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study controlled by active comparator. The aim was to assess analgesic efficacy and overall tolerability of a burn treatment based on topic administration of unfractionated heparin. METHODS: Fifty eight male or female patients were randomized for conventional treatment (group C or topical heparin treatment (group TH. Ages of patients enrolled ranged from 18 to 55 years. They had 2nd and 3rd degree burns on 10% to 30% of the body surface (BS caused by fire or scald, no

  2. Tratamento do abortamento incompleto por aspiração manual ou curetagem Comparative study of manual vacuum aspiration and uterine curettage for treatment of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar aspiração manual intra-uterina (AMIU com curetagem uterina (D&C em abortamentos no primeiro trimestre no que se refere a eficiência para eliminar restos ovulares do método de aspiração manual intra-uterina com a dilatação e curetagem, ocorrência de complicações (perfuração uterina, laceração cervical, hemorragia pós-tratamento, tempo duração dos procedimentos e tempo de internação das pacientes. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta pacientes no grupo AMIU e 50 pacientes no grupo D&C foram incluídas prospectivamente de maneira aleatória. Critérios de inclusão: abortamento espontâneo, idade gestacional de até 13 semanas, colo pérvio, espessura endometrial maior que 15 mm, estado afebril, hemoglobina superior a 10 g/dl. Amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas antes e após os procedimentos cirúrgicos para controle dos níveis de hemoglobina; anestesia foi realizada em todos os casos. O tempo para realização de cada procedimento cirúrgico foi cronometrado. RESULTADOS: Os grupos eram semelhantes quanto à idade gestacional (9,93±2,40; 9,73±2,58, p 0,71, espessura endometrial antes da cirurgia (22,14±4,80; 22,68±5,68, p 0,65. Não foram observadas complicações cirúrgicas ou anestésicas em nenhum grupo. Os tempos de realização do procedimento e internação foram significativamente menores nas pacientes do grupo AMIU (3,71; 10,18 min, p OBJECTIVES: To compare manual vacuum aspiration (MVA and uterine curettage (D&C for first trimester abortions, in terms of the efficiency of eliminating ovular remnants, frequency of complications, duration of the procedure, and duration of patients' hospitalization. METHODS: In a prospective study, 50 patients in the MVA group and 50 in the D&C group were randomly included. Inclusion criteria were: spontaneous abortion, gestational age less than 13 weeks, patent cervix, endometrial thickness >15 mm, afebrile state, and hemoglobin >10 g/dl. Blood samples were collected before

  3. Mechanical comparative analysis of three different types of sutures in different dimensions tendons - experimental study Tratamento cirúrgico da cifose congênita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato R. Medeiros

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present sixteen patients with congenital kyphosis treated by posterior spinal arthrodesis. A homologous or autogenous iliac bone graft was used. The patients walked with Risser-Cotrel body cast in the 6 months of postoperatory period. The mean time of follow-up was 58,25 months and the mean age of the patients at time of surgery was 9,3 years. The mean angular value of the congenital kyphosis before surgery was 50,44º Cobb and after ther surgery it was 46,94º Cobb. One of the patients who had curve of 69º Cobb, presented pseudoarthrosis. The final results were good in 10, regular in 4 and bad in 2 patients. The need of the diagnostic and precocious treatment is recommended by authors.Os autores apresentam dezesseis pacientes portadores de cifose congênita que foram tratados pela artrose vertebral posterior.Utilizaram enxerto do osso ilíaco autógeno em doze casos e homólogo em quatro casos. Deambularam com aparelho gessado de Risser-Cotrel no pós-operatório por seis meses. A média de idade, na época da cirurgia, foi de 9,3 anos com valor angular médio da cifose pré-operatória de 50,44 graus (Cobb e pós-operatória de 46, 94 graus (Cobb, com tempo médio de seguimento de 58,25 meses Foi constatado um caso de pseudoartrose em um paciente com curva de 69 graus (Cobb. Os resultados obtidos foram: Dez bons, quatro regulares e dois maus. Os autores alertam para a necessidade do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces.

  4. Tratamento da Eclâmpsia: Estudo Comparativo entre o Sulfato de Magnésio e a Fenitoína Treatment of Eclampsia: Comparative Study on the Use of Magnesium Sulfate and Phenytoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Valadares Neto

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar a eficácia do sulfato de magnésio e da fenitoína no controle das convulsões em pacientes com eclâmpsia e avaliar os efeitos de sulfato de magnésio e da fenitoína sobre o prognóstico materno e perinatal em pacientes com eclâmpsia. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randômico e controlado no qual foram analisados, de forma comparativa, os resultados obtidos no tratamento anticonvulsivante da eclâmpsia em 77 mulheres tratadas com sulfato de magnésio ou fenitoína. As drogas que constituíram os dois esquemas terapêuticos foram distribuídas, na proporção de um para um, em caixas numeradas aleatoriamente que apresentavam características semelhantes. À medida que cada paciente era admitida, uma caixa era aberta e o esquema nela contido administrado à paciente. Resultados: observou-se que, no grupo tratado com sulfato de magnésio, 19,5% das pacientes apresentaram recidiva de convulsões, ao passo que no grupo que usou fenitoína, 36,1% manifestaram novas crises (p0,05. Conclusões: o sulfato de magnésio mostrou-se mais eficaz que a fenitoína no controle e prevenção da recidiva de convulsões em pacientes com eclâmpsia, embora sua utilização esteja associada a maior prevalência materna de hemorragia pós-parto e desconforto respiratório neonatal. A fenitoína apresenta-se como droga alternativa para o tratamento de eclâmpsia nos casos em que houver contra-indicação ao uso do sulfato de magnésio.Purpose: to compare the efficiency between magnesium sulfate and phenytoin in the control of convulsions in patients with eclampsia and to evaluate the effects of magnesium sulfate and phenytoin on the maternal and perinatal prognosis in patients with eclampsia. Methods: this is a prospective, randomized and controlled study in which the results obtained with the use of anticonvulsive treatment in 77 women with eclampsia, treated with either magnesium sulfate or phenytoin, were analyzed comparatively. The drugs

  5. Comparative study on ureteroscopic lithotripsy and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for treatment of unilateral upper ureteral stones Estudo comparativo entre litotripsia e ureterolitotomia laparoscópica no tratamento de cálculos unilaterais altos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-qiang Fang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the curative effects of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for unilateral upper ureteral stones, and to explore optimal surgical indications and skills. METHODS: Fifty cases of unilateral upper ureteral stones were randomly divided into two groups: one group underwent ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy under epidural or lumbar anesthesia (n=25, and another group underwent laparoscopic ureterolithotomy under general anesthesia (n=25. Double-J stent was routinely indwelled in both groups. Operating time, postoperative hospitalization time, stone clearance rate and perioperative complications were compared. RESULTS: Operation was successfully performed in all 50 cases, and no open surgery was converted in any case. In the ureteroscopy and laparoscopy groups, the mean operating time was 49.0±10.7 min and 41.8±8.0 min (t=2.68, P=0.00999, respectively, their hospitalization time was 2.8±1.3 days vs. 2.9±0.8 days (t =-0.40, P=0.69413, and stone clearance rate was 88.0% (22/25 vs. 100% (25/25. Stone moved to the renal pelvis in three cases in the ureteroscopy group, and residual stones were removed by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL. All patients were followed up for more than three months, and no serious complications such as ureterostenosis occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy has a higher stone clearance rate and shorter operation time compared with ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is one safe and effective treatment on unilateral upper ureteral stones.OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos curativos da litotripsia ureteroscópica e a ureterolitotomia laparoscópica para cálculos unilaterais altos e pesquisar as indicações e resultados. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta casos de cálculos unilaterais altos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: um grupo submetido a litotripsia ureteroscópica com laser holmium sob anestesia epidural ou lombar (n=25 e

  6. Métodos de tratamento utilizados na incontinência urinária de esforço genuína: um estudo comparativo entre cinesioterapia e eletroestimulação endovaginal Methods of treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a comparative study between a pelvic floor exercise program and a pelvic floor electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole O. Bernardes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar pacientes portadoras de incontinência urinária de esforço genuína (IUEG que se submeteram a um protocolo de cinesioterapia para reforço perineal àquelas que se submeteram a eletroestimulação endovaginal (EEEV. O objetivo foi traçar uma conduta de tratamento fisioterápico mais adequada para tal enfermidade. Métodos: foram selecionadas 14 pacientes portadoras de IUEG, com idade entre 31 e 64 anos, sendo divididas em dois grupos de 7 mulheres cada. Cada grupo foi submetido a um dos protocolos de tratamento ambulatorial diário durante 10 dias consecutivos. As pacientes foram avaliadas e reavaliadas por somente uma fisioterapeuta. Para as análises estatísticas foram utilizados testes não-paramétricos. Resultados: todas pacientes obtiveram uma melhora parcial ou total da IUEG com 10 sessões fisioterápicas consecutivas, considerando os critérios objetivos e subjetivos de avaliação. Conclusão: tanto a cinesioterapia quanto a EEEV se mostraram efetivas no tratamento da IUEG, porém, a cinesioterapia para reforço perineal apresentou uma tendência para ser o tratamento de escolha.Purpose: to compare patients with genuine stress incontinence (GSI who were submitted to a pelvic floor exercise program (PFEP with those who were submitted to a pelvic floor electrical stimulation (PFES. Methods: fourteen GSI patients, with age between 31-64 years, participated in the study. They were divided into two groups of 7 each. PFEP or PFES was performed for 10 days. The women were evaluated at the first consultation and reevaluated after the ten-day treatment by only one physical therapist. For the statistical analysis nonparametric tests were used. Results: all had a partial or a total improvement of the GSI after the treatment, considering the subjective and objective analysis of the research. Conclusion: both PFEP and PFES showed to be effective to treat GSI, although PFEP showed a tendency to be the better treatment.

  7. Study of efficacy and safety of a new local cream ("healer" in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, comparative study Estudo da eficácia e segurança de novo creme cicatrizante para o tratamento da fissura anal crônica: estudo prospectivo, randomizado, simples-cego e comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Yakoot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of "healer" cream as monotherapy in the treatment of acute and chronic anal fissure. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single blinded, comparative trial. METHODS: Sixty patients suffering from anal fissure were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A: treated with "healer" local cream application 3 times daily; group B: treated with nitroglycerine 0.25% local cream 3 times daily; group C: treated with a lidocaine 2% cream applied locally 3 times daily. All the followings were followed up and compared between groups. (1 Visual pain analogue score after defecation; (2 severity of straining and discomfort during defecation; (3 frequency of ulcer healed at 30 days; (4 any side effects or complications. RESULTS: The pain scoring after defecation was significantly reduced in the three treatment groups. The group treated with "healer" isosorbide-di-nitrate showed the greatest reduction of the visual pain analogue score median from 9 before treatment to 3 & 1 after 10 and 20 days respectively, while the median visual pain analogue score in group B treated with nitroglycerine cream was 9 reduced to 4 & 2 after 10 and 20 days respectively, and the median visual pain analogue score in lidocaine group only dropped from 9 to 6 and 4, respectively. The reduction of both pain scoring and defecation scoring with "healer" was statistically significantly greater than the other two treatments by Kruskal-Wallis test, POBJETIVOS: Determinar a eficácia e segurança de "creme cicatrizante" (dinitrato de isosorbida 1%; lidocaína 2%; rutosídios 5% em base de creme anti-séptico como monoterapia no tratamento da fissura anal aguda ou crônica. METODOLOGIA: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, simples-cego, comparativo. Foram incluídos 60 pacientes com fissura anal. Foram divididos randomicamente em três grupos: grupo A: tratados com "creme cicatrizante", grupo B: tratados

  8. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment; Estudo comparativo da utilizacao de aceleradores industriais de eletrons e adsorcao com carvao ativado para tratamento de efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  9. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study; Tratamento de efluentes industriais utilizando a radiacao ionizante de acelerador industrial de eletrons e por adsorcao com carvao ativado. Estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-07-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  10. Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ferimento de colon de coelho com reparo seroso da parede de jejunum e sutura primária Comparative study of colon wound repair using jejunal serosal wall and primary suture, in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edmundo Fontes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob anestesia geral para a produção de dois ferimentos padronizados em colo não preparado, usando instrumento desenvolvido para esta finalidade. O primeiro ferimento foi produzido a 2 cm do ceco e o segundo 20 cm eqüidistante deste, no sentido caudal. Estes ferimentos foram reparados obedecendo a resultado de sorteio que determinou a técnica a ser usada, se com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno ou por sutura primária. Nas duas técnicas foram usados pontos separados de fio monofilamentar de poliglecaprone 4-0 , sendo que o animal serviu de controle para si mesmo. Realizou-se eutanásia no 7º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo A e no 30º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo B para avaliação macroscópica e microscópica. O experimento demonstrou que é viável o uso do lado seroso da parede de jejuno para reparar ferimento em colo não preparado e apresentou resultados com tendências a serem superiores aos da sutura primária , não dual de MaringáThe present research aimed to compare the repair of colon wound using both the jejunal wall and the primary suture . Thirty young rabbits white New Zeland were used, weighing about 3,2 Kg. and were born and raised at the University of Maringá's Experimental farm. The animals were deeply anaesthetized and then submited to a surgery during wich two similar wounds were made in unprepared colon . An instrument created for this purpose was used. The first wound was made 2 cm away from the ceco , and the second one was made 20 cm from the first wound in the caudal location. The wounds were repaired using either the jejunal serosal wall or the primary suture. In both techniques were used separated stitches , made by monofilament poliglecaprone 4-0. The animal was used to control itself. The animals were submited to euthanasia either in the 7th or in 30th day after surgery, at random.Then a macroscopic and microscopic study was made. This research

  11. Estudo comparativo entre tratamento endovascular e cirurgia convencional na correção eletiva de aneurisma de aorta abdominal: revisão bibliográfica Endovascular elective treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm versus conventional open repair: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina P. Simão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento eletivo do aneurisma de aorta abdominal é recomendado pela alta morbiletalidade decorrente da eventual ruptura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o reparo endovascular eletivo com a cirurgia aberta e avaliar as mortalidades hospitalar e perioperatória, em 1 ano, por todas as causas e relacionadas ao aneurisma, a permanência hospitalar, as complicações, as taxas de sobrevida, conversão e reintervenção, a durabilidade do enxerto, o custo-benefício e a relação desses dados com o treinamento da equipe médica responsável pelo tratamento. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre reparo endovascular versus cirurgia convencional. Foram observados vantagem na sobrevivência perioperatória e menor estresse pós-cirúrgico; no entanto, os benefícios iniciais são perdidos por complicações e reintervenções tardias. Trabalhos baseados nas primeiras gerações de endopróteses superestimam as taxas de mortalidade em curto prazo, complicações e reintervenções. A durabilidade do enxerto, a real vantagem na sobrevida e o custo-benefício são incertos, e outros estudos são necessários para o seguimento em longo prazo.The elective treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is recommended due to the high morbidity and mortality of a possible rupture. The objective of this study was to compare the elective endovascular aneurysm repair with open repair and to analyze the in-hospital and perioperative mortality rate during 1 year related to all causes and to the aneurysm, as well as the postoperative length of hospital stay, complications, survival rates, conversion and reintervention, graft durability, cost-benefit ratio, and relation with the medical team’s experience. A review of the scientific literature about endovascular versus open repair was carried out. We found a higher rate of perioperative survival and less postoperative stress; nevertheless, the initial benefits were lost due to late complications and

  12. A comparative study of image-guided percutaneous procedures for the treatment of liver abscesses; Estudos comparativos dos procedimentos percutaneos orientados por metodos de imagem no tratamento das colecoes hepaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Giselle Guedes Netto de; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi de; Ajzen, Sergio; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2001-04-01

    The objective was to determine and compare the efficacy of percutaneous needle aspiration and percutaneous catheter drainage, both guided by imaging methods, for the treatment of liver abscesses. From 52 patients referred to our service for percutaneous treatment of abdominal abscesses, 17 presented liver abscesses, 13 of which were considered non complex and four were considered complex (multiloculated, multiple or associated to fistulas). Percutaneous needle aspiration was performed in 7/17 patients and 10/17 patients were submitted to percutaneous catheter drainage. The method used was considered successful when there was complete abscess resolution with both clinical and laboratorial improvement. The procedures were successful in 82.4% of all cases. In the group submitted to percutaneous needle aspiration the rate of success was 57.1% and in the group submitted to percutaneous catheter drainage the rate of success was 100%. Successful treatment was achieved in 75% of the patients submitted to percutaneous needle aspiration for abscesses smaller than 100 ml, but in only 33.3% of the patients with abscesses between 100 and 250 ml. There was complete resolution of the abscesses with percutaneous needle aspiration in 75% of the simple abscesses and in 25% of the complex abscesses. Percutaneous catheter drainage is more effective than percutaneous needle aspiration for the treatment of liver abscesses. Needle aspiration may probably be used as a valid alternative for smaller and non complex abscesses. (author)

  13. Estudo prospectivo e comparativo entre o tratamento conservador e o cirúrgico (reparo do ligamento femoropatelar medial nas luxações agudas de patela Prospective and comparative study between conservative and surgical treatment (medial petellofemoral ligament repair in patellar acute dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Luis Camanho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados dois grupos de pacientes com o primeiro episódio de luxação aguda femoropatelar traumática e acompanhados prospectivamente em relação às recidivas e aos fatores predisponentes à luxação. No Grupo I, 17 pacientes com média de idade de 24,6 anos, sendo 11 do sexo feminino, foram submetidos ao reparo do ligamento femoropatelar medial com menos de um mês de trauma. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 40,4 meses e o mínimo de 18 meses. Como resultados, não houve nenhuma recidiva da luxação,houve dois episódios de subluxação . Nove pacientes apresentavam fatores predisponentes à luxação. No Grupo II, 15 pacientes com média de idade de 26,8 anos, sendo oito do sexo feminino, foram submetidos ao tratamento conservador com média de 18,5 dias de imobilização. O tempo de seguimento médio foi de 35,7 meses e o mínimo de 11 meses. Oito joelhos tiveram recidiva da luxação, apenas dois joelhos foram considerados estáveis . Neste grupo, 14 pacientes apresentavam fatores predisponentes. Concluímos que o tratamento cirúrgico das luxações agudas femoropatelares traumáticas apresenta resultados superiores quanto à recidiva em relação ao tratamento conservador no período estudado. A presença de fatores predisponentes em nossa série de pacientes não influenciou as recidivas das luxações femoropatelares.Two groups of patients with their first episode of traumatic patellofemoral acute dislocation were studied and prospectively followed up regarding recurrences and predisposing factors to dislocation. In Group I, 17 patients with mean age of 24.6 years old, being 11 females, were submitted to medial patellofemoral ligament repair within less than a month after trauma. The mean follow up time was 40.4 months and the least, 18 months. As a result, there was no recurrence of the dislocation, and two episodes of subdislocation. Nine patients presented predisposing factors to dislocation. In Group II, 15 patients

  14. Estudo prospectivo randomizado comparativo entre os tratamentos cirúrgico utilizando placa anterior e o não cirúrgico das fraturas do terço médio da clavícula Prospective randomized study comparing surgical treatment using anterior plate to non-surgical treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio de Figueiredo

    2008-10-01

    com o tratamento não cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To compare non-surgical treatment and surgical treatment using an anterior plate through a functional evaluation of patients with midshaft clavicle fractures after 12 months of follow-up. METHODS: A prospective study was performed from August 2005 to January 2007, when 50 patients with midshaft clavicle fracture with displacement were randomly divided into two groups. 10 of the patients were excluded from the series because they were lost in follow-up. Group 1 was submitted to surgical treatment with reduction and fixation of the clavicle with an anterior plate. Group 2 was treated using a sling. After the minimum follow-up period of 12 months, a comparative analysis was performed using the AAOS and the UCLA scales as parameters. RESULTS: Mean age was approximately 30 years (ranging from 18 to 58 years, and 77.5% of the patients were male. The right side was most often involved (55% and it was the dominant shoulder in those patients. The trauma mechanisms found most often were traffic accidents (75% of the cases. According to UCLA criteria, group 1 had 91.5% of the patients with results considered satisfactory (good and excellent, whereas group 2 presented 81.25%. Return to work and to daily-life activities was faster in group 1, with a mean of 8.67 weeks, whereas group 2 took 15.13 weeks. As to complications, the authors mention, for group 1, hypertrophic scarring (12.5%, pseudoarthrosis (8.3%, residual pain (8.3%, loosening of the material (4.1%. In group 2, complications were: esthetic deformity (43.75%, adhesive capsulitis (12.5%, and pseudoarthrosis (6.25%. CONCLUSION: After 12 months of follow-up, surgical treatment provided faster return to daily-life activities, with higher percentage of functional results according to the UCLA scale, but this was not statistically significant, compared to the non-surgical treatment.

  15. Estudo comparativo da resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete, sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três resinas compostas e três tipos de tratamento na base do braquete Comparative study of the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface, using three different resin composites and three different treatments in the base of the bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lia Mondelli

    2007-06-01

    , associado ou não ao jateamento com óxido de alumínio, houve uma queda dos valores de resistência ao cisalhamento. O tratamento com jateamento de óxido de alumínio na base dos braquetes melhorou todos os valores de adesividade para todos os materiais de colagem utilizados nesta pesquisa.AIM: Considering that the adhesion between the brackets and the resin is chemo-mechanical, the aim of this study was to investigate: 1 the efficacy of the method used to assess the bond strength at the resin/bracket interface; 2 the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface using three resin composites (Concise orthodontic, Transbond XT and Filtek Z-250; 3 the effect of sandblasting of the base of the metallic bracket with aluminum oxide, associated or not to the application of adhesive. METHODS: Shear bond strength was carried out at a universal testing machine. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison test. RESULS AND CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of 12.5% of cohesive failures may be considered minimal, thus indicating that the method is appropriate to assess the bond strength at the resin/bracket interface. The different resin composites (Concise Orthodontic, Transbond XT and Filtek Z-250 used for bonding without any previous surface treatment of the bracket (control groups resulted in similar shear bond strength. The application of adhesive, with or without previous sandblasting of the base of the bracket, improved the shear bond strength for the Concise orthodontic resin composite, when compared to its control group. Sandblasting of the bracket, regardless of the combined use of adhesive, was statistically superior for the Transbond XT resin composite when compared to its control group. The application of the adhesive Single Bond in the base of the bracket, with or without previous sandblasting, promoted a decrease in the shear bond strength for the Filtek Z-250 resin composite. Sandblasting of the metallic bracket with aluminum oxide

  16. Estudo comparativo entre estibogluconato de sódio BP 88R e antimoniato de meglumina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea: I. Eficácia e segurança Comparative study between sodium stibogluconate BP 88R and meglumine antimoniate for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment: I. Efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina R. Saldanha

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia e segurança do antimoniato de meglumina e do estibogluconato de sódio BP 88R foram comparadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em Corte de Pedra, Bahia, área endêmica de leishmaniose causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Realizou-se um estudo quase-experimental que incluiu 127 pacientes cujo diagnóstico baseou-se na observação clínica e a intradermorreação de Montenegro. Cinqüenta e oito pacientes receberam antimoniato de meglumina e 69 estibogluconato de sódio. Utilizou-se a dose de 20 mg/Sb v/kg/dia por 20 dias, em ambos os grupos. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a cada dez dias durante o tratamento e mensalmente por três meses. Observou-se a cura em 62% dos pacientes tratados com antimoniato de meglumina e em 55% daqueles tratados com estibogluconato de sódio (p = 0,42. A cefaléia foi mais freqüente na primeira metade do tratamento no grupo tratado com estibogluconato de sódio (p = 0,026. Na segunda metade do tratamento, os pacientes tratados com estibogluconato de sódio apresentaram maior freqüencia de mialgia/artralgia (p = 0,004 e dor abdominal/anorexia (p = 0,004. Três pacientes tratados com o estibogluconato de sódio apresentaram efeitos colaterais graves.Efficacy and safety of meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate BP88R were compared in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, an endemic area of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. An open trial was developed with one hundred twenty seven patients who were diagnosed based on clinical criteria and Montenegro´s skin test. Fifty eight patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and 69 received sodium stibogluconate. Both groups received 20 mg/Sb v/kg/day for 20 days. Patients were followed every ten days during treatment and every month thereafter for three months. Sixty two percent patients cured with meglumine antimoniate and 55% cured with sodium stibogluconate (p = 0,42. Headache was

  17. Estudo comparativo entre ressecção do trapézio e interposição tendinosa com e sem ligamentoplastia no tratamento da artrose carpometacarpiana do polegar Comparative study between trapezium resection and tendon interposition with and without ligament plasty in the management of carpometacarpal arthrosis of the thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Gomes Pardini Junior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O tratamento da artrose da base do polegar tem sido tema de grande controvérsia. Numerosas cirurgias têm sido descritas, como ressecção isolada do trapézio, ressecção com interposição com e sem reforço ligamentar, artrodese e artroplastias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de comparar os resultados das duas técnicas mais utilizadas nesse tratamento. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo a fim de comparar os resultados cirúrgicos de ressecção do trapézio com interposição tendinosa (tenoartroplastia - 22 casos e tenoartroplastia associada a ligamentoplastia - 24 casos. A avaliação objetiva foi feita através das medidas de oponência, dos movimentos da articulação metacarpofalangiana, da força de pinça e de preensão, da medida radiográfica da distância entre a base do 1º metacarpiano e o escafóide e do ângulo entre o 1º e o 2º metacarpianos. A avaliação subjetiva foi realizada através do questionário DASH, uma escala analógico-digital para avaliar a dor e a satisfação do paciente. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Após a aplicação dos critérios descritos e usada análise estatística pelo teste t de Student, os autores concluem não haver vantagens da reconstrução ligamentar sobre a simples interposição tendinosa na artrose carpometacarpiana do polegar.OBJECTIVES: Treating arthrosis in the base of the thumb has been a highly controverted subject. Many surgeries have been described, such as the isolated trapezium resection; resection with interposition with and without ligament plasty, arthrodesis, and arthroplasties. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two techniques which are the most used in this treatment. METHODS: A prospective study has been made to compare the surgical results between the trapezium resection with tendon interposition (tendon arthroplasty - 22 cases - and tendon arthroplasty associated to ligament plasty - 24 cases. Objective evaluation was done by measuring

  18. Estudio comparativo del tratamiento ortésico en las fracturas toraco-lumbosacras según la gravedad del trauma Estudo comparativo do tratamento ortótico nas fraturas toraco-lombosacro segundo a gravidade do trauma Comparative study on orthotic treatment of thoraco-lumbo-sacral fractures according to severity of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Manzone

    2011-01-01

    diferença significativa entre medições iniciais e seguimento. A única diferença significativa entre os grupos foi a cifose inicial da coluna vertebral. Sempre houve dife renças na comparação dos parâmetros geométricos do grupo controle e os grupos A e B, e entre o grupo controle e cada tipo (AO/Denis subdividido em alta ou baixa energia. As pontuações dos parâmetros funcionais finais sempre foram boas, com variações significativas entre os grupos A e B. CONCLUSÕES: É possível um bom resultado funcional em lesões toraco-lombo-sacrais estáveis, selecionando o tipo de órteses de acordo com a energia cinética do trauma. Esses resultados parecem ser melhores em traumas de alta energia tratados com dispositivos ortopédicos feitos à medida. No entanto, o tratamento ortésico diferenciado de acordo com a energia do trauma não altera os parâmetros radiológicos sagitais.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the severity of stable thoraco-lumbo-sacral trauma is useful for deciding the selection of brace type in orthopedic treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study (16 years length. Inclusion criteria: 1 Minimum follow-up: 2 years. 2 Complete conventional radiologic studies. 3 no litigation. 4 TLSO custom-made treatment for high kinetic energy trauma and pre-fabricated orthoses for low energy one. 5 Treatment performed or supervised by the senior author. Evaluation by independent observers of geometric Parameters (sagittal Cobb, vertebral kyphosis, anterior vertebral collapse initially and at follow-up, and Functional Parameters (SRS pain scale, Oswestry Index, Return to Previous Activity. Subdivision of different fractures types (of AO and Denis classifications in High (group A and Low Energy (group b according to the amount of kinetic energy of trauma. Comparison with a control group. Statistical analysis: chi square and Student t-test. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were studied (44 fractures, 23 females/18 males, 25 fractures group A and 19 group b. Average age: 46

  19. Comparação entre o uso tópico do fumarato de cetotifeno 0,025% e do cloridrato de olopatadina 0,1% no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril Comparative study between 0.025% ketotifen fumarate and 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Takashi Hida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as soluções oftálmicas de fumarato de cetotifeno 0,025% e de cloridrato de olopatadina 0,1% em pacientes portadores de ceratoconjuntivite primaveril. MÉTODOS: Avaliação realizada em um único centro, simples-cega, comparando-se paralelamente cetotifeno e olopatadina. As medicações foram avaliadas em 4 momentos (dias 1, 7, 14 e 21 por meio de tabelas de graduações padronizadas. A freqüência de eventos adversos foi a principal variável de segurança. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação da evolução do prurido ocular, ardor, lacrimejamento, hiperemia conjuntival, secreção e fotofobia observou-se que o uso tópico do cetotifeno proporcionou melhora significante deste sintoma em relação a olopatadina (p>0,05. Observou-se que a partir do 7º dia de tratamento os pacientes em uso da olopatadina tinham menos ardor, em relação aos que fizeram uso do cetotifeno, mas após o 21º dia essa relação inverteu. Na comparação da sensação de corpo estranho, papilas e pontos de Horner-Trantas evidenciou-se equivalência sem significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que ambas são drogas equivalentes e atuaram de forma eficaz e segura na remissão dos sintomas relacionados à conjuntivite alérgica primaveril. Houve diferença a favor do cetotifeno (pPURPOSE: To compare the topical use of 0.025% ketotifen fumarate and 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride in the treatment of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. METHODS: A study performed in one center, simple masked, parallel-group compared ketotifen and olopatadine. These patients were evaluated on four visits during the treatment (days 1, 7, 14 and 21, defined by ratings scores. Adverse events were the main variable of safety rating. RESULTS: On evaluating ocular itching, burning, tearing, conjunctival hyperemia, mucous discharge and photophobia, the ketotifen group showed a significant improvement of total signs and symptoms (p<0

  20. Comparative study of the locked intramedullary nail and Ender pins in the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures Estudo comparativo entre a haste intramedular bloqueada e os pinos de Ender no tratamento das fraturas diafisárias da tíbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hideyo Sakaki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the locked, unreamed intramedullary nail with Ender pins in the treatment of open Gustilo grade I or II or closed tibial diaphyseal fractures of type A, B, or C2 of the AO classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with unilateral tibial diaphyseal fractures were treated with intramedullary nails or Ender pins. Twenty patients were treated with an unreamed intramedullary nail with access via the patellar tendon with static locking. Twenty-four patients were treated with Ender pins introduced medially and laterally with respect to the tuberosity of the tibia. The main parameters analyzed were type of reduction, complications, union rate, deformities, joint mobility, pain, gait, effort capacity, presence of neurovascular disorders, and complaints related to the synthesis material. RESULTS: During 1 year of follow-up, the fractures of 90.0% of the patients with intramedullary nails and 95.7% of patients with Ender pins healed within an average of 21.5 weeks and 20.9 weeks, respectively. The significant findings were as follows: patients treated with Ender pins had less mobility of the subtalar joint; patients treated with intramedullary nails were more likely to have pain in the knee; both groups showed shortening of the tibia at the end of 1 year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The two methods are similar in the treatment of type A, B, and C2 tibial diaphyseal fractures.OBJETIVO: Comparar a haste intramedular bloqueada não-fresada com os pinos de Ender no tratamento das fraturas da diáfise da tíbia tipos A, B ou C2 da classificação AO, fechadas ou expostas graus I ou II de Gustilo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 44 pacientes com fratura unilateral da diáfise da tíbia, tratados com HIB ou com pinos de Ender. Vinte pacientes foram tratados com uma haste intramedular bloqueada não fresada por acesso através do tendão patelar e com bloqueio estático; vinte e quatro pacientes com pinos de Ender introduzidos medial e

  1. Estudo comparativo entre sling pubovaginal de parede vaginal e sling de fáscia do reto abdominal no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço Comparative study between vaginal wall sling and rectus fascia pubovaginal sling in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Monteiro de Carvalho Júnior

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de sling pubovaginal é utilizada no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE do tipo III e como resgate na falha de procedimentos anteriores. Tem índice de sucesso variando de 73 a 89%. Podem ser utilizados diversos materiais autólogos e sintéticos com semelhantes resultados. Nosso objetivo foi comparar o sling de parede vaginal com o de fáscia do reto abdominal quanto à eficácia e às complicações. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 27 pacientes no período de 04/98 a 09/00, divididas em dois grupos: grupo I com nove pacientes submetidas a sling de parede vaginal; grupo II com 18 pacientes submetidas a sling de fáscia do reto abdominal. Todas foram submetidas a um estudo urodinâmico completo, classificadas quanto ao tipo de IUE, e seguidas no ambulatório de urologia. RESULTADOS: grupo I com média de idade de 51,4 anos, tempo de seguimento médio de 14,3 meses. Pressão de Perda aos Esforços (PPE variando de 50 a 100cmH2O com média de 81,1cmH2O. Houve 66% de complicações. Taxa de sucesso de 88,8% e índice de satisfação 85 pontos. Grupo II com média de idade de 54,2 anos, seguimento médio de 19,3 meses. PPE variando de 45 a 92cmH2O, média de 65,5cmH2O. Houve 72% de complicações e sucesso de 88,8%. Índice de satisfação de 74 pontos. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados encontrados estão de acordo com a literatura, sendo os dois grupos comparáveis quanto à eficácia em período curto de seguimento. O grupo II apresentou maior número de complicações, assim como maior tempo de cateter vesical e menor índice de satisfação geral.BACKGROUND: Pubovaginal sling is being currently used for the treatment of type III Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI and for recurrences after previous procedures. Success rates vary from 73 to 89%. Many autologous and allogênic materials have being used with a variable rate of complications. Our objective was to compare the vaginal wall sling to the rectus fascia pubovaginal

  2. Estudo comparativo do pH e do volume salivar em indivíduos com laringofaringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento Comparative study of salivary pH and volume in adults with chronic laryngopharyngitis by gastroesophageal reflux disease before and after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandra Eckley

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE é a doença digestiva mais prevalente da atualidade e, recentemente, tem sido implicada em uma gama de alterações do seguimento laringofaríngeo (RLF. No entanto, pouco se sabe dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos destas manifestações supraesofágicas da DRGE. Os achados clínicos contraditórios e recentes pesquisas sugerem haver deficiências na capacidade de defesa deste seguimento. Uma das principais responsáveis pela homeostase da mucosa oral e do trato digestivo é a saliva com seu conteúdo orgânico e inorgânico. Tanto alterações do pH quanto do volume salivar já foram correlacionados com os sintomas e sinais sugestivos da DRGE e RLF. Estudo recente de nossa autoria demonstra diminuição estatisticamente significante do pH salivar de indivíduos com RLF quando comparado a controles sem a doença. Outro estudo constatou correlação entre a redução do volume X pH da saliva em indivíduos com DRGE, estando esta redução diretamente relacionada aos níveis de pH esofágico constatados durante pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar como se comportam o pH e volume da saliva em um mesmo indivíduo com DRGE e RLF antes e após o tratamento clínico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Vinte e três pacientes com RLF tiveram o pH e volume da saliva total testados antes e após receberem tratamento com droga bloqueadora de bomba de prótons durante 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significante (pINTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD is the most prevalent digestive disease of the modern society and has been associated with abnormalities in the larynx and pharynx (LPR. Nonetheless, little is known about the mechanisms involved in this atypical form of the disease. Contradictory clinical data suggest a defense deficit at this segment. Saliva with its organic and inorganic components is responsible for the homeostasis of the oral mucosa and

  3. Estudo clínico, prospectivo, aberto, randomizado e comparativo para avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul versus peróxido de benzoíla 5% no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III A prospective, randomized, open and comparative study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of blue light treatment versus a topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grade II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. F. de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Muitos pacientes relatam melhora da acne com a exposição à luz solar, e vários estudos demonstram que a luz azul é efetiva no tratamento da acne. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul (espectro eletromagnético de 407 a 420 nm no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III, comparada à terapêutica tópica com peróxido de benzoíla a 5%. MÉTODOS: O estudo avaliou 60 pacientes em cinco visitas: uma de seleção, uma com 7, 14 e 28 dias de tratamento e uma última de seguimento, 14 dias após o término do tratamento. Trinta foram randomizados para luz azul (oito sessões, duas vezes por semana, e outros 30, para peróxido de benzoíla a 5%, duas vezes ao dia, diariamente. A avaliação foi por meio da contagem das lesões e fotografias. RESULTADOS: A redução no número médio de lesões foi semelhante com os dois tratamentos, independente do tipo de lesão (p 0,05, porém o tratamento com a luz azul apresentou menos efeitos colaterais. CONCLUSÕES: A luz azul foi um tratamento tão eficaz quanto o peróxido de benzoíla a 5% para o tratamento da acne graus II e III, mas com menos efeitos adversos.BACKGROUND: Many acne patients improve after exposure to sunlight and there are many reports about the efficacy of blue light phototherapy on acne lesions. OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of blue light treatment versus topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grades II and III. METHODS - Sixty volunteers with facial acne were included and evaluated in 5 visits: the first one for screening, another 3 held on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment, and the last one after 14 days of the end of treatment. Thirty of them were irradiated with Blue Light (8 times, twice a week and the other thirty were treated with topical Benzoyl Peroxide 5% formulation, auto-applied twice a day, every day. We assessed the severity of acne by counting the lesions and

  4. Tratamiento de dolor lumbar crónico mediante radiofrecuencia pulsada y aplicación de esteroides em forma epidural: estudio comparativo Tratamento da dor lombar crônica por meio da radiofrequência pulsada e a aplicação de esteroides na forma epidural: estudo comparativo Treatment of chronic low back pain by means of pulsed radiofrequency and application of steroids in epidural form: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matín Tejeda-Barreras

    2010-03-01

    évio e posterior a este. Não foram registradas perdas de pacientes no seguimento. Analisaram-se os resultados de diferentes variáveis (idade, sexo, ocupação, evolução, trabalho de carga, incapacidade, achados de imagenologia, estabelecendo uma comparação com a teste do χ2. RESULTADOS: foram muito similares em ambos os grupos de tratamento (χ2=2,8283, p=0,093, com dois casos complicados por punção no grupo de esteroides epidurais, sem casos complicados pelo procedimento de radiofrequência pulsada. Os valores do χ2 não mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas com valores de p de 0,09 a 0,9. CONCLUSÃO: a aplicação da radiofrequência pulsada é tão eficaz quanto a aplicação de esteroides por via peridural no tratamento da dor lombar crônica.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the clinical outcome of improving pain and functional scale lumbar pulsed radiofrequency, compared to the use of epidural steroids in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. TYPE OF RESEARCH: a randomized single and blind. METHODS: the study was conducted from May, 2008 to July, 2009. There were 40 patients, through institutional and private means, in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, with chronic low back pain. The survey was conducted by Roland-Morris and visual analog scale of pain, with previous treatment, and subsequent to it. There were no losses of patients in the follow-up. We analyzed the results of different variables (age, sex, occupation, development, work load, disability, findings on imaging, and compared with the χ2 test. RESULTS: they were very similar in both treatment groups (χ2=2.8283, p=0.093, with two cases complicated by puncture in the epidural steroid group, without cases complicated by use of pulsed radiofrequency. The values of χ2 showed no statistically significant differences, with p-values from 0.09 to 0.9. CONCLUSION: the application of pulsed radiofrequency is as effective as the application of epidural steroids for management

  5. Metástases do segmento torácico e lombar da coluna vertebral: estudo prospectivo comparativo entre o tratamento cirúrgico e radioterápico com a imobilização externa e radioterapia Metastatic tumor of thoracic and lumbar spine: prospective study comparing the surgery and radiotherapy vs external immobilization with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As metástases ósseas que acometem o segmento torácico e lombar da coluna vertrebal têm como principais complicações o fenômeno doloroso e a compressão medular ou radicular. O tratamento adotado dependerá das condições clínicas e neurológicas do paciente e do grau de invasão tumoral. Foram analisados, prospectivamente, 32 pacientes acometidos por metástases do segmento torácico e lombar da coluna vertebral, sendo tratados com cirurgia de descompressão e estabilização interna seguida por radioterapia ou irradiação com mobilização externa. A seleção dos grupos foi estabelecida de acordo com a sensibilidade do tumor a radioterapia, condições clínicas, grau de estabilidade da coluna, grau de compressão medular/radicular e opção do paciente. A escala de Frankel e o teste visual de dor foram aplicados no momento do diagnóstico e após 1 e 6 meses. O grupo cirúrgico apresentou melhores resultados, mantendo a deambulação por mais tempo, pois manteve a força muscular nos pacientes Frankel E, propiciou a reversão do déficit neurológico pré-operatório em 61,5% dos casos e propiciou melhora significativa da dor.Bone metastases at the thoracic and lumbar segment of the spine are usually presented with painful sensation and medullar compression. The treatment is based on the clinical and neurological conditions of the patient and the degree of tumor invasion. In the present study, 32 patients with spinal metastasis of thoracic and lumbar segment were prospectively analyzed. These patients were treated by decompression and internal stabilization followed by radiotherapy or irradiation with external immobilization. The election of the groups was in accordance with the tumor radiotherapy sensitivity, clinical conditions, spinal stability, medullar or nerve compression and patient's decision. The Frankel scale and pain visual test were applied at the moment of diagnosis and after 1 and 6 months. The surgical group had

  6. Ten-years comparative study after surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer according to ulcer relapse between H. Pylori positive, after eradication, and negative patients Estudo comparativo quanto à recidiva ulcerosa do tratamento cirúrgico de úlcera péptica perfurada entre pacientes H. Pylori positivos, após erradicação, e negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Pachaly Dalcin

    2009-03-01

    úrgico da úlcera péptica perfurada é assunto discutível. Os cirurgiões, por muitos anos, fizeram suas opções entre procedimentos de redução ácida, somente fechamento da perfuração - porém com maior chance de recidiva ulcerosa. Desde a comprovada vinculação da úlcera péptica e suas complicações à infecção gastroduodenal causada pelo Helicobacter pylori, houve recomendação para mudança na atitude dos cirurgiões na volta à operação mais simples com erradicação da bactéria. OBJETIVO: Analisar a recidiva ulcerosa em pacientes com úlcera perfurada H. pylori positiva que foram submetidos à simples sutura da lesão e omentopexia com erradicação da bactéria e compará-la com H. pylori negativo submetido ao mesmo tratamento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Cento e quatorze pacientes com úlceras pré-pilóricas, pilóricas e duodenais perfuradas foram atendidos com fechamento simples. Trinta dias após a operação submeteram-se à endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias para testes da urease e histopatológicos. Foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o resultado dos testes: positivo e negativo.Os positivos foram erradicados e, junto com o grupo negativo, foram seguidos com endoscopias semestrais e testes de detecção para H. pylori procurando por recidiva ulcerosa e reinfecção no grupo erradicado. RESULTADOS: O grupo positivo foi formado por 25 pacientes, dos quais dois foram considerados não erradicáveis segundo os critérios do protocolo. Os demais foram seguidos por período médio de 38,21 meses e detectadas recidivas em quatro pacientes (17,39%, metade deles (8,69% foram reinfectados. O grupo negativo foi formado por 26 pacientes, seguido por período médio de 38,28 meses e oito (30,76% apresentaram recidiva ulcerosa. Não foi evidenciada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Em relação à recidiva ulcerosa, o fechamento simples seguido de erradicação da bactéria é o procedimento padrão para o grupo

  7. Influence of orthopedic treatment on hard and soft facial structures of individuals presenting with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion: a comparative study A influência do tratamento ortopédico nas estruturas faciais de indivíduos com má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª Divisão: um estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ávila Maltagliati

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to comparatively evaluate the cephalometric changes in soft and hard tissues related to treatment of Class II, division 1 malocclusion with activator-headgear and Bionator appliances. Twenty-four individuals formed the activator-headgear group and twenty-five comprised the Bionator group, while other twenty-four presenting the same malocclusion did not receive any intervention and served as controls. Lateral headfilms were taken at the beginning and at the end of the observation period and were digitized with computerized cephalometrics; cephalometric analysis was performed and the results were submitted to statistical test. According to the methodology employed, our findings suggested that both appliances do not significantly alter the growth path, and also they were not able to modify the posterior inferior height and the sagittal and vertical position of the upper lip. The lower lip and the soft menton were only slightly modified by the orthopedic appliances, but the mentolabial sulcus showed a significant decrease in deepness compared to the control group. Of statistical significance, only the anterior inferior hard and soft facial heights and the lower lip height increased more in the treated groups.Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar, comparativamente, as alterações cefalométricas tegumentares e esqueléticas, decorrentes do tratamento das más oclusões de classe II, 1a divisão, com o ativador combinado com a ancoragem extrabucal e com o bionator. O grupo tratado com o ativador combinado com a ancoragem extrabucal foi composto por 24 indivíduos e o grupo tratado com o bionator compreendeu 25 pacientes, enquanto que outros 24 indivíduos compuseram o grupo controle, apresentando a mesma má oclusão, porém sem terem sido submetidos a nenhuma terapia ortodôntica. Obteve-se telerradiografias laterais de todos os indivíduos no início e final do período de observação que foram digitalizadas

  8. Comparação entre a lidocaína e a acupuntura no tratamento da taquicardia ventricular induzida com dopamina em equinos anestesiados com halotano Comparative study between lidocaine and acupunture in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia induced by dopamine in horses anesthetized with halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Cárdenas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da lidocaina e da acupuntura nos pontos bilaterais associados ao pericárdio 6 (Pc6-Neiguan e ao coração 7 (C7-Shenmen, no tratamento da taquicardia ventricular (TV induzida por dopamina em equinos anestesiados com halotano, foram avaliados e comparados. Seis equinos, distribuídos em três grupos: grupo-controle (GC, grupo tratado com acupuntura (GA e grupo tratado com lidocaína (GL, foram anestesiados três vezes cada, com intervalo de uma semana entre cada anestesia. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros cardiovasculares (frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e eletrocardiografia, os respiratórios (frequência respiratória, capnografía, saturação de hemoglobina e hemogasometria e o escore de recuperação. A dose arritmogênica da dopamina (DAD foi determinada a partir da infusão de 70µg/kg/min IV durante 10 minutos, sem interrupção, preenchendo o critério arritmogênico: quatro ou mais complexos ventriculares prematuros seguidos, com duração de pelo menos 15 segundos ou TV sustentada. O tempo médio de aparecimento da DAD ou da TV foi de 6,05±0,45 minutos nos animais não tratados, e a TV se reverteu espontaneamente aos 2,7±0,2 minutos. O grupo tratado com acupuntura reverteu a TV no tempo médio de 1,8±0,2 (PThe effects of lidocaine and acupuncture in the associated bilateral points, i.e. pericardium 6 (Pc 6- Neiguan and heart 7 (H7 - Shenmen, on the ventricular tachycardia (VT induced by dopamine were evaluated in horses anesthetized with halothane. Six horses were distributed in three groups: control group (CG, acupuncture treated group (AG, and lidocaine treated group (LG. They were anesthetized three times each one using halothane with one week interval between each anesthesic procedure. Cardiovascular (heart rate, arterial pressure, and ECG and respiratory (respiratory rate, capnometry, hemoglobin saturation, and blood gas analysis parameters and recovery score were evaluated. The arrhythmogenic dose of dopamine

  9. Comparative study between endoscopic technique by a proximal port and mini palmary incision in the surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome Estudo comparativo entre a técnica endoscópica pelo portal proximal e a técnica de mini-incisão palmar no tratamento cirúrgico da síndrome do túnel do carpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.R. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a prospective study comparing two surgical techniques for carpal tunnel release. A minimal - incision open decompression(3 is compared with an endoscopic release(2, that utilizes only a single proximal portal. There were operated on, 28 wrists in 28 patients, with clinical signs and EMG changes consistent on idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, that failed under previous conservative treatment. They were randomized into two groups , undertaken surgical treatment, either by endoscopic release or by open decompression. Grip strength (measured by dynamometric, sensitivity (measured by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, presence of pain and paresthesia, date of return to activities of daily living and complications were evaluated pre-operative and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 weeks after surgery. After 12 months average follow up, the results indicated that this proximal portal endoscopic technique can be safely performed, showing advantages over open conventional method, in terms of sooner return of grip strength, date of return to activities of daily living, and less incidence of pillar pain. No differences in paresthesia resolution, sensibility improvement or complications incidence were found.Os autores apresentam estudo prospectivo onde comparam duas técnicas cirúrgicas empregadas no tratamento de pacientes acometidos pela síndrome do túnel do carpo. A técnica de descompressão por via aberta, através de mini-incisão palmar(3, é analisada em relação à técnica por via endoscópica, descrita por Agee et al.(2, que utiliza apenas um único portal proximal. Foram operados, de forma randomizada, 28 punhos em 28 pacientes com o diagnóstico clínico e eletromiográfico de síndrome do túnel do carpo idiopático, e que não obtiveram melhora com o tratamento conservador prévio. Os seguintes parâmetros, foram analisados no pré-operatório e na primeira, segunda, quarta, sexta e décima segunda semanas de pós-operatório: força de

  10. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  11. Estudo transversal sobre o tratamento das lesões acrômioclaviculares agudas Transversal study about acute acromioclavicular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jun Sugawara Tamaoki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo transversal é verificar como o ortopedista brasileiro interpreta as lesões acromioclaviculares quanto aos critérios para a indicação do tratamento cirúrgico ou não, seus métodos preferidos, as complicações mais frequentes e os resultados obtidos. MÉTODOS: Durante o 6º Congresso Brasileiro de Cirurgia do Ombro e Cotovelo (CBOC e o 38º Congresso Brasileiro de Ortopedia e Traumatologia (CBOT foram distribuídos 507 questionários, sendo considerados 478 para análise. RESULTADOS: Em relação ao tratamento das LAC tipo I e II, a maioria dos entrevistados utilizam métodos não cirúrgicos. Em contraposição nas LAC IV, V e VI 475 (99,4% dos entrevistados tratam essas lesões cirurgicamente. Nas LAC tipo III não existe uma definição na escolha do tratamento cirúrgico ou não cirúrgico para 386 (80,7% entrevistados, sendo que o fator mais importante para tomada de decisão para a maioria dos entrevistados é a atividade esportiva do paciente e a idade. CONCLUSÃO: Nas LAC tipo III não há consenso, sendo o tratamento determinado conforme as características do paciente, contudo na literatura atual há uma tendência para o tratamento não cirúrgico destas lesões.The objective of the present transversal study is to check how Brazilian orthopedists treat these injuries, their criteria for choosing the treatment, results and complications. METHODS: During the 6th Brazilian Congress of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (CBOC and the 38th Brazilian Congress of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (CBOT 507 questionnaires were distributed (148 CBOC and 359 CBOT, with 478 being considered for analysis. RESULTS: Regarding type-I and -II ACIs, most of the respondents use traditional non-surgical methods. On the other hand, for type-IV, V and VI injuries, 475 (99.4% of the respondents indicate surgical methods. Concerning type-III injuries, there is no consensus in the selection between traditional and surgical

  12. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  13. Estudo comparativo das alterações dentoesqueléticas da má-oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão de Angle, nos jovens sem tratamento e nos submetidos a dois tipos de aparelhos ortodônticos Comparative study of dentoskeletal changes in untreated Class II, division 1 malocclusions and in those treated with two types of orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ávila MALTAGLIATI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A realização deste trabalho teve por objetivo comparar as alterações dentoesqueléticas da má-oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão de Angle sem tratamento com as tratadas por dois tipos de aparelhos ortodônticos. As radiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral iniciais e finais de um grupo controle e de dois experimentais, um tratado com o aparelho removível conjugado à ancoragem extrabucal cervical e outro com a terapia ortodôntica fixa sem extrações e ancoragem extrabucal cervical, foram traçadas e submetidas ao teste estatístico. A análise dos resultados revelou que há pouca alteração do padrão de crescimento e que a altura facial ântero-inferior aumentou em todos os grupos. Não houve melhora significante da relação maxilomandibular no grupo controle, enquanto que, nos grupos tratados, a maxila foi retraída, com diminuição significante do ângulo ANB. As alterações dentoalveolares demonstraram que o aparelho utilizado no grupo 2 foi eficiente no controle vertical do crescimento da maxila e na extrusão dos dentes superiores posteriores e anteriores. Estes, em ambos os grupos tratados, foram movimentados para distal e palatino, respectivamente, levando à uma relação molar normal e à redução do trespasse horizontal aumentado. No grupo controle, no entanto, os dentes superiores e inferiores desenvolveram-se em uma direção ântero-inferior, mantendo as características da má-oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão de Angle.The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes of the Class II, division 1 malocclusions with and without treatment. Seventy five patients were divided in three groups: control, treated with a modified maxillary splint and treated with fixed appliance and Kloehn headgear, each one having thirteen males and twelve females. The cephalometric radiographs were traced and analyzed by means of the "Dentofacial Planner" software. The results showed that there is little change

  14. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  15. Estudo comparativo de dois critérios utilizados no Programa Saúde da Família na priorização do tratamento da cárie entre crianças de 5 a 12 anos Comparative study of two classification criteria used in the Family Health Program to prioritize treatment of dental caries in 5-to-12 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Marçal Terreri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dois critérios utilizados no Programa Saúde da Família para determinação da prioridade do atendimento odontológico curativo da cárie. O estudo foi feito no Município de Ipiguá, São Paulo, Brasil, entre 538 crianças de 5 a 12 anos de idade. Realizou-se o exame bucal e preenchimento de dois critérios de classificação para as mesmas crianças a fim de avaliar as prioridades no atendimento odontológico curativo resultantes de cada um dos critérios. Com base na atividade da doença cárie, verificou-se que 236 crianças (75,4% foram consideradas como primeira prioridade no atendimento odontológico, enquanto o critério baseado na quantidade e tamanho da cavidade de cárie incluiu 73 crianças (23,4%. Conforme os critérios, 186 crianças (59,4% não estiveram presentes na mesma prioridade de tratamento curativo para a cárie. Para determinar a prioridade do atendimento odontológico da cárie é necessário considerar além da atividade da doença e da quantidade de cavidades, a necessidade de tratamento e o tipo de dente envolvido (decíduo ou permanente. Critérios não normativos também poderiam ser usados de forma complementar para um planejamento mais racional.The objective of this study was to evaluate two classification criteria used to prioritize treatment of dental caries under the Brazilian Family Health Program. The study was held in Ipiguá, São Paulo State, and included 538 five-to-twelve-year-old children. The children underwent an oral examination and assessment of two classification criteria in order to prioritize restorative dental treatment. Based on caries activity, 236 children (75.4% were prioritized for dental care, while the criterion based on amount and size of the cavity included 73 children (23.4%. Using the two criteria, 186 children (59.4% were not classified with the same priority for restorative treatment. Determining the precedence for restorative dental treatment

  16. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity; Estudo comparativo do efeito analgesico do laser em baixa intensidade de emissao infravermelha e da pasta de fluoreto de sodio a 33% no tratamento da hipersensibilidade dentinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Glen Anderson Maia de

    2003-07-01

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser ({lambda}= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm{sup 2} during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  17. Simpatectomia torácica por videotoracoscopia para tratamento da hiperidrose primária: estudo retrospectivo de 521 casos comparando diferentes níveis de ablação Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis: a retrospective study of 521 cases comparing different levels of ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montessi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar grau de satisfação dos pacientes simpatectomizados e presença de sudorese reflexa, de acordo com diferentes níveis de ablação. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 521 pacientes com hiperidrose primária, submetidos à simpatectomia torácica no Hospital Monte Sinai e Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora - UFJF, de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005. Grupo I (n = 162: termoablação do tronco simpático, tendo T2 como nível mais cranial da ressecção, independentemente de outros níveis seccionados caudalmente. Grupo II (n = 65: termoablação do tronco simpático, tendo T3 como nível mais alto. Grupo III (n = 294: termoablação do tronco simpático, tendo T4 como nível mais alto. RESULTADOS: Pós-operatório ótimo no controle da hiperidrose palmar/axilar em, respectivamente, 94/82% dos pacientes do grupo I, 89/89% do grupo II e 80/80% do grupo III. Sudorese reflexa em 67% dos pacientes dos grupos I e II, caindo para 61,29% no grupo III devido à maior termoablação a partir de T4. Ocorreu sudorese reflexa severa em 32% dos pacientes do grupo I, 9% do grupo II e 4% do grupo III. CONCLUSÃO: A simpatectomia propiciou excelente grau de satisfação e baixo índice de complicações. Não houve diferença na incidência de sudorese reflexa com diferentes níveis seccionados; porém, a intensidade desta complicação se mostrou menor quando optamos por níveis de bloqueio mais baixos, principalmente T4.OBJECTIVE: To compare different levels of ablation in terms of the degree of patient satisfaction and extent of postoperative reflex sweating in sympathectomized patients. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 521 patients with primary hyperhidrosis, submitted to thoracic sympathectomy at the Monte Sinai Hospital and University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, from January of 2001 to December 2005. All patients were submitted to thermal ablation of the sympathetic stem and

  18. Dysfunction of the temporalis muscle after pterional craniotomy for intracranial aneurysms: comparative, prospective and randomized study of one flap versus two flaps dieresis Disfunção do músculo temporal após craniotomia pterional para tratamento de aneurismas intracranianos: estudo comparativo, prospectivo e aleatório da diérese em camada única versus camada dupla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CARLOS DE ANDRADE JR.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with intracranial aneurysm(s of the carotid artery territory, treated with pterional craniotomy, were prospectively and randomly addressed to one layer flap (n=36 or myocutaneous (MC versus two layers' dieresis (n=32 or interfascial (IF. The study protocol included the patient's sex, age, area of craniotomy, time of flap dieresis and synthesis, time of bone dieresis and synthesis, the intracranial time, including dura mater dieresis and synthesis and time of flap retraction. Before and after surgery, the patients were evaluated with examination specially oriented to V and VII cranial nerves, bi-temporal diameter measurement, the symmetry of the temporal region, tempora-mandibularis joint (TMJ movements and cranial CT scan. The evaluations of the TMJ dysfunctions were postoperative pain, movement limitations at mastication, occlusion, mouth aperture and lateral movements of the jaw. The statistical analysis showed that the incidence of pain at TMJ and moderate and severe temporalis muscle atrophy was observed, comparing MC and IF, and there were significant differences among these ones, being greater in IF group. We concluded that both techniques permit equivalent access to the studied intracranial aneurysm(s, and the atrophy of temporalis muscle, pain and movement limitations of the temporomandibularis joint were prevalent, worse and more long-lasting in two-layers flap dieresis than in one-layer flap dieresis.Pacientes com aneurisma(s intracraniano(s foram tratados pela via pterional e de modo prospectivo e aleatório submetidos às variantes técnicas, miocutânea (MC(n=36 ou em retalho único e interfascial (IF (n=32 ou em retalho duplo. No protocolo foram anotados o sexo, idade, área da craniotomia, período de diérese e síntese do retalho, período de diérese e síntese óssea, o período do procedimento intracraniano, incluindo o tempo de diérese e síntese da dura-máter e o período de retração do retalho. Os pacientes

  19. Comparative study of different Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters using OSL technique for dosimetry on Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy Treatment (VMAT); Estudo comparativo de diferentes dosimetros de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C pela tecnica OSL na dosimetria de tratamentos Radioterapicos por Arco Modulado Volumetrico (VMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villani, Daniel; Campos, LetIcia L., E-mail: dvillani@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini, Anselmo; Haddad, Cecilia M.K. [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    In modern radiotherapy, the VMAT technique has become a successful treatment alternative. Due to its complexity, a quality assurance program must be established by evaluating, among other items, the dosimetric factors. This paper aims to compare the performance between the OSL aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) nanoDot™ dosimeters (Inlight™ system) manufactured by Landauer Inc. and TLD-500 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters manufactured by Rexon™ for VMAT dosimetry using an anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that both type of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters presented good repeatability and agreement between the doses measured and calculated by planning system. However, the need of sophisticated readers to OSL analysis of the TLD-500, turns it less practical for routine usage, comparing to Inlight™ system. (author)

  20. Thiamphenicol in the treatment of chancroid. A study of 1,128 cases Tianfenicol no tratamento do cancroide. Estudo de 1.128 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter BELDA JUNIOR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiamphenicol, an aminic derivate of hydrocarbilsulfonil propandiol, was used for the treatment of 1,171 chancroid bearing patients. Each patient was medicated with 5.0 g of granulated thiamphenicol, orally, in a single dose, and was reevaluated 3, 7 and 10 days after the treatment. Ten patients (0.89% did not respond to the proposed treatment. 133 patients presented healed ulcers after 3 days of treatment, 976 patients healed chancres on the seventh day after the treatment, and 39 patients took 10 days to present healed chancres. The results of this study indicate that the rate of patients that were cured, the low incidence of side effects, and the practicality of administration make of thiamphenicol an excellent choice for the treatment of chancroid.O tiamfenicol, derivado amínico do hidrocarbilsulfonil propandiol, foi utilizado para o tratamento de 1.171 pacientes portadores de cancróide. Cada paciente foi medicado com 5,0 g de tianfenicol granulado, via oral e em dose única, sendo reavaliados após 3, 7 e 10 dias do tratamento. Dez pacientes (0,89% não responderam à terapêutica proposta; 133 pacientes apresentaram úlceras cicatrizadas após 3 dias do tratamento; 976 pacientes apresentaram lesões cicatrizadas no sétimo dia após o tratamento e, 39 pacientes levaram 10 dias para apresentarem lesões cicatrizadas. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que o índice de cura, a baixa incidência de efeitos colaterais, e a praticidade de administração fazem hoje do tianfenicol uma excelente escolha no tratamento do cancróide.

  1. A Comparative Study of Teaching Comparative Education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the comparative education subjects offered in different programs in different foreign universities. As a subject, comparative education has not been firmly institutionalized in education programs in Japanese universities. There was a movement which aimed at making comparative education as one of the mandatory subjects in the teacher training program, however it was not successful. To date, comparative education subject has been offered in various p...

  2. Clinical comparative study between the use of lasers and conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment in deciduous teeth with presence of carious lesion; Estudo clinico comparativo entre o uso de lasers e metodos convencionais de diagnostico e tratamento em dentes deciduos da presenca de lesao cariosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulga, Fabiane Galvao

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of deciduous tooth cavity preparation by the Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. Besides, we have used the laser fluorescence technique (DIAGNOdent equipment) for diagnosis and compared it to the usual tactile and visual examination as well as X-ray diagnosis. For this purpose, 20 chronic occlusal carious deciduous molar teeth from children with the ages between 5 to 10 years old were selected. Selection was ma de according to visual inspection, X-ray periapical image and measures of the DIAGNOdent. For treatment the teeth were divided in two groups, 10 to be treated by the Er:YAG laser and 10 with conventional burr. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 200 to 300 mJ; for the dentine the range was from 100 mJ to 200 mJ. In both cases, the laser frequency was in the range from 2 to 4 Hz. The results have shown that the laser treatment was more accepted by the children than the conventional burro Clinical evaluation of the cavity preparation indicates that the Er:YAG laser treatment is recommend. The DIAGNOdent evaluation method was very effective for diagnosis of carious tissue for initial detection. After successful removal of the carious tissue, confirmed by visual inspection, the DIAGNOdent evaluation method was only effective for the treatment with conventional burro For evaluation of the tooth after cavity preparation with the Er:YAG laser, the measurements oscillate covering the full range of the equipment. Therefore, the use of the DIAGNOdent equipment is indicated only for initial caries diagnosis. (author)

  3. Metastatic tumor of thoracic and lumbar spine: prospective study comparing the surgery and radiotherapy vs external immobilization with radiotherapy; Metastases do segmento toracico e lombar da coluna vertebral: estudo prospectivo comparativo entre o tratamento cirurgico e radioterapico com a imobilizacao externa e radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ioppi, Ana Elisa Empinotti; Grasselli, Juliana [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: asdrubal@doctor.com; Righesso Neto, Orlando [Faculdade Federal de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Bone metastases at the thoracic and lumbar segment of the spine are usually presented with painful sensation and medullar compression. The treatment is based on the clinical and neurological conditions of the patient and the degree of tumor invasion. In the present study, 32 patients with spinal metastasis of thoracic and lumbar segment were prospectively analyzed. These patients were treated by decompression and internal stabilization followed by radiotherapy or irradiation with external immobilization. The election of the groups was in accordance with the tumor radiotherapy sensitivity, clinical conditions, spinal stability, medullar or nerve compression and patient's decision. The Frankel scale and pain visual test were applied at the moment of diagnosis and after 1 and 6 months. The surgical group had better results with preserving the ambulation longer and significant reduction of pain.(author)

  4. Efeitos do tratamento prévio com lidocaína, paracetamol e lidocaína-fentanil por via venosa na dor causada pela injeção de propofol: estudo comparativo Efectos del tratamiento previo con lidocaína, paracetamol y lidocaína-fentanil intravenosos en el dolor causado por la inyección de propofol: estudio comparativo Effect of pretreatment with lidocaine, intravenous paracetamol and lidocaine-fentanyl on propofol injection pain: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. El-Radaideh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Foi realizado estudo duplamente encoberto, aleatório, para avaliar a eficácia do tratamento prévio, por via venosa, com lidocaína, paracetamol (Perfalgan® ou lidocaína associada ao fentanil na redução da dor causada pela injeção de propofol. MÉTODOS: Imediatamente após a oclusão venosa com torniquete de borracha foi feita a administração venosa de 4 mL de lidocaína a 1% (Grupo L, n = 50, 4 mL de paracetamol (Perfalgan® (40 mg (Grupo R, n = 50, lidocaína a 2% associada a 100 µg de fentanil (Grupo LF, n = 50 ou 4 mL de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (Grupo P, n = 50; grupo-controle com placebo a 200 adultos. A liberação da obstrução venosa foi feita após 60 segundos, sendo seguida da administração venosa de propofol, 2,5 mg.kg-1 a uma velocidade de 0,5 mg.s-1 através de cateter 20G inserido na veia do dorso da mão. A avaliação da dor foi feita durante a injeção de propofol. Ela incluiu movimentos da mão, expressão verbal espontânea de dor, caretas e gemidos durante a injeção de propofol. RESULTADOS: Lidocaína-fentanil (70% sem dor e lidocaína (68% sem dor foram mais eficazes na redução da dor causada pela injeção de propofol do que o paracetamol (54% sem dor e o placebo (36% sem dor (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Se realizó estudio doblemente encubierto, aleatorio, para evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento previo, intravenoso (IV, con lidocaína, paracetamol (Perfalgan® o lidocaína asociada con fentanil en la reducción del dolor causado por la inyección de propofol. MÉTODOS: Inmediatamente después de la oclusión venosa con un torniquete de goma, se hizo la administración intravenosa de 4 mL de lidocaína a 1% (Grupo L, n = 50, 4 mL de paracetamol (Perfalgan® (40 mg (Grupo R, n = 50, lidocaína a 2% asociada con 100 µg de fentanil (Grupo LF, n = 50 o 4 mL de solución fisiológica (Grupo P, n = 50; grupo control con placebo a 200 adultos. La liberación de la obstrucci

  5. Psychodramatic psychotherapy combined with pharmacotherapy in major depressive disorder: an open and naturalistic study Psicoterapia psicodramática combinada ao tratamento medicamentoso no transtorno depressivo maior: um estudo aberto e naturalístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Maria Sene Costa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Recent literature has highlighted the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Combined therapies comprising both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have presented the best results. Although several kinds of psychotherapies have been studied in the treatment of depressive disorders, there remains a lack of data on psychodramatic psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychodramatic psychotherapy (in a sample of major depressive disorder patients. METHOD: This is an open, naturalistic, controlled, non-randomized study. Twenty major depressive disorder patients (according to the DSM-IV criteria, under pharmacological treatment for depression, with Hamilton Depression Scale total scores between 7 and 20 (mild to moderate depression, were divided into two groups. Patients in the psychotherapeutic group took part in 4 individual and 24 structured psychodramatic group sessions, whilst subjects in the control group did not participate in this psychodramatic psychotherapy. Both groups were evaluated with the Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale. RESULTS: Psychotherapeutic group patients showed a significant improvement according to the Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale scores at endpoint, compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that individual and group psychodramatic psychotherapy, associated to pharmacological treatment, provides good clinical benefits in the treatment of major depressive disorder.OBJETIVO: A literatura recente destaca o papel das psicoterapias no tratamento do transtorno depressivo maior. A combinação de psicoterapia e farmacoterapia apresenta os melhores resultados. Vários tipos de psicoterapias têm sido estudados no tratamento dos transtornos depressivos; no entanto, existem poucos dados sobre a psicoterapia

  6. Tratamento cirúrgico dos insulinomas -- estudo de 59 casos Surgical treatment of insulinoma. Study of 59 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Machado

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Após a confirmação clínica e laboratorial de hiperinsulinismo, o principal problema consiste na localização precisa da lesão no parênquima pancreático, propiciando tratamento cirúrgico adequado. OBJETIVO: Analisar os métodos utilizados para o diagnóstico e localização pré e intra-operatório dos insulinomas, bem como as técnicas e os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 59 casos consecutivos de insulinoma submetidos a intervenção cirúrgica. Cada um dos métodos utilizados para a localização pré-operatória dessas lesões foi avaliado quanto à sua eficiência em confronto com os achados intra-operatórios. A palpação do pâncreas, isoladamente ou associada à ultra-sonografia intra-operatória, como métodos de localização dos insulinomas, foi também estudada. Os tipos de intervenção cirúrgica foram analisados quanto aos seus resultados imediatos e tardios. RESULTADOS: Dos 59 insulinomas, 55 eram benignos e quatro, malignos. Dos métodos utilizados para a localização pré-operatória, a ultra-sonografia foi eficiente em 28,1% dos casos, a tomografia computadorizada em 25%, a ultra-sonografia endoscópica em 27,2%, a arteriografia seletiva em 54,1% e a colheita de amostras de sangue portal para dosagem de insulina em 94,4% dos casos. A palpação bidigital, durante a intervenção cirúrgica, localizou as lesões em 54/55 casos (98,2%. A ultra-sonografia intra-operatória foi decisiva em apenas um caso. Cinco doentes apresentavam neoplasia endócrina múltipla tipo I e em todos as lesões pancreáticas eram múltiplas. Foram efetuadas 29 enucleações e 32 ressecções pancreáticas nos doentes com lesões benignas. Os doentes com lesões malignas foram submetidos a ressecções pancreáticas e quimioterapia. Não houve mortalidade, porém observaram-se complicações (fístulas em 29/59 casos. Os resultados foram bons em 98,1% dos doentes com lesões benignas. Apenas um dos doentes com

  7. Postcoital Sperm Assessment Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    This postcoital sperm assessment study was performed over a 10 month time period (November 2014-August 2015). Fifteen couples enrolled in the study. The study was a non-blinded, non-randomized, single-center comparison study comparing The Stork® OTC (Rinovum Women's Health, Monroeville, PA) to natural intercourse (NI), using the subjects as their own control/baseline. This was an efficacy study designed to compare the number of sperm in the cervical mucus following the use of The Stork OTC conception aid with the number of sperm in the cervical mucus following natural intercourse. Subjects used both The Stork OTC conception system and the natural intercourse method to evaluate concentrations of sperm in the cervical mucus. Post-coital test (PCT) data was collected demonstrating higher concentrations of sperm within the cervical mucus with The Stork OTC conception system versus natural intercourse for 85% of test subjects in this study. Of the 15 couples enrolled in the study, 2 were lost to follow-up. Mean age for male subjects was 31.7 +/ 5.4 years of age and mean age for female subjects was 29.7+/- 5.4. The average sperm score value of the 85% of test subjects with higher sperm concentrations from The Stork OTC was 3.23 times the score value of sperm concentration compared to natural intercourse. The remaining 15% of test subjects showed no change in sperm score value between The Stork OTC and natural intercourse.

  8. Estudo das alterações do ponto B durante o tratamento ortodôntico Study of the point B alterations during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares Marques

    2007-06-01

    exame inicial.AIM: The authors of this study evaluated and compared if alterations in point B region could occur as a result of orthodontic treatment conducted with or without the extraction of the four first premolars. METHODS: Thirty young females, dolicofacials, with Class II, division 1 maloclusion, mean age of 12,3 years in the beginning of the treatment were evaluated cephalometrically. Fifteen of the young females were submitted to extractions of the four first premolars while the remaining fifteen were not. Four cephalometric measurements (IMPA, 1-ND, B-ND and Bperp-GoMe were evaluated and data was analyzed by the Kruskall-Wallis test, Friedman test and Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: The IMPA measurement had a tendency to increase within the group without extractions, but in contrast was significantly decreased within the group with extractions. The 1-ND measurement exhibited a decrease in the group with extractions and a small increase in the other group. The B-ND measurement was slightly decreased in the group with extractions, was not altered in the other group, and significant differences were not observed between these two groups. The Bperp-GoMe measurement was increased in both groups. A positive correlation was observed between IMPA, 1-ND and B-ND in the extraction group, since a decrease of the IMPA implied in a decrease of the 1-ND and a lingual localization of the point B. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results showed that the orthodontic treatment lead to alterations in point B, towards an anteroposterior position, and a tendency of lingual movement in the extraction group. The vertical evaluation revealed significant alterations in point B in both groups since measurement at the end of the treatment was significantly higher than the one in the beginning.

  9. Oral lysine clonixinate in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study Clonixinato de lisina oral para o tratamento agudo da migrânea: estudo duplo-cego e placebo-controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouch V. Krymchantowski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has proven to be effective in various pain syndromes such as renal colic and muscular pain. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral LC compared to placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Sixty four patients with the diagnosis of migraine, according to the IHS criteria, were studied prospectively. Patients received LC or placebo once the headache reached moderate or severe intensity for 6 consecutive attacks. With regard to the moderate attacks, LC was superior than placebo after 1, 2 and 4 hours. The consumption of other rescue medications after 4 hours was significantly higher in the placebo group. With regard to the severe attacks, there was no difference between the active drug group and the placebo group concerning headache intensity and consumption of other rescue medications. We conclude that the NSAID lysine clonixinate is effective in treating moderately severe migraine attacks. It is not superior than placebo in treating severe migraine attacks.Alguns antinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs são eficazes para o tratamento de crises de migrânea. O clonixinato de lisina (CL é um AINE derivado do ácido nicotínico comprovadamente eficaz no tratamento de várias síndromes dolorosas como a cólica renal e a dor muscular. O objetivo deste estudo duplo-cego placebo-controlado foi avaliar a eficácia do CL oral comparado ao placebo no tratamento agudo da migrânea. Sessenta e quatro pacientes com o diagnóstico de migrânea, de acordo com os critérios da Sociedade Internacional de Cefaléia (IHS, foram estudados prospectivamente. Os pacientes receberam CL ou placebo quando a cefaléia atingiu a intensidade moderada ou severa em 6 crises consecutivas. Para as crises moderadas, o CL foi superior ao placebo em 1, 2 e 4

  10. Indução anestésica após o tratamento do choque hemorrágico: estudo experimental comparando a cetamina e o etomidato Inducción anestésica después del tratamiento del choque hemorrágico: estudio experimental eomparando la cetamina y el etomidato Anesthetic induction after treated hemorrhagic shock: experimental study comparing ketamine and etomidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson O. Fraga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O sangramento que leva ao choque hemorrágico geralmente necessita tratamento cirúrgico sob anestesia geral. Por sua vez, os anestésicos podem comprometer ainda mais as condições hemodinâmicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de comparar os efeitos hemodinâmicos da cetamina e do etomidato durante a indução anestésica em cães submetidos a um modelo experimental de choque hemorrágico e reanimação. MÉTODO: Trinta e dois cães mestiços foram submetidos ao choque hemorrágico pressão-controlado, reanimação e indução anestésica. Após atingir a pressão alvo de 40 mmHg eles foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com a solução usada na reanimação: NaCl a 0.9% (32 ml.kg-1 e NaCl a 7,5% (4 mL.kg-1. Após a infusão de volume, esses grupos foram divididos novamente de acordo com o anestésico utilizado: GI NaCl a 0.9% e cetamina; GII NaCl a 7.5% e cetamina; GIII NaCl a 0.9% e etomidato; e GIV NaCl a 7.5% e etomidato. Medições hemodinâmicas foram obtidas em cinco momentos: (M0 inicial; (M1 após o desenvolvimento do choque hemorrágico; (M2 após a administração de fluidos; (M3 5 minutos após a indução anestésica; (M4 15 minutos após a indução anestésica. Foi feita a análise estatística usando o teste t de Student e two-way ANOVA. Foram considerados significativos valores de p menores do que 0,05. RESULTADOS: Após a instalação do choque, ambas as soluções restabeleceram os padrões hemodinâmicos aos valores iniciais. Independente do anestésico ou da solução utilizados, após a indução anestésica a pressão arterial média permaneceu inalterada em todos os grupos. A pressão venosa central, freqüência cardíaca, pressão capilar pulmonar e o índice de resistência pulmonar vascular aumentaram significativamente após a administração de cetamina. O índice cardíaco, o índice de resistência vascular sistêmica e o transporte de oxigênio permaneceram est

  11. Estudo comparativo entre agulhas de 25 × 0,70 mm ou 20 × 0,55 mm para anestesia retrobulbar com baixo volume anestésico em tratamento de catarata por facoemulsificação Estudio comparativo entre agujas de 25 × 0,70 mm o de 20 × 0,55 mm para la anestesia retrobulbar con bajo volumen anestésico en tratamiento de catarata por facoemulsificación A comparative study between 25 × 0.70 mm and 20 × 0.55 mm needles for retrobulbar block with small volume of anesthetic for the treatment of cataracts by phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Maciel Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    retrobulbar (ARB para tratamiento de catarata por facoemulsificación, utilizando agujas de dos diferentes tamaños: 25 x 0,70 mm o de 20 x 0,55 mm. MÉTODOS: Selección prospectiva de candidatos a bloqueo oftálmico para tratamiento de catarata por facoemulsificación. Después de la sedación y monitoreo estandarizado, se realizó anestesia retrobulbar (ARB en punción única ínfero-lateral con 4 mL de ropivacaina 1%, con hialuronidasa. En el Grupo I (GI, la aguja utilizada fue de 25 x 0,70 mm y en el Grupo II (GII, de 20 x 0,55 mm. En un paciente de cada grupo fueron realizadas tomografías computadorizadas al momento de la realización del bloqueo oftálmico y después de cinco minutos de la administración de la solución anestésica con contraste radiológico. La movilidad ocular se evaluó después de tres, cinco y diez minutos. A través de un cuestionario estandarizado, se compararon la incidencia de complicaciones entre los grupos, y la satisfacción de los pacientes y de los cirujanos. RESULTADOS: Fueron evaluados 54 pacientes adultos (27 por grupo. Ningún paciente relató dolor o percepción luminosa intraoperatoria. El procedimiento anestésico fue considerado muy bueno (MB o excelente (E en un 96,30% de los casos en los dos grupos. La misma evaluación se hizo en un 100% de los pacientes. No hubo diferencia en la necesidad de repetición del bloqueo entre los grupos (p = 1,0. El GI presentó menor movilidad ocular a los 3 minutos (p = 0,03. Se observó el posicionamiento de la aguja en posición retrobulbar intraconal en los dos grupos. La dispersión anestésica fue similar entre los grupos a los 5 minutos. CONCLUSIÓN: La ARB realizada con la aguja de 20 x 0,55mm, en punción única ínfero-lateral, utilizando bajas dosis de anestésicos, se presenta como una opción eficaz y segura para el tratamiento de catarata por facoemulsificación.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the quality and safety of retrobulbar block for the

  12. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  13. Treatment of female and male inpatient crack users: a qualitative study Tratamento de mulheres e homens usuários de crack internados: um estudo qualitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To map treatment trajectories in a sample of male and female crack users through their narratives about the course of treatment seeking and their attempts to access health care services in Brazil. METHODS: Qualitative study of a purposive sample (five female and nine male hospitalized crack users using semi-structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed and data explored using content analysis. RESULTS: Respondents reported difficulties getting access to hospitalization, relapse after discharge, and abandonment of treatment. There seems to be a peculiar model of behavior for women and men while dealing with craving for crack: while women got involved with prostitution and consequently became infected with HIV, every men of the sample reported criminal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between relapse and a social environment conducive to consumption, associated with belief or disbelief in spiritual support, prostitution, and the legal complications arising from the use of crack, are relevant issues and should be taken into consideration in the development of preventive actions aimed at this specific population.OBJETIVO: Mapear as trajetórias de tratamento em uma amostra de homens e mulheres usuários de crack, através de suas narrativas acerca do percurso de busca por tratamento e suas tentativas de ter acesso ao sistema de saúde brasileiro. MÉTODO: Estudo qualitativo de uma amostra intencional (cinco mulheres e nove homens usuários de crack internados utilizando entrevistas semiestruturadas. As entrevistas foram transcritas e os dados explorados utilizando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Os entrevistados referiram dificuldades em obter acesso à internação, recaídas após a alta e abandono do tratamento. Parece existir um modelo de comportamento peculiar às mulheres e aos homens para lidar com a fissura pelo crack: enquanto as mulheres se prostituíram e, consequentemente, infectaram

  14. Tratamento da giardiase com tinidazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia terapêutica do tinidazol, um novo derivado nitroimidazólico, em trinta pacientes com giardiase. A posologia diária foi de 300 mg em 20 pacientes com idade superior a 10 anos, e de 150 mg em 10 crianças com idade inferior a 10 anos. O tratamento teve a duração de cinco dias. O diagnóstico e os controles de cura parasitológicos foram feitos pelos métodos de Hoffman, Pons & Janer e de Faust e cols. Foram realizados três controles, com intervalos de sete dias, iniciando-se na semana subsequente ao término do tratamento. Obtiveram cura parasitológica em 96,6% dos casos. Ressaltam a excelente tolerância da droga, mesmo em pacientes com grave doença fundamental ou em crianças, não se registrando efeitos colaterais. Concluem ser o tinidazol excelente droga giardicida.The Autors study the therapeutic efficacy of Tinidazole, a new nitrimidazole derivative, in the treatment of thirty patients with giardiasis. They employed the daily dosage of 300 mg for twenty patients and 150 mg for ten children, respectively with ten years of age or and less during five consecutive days. The diagnosis and the parasitological evaluation of the results of treatment were accomplished by stool examinations using zinc sulphate centrifugal-flotation technique of Faust et al. and sedimentatian-concentration technique of Hoffman, Pons and Janer. The control started one week after the treatment and consisted of three stool examinations, at one week intervals. The Authors achieved 96.6 per cent of parasitological cures. They stressed the excellent tolerance of the drug ,even by patients with serious fundamental diseases or by children. No side effects were registered. They conclude that Tinidazole is an excellent drug against Giardia lamblia infections.

  15. Biofuel: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Aamir; Kading, Christopher; Carter, Kasey

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This project analyzes the governments role in the commercialization of biofuel by comparing biofuel commercialization efforts to those of nuclear power and nanotechnology commercialization. The PESTEL framework is applied to nuclear power and nanotechnology to identify key factors relevant to successful commercialization. These success factors are compared to current government biofuel policies to infer the likelihood of successful bio...

  16. Adesão ao tratamento de manutenção em asma (estudo ADERE Compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma (ADERE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Chatkin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento preventivo de asma persistente moderada e grave. MÉTODOS: Médicos de vários Estados do país foram contactados para selecionar asmáticos persistentes moderados ou graves, maiores de doze anos. Os pacientes receberam salmeterol/fluticasona 50/250 µg diskus durante 90 dias (sendo orientados a retornarem as embalagens ao final do estudo para conferência da dosagem total utilizada. Receberam telefonemas da equipe do estudo no início e ao final de 90 dias para que fosse avaliada a adesão. Foi considerado como aderente ao tratamento o asmático que utilizou no mínimo 85% das doses prescritas. As variáveis estudadas foram sexo, idade, cor, estado civil, escolaridade, tabagismo atual, outras atopias, co-morbidades, gravidade da asma, uso de outras medicações e número de hospitalizações por asma. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 131 pacientes oriundos de quinze estados, com taxa geral de adesão de 51,9%. Houve diferença significativa na adesão quanto à gravidade da asma (maior adesão nos casos graves; p = 0,02. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa geral de adesão ao tratamento de manutenção da asma foi baixa.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of compliance with preventive treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma. METHODS: Physicians at various medical centers across the country were invited to nominate patients for participation in the study. Inclusion criteria were being over the age of 12 and presenting moderate or severe persistent asthma. Participating patients received salmeterol/fluticasone 50/250 µg by dry powder inhaler for 90 days and were instructed to return the empty packages at the end of the study as a means of determining the total quantity used. In order to evaluate compliance, a member of the research team contacted each patient via telephone at the study outset and again at the end of the 90-day study period

  17. Estudo randomizado do tratamento cirúrgico da síndrome do túnel do carpo Surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Francisco do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar, por meio de um estudo clínico prospectivo randomizado, dois grupos de pacientes portadores de síndrome do túnel do carpo, divididos de acordo com a metodologia cirúrgica aplicada. O primeiro grupo (grupo A foi tratado pela endoscopia e o segundo (grupo B pelo acesso aberto. Foram avaliados 55 pacientes (57 punhos, sendo 32 (56,0% do sexo feminino e 25 (44,0% do masculino. A amostra foi composta por 36 (65,5% pacientes brancos, 17 (30,90% negros e 2 (3,63% orientais. A média das idades foi de 34,75 anos (mínimo de 24 e máximo de 76 anos. O grupo A foi composto por 30 (52,63% punhos e o grupo B foi composto por 27 (47,36%. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados no período pré-operatório e após 1, 2, 4, 6 e 12 semanas após a cirurgia e os seguintes parâmetros foram considerados: trofismo da musculatura tenar, dor (escala analógica, sensibilidade com monofilamento de Semmes-Weinstein, força de preensão e força de pinça (com dinamômetro Jamar. Não encontramos diferença estatística significante quando consideramos o lado, a dominância, a hipotrofia, a dor e o grau de força. O teste não-paramétrico de Mann-Whitney (p = 0,0178 evidenciou que o grupo de pacientes operados pela via endoscópica retornou ao trabalho mais precocemente. Nossa pesquisa, não evidenciou ao final da análise das demais variáveis analisadas diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparamos as duas metodologias de tratamento cirúrgico.This paper aims to evaluate, by means of a randomized prospective clinical study, two distinct groups divided according to the surgical methodology applied. The first group (group A was treated by endoscopic operation and the second (group B one by open access. We evaluated 55 patients (57 wrists, 32 (56.0% females and 25 (44,0% males. The sample was composed by 36 (65.5% Caucasian, 17 (30.9% black and 2 (3.63% Asian patients. The mean age was 34.75 years (minimum of 24 y

  18. Estudo do tratamento das fraturas da cabeça do fêmur Study of the treatment of femoral head fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer diretrizes para o tratamento das fraturas da cabeça femoral e determinar a melhor via de acesso nos casos tratados cirurgicamente. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos os resultados clínicos e radiográficos de 13 pacientes (13 fraturas tratados cirurgicamente entre maio de 1986 e julho de 1996 no Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo (SCMSP, Pavilhão "Fernandinho Simonsen". RESULTADOS: Entre as seis fraturas Pipkin 1, cinco foram submetidas à ressecção do fragmento, o que nos levou a quatro resultados excelentes e um bom, sendo este com fixação do fragmento. Três pacientes apresentaram fraturas Pipkin 2 e todas foram fixadas, observados dois excelentes resultados e um regular. Dois pacientes Pipkin 3 foram submetidos à artroplastia primária. Dos dois pacientes com lesão Pipkin 4, um foi tratado com redução e osteossíntese da fratura do acetábulo, sem abordar o fragmento da cabeça que estava bem reduzido e resultou em artrose precoce, e o outro foi submetido à artroplastia total como tratamento primário. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos após comparação da revisão da literatura com a análise dos nossos casos, que o tratamento da fratura da cabeça femoral deve ser cirúrgico e a escolha da via de acesso vai depender do tipo de fratura.OBJECTIVE: To establish guidelines for the treatment of femoral head fractures and to determine the best form of access in cases treated surgically. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of 13 patients (13 fractures treated surgically, between May 1986 and July 1996, at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo (SCMSP, Fernandinho Simonsen Pavillion. RESULTS: Among six Pipkin 1 fractures, five had resection of the fragment, resulting in four excellent and one good result. The good result had fixation of the fragment. All three Pipkin 2 fractures had fixation of the fragment

  19. Estudo prospectivo controlado randomizado: comparando duas formas de tratamento para o sitio doador de enxerto ósseo em cirurgia da coluna vertebral Estudio prospectivo controlado randomizado: comparando dos tipos de tratamiento para el sitio donador del injerto óseo en cirurgía de columna vertebral Controlled randomized prospective study comparing two forms of treating the bone graft donor site in vertebral-spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Lacerda Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    two, not observing complications in the graft donor site. CONCLUSION: We have concluded that the approach with Gelfoan® with bupivacaine improves pain in the first 48 hours post-operatively when compared to the vacuum suction drain, but in average both techniques are safe, with the presence of residual pain in both interventions and a low complication rate, with none observed in our study.

  20. Massage therapy in the management of myogenic TMD: a pilot study Massoterapia para o tratamento da DTM miogênica: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kise Capellini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is greatly prevalent in the population and can be associated with bruxism. This disorder produces several signs and symptoms. Among them, pain is one of the most important because it reduces life quality and productivity of people who have such disorder. The aim of this research was to study if massage causes pain relief and/or electromyographic (EMG changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were chosen by a questionnaire and divided into 2 different groups. Their ages varied from 19 to 22 years. The experimental group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the massage treatment and 4 EMG-sessions (the 1st EMG-session occurred before the treatment and the others in the 1st, 15th and 30th days after the treatment. The control group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the same 4 EMG-sessions. While EMG activity was recorded, subjects were asked to keep mandibular rest position (MRP and to perform maximal voluntary clenching (MVC. The treatment consisted of 15 massage-sessions on face and neck and in application of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for measuring pain level. The massage sessions had 30 minutes of duration and were performed daily. The EMG data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Square (RMS, which were normalized by MVC. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that (1 RMS-MRP of the right masseter in experimental group at the 1st EMG-session was higher than at the 2nd EMG-session and (2 statistically significant reduction was found for VAS values after massage session. CONCLUSION: Unfortunately the sample is insufficient to draw any conclusions, therefore, more studies regarding the use of massage in the management of myogenic TMD are necessary.INTRODUÇÃO: A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM tem grande prevalência na população e pode ser associada com bruxismo. Esta desordem produz vários sinais e sintomas. Entre eles, a dor é um do mais importantes porque

  1. Estudo cefalométrico comparativo dos espaços naso e bucofaríngeo nas más oclusões Classe I e Classe II, Divisão 1, sem tratamento ortodôntico, com diferentes padrões de crescimento A Comparative cephalometric study of the naso and oropharyngeal space in malocclusions Class I and Class II Division 1, without orthodontic treatment with different growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr M. Penteado Virmond Alcazar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi comparar os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo em indivíduos com má oclusão Classe I e Classe II, divisão 1, segundo Angle, do gênero masculino e feminino, com idade média de 11 anos e 6 meses, com padrão de crescimento normal e vertical, não tratados ortodonticamente. A amostra desse estudo foi dividida em dois grupos: 40 pacientes apresentando Classe I e 40 pacientes com Classe II, divisão 1, cada grupo subdividido de acordo com o padrão de crescimento facial: normal e vertical. Os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo foram avaliados segundo a análise de McNamara Jr., pelas medidas NFa-NFp e BFa-BFp. A análise dos resultados obtidos revelou que, a medida do espaço bucofaríngeo para Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e para o espaço nasofaríngeo para Classe II com padrão normal de crescimento apresentaram-se semelhantes à medida padrão da amostra de McNamara Jr.. As outras medidas apresentaram-se estatisticamente menores. Na comparação entre os grupos, o espaço nasofaríngeo no grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical, apresentou-se menor do que nos grupos Classe I e grupo Classe II divisão 1, ambos com padrão de crescimento normal. O espaço bucofaríngeo não sofreu alteração significante de um grupo para outro. Em relação à hipertrofia da tonsila faringeana, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical apresentou obstrução; para hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e Classe II com padrão de crescimento normal apresentou hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas.The aim of this study is to compare the naso and oropharyngeal air space in people with malocclusion class I and class II division 1, according to Angle, with mean age from 8 to 15 years old with normal and vertical growth pattern not treated orthodontically. This study was divided into two groups: 40 patients with class I, and 40

  2. Tratamento do diabetes melito gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maganha Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, os autores analisam os mais recentes avanços no tratamento do diabetes gestacional, enfatizando pontos importantes na abordagem terapêutica: dieta, exercícios, controle glicêmico, utilização da insulina, assim como a utilização de hipoglicemiantes orais. O artigo traz propostas atuais para o tratamento do diabetes melito gestacional bem como ressaltar suas peculiaridades quanto patologia clínico-obstétrica.

  3. O uso da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento do transtorno depressivo: uma abordagem em grupo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Rech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A depressão tem atingido amplos grupos sociais sem distinção entre eles e, constantemente, está associada como comorbidade a outras doenças. A Terapia Cognitivo- Comportamental (TCC começou a ser estruturada pelo psicanalista e psiquiatra Aaron Beck para oferecer tratamento a pessoas deprimidas. Foi aprimorada e chegou a propostas de tratamento em grupo desenvolvidas por Aaron Beck e demais colaboradores. Este estudo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos temas da TCC e de sua aplicação no tratamento em grupo para depressão, desde a sua formulação até a revisão do uso dessa terapia na atualidade. Foram analisados artigos do ano de 2008 dessa metodologia de trabalho e comparados com os cânones dessa tipologia de tratamento. A depressão tem atingido amplos grupos sociais sem distinção entre eles e, constantemente, está associada como comorbidade a outras doenças. A Terapia Cognitivo- Comportamental (TCC começou a ser estruturada pelo psicanalista e psiquiatra Aaron Beck para oferecer tratamento a pessoas deprimidas. Foi aprimorada e chegou a propostas de tratamento em grupo desenvolvidas por Aaron Beck e demais colaboradores. Este estudo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos temas da TCC e de sua aplicação no tratamento em grupo para depressão, desde a sua formulação até a revisão do uso dessa terapia na atualidade. Foram analisados artigos do ano de 2008 dessa metodologia de trabalho e comparados com os cânones dessa tipologia de tratamento. Abstract Depression affects a variety of social groups without distinction, and usually occurs as comorbidity with other disorders. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT was originally structured by Aaron Beck to provide treatment to depressed people. It was later improved by him and his collaborators and developed into a proposal of group therapy. This study comprises a brief review of CBT topics and their application in group therapy of depression, from its formulation to its

  4. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  5. Estudo clínico randomizado comparando antimoniato de meglumina, pentamidina e anfotericina B para o tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea ocasionada por Leishmania guyanensis A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ourives Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ainda constitui desafio, pois a maioria dos medicamentos é injetável e têm-se poucos ensaios clínicos randomizados comparando a eficácia das drogas. Além disso, é provável que as espécies de Leishmania tenham influência nas respostas terapêuticas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a eficácia e a segurança dos esquemas de tratamento na LTA, ocasionada por Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. MÉTODOS: 185 pacientes foram selecionados, conforme critérios de elegibilidade, e distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em 3 grupos - 2 com 74 enfermos e outro com 37 - que receberam, respectivamente, antimoniato de meglumina, isotionato de pentamidina e anfotericina B em doses, períodos e vias de administração padronizados. Os enfermos foram reexaminados um, dois e seis meses após o final dos tratamentos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos terapêuticos em relação ao sexo, idade, número ou local das lesões. A análise por intenção de tratar (ITT mostrou eficácias de 58,1% para a pentamidina e 55,5% para o antimoniato (p=0,857. O grupo da anfotericina B foi analisado separadamente, pois 28 (75,7% pacientes negaram-se a continuar no estudo após a randomização. Eventos adversos leves ou moderados foram relatados por 74 (40% pacientes, principalmente artralgia (20,3%, para o grupo do antimoniato, e dor (35,1% ou enduração (10,8% no local das injeções para a pentamidina. CONCLUSÕES: A pentamidina tem eficácia similar ao antimonial pentavalente para o tratamento da LTA ocasionada por L. guyanensis. Face aos baixos resultados de eficácia apresentados por ambas as drogas, necessita-se, com urgência, investigar novas opções terapêuticas para esta enfermidade.FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been

  6. Osteoartrite (artrose: tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Coimbra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIÇÃO DO MÉTODO DE COLETA DE EVIDÊNCIAS: Foram utilizados os estudos disponíveis na literatura médica presentes nas seguintes bases de dados, acessíveis através da internet: OVID (EBM-Reviews, incluindo-se as bases de dados da Cochrane e o Medline, de 1966 até o presente, através do Pubmed. Foram selecionados trabalhos de meta-análise e estudos duplo-cegos randomizados, quando presentes. Relatos ou série de casos foram utilizados quando publicados em jornaisde reconhecida idoneidade. As opiniões dos especialistas presentes foram utilizadas em relação a terapias não disponíveis na literatura e que fossem consideradas pela unanimidade dos presentes como importante para o manejo dos pacientes com osteoartrite. Envio prévio da bibliografia principal aos participantes. Reunião para elaboração do documento. Colocação do rascunho na internet por dez dias para mudanças. Elaboração final do documento. GRAU DE RECOMENDAÇÃO E FORÇA DE EVIDÊNCIA: A: Estudos experimentais e observacionais de melhor consistência. B: Estudos experimentais e observacionais de menor consistência. C: Relatos de casos (estudos não controlados. D: Opinião desprovida de avaliação crítica, baseada em consensos, estudos fisiológicos ou modelos animais. OBJETIVOS: Conciliar informações e condutas referentes ao tratamento da osteoartrite pelas três principais especialidades envolvidas, reumatologia, fisiatria e ortopedia. As condutas consensuais para a maioria dos participantes foram então agrupadas e constam nas recomendações deste documento. CONFLITO DE INTERESSE: Os autores Coimbra IB, Pucinelli MLC, Cavalcanti FS e Maciel FMB, declararam vínculo com a Indústria Farmacêutica.

  7. Lysine clonixinate versus dipyrone (metamizole for the acute treatment of severe migraine attacks: a single-blind, randomized study Clonixinato de lisina versus dipirona (metamizol para o tratamento agudo de uma crise intensa de enxaqueca: estudo monocego e randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouch Valenty Krymchantowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC and dipyrone (metamizol have been proven effective to treat acute migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the intravenous formulations of LC and dipyrone in the treatment of severe migraine attacks. METHOD: Thirty patients (28 women, 2 men, aged 18 to 48 years with migraine according the International Headache Society (IHS (2004 were studied. The patients were randomized into 2 groups when presenting to an emergency department with a severe migraine attack. The study was single-blind. Headache intensity, nausea, photophobia and side effects were evaluated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after the drug administration. Rectal indomethacin as rescue medication (RM was available after 2 hours and its use compared between groups. RESULTS: All patients completed the study. At 30 minutes, 0% of the dipyrone group 13% of the LC group were pain free (p=0.46. At 60 and 90 minutes, 2 (13% and 5 (33% patients from the dipyrone group and 11 (73% and 13 (86.7% patients from the LC group were pain free (pCONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Antiinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINE são eficazes no tratamento de crises de enxaqueca. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia e a tolerabilidade das apresentações injetáveis do clonixinato de lisina (CL e da dipirona no tratamento de crises intensas de enxaqueca. MÉTODO: Trinta pacientes (28 mulheres, 2 homens, com idades entre 18 e 48 anos e enxaqueca de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Cefaléias (2004 foram estudados. Os pacientes foram randomizados em 2 grupos ao se apresentarem em uma unidade de emergência, com uma crise intensa de enxaqueca. O desenho do estudo foi monocego. A intensidade da cefaléia, a presença de náusea e fotofobia e os efeitos colaterais foram avaliados e comparados na administração das drogas e após 30

  8. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  9. The Influence Studies in Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏莹

    2010-01-01

    Comparative literature arose in the 19th century,the approach adopted for its influence study has been developed and diversified in different eras,in this article,the influence study in comparative literature through a reading culture is discussed in order to reveal in what aspects the reading culture may cut across the regional border of influence study.

  10. Sintomas psicóticos e cognitivos associados à busca de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias: um estudo qualitativo Psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated to treatment seeking behavior: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há algumas décadas, busca-se compreender melhor o processo subjacente ao comportamento de procura de tratamento por usuários que fazem uso nocivo ou são dependentes de substâncias psicoativas. Os modelos atualmente propostos baseiam-se principalmente na análise epidemiológica de certas características individuais quanto ao poder que têm de influenciar esse comportamento de disposição para tratamento. OBJETIVOS: Interpretar e compreender possíveis significados pessoais associados a alterações psicopatológicas, sobre como podem se relacionar à procura de tratamento, na visão dos próprios pacientes. MÉTODO: Pesquisa qualitativa com entrevistas semidirigidas com amostra intencional de 13 dependentes de substâncias que procuraram tratamento. RESULTADOS: Houve relatos espontâneos de alterações de forma, curso e conteúdo de pensamento e juízo de realidade, alterações de sensopercepção, de atenção, memória e linguagem. Os membros da amostra pareceram relacioná-las à motivação para tratamento. Os dados foram interpretados considerando o contexto psicocultural dos entrevistados e seus quadros clínicos de síndrome de dependência, de abstinência e de comorbidade. CONCLUSÕES: Pesquisas qualitativas contribuem para aprimorar os modelos explicativos sobre procura de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias. Investigar clinicamente alterações psicopatológicas parece poder contribuir para motivar pacientes para tratamentos específicos do uso disfuncional de substâncias.During the last few decades it is aimed to better understand the process underlying treatment seeking behavior by harmful or dependent psychoactive substances users. The currently proposed models are mainly based on the epidemiological analysis of certain number of individual characteristics, as they have the power to influence this behavior of readiness for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To interpret and understand possible personal meanings associated with

  11. Tratamento artroscópico da instabilidade anterior do ombro: estudo retrospectivo de 159 casos Anterior instability of the shoulder: retrospective study on 159 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Amado Ferreira Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Análise dos resultados de 159 pacientes com instabilidade anterior do ombro submetidos ao tratamento artroscópico de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de prontuários com dados completos. RESULTADOS: Em 108 pacientes notou-se a lesão de Bankart e em 62 pacientes a lesão do tipo SLAP estava presente. Utilizou-se em média 2,7 âncoras. Apresentaram complicações 42 casos; 14 tinham dor aos esforços, 12 tinham algum grau de diminuição da rotação externa, 16 apresentaram recidiva. Os pacientes que evoluíram com complicações utilizaram em média 2,5 âncoras, enquanto naqueles sem complicações a média foi de 2,8 (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of 159 patients with anterior instability of the shoulder submitted to arthroscopic treatment from January 2001 to December 2005. METHODS: Retrospective study of complete patient records. RESULTS: In 108 patients the Bankart lesion was found, while in 62 patients, SLAP type lesions were found. An average of 2.7 anchors was used. 42 cases presented complications; 14 had pain on effort, 12 had some degree of reduction of external rotation, and 16 had recorrence. The patients who developed complications used an average of 2.5 anchors, while those without complications used an average of 2.8 anchors (p<0.05. Of the 35 patients with anterior glenoid bone lesion, 8 had recorrence, while of the 124 patients without fractures, 8 had recorrence (p<0.05. Of the 113 patients with first-time traumatic dislocations, 12 developed limitation of external rotation, while in 46 atraumatic cases none developed limitation (p<0.05. Of the patients with SLAP lesion, 11 developed pain, while in the cases without this lesion, only 3 presented pain (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There were more recurrences (deveria ser plural e recurrences, nao recurrence in cases of anterior glenoid bone lesion. Post-operative pain was more frequent when the lesion type was SLAP. Limitation of

  12. Tratamento da dor em queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  13. Estudo retrospectivo do tratamento cirúrgico do neuroma de morton por via plantar Retrospective study of surgery treatment im monrton's neuroma by plantar approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Gennari Barbosa; Gustavo Maluf Tiradentes; Helencar Ignácio; Guaracy Carvalho Filho; Alceu Gomes Chueire

    2005-01-01

    Com o propósito de avaliar a eficácia da técnica cirúrgica - neurectomia por via plantar -, em portadores de neuroma de Morton, 19 pacientes foram submetidos a esse tratamento. Portanto, foram 19 neuromas, sendo 84,3% do sexo feminino, 15,7% do sexo masculino; 31,5% no segundo espaço intermetatarsal, 68,5% no terceiro; 47,3% no lado direito e 52,7% no esquerdo. A cirurgia foi realizada por via plantar em todos os casos, com tempo médio de acompanhamento de 9 meses, e o resultado foi considera...

  14. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy in treating bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled study A eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental para o tratamento do transtorno bipolar: um estudo controlado e randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Thomaz da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that, when combined with pharmacotherapy, structured psychotherapy may modify the course of bipolar disorder. However, there are few studies that have examined the effects of cognitive behavioral group therapy on the course of this disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral group therapy, combined with pharmacotherapy, on the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder, and to compare our results against those from the use of pharmacotherapy alone. METHOD: Forty-one patients with bipolar I and II disorder participated in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups; thirty-seven patients remained in the study until its completion. Mood and anxiety symptoms were measured in all subjects. Statistical analysis was used to investigate if the groups differed with respect to demographic characteristics and the scores recorded in the pre- and post-treatment stages, as well as during treatment (intra/inter groups. RESULTS: Patients showed statistically similar population characteristics. The association of cognitive behavioral group therapy and pharmacological treatment proved to be effective. Patients who had undergone cognitive behavioral group therapy presented fewer symptoms of mania, depression and anxiety, as well as fewer and shorter mood change episodes. CONCLUSION: Cognitive behavioral group therapy sessions substantially contributed to the improvement of depression symptoms.OBJETIVO: Estudos recentes sugerem que uma psicoterapia estruturada aplicada junto com a farmacoterapia pode alterar o curso do transtorno afetivo bipolar. Entretanto, poucos estudos investigam os resultados da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo sobre este transtorno psiquiátrico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a eficácia de 14 sessões de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo concomitante à farmacoterapia para bipolares e

  15. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy in treating bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled study A eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental para o tratamento do transtorno bipolar: um estudo controlado e randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Thomaz da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that, when combined with pharmacotherapy, structured psychotherapy may modify the course of bipolar disorder. However, there are few studies that have examined the effects of cognitive behavioral group therapy on the course of this disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral group therapy, combined with pharmacotherapy, on the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder, and to compare our results against those from the use of pharmacotherapy alone. METHOD: Forty-one patients with bipolar I and II disorder participated in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups; thirty-seven patients remained in the study until its completion. Mood and anxiety symptoms were measured in all subjects. Statistical analysis was used to investigate if the groups differed with respect to demographic characteristics and the scores recorded in the pre- and post-treatment stages, as well as during treatment (intra/inter groups. RESULTS: Patients showed statistically similar population characteristics. The association of cognitive behavioral group therapy and pharmacological treatment proved to be effective. Patients who had undergone cognitive behavioral group therapy presented fewer symptoms of mania, depression and anxiety, as well as fewer and shorter mood change episodes. CONCLUSION: Cognitive behavioral group therapy sessions substantially contributed to the improvement of depression symptoms.OBJETIVO: Estudos recentes sugerem que uma psicoterapia estruturada aplicada junto com a farmacoterapia pode alterar o curso do transtorno afetivo bipolar. Entretanto, poucos estudos investigam os resultados da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo sobre este transtorno psiquiátrico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a eficácia de 14 sessões de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo concomitante à farmacoterapia para bipolares e

  16. A Comparative Study of Whitman and Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田寨耕

    2014-01-01

    Walt Whitman and Robert Frost are both famous poets in American literary history. They share a great deal in common. This paper attempts to make a study of the two poets by means of comparing their similarities and differences.

  17. A terapia multifamiliar no tratamento da dependência química: um estudo retrospectivo de seis anos Multi-family therapy and drug addiction: a six-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Sastre Seadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A inclusão de intervenções focadas na família, através da terapia unifamiliar, ou da terapia multifamiliar (TGMF vem crescendo como uma forma de enfrentar um problema tão grave e complexo como é a dependência química. OBJETIVOS: Investigar e avaliar fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento multifamiliar no tratamento de dependentes químicos hospitalizados. MÉTODO: A pesquisa é um estudo transversal retrospectivo, com uma amostra de 672 famílias participantes da TGMF durante o período de seis anos (de março 1997 a julho de 2003. Foi realizado um estudo dos fatores sociodemográficos como idade, sexo, tempo de uso da substância e quanto ao tipo de droga mais prevalente e investigada a associação entre o grau de parentesco do familiar participante do programa e a adesão ao tratamento multifamiliar. Foram pesquisados 672 prontuários de sujeitos que estiveram internados e ingressaram no programa de tratamento multifamiliar e os relatos das sessões descritos pelo terapeuta coordenador do grupo. RESULTADOS: Há associação entre a participação da família e adesão ao tratamento. A participação de dois ou mais familiares repercute na adesão. DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que inclusão de um número maior de familiares poderá repercutir em uma maior adesão ao tratamento.INTRODUCTION: the systematic inclusion of interventions focused on the family through unifamily and/or through multi-family group therapy (MFGT has been growing as a way to face such a serious and complex problem as drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and evaluate factors associated with the joining of drug addicted patients to a multi-family treatment. METHOD: the research is a cross-sectional retrospective study, with a sample of 672 families taking part in MFGT for six years (from March, 1997 to July, 2003. A study about sociodemographic factors such as age, gender, time and predominant type of substance used was made, which also

  18. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Oana DUMITRASCU; Constantin Manuel HILA

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms...

  19. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production....... Finally, pedagogical implication of CFL is discussed and future research is suggested. Keywords: error analysis, comparative sentences, comparative structure ‘‘bǐ - 比’, Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), written production...

  20. Tratamento psicológico do medo de viajar de avião, a partir do modelo cognitivo: caso clínico Psychological treatment of the fear of flying based on a cognitive model: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Remor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentar-se-á um caso clínico com a avaliação e tratamento psicológico, a partir do modelo cognitivo, de uma mulher de 32 anos, que apresenta medo de voar de avião. A avaliação e o diagnóstico foram feitos através da entrevista clínica, utilizando os critérios do DSM-IV, e aplicou-se com medidas pré e pós-tratamento o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI. As técnicas utilizadas no tratamento foram: dar informação, treinamento em relaxamento, tarefas comportamentais, dessensibilização sistemática em imaginação, detecção de distorções cognitivas, discussão de idéias irracionais e auto-exposição in vivo. Os objetivos terapêuticos foram alcançados através de uma intervenção de nove sessões de terapia, de periodicidade semanal, adicionando ao processo terapêutico biblioterapia como tarefa para casa. A intervenção alcançou mudanças positivas e a melhoria mantém-se depois de um seguimento de dois e de quatro meses trás o final do tratamento.This paper describes a clinical case study, including psychological assessment and treatment, based on a cognitive model, of a 32-year-old woman who showed fear of flying. The assessment and diagnosis were carried out by means of a clinical interview employing DSM-IV criteria, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Measures of pre- and post-treatment were obtained. The techniques used in the treatment consisted of the following: information, relaxation techniques, behavior tasks, systematic desensitization in imagery, identification of cognitive distortions, discussion of irrational ideas, and self-exposure in vivo. The therapeutic objectives were achieved after nine weekly therapy sessions and usig a therapeutic program of bibliotherapy as a complementary activity. The therapy resulted in positive changes and in an improvement, which remained stable at the two to four month follow

  1. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  2. Magnetotactic bacteria and microjets: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We provide a comparative study between two self-propelled microrobots, i.e., magnetotactic bacteria and microjets. This study includes characterization of their fluidic properties (linear and rotational drag coefficients) based on their morphologies and characterization of their magnetic properties

  3. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni; Thiago Daniel Macedo Silva; Bruno Fajardo do Nascimento; Rodrigo Cristiano de Andrade; Lúcio Flávio Biondi Pinheiro Júnior; Oscar Pinheiro Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP) com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group) e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitan...

  4. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni; Thiago Daniel Macedo Silva; Bruno Fajardo do Nascimento; Rodrigo Cristiano de Andrade; Lúcio Flávio Biondi Pinheiro Júnior; Oscar Pinheiro Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP) com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group) e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitan...

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BYG SEARCH ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the retrieval effectiveness of the Bing, Yahoo and Google (BYG Search Engines. The precision and relative recall of each search engine was considered for evaluating the effectiveness of the search engines. General Queries were tested. Results of the study showed that the precision of Google was high as compared to other two search engines and Yahoo has better precision than Bing

  6. Lufenuron no tratamento da dermatofitose em gatos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina R. Ramadinha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Em função de controvérsias sobre a eficácia do lufenuron no tratamento da dermatofitose causada por Microsporum canis, o efeito da droga foi avaliado em 46 gatos (30 com lesões cutâneas e 16 portadores assintomáticos atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido através da lâmpada de Wood, da cultura fúngica e, adicionalmente, na maioria dos animais sintomáticos, pela avaliação histopatológica da pele. Os animais foram tratados com 120mg/kg de lufenuron, a cada 21 dias (quatro doses; a droga mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento de 29 dos 30 felinos que apresentaram a forma clínica da dermatofitose, bem como no de todos os animais assintomáticos. O único felino que não teve cura clínica completa havia recebido várias doses de dexametasona antes do inicio do tratamento. Em um animal gestante, foram utilizadas duas doses do lufenuron e não foi observada qualquer alteração clínica e morfológica nos filhotes. Nenhum dos animais tratados teve qualquer reação adversa ao medicamento. Vinte dias após o último tratamento, o exame micológico resultou negativo em 45 dos felinos estudados (98%. Embora o lufenuron tenha o custo um pouco mais elevado do que o do cetoconazol, é uma droga que apresenta praticidade e margem de segurança bem maiores. Vale ressaltar que o sucesso do tratamento está diretamente relacionado à correta utilização da droga, assim como a perfeita higienização do ambiente e dos utensílios dos animais.Due to discrepancies regarding the effectiveness of lufenuron in treating dermato-phytosis caused by Microsporum canis the effect of this drug was checked in 46 cats (30 with cutaneous lesions and 16 asymptomatic carriers treated in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diagnosis was based on Wood's lamp examination and fungal cultures. Biopsies were only performed in symptomatic

  7. Species comparative studies and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2005-03-01

    The comparative study of infant development and animal cognition brings to cognitive science the promise of insights into the nature and origins of cognitive skills. In this article, I review a recent wave of comparative studies conducted with similar methodologies and similar theoretical frameworks on how two core components of human cognition--object permanence and gaze following--develop in different species. These comparative findings call for an integration of current competing accounts of developmental change. They further suggest that evolution has produced developmental devices capable at the same time of preserving core adaptive components, and opening themselves up to further adaptive change, not only in interaction with the external environment, but also in interaction with other co-developing cognitive systems.

  8. The drug-naïve OCD patients imaging genetics, cognitive and treatment response study: methods and sample description Estudo de genética, imagem, cognição e resposta a tratamento em pacientes com TOC virgens de tratamento: métodos e descrição da amostra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a protocol that was based on an integrative neurobiological model of scientific investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder and to present the clinical and demographic characteristics of the sample. METHOD: A standardized research protocol that combines different methods of investigation (genetics, neuropsychology, morphometric magnetic resonance imaging and molecular neuroimaging of the dopamine transporter obtained before and after treatment of drug-naïve adult obsessive-compulsive disorder patients submitted to a sequentially allocated 12-week clinical trial with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-two treatment-naïve obsessive-compulsive disorder patients entered the clinical trial (27 received fluoxetine and 25 received group cognitive-behavioral therapy. At baseline, 47 blood samples for genetic studies, 50 neuropsychological evaluations, 50 morphometrical magnetic resonance images and 48 TRODAT-1 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT exams were obtained. After 12 weeks, 38 patients completed the protocol (fluoxetine = 20 and GCBT = 18. Thirty-eight neuropsychological evaluations, 31 morphometrical magnetic resonance images and 34 TRODAT-1 SPECT exams were obtained post-treatment. Forty-one healthy controls matched for age, gender, socioeconomic status, level of education and laterality were submitted to the same research procedures at baseline. CONCLUSION: The comprehensive treatment response protocol applied in this project allowing integration on genetic, neuropsychological, morphometrical and molecular imaging of the dopamine transporter data in drug-naïve patients has the potential to generate important original information on the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and at the same time be clinically meaningful.OBJETIVO: Descrever um protocolo integrativo de investiga

  9. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lopez, Jorge A. [Physics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2004-09-06

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature.

  10. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  11. A Comparative Study of Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.; Overmars, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic roadmap approach is one of the leading motion planning techniques. Over the past eight years the technique has been studied by many different researchers. This has led to a large number of variants of the approach, each with its own merits. It is difficult to compare the different

  12. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  13. Asma e Gravidez: Tratamento Hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauad Filho Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar as complicações perinatais decorrentes da associação de asma e gravidez em pacientes que necessitaram hospitalização para controle da crise asmática. Método: análise retrospectiva de 12 casos de asma e gravidez que necessitaram de internação hospitalar e foram assistidos no Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, no período compreendido entre 1992 e 1996. Os parâmetros analisados foram: idade materna, acompanhamento pré-natal, tempo de permanência hospitalar, tratamento instituído, intercorrências gravídicas, idade gestacional ao parto, tipo de parto, peso ao nascer e índice de Apgar. Resultados: das 12 gestantes asmáticas, 7 não haviam iniciado o seguimento pré-natal antes da internação para o tratamento da crise asmática. Três pacientes apresentaram doença hipertensiva específica da gravidez, sendo um dos casos associado a rotura prematura de membranas e corioamnionite e outro associado a descolamento prematuro de placenta. Foram diagnosticados 2 casos de insuficiência placentária, um deles associado a trabalho de parto prematuro e transfusão feto-fetal em gestação gemelar e outro associado a oligoâmnio. Foi detectado 1 caso de oligoâmnio associado a pneumonia materna e óbito fetal e também 1 caso de polidrâmnio. Além disso, ocorreram 2 casos de parto prematuro e 3 recém-nascidos foram considerados pequenos para a idade gestacional. Conclusões: a prevenção das complicações da asma na gravidez deve ser instituída antes mesmo da concepção, enfatizando-se os aspectos educativos da paciente em relação à doença e afastando-se quando possível os fatores desencadeantes das crises, como os alergênios ambientais e o tabagismo. O tratamento deve ser instituído precocemente e a paciente deve ser acompanhada em conjunto pelo obstetra e pelo pneumologista.

  14. Tegretol no tratamento da epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armbrust-Figueiredo

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available O Tegretol (5-carbamil-5H-dibenzo-b,L-azepina foi usado no tratamento de 68 pacientes com epilepsia; 54 apresentavam epilepsia temporal (42 com crises psicomotoras e 12 com crises complexas, 11 epilepsia focal de projeção não temporal e 3 epilepsia centrencefálica com crises P.M. Resultados satisfatórios foram observados em 82% dos 65 pacientes com epilepsia focal; os 3 pacientes com crises P.M. não foram influenciados pelo tratamento. A ação sobre as manifestações psíquicas que acompanhavam o quadro crítico ou intercrítico das crises ficou bem evidenciada. Os pacientes melhoraram de seus sintomas na grande maioria dos casos, conseguindo adaptar-se melhor no ambiente familiar, profissional e escolar. O efeito sobre as alterações eletrencefalográficas é moderado, e a evolução clínica não acompanha as modificações dos traçados. As doses usadas, em geral de 400 a 600 mg diários, são suficientes para o controle das crises na maioria dos casos e estão muito abaixo dos limites considerados como de segurança. As reações secundárias foram observadas em pequeno número de casos e foram sempre transitórias. O Tegretol representa, em nossa opinião, recurso de valor no trataemnto das epilepsias focais, particularmente nas crises psicomotoras.

  15. A Comparative Study on Author's Unreliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林映凡

    2016-01-01

    Literature appreciation usually follows a"writer-text-reader" process. The author is an inseparable part in literary discussion. Most literary schools have debate on the author's status, which is mainly sorted into two kinds: reliable author or unreliable author. This paper makes a comparative study on the author's status, which is mainly from the perspectives of New Criticism and Deconstruction. Both of them go for unreliability of the author. They share similarities but also bear differences.

  16. Comparative Study on Richard Ⅲ and Macbeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽霞; 闫继苗; 徐婷婷

    2013-01-01

    Shakespeare is one of the most prominent drama writers all over the world. His masterpiece displays vivid, delicate and profound humanity. Richard Ⅲ and Macbeth as the main heroes in his two tragedies of the same theme, share quite a lot of simi⁃larities and differences, yet resulting in sharply different readers’response to their fates. The comparative study on these two char⁃acters is aimed at helping readers better understand the two tragedies.

  17. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997 for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affects and is affected by distinct dimensions of Latin American society. The paper recognizes that comparative studies have placed the importance of friends and friendship in areas such as economy, health, education, and migration, among others. As expected, Latin American comparative studies are more frequent in some disciplines, mainly those based on censuses data, and theoretically related to social-economic and demographic concepts, including social networks and social capital. The possibility of developing a Latin American perspective for the study of friendship requires not only the need of empirical but also theoretical advances, as well as scientific cooperation and innovation. Friendship is seen as relevant for the constitution of the social tissue of Latin American society, being affected and affecting different areas and levels. In the social economic dimension, friends are relevant, specifically in Latin America, to themes such as poverty and social vulnerability. Some future possibilities for investigation are discussed.

  18. Patients in treatment for chronic low back pain have higher externalised beliefs: a cross-sectional study Pacientes em tratamento da dor lombar crônica têm crenças mais externalizadas: um estudo transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago H. Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with low back pain (LBP with higher levels of external locus of control have a poorer prognosis and require greater improvements from active interventions in order to consider these interventions worthwhile. Whether locus of control levels differ between participants with LBP in a patient-health provider relationship and those waiting for treatment is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate if differences in locus of control exist between participants with non-specific chronic LBP being treated (treatment group and those waiting treatment (control group. METHODS: 100 participants (50 per group with low back symptoms for at least three months for the current episode of LBP and aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited. Multidimensional health locus of control questionnaire (MHLC was used to collect their beliefs. Multiple linear regression adjusted for disability was used to compare health locus of control between both groups. Differences were described as mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Treatment group scored higher for external locus of control and lower for internal locus of control than control group. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals were 2.7 points on possible 30-points difference (0.5 to 4.8 for external locus of control and -2.8 points (-5.4 to -0.1 for internal subscale. CONCLUSION: Health locus of control was found to be different between treatment and control groups. Participants being treated had higher external locus of control and lower internal locus of control than control group.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Pessoas com dor lombar com altos níveis de lócus de controle externo têm piores prognósticos e necessitam de melhores intervenções ativas, uma vez que elas são consideradas mais valiosas. Se os níveis de lócus de controle diferem entre os participantes com dor lombar e aqueles que esperam o tratamento, a relação do atendimento-paciente não está clara. OBJETIVO

  19. Avaliação da glicemia no tratamento de feridas cirúrgicas com açúcar, em ratas Study of the variation of glucose levels in rats, with the use of sugar in surgical wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto do Nascimento Galego

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é estudar a variação da concentração plasmática da glicose em ratas, após o tratamento de feridas cirúrgicas com açúcar cristal. Utilizou-se 40 animais, distribuidos em dois grupos de 20 ratos, grupo controle e grupo açúcar. Realizou-se incisão na região cervical dorsal do animal e divulsionou-se o tecido celular subcutâneo numa área suficiente para receber a dose de 2g. de açúcar. Para a avaliação da glicemia, retirou-se amostras de sangue antes da intervenção e 30, 60, 90, e 120 minutos após. Utilizou-se análise estatística de MANOVA para avaliar a diferença entre os valores médios de glicemia adotando nível de significância à = 0.05. Encontrou-se diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparou-se os dados em relação ao tempo (p=0,00 e em relação grupo X tempo simultaneamente (p=0,01. Observou-se aumento da glicemia nos ratos que receberam o açúcar após um período de 120 minutos de sua utilização. Concluíu-se que o uso do açúcar em feridas cirúrgicas aumenta a glicemia do animal duas horas após a sua aplicação.The purpose of this search is to study the variation of glucose levels in rats. Forty animals were divided into 2 groups: sugar and control, with 20 female rats each of them. The dorsal cervical region was incised of the animals until the subcutaneous, enough to recive 2g of sugar. Serum glucose determination was perfomed before the operation and 30, 60 and 90 minutes after it. The statistic procedure used was MANOVA and a= 0.05 was the significante number.A statistic difference comparing data and time (p=0.00 and between group X time simultaneously (p=0.01 was found. An increased serum glucose levels in the sugar group at time 120 minuts was observed. The use of sugar in surgical wound increases the animal’s serum glucose 2 hours after application.

  20. Comparative study of INPIStron and spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse pinch plasma switch, INPIStron, was studied in comparison to a conventional spark gap. The INPIStron is under development for high power switching applications. The INPIStron has an inverse pinch dynamics, opposed to Z-pinch dynamics in the spark gap. The electrical, plasma dynamics and radiative properties of the closing plasmas have been studied. Recently the high-voltage pulse transfer capabilities or both the INPIStron and the spark gap were also compared. The INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms transfers 87 percent of an input pulse with a halfwidth of 2 mu s. For the same input pulse the spark gap of Z = 100 ohms transfers 68 percent. Fast framing and streak photography, taken with an TRW image converter camera, was used to observe the discharge uniformity and closing plasma speed in both switches. In order to assess the effects of closing plasmas on erosion of electrode material, emission spectra of two switches were studied with a spectrometer-optical multi channel analyzer (OMA) system. The typical emission spectra of the closing plasmas in the INPIStron and the spark gap showed that there were comparatively weak carbon line emission in 658.7 nm and copper (electrode material) line emissions in the INPIStron, indicating low erosion of materials in the INPIStron.

  1. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  2. Comparative study of hydrogenated and lithiated superhalogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Na; Li, Ying; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Di; Sun, Yan-Bo; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-09-01

    The structural features, properties and stability of two kinds of representative superhalogen compounds, namely hydrogenated superhalogens and lithiated superhalogens, are theoretically studied in detail, providing further insight into the behavior of superhalogens. According to topological analysis of the electron localization function, most of superhalogen clusters as a whole combine with Li atom through ionic bond(s). In contrast, the H atom tends to bind with superhalogen by covalent bond although a portion of superhalogens are broken upon hydrogenation. In addition, the electric properties of these superhalogen compounds are also obtained and compared with those of traditional acid and salt molecules.

  3. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  4. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  5. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  6. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FOR HYDRODYNAMIC STUDY IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS = DESENVOLVIMENTO DE SOFTWARE PARA ESTUDO HIDRODINÂMICO EM SISTEMAS DE TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS E ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Penalva Reali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents software developed for treatment data from an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV probe applied to hydrodynamics studies. The software developed here was tested using a dissolved air flotation (DAF pilot plant in water and wastewater treatment applications. The ADV principle is largely used in velocimeters, but the data are commonly presented in timetabled results. Thus, the software intended to statistically treat tabled data, to plot the vectors and to produce more comprehensive surface (3D graphs for vector visualization. It is also possible to take detailed cross-section cuts in any portion of the vector grid, thereby creating a 2D visualization of the velocity intensity. This software should prove useful as a tool for treatment improvement, and it should contribute in the reactors hydrodynamic analyses. = Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um programa computacional para tratamento dos dados de estudos hidrodinâmicos empregando uma sonda acústica denominada Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV. O programa desenvolvido foi utilizado em uma unidade piloto de flotação por ar dissolvido (FAD empregada para tratamento de água e água residuária. Estudos com equipamentos que empregam o princípio Doppler são amplamente empregados para diferentes aplicações, entretanto os dados de saída são apresentados em forma tabular tornando a interpretação difícil e imprecisa. Assim, o programa computacional desenvolvido foi concebido para tratar estatisticamente os dados, calcular e plotar os vetores resultantes bem como produzir gráficos de superfície (3D. Adicionalmente, pode-se gerar cortes em qualquer seção de interesse, criando visualizações em duas dimensões dos vetores resultantes. O programa apresentou-se como uma poderosa ferramenta para incremento de sistemas de tratamento e pode contribuir no estudo hidrodinâmico de reatores em qualquer escala.

  7. Comparative bioequivalence study of meloxicam drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekut Karieva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The governments of many countries strongly support the production and clinical use of generic medicinal products which are “copies” of patented drugs and can be marked at lower cost. At present time bioequivalence testing is regarded as a useful methodology to perform comparisons among different products containing the same active ingredient. This report presents the results of comparative bioequivalence study of three meloxicam formulations: brand-drug “Melbek” with tablets and capsules of meloxicam developed at the Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute. The results obtained confirm the bioequivalence of the studied drugs, which indicate about scientifically based approach to the selection of excipients and technological process in the development of the above generic drugs.

  8. Arrowroot as a treatment for diarrhoea in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a pilot study Araruta como um tratamento para a diarréia em pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline COOKE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives - Arrowroot is an old-fashioned remedy for diarrhoea, but no clinical studies have been done to evaluate its effectiveness. The aim of this pilot study was to assess its efficacy as a treatment for diarrhoea in 11 patients, all of whom had irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea as a feature. Methods - The patients were interviewed and a questionnaire completed on entry into the trial. They then took 10 mL arrowroot powder three times a day for one month and discontinued the treatment for the subsequent month. Questionnaires were completed after one month on treatment and at the end of the trial after one month off treatment. Results - Arrowroot reduced diarrhoea and had a long-term effect on constipation. It also eased abdominal pain. Conclusion - Arrowroot is an effective treatment for diarrhoea. Its action could be explained by several theories which relate to an increase in faecal bulk and thus a more efficient bowel action. The number of patients was small, and further studies are needed to substantiate preliminary results.Objetivos - Araruta é um antigo (absoleto remédio usado para a diarréia, porém estudos clínicos não têm sido realizados para avaliar sua efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo piloto foi avaliar sua eficácia como um tratamento para diarréia em 11 pacientes, todos eles portadores de síndrome do intestino irritável, com diarréia, como uma manifestação clínica. Métodos - Os pacientes foram entrevistados e um questionário foi preenchido à admissão no estudo (protocolo. Em seguida, receberam 10 mL de araruta em pó, três vezes ao dia durante um mês e descontinuaram este tratamento no mês subseqüente. Os questionários foram preenchidos após o mês de tratamento e ao fim do estudo após o mês de abstinência. Resultados - Araruta reduziu a diarréia e manteve um efeito de constipação por longo prazo. Ela também aliviou a dor abdominal. Conclusão - Araruta é um efetivo tratamento para diarr

  9. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  10. Tratamento de varizes com laser endovenoso: estudo prospectivo com seguimento de 39 meses Treatment of varicose veins with endovenous laser: a prospective 39-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Aiello Viarengo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da terapêutica endovenosa com laser no tratamento de varizes primárias. PACIENTES E MÉTODO: No período compreendido entre julho de 2001 e setembro de 2004 (39 meses, 253 pacientes (417 membros foram tratados ambulatorialmente com laser de diodo de 810 e 980-nm, com energia liberada endovenosamente através de fibra óptica introduzida por punção guiada por eco-Doppler. Foi utilizada anestesia por infiltração intumescente perivasal com solução de lidocaína a 0,2% (50-150 ml. A potência e duração do pulso foram determinadas pelo diâmetro da veia. Os controles foram realizados com eco-Doppler aos 7 dias, 1 mês, 3 meses, 6 meses, 1 ano e, a seguir, anualmente, para avaliar a eficácia do tratamento e os efeitos adversos. RESULTADOS: A oclusão primária da veia safena magna foi obtida em 405 dos 417 membros (97,1% tratados. Houve reintervenção em 12 casos (2,9%, com sucesso. O tempo médio de observação foi de 18 meses, e, nesse período, a taxa de recidiva global de varizes foi de 7,4%, sendo 6,3% (26 membros veias colaterais tributárias da crossa e 1,2% (cinco membros com recanalização da safena magna. Todas as recorrências ocorreram entre o terceiro e o 12º mês. Os efeitos indesejáveis mais freqüentes foram: equimoses (60,6%; dor suportável durante o procedimento (16,1%; hematomas (5,5%; flebite em colaterais não-tratadas (3,4%; hiperpigmentação (2,9%; e parestesia transitória (3,4%. Nenhum caso de tromboflebite da safena magna foi observado. Não houve nenhum caso de trombose venosa profunda ou embolia pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento endovenoso de varizes com laser, conforme descrito, foi eficaz para ocluir a safena magna e seus principais ramos, com efeitos adversos autolimitados e com recorrência inferior a 8% no período de seguimento.OBJETIVE: To evaluate results of endovenous laser treatment for primary varicose veins. PATIENTS AND METHOD: From July 2001 to September 2004

  11. Avaliação da acuidade visual e da pressão intraocular no tratamento do edema macular diabético com triancinolona intravítrea Study of visual acuity and intraocular pressure in the treatment of macular diabetic edema with intravitreous triamcinolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcussi Palata Rezende

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos do acetato de triancinolona intravítreo em pacientes com edema macular diabético difuso na acuidade visual e pressão intraocular. Relatar os possíveis efeitos adversos e analisar a possível relação da idade dos pacientes com as variações da acuidade visual e pressão intraocular. MÉTODOS: O ensaio clínico controlado incluiu 14 pacientes (28 olhos, sendo que 14 olhos receberam injeção de 4 mg de acetato de triancinolona intravítreo para o tratamento de edema macular diabético difuso. O grupo tratado foi comparado a um grupo controle de 14 olhos sem edema macular diabético difuso. O tempo de seguimento foi de três meses. RESULTADOS: Os picos de pressão intraocular >21 mmHg ocorreram em 28,57%, com diferença significante entre a pressão intraocular do grupo tratado com o grupo controle na primeira semana após o tratamento. A acuidade visual mostrou uma significativa melhora quando comparada com o grupo controle desde o segundo dia após o tratamento. Não houve associação entre a idade com as variações da acuidade visual e a pressão intraocular. CONCLUSÃO: O acetato de triancinolona intravítreo mostrou-se ser eficiente para melhorar a acuidade visual em pacientes com edema macular diabético difuso, nos primeiros três meses de tratamento. A incidência de hipertensão intraocular foi de 28,57%, podendo ser caracterizada como de fácil controle.PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema on the visual acuity and intraocular pressure. To report the potential adverse events and to analyze the potential relationship between age and visual acuity and intraocular pressure variability. METHODS: This clinical controlled study included 14 patients (28 eyes, 14 of the eyes received an intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The study group was compared to a control

  12. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  13. Comparative studies on ecotoxicology of synthetic detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, H; Misra, V; Viswanathan, P N; Krishna Murti, C R

    1983-12-01

    To predict the comparative toxicological response of synthetic detergents on aquatic ecosystems, the effects of various concentrations of neutralized alkyl benzene sulfonate were studied. The median tolerance limit at 48 hr, 95% confidence limit, slope function, presumable harmless concentration, and rate of survival of different species of aquatic fauna such as water fleas (Daphnia magna), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens), slug worms (Tubifex rivulorum), snails (Lymnaea vulgaris), tadpoles (Rana cyanophlyctis), and fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) were followed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. Any effect on quality of the water was also tested after the addition of various concentrations of detergents. The results showed that water fleas are more susceptible to detergent toxicity than fish fingerlings, tadpoles, slug worms, snails, and mosquito larvae. Behavioral changes were also observed as an index for detergent toxicity. The relative toxicity of the detergents to various species is discussed in relation to selective ecotoxicological response.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Refai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks consist of a large number of small, low-powered wireless nodes with limited computation, communication, and sensing abilities, in a battery-powered sensor network, energy and communication bandwidth are a precious resources. Thus, there is a need to adapt the networking process to match the application in order to minimize the resources consumed and extend the life of the network. In this paper, we introduce a comparative study in different routing algorithms that propose vital solutions to the most important issues that should be taken into account when designing wireless network which are reliability, lifetime, communication bandwidth, transmission rand, and finally the limited energy issue, so we will introduce their algorithms and discuss how did they propose to solve such of these challenges and finally we will do some evaluation to each approach.

  15. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  16. Grau de aceitação de mini-implantes por pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico: estudo preliminar The mini-implants acceptance rate by patients in orthodontic treatments: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bustamante Capucho Brandão

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: os mini-implantes atualmente representam um grande avanço na Ortodontia, por proporcionarem máxima ancoragem com o mínimo de cooperação dos pacientes. No entanto, ainda existem algumas dúvidas quanto ao uso destes dispositivos temporários de ancoragem no que se refere, principalmente, aos aspectos psicológicos de aceitação pelos pacientes durante o tratamento ortodôntico. METODOLOGIA: dez pacientes adultos, portadores de má oclusão de Classe I, com biprotrusão, que foram submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico com a colocação de quatro mini-implantes nos arcos dentários, entre os primeiros molares e segundos pré-molares superiores e inferiores, responderam a um questionário, com o objetivo de avaliar as condições de aceitação dos mini-implantes. RESULTADOS: as respostas indicaram que a maioria dos pacientes aceitou prontamente o procedimento, estavam satisfeitos e recomendariam para outros pacientes (90%, enquanto 50% tiveram alguma preocupação com os procedimentos cirúrgicos e os outros 50% não relataram nenhum desconforto. O tempo médio de tolerância a partir da colocação foi de 3 dias e a maioria tolerou os implantes durante todo o tratamento ortodôntico. CONCLUSÕES: pôde-se concluir que os mini-implantes foram aceitos de forma positiva pela maioria dos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento ortodôntico.OBJECTIVE: Actually, mini-implants as anchorage resources have been spotlight in Orthodontics, providing maximum anchorage with minimum patient's cooperation. However, there are still some restrictions regarding the use of these temporary anchorage devices, and among these, the psychological aspects and the patient's acceptance, which still not properly evaluated. METHODS: Ten adults patients, with Class I biprotrusion malocclusion, that were submitted to orthodontic treatment with the implantation of four mini-implants, in the dental arches, among upper and lower first molar and second premolar teeth, in

  17. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  18. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a prospective study to compare business class versus economy class air travel as a cause of thrombosis. ... Patients/methods. ... Logistical regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors related to abnormally high D-dimer levels.

  19. Estudo retrospectivo do tratamento cirúrgico do neuroma de morton por via plantar Retrospective study of surgery treatment im monrton's neuroma by plantar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gennari Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de avaliar a eficácia da técnica cirúrgica - neurectomia por via plantar -, em portadores de neuroma de Morton, 19 pacientes foram submetidos a esse tratamento. Portanto, foram 19 neuromas, sendo 84,3% do sexo feminino, 15,7% do sexo masculino; 31,5% no segundo espaço intermetatarsal, 68,5% no terceiro; 47,3% no lado direito e 52,7% no esquerdo. A cirurgia foi realizada por via plantar em todos os casos, com tempo médio de acompanhamento de 9 meses, e o resultado foi considerado satisfatório em 89,5% dos pacientes. O tempo de retorno às atividades foi de 6 semanas em 84,2%. Dois pacientes se apresentaram insatisfeitos, ambos devido à dor residual abaixo da cicatriz. Os autores concluem que, a neurectomia por via plantar foi satisfatória, pois há uma melhor exposição do neuroma, boa cicatrização, retorno rápido às atividades e melhora da dor.With an eye to evaluate the surgical technic efficiency - neurectomy by plantar approach -, 19 patients with Morton's neuroma were submitted to this treatment. Therefore, were 19 neuroma patients including 84,3% female, 15,7% male; 31,5% in second intermetatarsal space, 68,5% in third; 47,3% on right side and 52,7% on left side. The surgery was made by plantar approach in every cases, with middle time of attendance around 9 months, and the result was considered satisfactory on 89,5% of patients. The time of return to activities was 6 weeks on 84,2%. Two patients were considered unsatisfied, both because of remain pain under the scar. The authors conclude that, a neurectomy by plantar approach is satisfactory, because there is a better exposition of neuroma, good healing, fast return to activities and improve of pain.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  1. Comparative study of selected parallel tempering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, A.; Papakonstantinou, T.

    2013-07-01

    We review several parallel tempering schemes and examine their main ingredients for accuracy and efficiency. The present study covers two selection methods of temperatures and several choices for the exchange of replicas, including a recent novel all-pair exchange method. We compare the resulting schemes and measure specific heat errors and efficiency using the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model. Our tests suggest that an earlier proposal for using numbers of local moves related to the canonical correlation times is one of the key ingredients for increasing efficiency, and protocols using cluster algorithms are found to be very effective. Some of the protocols are also tested for efficiency and ground state production in 3D spin-glass models where we find that a simple nearest-neighbor approach using a local n-fold-way algorithm is the most effective. Finally, we present evidence that the asymptotic limits of the ground state energy for the isotropic case and for an anisotropic case of the 3D spin-glass model are very close and may even coincide.

  2. Surgical treatment of active infectious endocarditis: a study of 361 surgical cases Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa ativa: análise de 361 doentes operados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamiro Ribeiro Dias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the experience achieved with the surgical treatment of 361 patients with acute infectious endocarditis who were operated on in the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo. METHOD: The ages of the patients ranged from 3 to 81 years, with an average age of 38 ± 8.3 years. There were 230 male patients. It was possible to identify the etiologic agent in 311 (86.20% patients. The diagnosis of acute infectious endocarditis was obtained by clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological evaluations. Two hundred and five patients had lesions of heart valves and 156 patients had lesions of cardiac valvular prostheses. Ninety had annular abscesses and 11 had fistulae. Of the group of diseased native valves, 104 (50.73 were operated on because of severe heart failure and 87 (42.44% because of progressive sepsis. All natural aortic valves (136 were replaced by artificial valves. There were 107 diseased native mitral valves. In this group partial resections of infected tissue (vegetations were carried out in 13 patients while maintaining the valvar apparatus. Of the 16 infected tricuspid valves, 8 were replaced. All the prostheses were substituted. The abscesses were cleaned and closed when their diameter was less than 10 mm. The larger abscesses were cleaned and closed with a pericardial graft, which was the support for the artificial valve. RESULTS: There were 75 (20.78% hospital deaths, most of which caused by heart problems and their complications. There were 15 cases of postoperative endocarditis, 10 of which were re-operated on. The late follow-up showed good functional and clinical results, with 222 (77.62% patients as NYHA Class I. CONCLUSIONS: When indicated, the surgical treatment must be instituted as early as possible. All diseased and infected tissue must be removed to achieve good results.OBJETIVO: O trabalho analisa a experiência obtida com o tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa ativa (EIA realizado

  3. A Comparative Study of Principals' Administrative Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Ae

    1989-01-01

    Compared are the managerial behaviors and beliefs of Korean and American secondary school principals. Generalizations are proposed in the areas of work hours, work pace, communication skills, organizational style, instructional leadership, and other managerial behaviors. (16 references) (SI)

  4. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Then both approaches required be comparing and contrasting. Among these methods .... should include political powers (factors related to the poli- cy test) and .... mental system and predict the component behavior. Using the ...

  5. SKIN STAPLED OR SUTURED: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choice of wound closure after a surgical procedure has been a surgeon’s dilemma . The concerns have been as to how fast , uneventful , less painful , with minimal complications and comfortable will the patient’s recovery be. A well - known technology is surgical staples which are easier to use , less time consuming and a needle free method o f wound closure. OBJECTIVE: To compare skin staples with non - absorbable skin suture for skin closure in surgical laparotomy procedures for the following character : wound infection , dehiscence , cosmesis and postoperative pain . METHODS: This is a comparative study conducted on 100 patients divided in two groups randomly at Bapuji Hospital for cases undergoing surgical laparotomy procedures. Skin closure was done with 2 - 0 polyamide skin sutures in one group and skin closure was achieved with skin staples in th e other group. The outcome of wound was assessed on 3rd , 5th and 7th postoperative days using ASEPSIS score. Wound cosmesis was assessed on the 7th postoperative day and followed up at 1st month and 3rd month , using modified Hollander cosmesis scale. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the 1st , 3rd and 7th postoperative days. RESULTS : The mean wound ASPESIS scores on day 3 for skin staples and sutured group was 0.28 and 0.36 (p=0.7 respectively. The score on day 5 for staples and sutured group was 0.12 and 0.28 (p=0.4 respectively. The results in both the groups were the same , 0.08 on day 7(p=0. Wound cosmesis mean score assessment on day 7 for skin staples suturing group was 5.84 and 5.68 respectively (p=0.3. The mean score for cosmesis assessment at 1 month , and 3 rd month for skin staples and suturing group was 5.92 and 5.68 (p=0.1 and was 6.00 and 5.92 (p=0.36 respectively which was not satistically significant . The visual analogue scale score for postopera tive pain on 1st day , 3 rd and 7 th day for skin staples and suturing group 54

  6. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment Estudo brasileiro sobre abuso de substâncias por adolescentes: fatores associados e adesão ao tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma A da Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission to the service by using a semistructured interview including sociodemographic data, family relationship, perinatal and pregnancy histories, psychomotor and educational development, social relations, history of previous illnesses and family diseases, including drug abuse. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly male (90%. Adolescents referred from the criminal justice were older than those originating from other sources (16.4 x 15.4 years old p=.00. Forty-four percent of adolescents reported school failure, a level which is two times higher than Brazilian statistics. Forty percent of the sample had criminal involvement, mainly drug dealing. Cannabis was the most prevalent reported drug. Living with both parents was protective, delaying the age of initiation by one year. Domestic violence was more frequent among parents with illicit drugs abuse (38.1% x 12.5%, pOBJETIVOS: Investigar fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento e ambiente associados ao abuso de substâncias por adolescentes atendidos em hospital universitário brasileiro. Comparar esses fatores com a literatura científica disponível e sugerir intervenções preventivas para uma política nacional no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 86 adolescentes na admissão ao serviço através de uma entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada ao guardião do adolescente e incluindo dados sociodemográficos, relacionamento familiar, história da gravidez e perinatal, desenvolvimento psicomotor, educacional

  7. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  8. Diclofenaco intramuscular no tratamento agudo da migrânea: um estudo duplo cego placebo controlado Intramuscular diclofenac in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar, com mascaramento duplo, o efeito do diclofenaco sobre a dor e sintomas associados em pacientes com crise de migrânea. Sessenta pacientes com migrânea com aura e sessenta pacientes com migrânea sem aura foram randomizados para receber diclofenaco intramuscular, na dose de 75 mg, associado com injeção intravenosa de solução salina, 10 ml, ou para receber solução salina isoladamente. Três parâmetros de avaliação analgésica e uma escala analógica para avaliar os sintomas associados foram usados. Aferimos ainda os percentuais de recorrência e de utilização de medicação de resgate. Pacientes que receberam diclofenaco apresentaram redução na intensidade da dor estatisticamente significativa, 60 minutos após a administração, em dois dos três parâmetros utilizados (migrânea sem aura e nos três parâmetros utilizados (migrânea com aura. Não observamos diferença, comparado com o placebo, na intensidade dos sintomas associados. Houve redução da recorrência e da utilização de medicação de resgate. A despeito de ser uma opção no tratamento das migrâneas em unidades de emergência, o diclofenaco apresenta início de ação lento e nenhum efeito nos sintomas associados.The aim of this study is to assess, in a double blind fashion, the effect of diclofenac on the pain and associated symptoms in patients with acute migraine. 60 patients with migraine with aura and 60 patients with migraine without aura were assigned at random to receiving intramuscular diclofenac, 75 mg associated to intravenous physiological saline, 10 ml, or physiological saline alone. We used 3 parameters of analgesic evaluation and an analogical scale to asses associated symptoms. We also observed the recurrence and rescue medication percentiles. Patients receiving diclofenac showed a statistically significant improvement of pain 60 minutes after the administration in two of the three parameters

  9. Controle químico da microflora oral em pacientes fissurados labiopalatais durante o tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico: estudo piloto Oral microflora chemical control in cleft lip and palate patients during orthodontic-surgical treatment pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcion Alves Silva

    2004-06-01

    hygiene. Alternative techniques, like chemical agents, was proposed like auxiliary procedures. This study design was exploratoy, microbiological (pilot, double-blind, for test the present chemical agents: triclosan 0,03% (Plax-Colgate-Palmolive and digluconate clorexidin 0,12% (Duplak-Herpro/Dentispy. The sample was composed for 30 volunteers separeted at 3 groups: Group I (control, Group II (test-digluconate clorexidin 0,12, Group III (test-triclosan 0,03%. All groups recived buccal hygiene orientation preceding the first material colect. After 7 days of chemical agent use, a secon colect was proceeded and the agent use was stopped. A tird colect was procedeed after 7 days of agent suspension. A semiquantitative technique purposed for PILONETTO and PILONETTO (1998 was adopted to evaluate bacterial colonies growth. Results showed more significant reduction of buccal microflora at Group II when compared with Group III.

  10. Study of quarantine treatment in mango (Mangifera indica L.) for export; Estudo de tratamentos fitossanitarios na manga (Mangifera indica L.) para exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Juliana Nunes da

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify and compare the chemical and physical-chemical behaviour of mango cv. Tommy Atkins subjected to hydrothermal treatment and irradiation at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy, to complement the studies by SABATO et al (2009) in the real transport of irradiated mangoes from Brazil to Canada. These studies allowed to compare the performance of irradiation with heat treatment on the preservation of the characteristics of mango for export. For these reason fruits were divided into groups: control, heat bath (46 degree C for 90 min), at dose 0.4 kGy and at dose 1.0 kGy. The fruits were stored at low temperature (11 degree C {+-} 2) for 14 days, and then at room temperature (23 degree C {+-} 2) until the end of its useful life. During the period of cold storage the analysis were performed at intervals of 7 days and every 3 days when kept at room temperature. The results indicated that the dose of 1.0 kGy was the only group that kept the fruit with the skin color on stage 3 throughout the experimental period, but provided a greater loss of texture degradation and the levels of total acidity in the fruits with green skin. It was noted that only the control group showed higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid in the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in soluble solids, total sugars and evaluation of weight in relation to treatments. The analysis of visual observation indicated that the heat bath group was the one with the highest number of fruit drop by decomposition with approximately 55%. It was concluded that irradiation is more effective in preserving the quality of mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins, reducing the appearance of rot or shriveling in relation to heat treatment. However, the preservation of the skin of fruit is not concurrently influenced by its intrinsic nature, since, internally, the fruits continue their normal maturation, independent of the applied dose. (author)

  11. Study and evaluation of radiometry in photo therapeutic treatment of the neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia; Estudo e avaliacao da radiometria no tratamento fototerapico da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caly, Jose Pucci

    2009-07-01

    Phototherapy is a procedure established more than 50 years ago in the treatment of the newborn jaundice. However there is no a standard method to quantify the photo therapeutic dose in published clinical studies, hindering the comparison of previous studies on photo therapeutic effectiveness, as well as the establishment of safe and predictable doses. The photo therapeutic dose depends, among other factors, on the effective mean irradiance produced by the photo therapeutic unit. There are no standard procedures, however, neither to quantify the effective irradiance, nor to estimate the mean effective irradiance. As a consequence, large measurement variations in a same photo therapeutic unit are observed using different commercially available radiometers, as a consequence of the vast diversity of spectral responsivities of the instruments. An objective of this work was to adapt and to apply the bases of the wideband ultraviolet radiometry to quantify the available irradiance from photo therapeutic units, establishing procedures that allow us to compare measured irradiances from different sources, using radiometers presenting different spectral responsivities. Another objective was to characterize samples of photo therapeutic units commonly used, focusing the problem of the estimation of the effective mean irradiance from photo therapeutic units, proposing a method to estimate of the effective irradiance from focused sources. The experimental results allow us to conclude that it is not only necessary to standardize the photo therapeutic radiometry, but also the method of estimation of the effective mean irradiance. (author)

  12. Catatonic schizophrenia: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R

    1986-04-01

    Thirty-five hospitalized catatonic schizophrenic patients from Sri Lanka were compared with 22 patients in the U.K. and 13 in Canada. The phenomenology was established using the Present State Examination. Results suggest that ethnicity, chronicity of illness and reception of neuroleptic treatment may influence the lower prevalence of catatonic symptoms among the U.K. and Canadian schizophrenics. Onset of illness appears to be among young adults and mutism, stupor, mannerisms, stereotypes and negativism were the common catatonic symptoms observed.

  13. O psicanalista no tratamento da dor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Pinto Minatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor se manifesta como mal-estar do corpo e no corpo, e tende a ser encaminhada para tratamento médico. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a queixa dolorosa do ponto de vista do tratamento psicanalítico, retomando algumas acepções relacionadas ao tratamento da dor, encontradas na obra de Freud. Partimos da experiência no trabalho em hospital pediátrico, utilizando a análise do atendimento de pacientes com queixas de dor para definir e situar a dor no campo da psicanálise, e distingui-la do campo da medicina. No texto, pode-se acompanhar a dor como signo de sofrimento e diversas formas de abordá-la tanto pelo sujeito que a porta quanto pelas instituições que propõem seu cuidado.

  14. Comparative Transport Studies of '1212' Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gapud

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ (Hg -1212 thin films were fabricated by exchanging the T1 cations in TlBa2CaCu2O7-δ (Tl-1212 thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle ofHg-1212 and TI-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density.

  15. Genetic network models: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, Eugene P.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2001-06-01

    Currently, the need arises for tools capable of unraveling the functionality of genes based on the analysis of microarray measurements. Modeling genetic interactions by means of genetic network models provides a methodology to infer functional relationships between genes. Although a wide variety of different models have been introduced so far, it remains, in general, unclear what the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches are and where these models overlap and differ. This paper compares different genetic modeling approaches that attempt to extract the gene regulation matrix from expression data. A taxonomy of continuous genetic network models is proposed and the following important characteristics are suggested and employed to compare the models: inferential power; predictive power; robustness; consistency; stability and computational cost. Where possible, synthetic time series data are employed to investigate some of these properties. The comparison shows that although genetic network modeling might provide valuable information regarding genetic interactions, current models show disappointing results on simple artificial problems. For now, the simplest models are favored because they generalize better, but more complex models will probably prevail once their bias is more thoroughly understood and their variance is better controlled.

  16. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  17. Tratamento do parkinsonismo com L-Dopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Luís Latuf

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos no tratamento de 54 pacientes parkinsonianos com L-Dopa. A intensidade dos sintomas foi avaliada mediante a escala NUDS (Northwestern University Disability Scales antes e após o tratamento. Os autores ressaltam a obtenção de melhores resultados no que respeita à rigidez e à discinesia, em comparação com o tremor. São apontados os efeitos colaterais, quase sempre de pequena intensidade e corrigíveis com a diminuição ou suspensão da administração medicamentosa.

  18. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitantes. Pacientes que não foram devidamente acompanhados no período pós-operatório foram excluídos. Resultados: Pelo método de Verheyden, nove pacientes foram considerados muito bons, dois bons e um ruim. Em relação ao Visa, a média foi de 92,4 pontos, com apenas dois pacientes abaixo de 70 pontos (66 e 55 pontos. Conclusão: O tratamento cirúrgico da tendinopatia patelar, quando corretamente indicado, tem bons resultados em longo prazo.

  19. Adesão ao tratamento da dor crônica: estudo de variáveis demográficas, terapêuticas e psicossociais Compliance with chronic pain treatment: study of demographic, therapeutic and psychosocial variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geana Paula Kurita

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a prevalência da adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com dor crônica, e analisar as relações entre adesão e características do tratamento medicamentoso e fatores psicossociais (crenças frente à dor, locus de controle da saúde e depressão. Trinta indivíduos foram avaliados 5 vezes durante 6 meses. Adesão plena ocorreu entre 43,3% e 56,7% dos pacientes. A adesão parcial e a não adesão foram altas (40,0%-56,7%. Os índices de adesão não variaram ao longo de seis meses. Menor adesão relacionou-se à ocorrência de efeitos colaterais e às crenças de que o controle da saúde dependia de si próprio, de que dor é incapacitante, de que dor indica a presença de dano físico e de que comportamentos de solicitude de outrem quando há manifestação de dor são desejáveis. Conhecer os fatores envolvidos na adesão permite testar intervenções que a otimizem.The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of compliance with drug therapy in patients with chronic pain and analyze the relationships between compliance and characteristics of drug therapy and psychosocial factors (beliefs regarding pain, health locus of control and depression. Thirty patients were evaluated 5 times over a period of 6 months. Total compliance occurred in 43.3% to 56.7% of the patients. Partial compliance and non-compliance were high (40.0%-56.7%. The index of compliance did not vary over the six months. Low compliance related to occurrence of side effects and beliefs that the control of health depended on the patient, pain is a disability, that pain means the presence of physical injury and solicitous behavior of others is desirable when there is manifestation of pain. Knowing the factors involved in compliance enables us to test interventions that optimize it.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIGHT SOURCES FOR HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej PAWLAK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes test results that provided the ground to define and evaluate basic photometric, colorimetric and electric parameters of selected, widely available light sources, which are equivalent to a traditional incandescent 60-Watt light bulb. Overall, one halogen light bulb, three compact fluorescent lamps and eleven LED light sources were tested. In general, it was concluded that in most cases (branded products, in particular the measured and calculated parameters differ from the values declared by manufacturers only to a small degree. LED sources prove to be the most beneficial substitute for traditional light bulbs, considering both their operational parameters and their price, which is comparable with the price of compact fluorescent lamps or, in some instances, even lower.

  1. Earthquake Correlations and Networks- A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    G., T R Krishna Mohan P

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to distinguish between relevant causally connected earthquakes. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski (2004). A network of earthquakes is constructed, which is time ordered and with links between the more correlated ones. Recurrences to earthquakes are identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions, viz. California, Japan and Himalayas, are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub ...

  2. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  3. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Rwandan Water and Sanitation Corporation ltd (WASAC) water branches: Kimisagara WASAC water ... strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  4. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.

  5. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  6. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  7. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  8. Annual Journal Citation Indices: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaleque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition, we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  9. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...... arbejdstilbud. Konklusionen foreslår at give unge mere tid til at træffe de alvorlige valg vedr. deres fremtid ved at indføre et refugium, som i tankegang minder om Eriksons ungdomsmoratorium....

  10. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC, namely (+-cis-EC, (−-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+ and (−-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+ and (−-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+-cis-EC and (+-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes.

  11. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  12. Bilingual Language Proficiency : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-01-01

    his book investigates the role native language plays in the process of acquiring a second language within a bilingual educational model. The research presented is based on a 2 year longitudinal study of students in a bilingual school. Particular attention is paid to the development of academic

  13. A comparative study on permissiveness toward euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirty-three countries, obtained fr

  14. A comparative study on permissiveness toward euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirty-three countries, obtained

  15. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  16. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  17. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  18. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  19. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  20. Comparative study of the 2016 DPRK event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Fekadu; Jonathan, Ezekiel; Graham, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of any violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends upon the State Parties' ability to determine the nature of the source of the signals recorded by the IMS stations. Analysis by the IDC of the data gives some of the required information but makes no effort to determine the nature of source as specified by the Treaty. On January 6, 2016 the IMS network of stations recorded unusual seismic event from the DPRK. This was the fourth time that such an event from a man-made event was recorded from this area. Past detections of announced nuclear tests were on 9 October 2006, 25 May 2009, and 12 February 2013. There are a few natural earthquakes that have been recorded in this region. This study presents results of an assessment of waveform data and amplitude spectra obtained from seismic events observed at regional and/or local distance ranges, for both natural and man-made events located in the DPRK. The study reveals that the waveform displays of the four man-made events are practically simple and have nearly the same signature, yet they are significantly different to those of the observed natural earthquakes occurring in the region. The similarities of the waveforms obtained from the man-made events are due to the closeness of the epicentres and hence no difference in path effects for the Stations considered. The computed amplitude spectra of the waveform for the man-made and natural events also show differences in their relative amplitudes between the respective Primary and Secondary seismic phases, indicating that their sources are different. The study clearly shows the importance of studying the signature of the recorded seismic waves to determine the nature of the source of the energy, if it is man-made or natural, particularly for regions where records of natural earthquakes exist. Determination of the nature of source of recorded seismic waves is fundamental to CTBT verification. Thus data observed at regional and

  1. A comparative study on showerhead cooling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcoz, C.; Ott, P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Thermique Appliquee et de Turbomachines (LTT), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Weigand, B. [Institut fuer Thermodynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrt (ITLR), Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In modern gas turbines, the turbine airfoil leading edge is currently protected from the hot gas by specific film cooling schemes, so called showerhead cooling. The present paper shows a numerical study of different showerhead cooling geometries. The 3D finite element program ABAQUS as well as a 2D finite element program have been employed to predict the showerhead cooling performance. In the numerical calculations, the different cooling effects and their contribution to the total showerhead cooling performance have been investigated separately. From the numerical calculations a simple method has been derived which enables the prediction of the performance of a 3D showerhead cooling scheme by simple 2D computations. Experimental investigations on showerhead cooling have been presented in a companion paper [C. Falcoz, B. Weigand, P. Ott, Experimental investigations on showerhead cooling on a blunt body. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, in press. r publication]. (author)

  2. Pavement Crack Classifiers: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siddharth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Testing (NDT is an analysis technique used to inspect metal sheets and components without harming the product. NDT do not cause any change after inspection; this technique saves money and time in product evaluation, research and troubleshooting. In this study the objective is to perform NDT using soft computing techniques. Digital images are taken; Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM extracts features from these images. Extracted features are then fed into the classifiers which classifies them into images with and without cracks. Three major classifiers: Neural networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Linear classifiers are taken for the classification purpose. Performances of these classifiers are assessed and the best classifier for the given data is chosen.

  3. Internet patent databases: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González-Albo Manglano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The patent is an essential document in the evaluation of technological investigation that has been used as approximation of innovation. The patent databases on the Internet are one principal source of information for this kind of analysis. However they are many databases and they are very different; reason why the election of one of them in the accomplishment of bibliometric analysis is a crucial aspect. In this sense, this survey studies some of main free –Esp@cenet, PatentScope, national databases and commercial –Derwent Innovatios Index, Chemical Abstracts Plus, Thomson Delphion Intellectual Property Network– patent databases. The results show that commercial systems provide value-added –data revision, analysis tools, etc.–; althought the free ones are going to become trustworthy resources thanks to the improvements and options that are introduced in them.

  4. Comparative study for thermal-hydraulic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have worked on the passive approach of heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers. Some of them tried to modify the surface by creating dimple or using wire coil of different cross-section, while some worked on core fluid disturbance by using some insert geometries such as twisted tapes. But the ultimate aim of all was to create some disturbance in the flow in order to obtain enhanced heat transfer. This paper focuses on comparison of some of the most commonly used insert geometries. Insert geometry selected for this comparison is collection of core fluid disturbance, surface modification and combination of both. Different geometries taken in this study include twisted tape, twisted tape with ring, circular band, multiple twisted tape, twisted tape with conical rings, and so on and used air under turbulent flow regime as working fluid. On the basis of comparison made, it is observed that, in case of “single twisted tape insert” the thermal performance factor was maximum and in the event of “twisted tape with circular ring” the overall heat transfer rate is maximum. Future aspect is also proposed, which includes perforation in circular ring, and causes decrease in friction factor value because of less flow blockage.

  5. Estudo comparativo da eficácia de isotionato de pentamidina administrada em três doses durante uma semana e de N-metil-glucamina 20mgSbV/kg/dia durante 20 dias para o tratamento da forma cutânea da leishmaniose tegumentar americana A comparative study between the efficacy of pentamidine isothionate given in three doses for one week and N-methil-glucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/day for 20 days to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Déa Ribeiro de Paula

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e nove pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana, forma cutânea, foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo experimental (I, formado por 38 pessoas que receberam isotionato de pentamidina, 4mg/kg/dia, três aplicações, IM, durante uma semana, e o grupo controle (II, formado por 41 doentes tratados com N-metilglucamina, 20mgSbV/kg/dia por 20 dias, EV. Foram identificados, por técnica de anticorpos monoclonais, 21 isolados com predominância de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Encontrou-se cura clínica em 71,05% do grupo experimental e 73,17% do grupo controle (p=0,47. Alterações de ECG foram mais freqüentes utilizando antimonial pentavalente, com significância (pSeventy-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were included in this study. The experimental group (n = 38 was treated with pentamidine isothionate in a dose of 4mg/kg/day on alternate days, for one week. The control group (n = 41 was treated with N-methylglucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/kg/day for 20 days. Twenty-one isolates were identified using monoclonal antibody technique. We characterized Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, most frequently. There was a cure rate of 71.05% of the patients in the experimental group and 73.17% in the control group (p = 0.47.We found a statistical significance regarding frequency of ECG alterations between the experimental and control group (p<0.05. In our study pentamidine was as effective as antimonial for the treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis. It proved to be a safer drug considering heart toxicity. Moreover, it requires less time to complete the treatment.

  6. Estudo retrospectivo do tratamento de leucemia mielóide aguda com o transplante de medula óssea: a experiência brasileira Retrospective study of stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML: the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dados do Registro Internacional de Transplante de Medula Óssea, International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR contribuem para o progresso do transplante de medula óssea (TMO em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a experiência brasileira em leucemia mielóide aguda e comparamos os resultados do TMO com os dados internacionais. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com dados de tratamento de LMA com o TMO de 16 instituições brasileiras. A análise estatística dos transplantes da modalidade autogênica (TMO auto e alogênica (TMO alo foi realizada com o método de Kaplan-Meier e log-rank. Todos os valores de p foram bicaudados. Foram avaliados os dados de 731 pacientes (205 TMO auto e 526 TMO alo. A mediana de sobrevida global dos pacientes submetidos ao TMO auto foi superior à dos submetidos ao TMO alo (1.035 vs 466 dias, p=0,0012. A origem das células-tronco (OCT no TMO alo em 73% dos pacientes foi de medula óssea (CTMO, em 23% de sangue periférico (CTSP e em 4% de cordão umbilical. No TMO auto, a OCT foi 63% de CTSP, 22% CTMO e 15% de ambas as fontes. A OCT não teve impacto na sobrevida global (SG. Não houve diferença na SG também entre os pacientes segundo a classificação FAB no TMO alo, mas os pacientes com LMA M3 com o TMO auto tiveram SG longa. Como esperado, a principal causa de óbito entre os pacientes do TMO auto foi relacionada à recidiva de doença (60%, enquanto no TMO alo as principais causas foram a doença enxerto versus hospedeiro e infecções (38%. Em ambos os grupos foi observada SG mais longa nos pacientes tratados em primeira remissão completa (1RC quando comparados aos de segunda remissão (2RC e outras fases (pData from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR contribute for the improvement of Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT worldwide. We studied the Brazilian experience in BMT for AML to compare this with international data. We performed a retrospective study by sending

  7. Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, comparativo entre a associação de cafeína, carisoprodol, diclofenaco sódico e paracetamol e a ciclobenzaprina, para avaliação da eficácia e segurança no tratamento de pacientes com lombalgia e lombociatalgia agudas A randomized, double-blind clinical trial, comparing the combination of caffeine, carisoprodol, sodium diclofenac and paracetamol versus cyclobenzaprine, to evaluate efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with acute low back pain and lumboischialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Jesus Garcia Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar eficácia e segurança da associação de diclofenaco, paracetamol, carisoprodol e cafeína, no tratamento da lombalgia e lombociatalgia agudas, comparadas à eficácia e segurança da ciclobenzaprina. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico unicêntrico, randomizado, duplo-cego, comparativo. MÉTODO: As medicações foram administradas 3 vezes ao dia por um período de 7 dias. GRUPO ESTUDADO: 108 pacientes com diagnóstico de lombalgia e lombociatalgia agudas nos últimos 7 dias foram randomizados, sendo 54 em cada grupo. DESFECHO: Os critérios de eficácia primários selecionados para o estudo foram escala visual analógica para dor e questionário de Roland Morris, cujos resultados de antes e depois do tratamento foram comparados. Os secundários foram avaliação global do tratamento pelo paciente e pelo investigador e uso da medicação analgésica de resgate. Os critérios de segurança foram análise de tolerabilidade, interrupção da medicação por evento adverso e exames laboratoriais. RESULTADO: Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos, em relação à eficácia, em nenhum dos desfechos analisados. Ambas as medicações mostraram-se seguras e toleráveis no tratamento da lombalgia e da lombociatalgia agudas. A análise estatística rigorosa mostrou diferença nos dois grupos apenas no que se refere aos eventos adversos, sendo mais freqüentes no grupo que foi tratado com a ciclobenzaprina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, carisoprodol, and caffeine in the treatment of acute low back pain and lumboischialgia, compared to the efficacy and safety of cyclobenzaprine. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center, comparative, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. METHOD: Drugs were administered t.i.d. for a period of 7 days. STUDY POPULATION: 108 patients with a diagnosis of acute low back pain and lumboischialgia in the last 7 days were randomized, being included 54

  8. Feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa: an observational study conducted in Brazil Viabilidade, aceitação e eficácia do tratamento familiar para anorexia nervosa em adolescentes: um estudo observacional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizela Turkiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence that family-based treatment is effective in cases of adolescent anorexia nervosa. Although family-based treatment has been studied in English-speaking countries, there is a need to examine the generalizability of this approach to non-English speaking cultures. This pilot-study aimed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of family-based treatment in Brazil. METHOD: Observational study of adolescents with anorexia nervosa (excluding menstrual criteria, as determined with the Diagnostic and Well-Being Assessment, referred for treatment at a specialized center in São Paulo, Brazil. The following data were collected at baseline, at the end of treatment, and after six months of follow-up: weight; height; body mass index; menstrual status; Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire score; and Children Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score. RESULTS: Of 11 eligible patients/families, 9 (82% enrolled in the study, and 7 (78% completed the treatment. The mean patient age was 14.64 ± 1.63 years (range, 12.33-17.00 years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed statistically significant improvement in weight and body mass index at the end of treatment, as well as after six months of follow-up, at which point none of the patients met the diagnostic criteria for any eating disorder. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that family-based treatment is acceptable and feasible for Brazilian families. Outcomes suggest that the approach is effective in this cultural context, leading to improvements similar to those reported in previous studies conducted in other cultures.OBJETIVO: Estudos prévios demonstram fortes evidências de eficácia do Tratamento Familiar para anorexia nervosa em adolescentes. Os estudos disponíveis a respeito do tratamento familiar foram conduzidos em países de língua inglesa. É necessário avaliar a aplicabilidade deste método em países de língua não-inglesa. Este estudo

  9. Immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy and chemotherapy for American cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment Imunoterapia, imunoquimioterapia e quimioterapia no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mayrink

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The first choice of treatment for American cutaneous leishmaniasis is the pentavalent antimonial drug. Although it has been shown that this treatment is mostly effective and indicated, some disadvantages should be taken into account such as side effects, long term treatment inconveniences and counter-indication for patients suffering from cardiopathy, nephropathy; yet, aging, pregnancy and other conditions. With the advent of the vaccine anti-American cutaneous leishmaniasis as a prophylactic measure, studies on therapy using the vaccine associated or not with other drugs have been performed by many investigators and it is currently among the alternative treatments and prevention measures for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In conclusion, the association between antimony and vaccine (immunochemotherapy showed the same cure rate when compared with the standard treatment (100% and it was also able to reduce the salt volume in 17.9% and treatment length from 87 to 62 days, decreasing side effects.O tratamento de primeira escolha para leishmaniose tegumentar americana é o antimonial pentavalente. Embora este tratamento seja na maioria das vezes efetivo e indicado, devem ser consideradas as desvantagens tais como efeitos colaterais, longa duração do tratamento e contra-indicação para cardiopatas, nefropatas, idosos, grávidas e outras condições. Com o advento da vacina antileishmaniose tegumentar americana para fins profiláticos e terapêuticos, associando-a ou não a outros fármacos, muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas, sendo a vacina a principal entre os atuais recursos no tratamento e prevenção da leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em conclusão, a associação do antimônio com a vacina (imunoquimioterapia apresentou o mesmo índice de cura em relação ao tratamento padrão (100%, e ainda reduziu o volume do sal em 17,9% e o tempo de cura significativamente, de 87 para 62 dias; conseqüentemente, reduzindo os efeitos colaterais.

  10. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms: a retrospective study of 163 embolized aneurysms Tratamento endovascular de aneurismas cerebrais: estudo de 163 aneurismas embolizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Renato Figueiredo Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the results of cerebral aneurysms treated by endovascular technique. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of patient files of Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil. RESULTS: We report the results of 163 cerebral aneurysms treated by endovascular techniques from January 2002 to October 2005. Patients with ruptured aneurysms (87.2%, according to Hunt-Hess scale were: 33.7% HH I, 28.4% HH II, 24.1% HH III, 13.8% HH IV. The Fisher scale grade IV was the most common (39.7%. Remodeling, coil embolization, arterial occlusion and histoacryl embolization were the techniques employed. Effective occlusion was achieved in 87.7%, partial occlusion in 5.3% and non-effective occlusion in 7.0% of the patients. Glasgow outcome scale results were: 76.3% GOS 5, 5.0% GOS 4, 5.8% GOS 3, 1.4% GOS 2 and 11.5% GOS 1. CONCLUSION: Endovascular treatment seems to be feasible within Brazilian public health system, with results as good as those obtained in larger international centers.OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados de aneurismas tratados pela técnica endovascular. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de prontuários do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Apresentamos os resultados de 163 aneurismas cerebrais tratados por técnicas endovasculares de Janeiro de 2002 a Outubro de 2005. Os pacientes com aneurismas rotos (87,2% eram, segundo a escala de Hunt-Hess: 33,7% HH1; 28.4% HH II, 24.1% HH III, 13.8% HH IV. O Grau IV da escala de Fisher foi o mais comum (39,7%. Empregaram-se as técnicas de remodeling, espiras metálicas, oclusão arterial e embolização com histoacryl. Foi obtida oclusão efetiva em 87,7%, oclusão parcial em 5,3% e oclusão não-efetiva em 7,0% dos casos. De acordo com a Glasgow outcome scale, os resultados foram: 76,3% GOS 5, 5,0% GOS 4, 5,8% GOS 3, 1,4% GOS 2 e 11,5% GOS 1. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação de técnica endovasculares mostra-se viável na rede pública brasileira, com resultados comparáveis aos de grandes centros

  11. Tratamento das cefaléias Treatment of headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Dias Gherpelli

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema tratamento da cefaléia na infância e adolescência. Fontes dos dados: revisão bibliográfica através do banco de dados Medline, utilizando os termos: cefaléia, enxaqueca ou migrânea, infância ou adolescência e tratamento, no período de 1966 a 2001, excluindo artigos de revisão e registros de casos. Foram selecionados artigos científicos que relataram estudos sobre a eficácia da terapêutica farmacológica e não farmacológica no tratamento das cefaléias primárias. Síntese dos dados: foram encontrados 104 artigos científicos, sendo selecionados aqueles que relataram estudos do tipo caso-controle, ou droga versus placebo, cegos ou abertos, e que estudassem crianças ou adolescentes. Conclusões: é digna de nota a pobreza de estudos controlados sobre o tema na faixa etária pediátrica, apesar da importância que as cefaléias primárias apresentam na prática clínica. Apenas algumas drogas foram estudadas de forma cientificamente adequada e, mesmo assim, o número de estudos é pequeno. Tanto o tratamento da crise álgica aguda quanto a profilaxia da cefaléia foram abordados.Objective: to perform a bibliographic review about headache treatment in childhood and adolescence. Sources: articles were searched through Medline database using the terms: migraine, or headache, childhood, or adolescence, and treatment, during the period between 1966 and 2001. Review articles and case reports were excluded. Only articles dealing with pharmacological, and non-pharmacological treatment of primary headaches were selected. Summary of the findings: a total of 104 articles were found; only those reporting results of the case-control studies, or drug vs. placebo, either blind, or open, and that included children, or adolescents were selected. Conclusions: only a few controlled studies about the headache treatment were found in the pediatric age group, although primary headaches are

  12. Custo comparativo do tratamento de feridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Lima Borges

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo compara o custo do curativo tradicional e o do preconizado pelo protocolo do setor de Estomaterapia do HC/UFMG no tratamento de diversos tipos de feridas. Ao final do trabalho, foi possível concluir que o custo do último é inferior ao do primeiro e que a freqüência na troca do curativo tradicional constitui fator de maior significância na elevação de seu custo.

  13. Tratamento das bexigas neurogênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available Na micção normal existem duas fases: uma primeira, voluntária, na dependência da musculatura estriada-abdominal e do assoalho pélvico; uma segunda, reflexa, subordinada ao sistema nervoso parassimpático. Nas lesões agudas da medula, após uma fase inicial de atonia, a função vesical evolui para as formas autônoma, reflexa e não inibida, de acôrdo com a localização e a extensão da lesão. O tratamento das bexigas neurogênicas inicialmente visará manter o órgão em bom estado até que uma fase definitiva tenha sido alcançada; é por meio da lavagem contínua em sistema fechado com sonda de dupla corrente que são obtidos os melhores resultados. A segunda fase do tratamento (tratamento das seqüelas visará, em primeiro lugar, o combate ao resíduo urinário, quase sempre presente nas bexigas neurogênicas; ulteriormente cuidará da reeducação do órgão.

  14. A metisergide no tratamento da epilepsia temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armbrust-Figueiredo

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available A metisergide (butanolamida do ácido 1-metil-lisérgico foi empregada experimentalmente em 78 pacientes com epilepsia psicomotora e com alterações focais (ondas "sharp" de projeção em um dos lobos temporais, no EEG. Foram usadas doses diárias de 2 a 6 mg, associadas a 0,1 g de fenobarbital. Dos 78 pacientes, 59 responderam de maneira favorável ao tratamento, sendo que 47 deixaram de sofrer crises e 12 apresentaram diminuição acentuada da freqüência e intensidade das crises. As manifestações psíquicas também melhoraram com o tratamento, ao contrário do que geralmente acontece com outras drogas. As alterações eletrencefalográficas desapareceram ou melhoraram em 64% dos pacientes. Reações secundárias ocorreram em 39 dos pacientes, na fase inicial do tratamento, e foram de curta duração, desaparecendo espontâneamente.

  15. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241; Estudo da aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos contendo americio-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  16. Comparação da percepção e necessidade estética de tratamento ortodôntico entre pacientes e ortodontistas nas cidades de Natal/RN e João Pessoa/PB Comparing the perception and esthetic need of orthodontic treatment between patients and orthodontists from Natal/RN and João Pessoa/PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Sá Leitão Pinheiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a perspectiva estética e a necessidade de tratamento dos ortodontistas e de seus respectivos pacientes, nas cidades de Natal/RN e João Pessoa/PB, distribuíram-se questionários aos pacientes e profissionais locais que, por meio de ilustrações de algumas características das más oclusões, que possibilitaram uma comparação do grau de valorização da estética dentofacial entre ambos os grupos. Por meio de tabelas e testes estatísticos, conclui-se que o padrão braquifacial, o desvio da linha média e o apinhamento ântero-inferior são mais perceptíveis aos profissionais do que aos pacientes e que os profissionais apontaram uma maior necessidade de tratamento da Classe II mandibular e do padrão dolicofacial do que seus respectivos pacientes, na cidade de Natal. Enquanto que em João Pessoa o desvio de linha média é mais perceptível aos profissionais do que aos pacientes; o tratamento da Classe II mandibular, Classe II com AFAI aumentada e sorriso gengival são mais exigidos pelos pacientes do que pelos profissionais e o tratamento do apinhamento ântero-inferior mais solicitado pelos profissionais. Demonstrando que essas diferenças constituem informações valiosas para que cada profissional conheça as expectativas de seus pacientes e, assim, proceda de forma mais esclarecedora durante seus procedimentos clínicos.This work aimed to compare the sense of esthetics, and the capacity to deem the need of orthodontic treatment, between orthodontists and their respective patients in the cities of Natal-RN and João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. Questionnaires containing illustrations of certain aspects of malocclusions (facial patterns, facial asymmetries, unbalanced profiles, smiles and intraoral views were handed out to patients and local professionals in order to ease a comparision of the esthetic valorization degree between both of these groups. Tables and statistic tests demonstrated the existing differences and

  17. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  18. Tratamento de epilepsia: consenso dos especialistas brasileiros Treatment of epilepsy: consensus of the Brazilian specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Betting

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsia é uma condição muito freqüente em todo o mundo. Na última década, várias opções terapêuticas surgiram ou foram aprimoradas. O principal método utilizado para decisão terapêutica baseia-se nos estudos randomizados, que representam o maior nível de evidência. Entretanto, mesmo estes estudos são passíveis de críticas e em alguns casos o tratamento de escolha permanece controverso. Nestas situações, a opinião dos especialistas, na área da epileptologia, com maior experiência clínica, passa a ter grande valor. O presente estudo tem como principal objetivo elaborar um consenso de tratamento das epilepsias, através da opinião de experts brasileiros no assunto. Este consenso poderá auxiliar na criação de manuais e estratégias para o tratamento de determinadas síndromes epilépticas, de acordo com os padrões socioeconômicos brasileiros.Epilepsy is a frequent condition in the world. Recently a study in Brazil showed prevalence of 18/1000 inhabitants in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State. In the last decade, new therapeutic options were discovered or developed. The main therapeutic decision method is based on randomized clinical trials. This method represents the higher level of evidence. However, even these studies have limitations and in some cases the treatment of choice remains controversial. In these instances, the epilepsy experts' opinions become helpful. In 2001 a similar study had been conducted in USA. The aim of this study is to create guidelines for epilepsy treatment based on the opinion of the Brazilian experts. These guidelines can be used to create manuals and strategies for the treatment of some epileptic syndromes according to Brazilian experts. As compared to the North-American guidelines our study better reflects the resources available in our country.

  19. Tratamento cirúrgico da cifose patológica Surgical treatment of pathological kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Luiz Aparecido Defino

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 13 pacientes com cifose patológica de diferentes etiologias (Doença de Scheuermann, espondilite anquilosante, congênita, tuberculose vertebral, sequela de laminectomia e síndrome de Morquio, que foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. A cifose pré-operatória variou de 75 a 100 graus (média 73,3 graus e a média dos valores após o tratamento cirúrgico foi de 42,3 graus. O tipo de tratamento realizado estava relacionado com as características da cifose (raio longo ou curto, flexibilidade e magnitude, e são apresentadas as diferentes técnicas e filosofia de tratamento dos autores para o tratamento cirúrgico dessa modalidade de deformidade vertebral.Thirteen patients with pathologic kyphosis from different ethiologies (Scheuermann's disease, ankylosing spondilitis, congenital, vertebral tuberculosis, post laminectomy and Morquio's syndrome who underwent surgical treatment were studied. Preoperative kyphosis ranged from 75° to 100° (average 73.3° and postoperatively averaged 42.3°. The treatment performed was based on kyphosis characteristics (long or short radius, flexibility, magnitude. The different techniques are presented as well as authors' philosophy for surgical treatment of this kind of vertebral deformity.

  20. COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    KONSOLAKI, KALLIOPI

    2015-01-01

    The lucrative world of comparative advertising has been attractive to marketers, who seek economic types of persuasive communication. Nevertheless, research in the actual effectiveness of comparative advertising has been inconclusive, contradicting, and insufficient. The increasing importance of comparative advertising in the current competitive global environment requires immediate findings about how comparative advertising can work effectively. This study is the first study to develop an in...

  1. [Comparative Migration Studies and Comparative Politics.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Patrick

    This paper addresses how the experience of the Fulbright Seminar in India has allowed the participant to enrich his teaching in comparative migration studies and comparative politics. The paper describes specifically how each course has changed as a result of the international experience. The report suggests questions for consideration as the…

  2. Carbonyl iron reduces anemia and improves effectiveness of treatment in under six-year-old children Ferro carbonila reduz anemia e melhora a efetividade do tratamento de crianças menores de 6 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria L. G. Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children usually consists in the use of ferrous sulfate solution, but this treatment does not always have the desired effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chewable carbonyl iron tablets as an alternative for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in under six-year-old children. Seventy-three children from Brazilian Family Health Units in Santa Maria, Brazil, were included in this study. One group received chewable carbonyl iron (CI tablets and a control group received a solution of ferrous sulfate (FS for 90 days, both at a dose of 5 mg/Kg/day. Blood was drawn from study participants at 0, 30 and 90 days of treatment to evaluate the whole blood test, ferritin concentration, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity. We also evaluated the acceptance and adherence to treatment, and the occurrence of side effects during treatment. Hemoglobin increased 1.3 g/dL in the CI Group and 1.2 g/dL in the FS group during the first 30 days of treatment. After 90 days of treatment, the CI Group had significantly better results for hematocrit, MCV, MCH, iron binding capacity and ferritin concentration compared to the FS Group. The ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the CI Group at the end of the treatment (9.51 ng/mL to 26.16 ng/mL. Additionally, the treatment was better accepted with fewer adverse effects by this group. Chewable carbonyl iron tablets should be considered an important therapeutic option in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia of under six-year-old children.O tratamento da anemia ferropriva de crianças consiste, em sua maioria, no uso de solução de sulfato ferroso e este tratamento nem sempre apresenta a efetividade desejada. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade do ferro carbonila, na forma de comprimidos mastigáveis, como uma alternativa de tratamento para anemia ferropriva de crianças menores de seis anos de idade. Foram

  3. Diretrizes brasileiras para o tratamento da narcolepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Alóe, Flávio; ALVES, Rosana Cardoso; Araújo, John F.; Azevedo, Alexandre; Bacelar, Andrea; Bezerra,Márcio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; BUSTAMANTE, Guilherme; CARDOSO, Tania Aparecida Marchiori de Oliveira; ECKELI, Alan L.; Fernandes, Regina Maria França; Goulart, Leonardo; Pradella-Hallinan,Márcia; Hasan,Rosa; Sander, Heidi Haueisen

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo relata as conclusões da reunião de consenso da Associação Brasileira de Sono com médicos especialistas brasileiros sobre o tratamento da narcolepsia, baseado na revisão dos artigos sobre narcolepsia publicados entre 1980 e 2010. Os objetivos do consenso são valorizar o uso de agentes avaliados em estudos randomizados placebo-controlados, emitir recomendações de consenso para o uso de outras medicações e informar pontos importantes a respeito da segurança e efeitos adversos das med...

  4. Tratamento dos datos analíticos

    OpenAIRE

    Yebra Biurrun, María del Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Esta unidade didáctica é a primeira toma de contacto do alumnado co estudo do tratamento dos datos analíticos e a comprobación da súa calidade. Este estudo poderase completar máis adiante dentro do programa desta materia cando se presente o resto dos parámetros de calidade dos métodos analíticos. A importancia deste tema radica en que unha vez obtidos os datos analíticos, o primeiro aspecto que se ten que considerar é a verificación da calidade dos mesmos en termos de exactitude e precisió...

  5. Tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana pelo niridazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi empregue o niridazol um derivado do nitrotiazol, em doze pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em todos êles, o diagnóstico clínico da doença foi confirmado pela biópsia das lesões e em oito dêles também pela positividade da intradetermorreação de Montenegro. Oito pacientes tinham lesões mucosas metastáticas em atividade e lesões cutâneas iniciais cicatrizadas há tempo mais ou menos longo. Dois apresentavam concomitância de lesões cutâneas e mucosas em atividade, e dois tinham lesões cutâneas exclusivas. A duração da doença variou de 2 meses a 32 anos. A posologia diária do niridazol foi uniformememente de 25 mg/kg de pêso corpóreo. O medicamento foi administrado por via oral, em duas tomadas diárias, sempre com o doente internado em hospital. Quando a tolerância o permitia, o paciente recebia cinco séries de tratamento de 10 dias de duração cada, intercaladas por períodos áe suspensão da droga de 10 dias entre uma série e outra. Isso foi possível em 10 dos 12 pacientes. O tratamento foi bem tolerado em 5 doentes e de tolerância regular em 4. Mal tolerado em um paciente pela ocorrência de alucinações e excitação mental e interrompido pela péssima tolerância em dois doentes devido ao aparecimento de convulsões generalizadas com perda da consciência. O tratamento acompanhou-se de grande incidência, de efeitos colaterais. A ocorrência de para-efeitos mais intensos não foi devida às más condições hepáticas. Provas de função hepática. hemogramas, estudos bioquímicos do sangue e exames de urina, realizados antes, durante e após o tratamento, não revelaram alterações significativas. Biópsias hepáticas por punção com agulha em dez doentes, prévias e posteriores ao tratamento, não detectaram lesões hepáticas que pudessem ser atribuídas à medicação. O seguimento dos doentes prolongou-se pelo prazo de dois a 36 meses apos o tratamento. Alterações eletrocardiogr

  6. Pediculectomia para o tratamento de discopatia toracolombar.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n2p103A discopatia toracolombar é uma afecção compressiva da coluna espinhal provocada pela herniação do núcleo pulposo do disco intervertebral. Cursa com sinais brandos de dor a quadros severos de paralisia dos membros pélvicos. O tratamento instituído depende do local e da gravidade das compressões, neste ponto, objetiva-se com este trabalho relatar o caso de uma cadela sem raça definida, sete anos, com quadro de paresia dos membros pélvicos que ap...

  7. a eficácia do tratamento

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Tânia

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Fisioterapia. Objectivo: O objectivo desta revisão sistemática é comprovar a relação entre a articulação têmporo-mandibular (ATM) e alterações posturais e ressaltar a importância e a eficácia do tratamento fisioterapêutico nas alterações posturais para melhora dos sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM). Metodologia: pesquisa de estudos datados entre 2000 e...

  8. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Moura Lima; Mario B. Aragão

    1987-01-01

    Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de im...

  9. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  10. A Comparative Study of the Block Characteristics of Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study of the Block Characteristics of Spinal Bupivacaine ... and side effects during and immediately after the surgery were assessed and recorded. ... the study period, group D exhibited significantly lower mean blood pressures ...

  11. Comparação do corticoide inalatório e oral no tratamento da disfonia aguda Use of inhaled versus oral steroids for acute dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Moreira Veiga de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A disfonia aguda é um quadro comum na prática clínica. Seu tratamento, principalmente em adultos, não é bem definido na literatura. O corticoide é o tratamento medicamentoso mais recomendado. Os estudos existentes, entretanto, não são suficientes para a determinação da superioridade entre diferentes corticoides e a melhor forma de administração. OBJETIVO: Este estudo clínico prospectivo teve como objetivo comparar o efeito do corticoide inalatório na forma de pó seco com o efeito do corticoide oral, no tratamento da disfonia aguda. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 32 pacientes adultos, divididos em dois grupos de 16 pacientes para cada um dos tratamentos, antes e após sete dias do uso da medicação. Os pacientes foram submetidos à videolaringosocpia e avaliação perceptiva e acústica da voz. RESULTADOS: O tratamento inalatório e oral reduziram significativamente a hiperemia, o edema e melhorou o movimento muco-ondulatório; entretanto, a redução do edema foi estatisticamente mais significativa (p = 0,012 nos pacientes tratados com a forma inalatória. A comparação dos valores da análise perceptiva auditiva e das medidas acústicas após tratamento entre os grupos, entretanto, não apresentou significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Houve melhora significativa da laringite aguda nas avaliações realizadas, em todos os pacientes estudados, com os dois tratamentos. O tratamento com corticoide inalatório foi significativamente mais efetivo na redução do edema.Acute dysphonia is a frequent condition in clinical practice. Its treatment, especially in adults, is not well established in the literature. Steroids are the most recommended drug treatment. However, the existing studies are not enough to establish superiority among the different steroids and the best route of administration. OBJECTIVE: This prospective clinical study aimed at comparing the effect of inhaling steroids as a dry powder with the effect of oral steroids to

  12. Estudo retrospectivo da osteotomia de base do primeiro metatarso com tratamento do hálux valgo Retrospective study of first metatarsal base osteotomy as a treatment os hallux valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helencar Ignácio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram 33 pacientes (48 pés com hálux valgo moderado a grave tratados cirurgicamente com a técnica de osteotomia de base do I metatarso em cunha de adição associada a reparação de tecidos moles. Comparações correlacionando sexo, idade e parâmetros radiográficos, foram feitas pelo teste t para amostras independentes; o desvio do sesamóide foi comparado pelo teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Todos os pacientes responderam a um questionário no qual expressaram o grau de satisfação com o resultado final da cirurgia. 76% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com idade entre 14 e 60 anos (média de 38,15 anos, com tempo médio de seguimento de 41 meses. Em relação ao sexo não houve diferença na variação radiográfica. Também não foram constatadas diferenças no pré e pós-operatório quando comparado os valores médios dos pés direito e esquerdo. A avaliação radiológica apresentou 73% de resultados excelentes e o grau de satisfação total foi de 60,7% . Não há evidência da idade média influenciar no grau de satisfação, porém acima de 60 anos todos os pacientes relataram satisfação parcial. Concluímos que o procedimento cirúrgico apresentado seja um método seguro e eficaz para o tratamento do halux valgo moderado e grave.The authors evaluated 33 patients (48 feet with moderate to severe hallux valgus, surgically treated by using a 1st metatarsal wedged base osteotomy technique associated to soft tissues repair. Comparisons correlating gender, age, and x-ray parameters were performed by using the t-test for independent samples; sesamoid deviation was compared by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. All patients answered to a questionnaire in which they expressed their degree of satisfaction regarding the final results of the surgery. Seventy six per cent of patients were women between 14 and 60 years old (average 38.15 years old with an average follow-up time of 41 months. There was no

  13. Tratamento adjuvante nos GISTs Adjuvant treatment in GISTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Gomes Lourenço

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST é o sarcoma mais comum do aparelho digestivo. Essa neoplasia ocorre devido à mutação do gene KIT com consequente ativação constitutiva da proteína KIT. O tratamento primário é cirúrgico e consiste na sua ressecção completa. Entretanto, alguns grupos de pacientes apresentam risco elevado de recorrência mesmo após operação com ressecção completa (R0, indicando diferenças no comportamento biológico. Estudos clínicos comprovaram a atividade clínica do mesilato de imatinibe, fazendo dele a primeira linha de tratamento padrão nos GISTs metastáticos ou irressecáveis, mudando muito o desfecho clínico dessa doença em relação aos benefícios anteriormente obtidos com a quimioterapia antineoplásica. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura com consulta nos periódicos das bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs cruzando os descritores: tumor estromal gastrointestinal, Gist, tratamento, adjuvância. Além desta revisão foi adicionada a experiência pessoal dos autores. CONCLUSÃO: Melhor refinamento dos critérios de prognóstico tem permitido selecionar de forma mais adequada pacientes para o tratamento adjuvante com imatinibe. Os resultados de maior evidência até o momento respaldam o tratamento adjuvante por um ano, o que produz benefício significativo na sobrevida livre de recidiva, mas não na sobrevida global desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common sarcoma of the digestive tract. This cancer occurs due to mutation of the KIT gene resulting in constitutive activation of KIT protein. The primary treatment is surgical and consists of complete resection. However, some groups of patients at high risk of recurrence even after surgery with complete resection (R0, indicate differences in biological behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical activity of imatinib mesylate, making it the standard first

  14. Global Harmonization of Comparator Products for Bioequivalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaza, Luther; Gordon, John; Leufkens, Hubert; Stahl, Matthias; García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Comparator products should be the products that were shown to be safe and efficacious in pivotal clinical trials to ensure prescribability of generics. The use of a common comparator ensures switchability between generics. The selection of the comparator is a national responsibility and may be different between countries. This paper discusses the current recommendations on selection of comparators, the associated problems, and the possibility of harmonization. Most countries follow the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for selecting comparator products and require the comparator product to be obtained from their national markets to ensure switchability between the local comparator and their generics. These recommendations are only feasible in the few countries where the repetition of the bioequivalence study is economically feasible, but they are impracticable in all other countries. Furthermore, the exclusive use of the local comparator to ensure switchability is ethically and scientifically questionable. The innovator product from well-regulated markets should be the global comparator. This harmonization is feasible as the concept already applies in the WHO prequalification program. It is ineffectual to harmonize only the requirements for performing bioequivalence studies, if such a study has to be repeated for every single country simply because of the different comparator products.

  15. Adesão ao tratamento da ambliopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakaki Mara Regina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão no resultado do tratamento da ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo retrospectivo avaliando a resposta ao tratamento da ambliopia em 151 crianças portadoras de ambliopia, tratadas com esquema de oclusão diária, com o número de dias variando de acordo com a idade da criança. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos que diferiam entre si pela adesão ou não ao tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o tratamento teve melhores resultados nas crianças de 4 a 7 anos e que aderiram ao tratamento; as crianças que aderiram ao tratamento necessitaram de tempo menor de permanência em tratamento. Mesmo crianças com idade superior a 7 anos tiveram resultados positivos com a oclusão. CONCLUSÃO:O tratamento oclusivo é um meio terapêutico eficiente desde que haja a cooperação do paciente.

  16. Comparative study of baseline environmental studies in offshore renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Olivares, C.; Patricio, S.; Neumann, F. [Wave Energy Centre, Lisbon (Portugal); Russell, I. [Wave Dragon (United Kingdom); Sarmento, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    The environmental impacts of wave energy projects are not yet fully understood. Only a few Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) have been carried out and only for small pilot plants. The assessment of such impacts is a highly complex process, not only because of the medium where these projects are developed but also due to the variety of devices and the different ways in which they interact with the surrounding environment. A further conflict exists with the fact that most EIAs are designed to gain development consent rather than aid environmental protection. This paper presents a comparison of the environmental studies undertaken for several offshore renewable technologies. It concludes by evaluating what environmental factors should be analyzed before the deployment of any wave energy farm, also taking into account the similarities to other marine renewables, mainly offshore wind energy. It aims to establish coherence in this field for future legislation or international standardizations.

  17. Ketoconazole- and fluconazole-induced embryotoxicity and skeletal anomalies in wistar rats: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristiane de Santana Amaral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole and fluconazole are two broad-spectrum azole antifungals used for the treatment of superficial and systemic mycoses. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity have been reported in some studies when those drugs are administered at high doses to pregnant rats. The aim of this study was to present a comparative study of embryotoxic effects as well as the skeletal anomalies in fetuses of Wistar rats which received ketoconazole and fluconazole at teratogenic doses on gestational days (GD 6 through 15 (organogenesis period. On gestational day (GD 21, the dams were euthanized and examined for standard parameters of reproductive outcome. Fetuses were stained with alizarin red and the bones of the head, trunk, forelimb and hindlimb were examined for detection of skeletal anomalies. The frequency of skeletal anomalies in the ketoconazole-treated group was significant when compared to the fluconazole and the control group.O cetoconazol e o fluconazol são dois antifúngicos azólicos, de amplo espectro, utilizados no tratamento de micoses superficiais e sistêmicas. Alguns estudos relatam a embriotoxicidade e teratogenicidade induzidas por estes fármacos quando os mesmos são administrados em altas doses a ratas prenhes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar um estudo comparativo dos efeitos embriotóxicos e das anomalias esqueléticas em fetos de ratas Wistar que receberam cetoconazol e fluconazol em doses teratogênicas do 6º ao 15º dia gestacional (GD (período da organogênese. No 21º GD as ratas foram eutanaziadas e examinadas quanto aos parâmetros padrões de performance reprodutiva. Os fetos foram corados com vermelho de alizarina e os ossos da cabeça, do tronco e dos membros anteriores e posteriores foram examinados para a verificação de anomalias esqueléticas. A freqüência de anomalias esqueléticas no grupo tratado com cetoconazol foi significante quando comparada à dos grupos fluconazol e controle.

  18. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPECTRAL METHODS WITH SEA WAVE DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two spectral methods are used to study sea wave data.Firstly, the estimated results calculated by the sequency spectrum method and frequency spectrum method are compared, and then the differences between the two methods are discussed.Furthermore, compared with frequency spectral analysis, sequency spectral analysis has many advantages: faster calculating speed, convenient use and high distinguishability.

  20. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being.

  1. O estudo do tratamento da informação nos livros didáticos das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental A study of the usage of information in text books from the beginning grades of elementary teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patrícia Freitas de Lemos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga o tratamento da informação expresso em livros didáticos brasileiros apresentados em três coleções analisadas pelo PNLD (2000 e 2004 que foram recomendadas com distinção das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. As atividades foram analisadas a partir dos tipos de gráficos e conteúdos matemáticos abordados nas tarefas analisadas. Considerando o importante papel que os livros didáticos assumem na educação brasileira esse estudo aponta-nos que o trabalho com tratamento da informação, realizado pelos livros didáticos, encontra-se distante de possibilitar aos alunos a construção de procedimentos para coletar, organizar, comunicar e interpretar dados. O tratamento da informação, na maioria das coleções analisadas, não é explorado no decorrer de todos os livros didáticos, aparecendo apenas no capítulo de estatística e probabilidade.The present research deals with the use of information expressed in Brazilian text books in three collections analized by PNLD ( National Plan of Didatic Book ( 2000 and 2004 which were recommended with distinction for the beginning grades of elementary teaching. The activities were analyzed for the type of graphics and maths contents. Considering the important role that text books play on Brazilian education, this study shows us that the work with the use of information within text books is not giving students the constructive procedures needed to collect, organize, communicate and interpret information. There is little use of information in the majority of the analyzed collections, appearing only in the statistics and probability chapters.

  2. Parameter ranking of stock market dynamics: a comparative study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a comparative study of the mathematical models of competition and mutualistic interactions. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Our approach also permits us to gain some useful insights into the ability of the model to reflect what is ...

  3. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals for maintenance dialysis treatment are to improve patient survival, reduce patient morbidity, and improve patient quality of life. This is the first randomized prospective study comparing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)...

  4. 424 Comparative Studies on the Larvicidal Action of Novaluron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Comparative Studies on the Larvicidal Action of Novaluron. (Mosquiron. ® .... leguminous seeds and grains against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipens pallens ..... New classification for the composite genus Aedes. (Diptera: ...

  5. A Comparative Kinetic Study of Acidic Hydrolysis of Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Kinetic Study of Acidic Hydrolysis of Wastes Cellulose from Agricultural Derived Biomass. ... fuels and chemicals offers potential economical, environmental and strategic ... Keywords: Agricultural wastes; cellulose; acid hydrolysis; first-order rate kinetics; activation energy, Arrhenius equation ... Article Metrics.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE SHYAM BORIAH*, VARUN MITHAL, ASHISH GARG, VIPIN KUMAR, MICHAEL STEINBACH, CHRIS POTTER, AND STEVE KLOOSTER*...

  7. Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea fertilizers in ... conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N fertilizer in ... The controlled or slow availability supplies N continuously over an extended ...

  8. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green and red fruits of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity.

  9. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  10. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  11. A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-xian; PENG Jian-wu

    2016-01-01

    As a very common language phenomenon in English and Chinese culture, taboo exists in almost every aspects of daily life. Taboo is a relatively sensitive topic and it has distinctive national features and profound cultural connotations. The compara-tive study of English and Chinese taboos is an important subject in intercultural communication, which is easy to be overlooked. The short knowledge of taboo is a great barrier in intercultural communication, therefore, making a comparative study of linguis-tic taboos becomes imperative.

  12. prevenção e tratamento

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Andreia Margarida Ferreira de

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Fisioterapia. Sensação retardada de dor muscular (SRDM) é uma lesão por esforço muscular que se desenvolve após o exercício excêntrico, mas a eficácia do tratamento de fisioterapia ainda não foi sistematicamente avaliado. Esta revisão sistemática teve como objectivo reunir informação sobre as medidas de prevenção e/ou as medidas terapêuticas sobre os efeitos de SRDM...

  13. HEMOFILIAS: FISIOPATOLOGIA, DIAGNÓSTICO E TRATAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Truzzi COLOMBO, Gerson ZANUSSO JÚNIOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A hemofilia é um grave distúrbio hereditário da coagulação sanguínea, causada pela deficiência da atividade coagulante do fator VIII (hemofilia A ou IX (hemofilia B. A doença é decorrente de alterações nos genes codificantes destes fatores localizados no braço longo do cromossomo sexual X. Assim sua ocorrência no sexo masculino é quase que exclusiva, devido o homem apresentar somente um cromossomo X. A gravidade da doença pode variar em severa, moderadamente severa e leve, após dosagem dos fatores VIII e IX da coagulação. Uma das complicações mais temíveis dos pacientes com esta doença refere-se ao desenvolvimento de inibidores, que são anticorpos direcionados contra os fatores infundidos. O diagnóstico da doença é realizado através de exames laboratoriais, principalmente pelo coagulograma completo e dosagem de fatores específicos, baseando-se nas manifestações clínicas apresentadas pelo paciente. A hemofilia não tem cura e a base do seu tratamento é a infusão do concentrado do fator deficiente. No entanto, pacientes podem desenvolver inibidores específicos para os fatores infundidos e, nestes casos as alternativas de tratamento são o uso da biotecnologia para novos medicamentos e o uso da terapia gênica

  14. Torcicolo congênito: avaliação de dois tratamentos fisioterapêuticos Congenital torticollis: evaluation of two physiotherapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Zanusso Pagnossim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução clínica e comparar a eficácia do tratamento fisioterapêutico intensivo ou mínimo, em neonatos e lactentes com torcicolo congênito. MÉTODOS: Foram atendidas no Ambulatório de Fisioterapia e Cirurgia Pediátrica do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas 47 crianças com torcicolo congênito. Analisaram-se, retrospectivamente, antecedentes maternos, neonatais, apresentação clínica e tratamento fisioterapêutico, classificado de acordo com a freqüência das sessões. O tratamento intensivo foi definido como sessões de fisioterapia realizadas pelo fisioterapeuta no ambulatório, acrescidas de exercícios diários realizados pelos pais em domicílio. O tratamento mínimo foi considerado quando apenas o fisioterapeuta realizava as sessões semanalmente no ambulatório, sem a participação dos pais. RESULTADOS: Quanto às características demográficas da população, observou-se: idade média materna=26 anos; parto normal=40 (85%; mães primigestas=35 (75%; idade média ao diagnóstico=50 dias. A presença de nódulo intramuscular foi notada em 46 (98% pacientes. As seguintes doenças estiveram associadas: luxação congênita de quadril igual=4 (8%; fratura de clavícula=2 (4%; pé torto congênito=1 (2%. O tratamento intensivo foi realizado em 34 (72% pacientes e a cura observada em 100%, após 74 dias, em média. O tratamento mínimo foi aplicado em 13 (28% pacientes e a cura observada em dez (77%, tratados em média por 130 dias. CONCLUSÕES: O torcicolo congênito apresentou evolução clínica favorável em ambos os grupos. O tratamento intensivo propiciou maior índice de cura em menor tempo de tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course and to compare the effectiveness of physiotherapeutic treatment performed daily or once a week in newborns and infants with congenital torticollis. METHODS: 47 patients with congenital torticollis were assisted at the Physiotherapy and

  15. Fatores prognósticos no tratamento dos tumores intradurais extramedulares: estudo de 44 casos Prognostic factors in the treatment of the intradural extramedullary tumors: a study of 44 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monte-Serrat Prevedello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1993 e 1999 foram estudados 44 pacientes que preencheram requisitos protocolares de seguimento adequado e que foram submetidos à ressecção de processo expansivo extramedular intradural. Os pacientes eram constituídos por 43,2% de mulheres e por 56,8% de homens. A média da idade foi 32,9 anos. A localização da lesão foi mais comum na região torácica, com 45,5% dos casos, seguida da lombar com 18,2%. A extensão tumoral variou de 1 a 7 segmentos vertebrais, com uma média de 2,5 níveis. O schwanoma foi o tipo histológico mais comum com 65,9%, seguido dos meningiomas com 20,5%. Houve 2 casos de neurofibroma e 1 caso de paraganglioma, cisto neuroentérico, metástase e schwanoma maligno. A evolução foi de melhora em 56,8%, estabilidade em 31,8% e de piora em 11,4%. Não houve mortalidade relacionada ao procedimento cirúrgico. Todos os casos de piora tiveram ressecção total e eram localizados no segmento torácico. A ressecção total é a modalidade ideal de tratamento cirúrgico. No entanto, no nível torácico, onde predominam as peculiaridades de irrigação da medula, a morbidade cirúrgica pode ser mais elevada (p=0,014.Between 1993 and 1999, 44 patients submitted to resection of an expansible intradural extramedullary lesion who filled protocol requirements of appropriate follow up were studied. Patients were constituted by 43.2% female and 56.8% male. The mean age was 32.9 years old. Lesion most common location was at the thoracic spine, with 45.5% of the cases, followed by the lumbar level with 18.2%. Tumor extension varied from 1 to 7 vertebral segments, with an average of 2.5 levels. Schwannoma, with 65,9% of the cases, was the most frequent lesion, followed by meningioma with 20.5%. There were 2 cases of neurofibroma and 1 case of paraganglioma, neuroenteric cyst, metastasis and malignant schwannoma. The evolution was of improvement in 56.8%, stability in 31.8% and of worsening in 11.4%. There was no mortality

  16. Avaliação do pós-condicionamento isquêmico no tratamento da isquemia mesentérica: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluation of ischemic postconditioning effect on mesenteric ischemia treatment: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré e pós-condicionamento isquêmico sobre a lesão tecidual na mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos ao processo de isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em três grupos: grupo A, em que se realizou isquemia (30 minutos e reperfusão (60 minutos mesentérica; grupo B, isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica precedidos pelo pré-condicionamento isquêmico por três ciclos de isquemia e reperfusão com duração de dois minutos cada; grupo C, isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica e, precedendo o início da reperfusão, foi realizado o pós-condicionamento isquêmico por três ciclos de reperfusão e isquemia com duração de dois minutos cada. Ao final, ressecou-se um segmento do intestino delgado para análise histológica. Avaliaram-se os resultados pela classificação de Chiu et al. e procedeu-se ao tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: As médias dos graus de lesão tecidual segundo a classificação de Chiu et al. foram: no grupo A, 3,5; grupo B, 1,2; grupo C, 1. A diferença entre o resultado do grupo A com os resultados dos grupos B e C foi considerada estatisticamente significativa (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the preconditioning and postconditioning effect on intestinal mucosal lesions in rats undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion procedure. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were studied and divided into three groups: Group A, 10 rats undergone mesenteric ischemia (30 minutes and reperfusion (60 minutes; Group B, 10 rats undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion preceded by ischemic preconditioning for three cycles of ischemia and reperfusion for two minutes each; Group C, 10 rats undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion and, preceding the beginning of reperfusion, ischemic postconditioning was performed for three cycles of reperfusion and ischemia for two minutes each. Then, a segment of small intestine was resected for histological analysis. We

  17. Sustaining and Improving Study Abroad Experiences Through Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda S

    Researchers have related participation in study abroad experiences to many positive outcomes for nursing students; however, educators are faced with the task of not only developing meaningful study abroad opportunities but sustaining and improving them as well. Educators can evaluate repeat study abroad programs by comparing experiences, looking for trends, and conjecturing rationales. To illustrate this process, an example of a study abroad opportunity that has been repeated over 11 years is presented. The first six years have been compared to the most recent five years, revealing three categories of change for evaluation and the resulting course improvements.

  18. Tratamento nutricional dos transtornos alimentares Nutritional treatment of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Romero Latterza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com transtornos alimentares possuem inadequações profundas no consumo, padrão e comportamento alimentar, além de diversas crenças equivocadas sobre alimentação, o que geralmente acarreta piora do estado nutricional. O tratamento nutricional visa a reverter tais alterações e promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis e melhor relação para com o alimento. Os objetivos e características do tratamento diferem para a anorexia nervosa e a bulimia nervosa, contudo, usualmente, a abordagem é dividida em duas fases: a educacional, cujas principais metas são a regularização do hábito alimentar e o aumento do conhecimento nutricional, e a experimental, que visa a propiciar maior reabilitação nutricional e mudanças mais profundas no comportamento alimentar. As evidências existentes sugerem que o tratamento nutricional promove a melhora de tais parâmetros, porém, alguns comportamentos alimentares, como a sensação de incompetência ao lidar com os alimentos, permanecem. Desta forma, mais estudos são necessários para que se possa de fato avaliar a eficácia da abordagem nutricional.Patients with eating disorders have disturbed food intake, food pattern, food behavior, and mistaken beliefs about food and nutrition, which can worsen nutritional status. The nutritional treatment aims to revert such alterations and to promote better food habits and relationship with food. The objectives and characteristics of the treatment are different for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but usually the approach has two phases: the educational phase, whose major goals are regularization of food habits and increase of nutrition knowledge; and the experimental phase, whose targets are better nutritional rehabilitation and more complex improvements of nutritional behavior. Evidence suggests that nutritional treatment can ameliorate such parameters, but some inadequate food behaviors remain, such as feeling of incompetence while dealing with

  19. Comparative Study of Copyright Trade between China and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ting

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote the development of Chinese copyright trade by comparing copyright trade between China and UK and finding out on which aspects China lags behind UK. With the deepening of Chinese reform and opening up, China has improved its copyright system and accelerated the development of our copyright trade. However, there still is a big gap compared with UK and other developed countries. Based on the comparative study of copyright trade between UK and China, we draw a conclusion so as to promote the development of China's copyright trade. We mainly adopted comparative research method, statistical research method and Empirical research methods in this study. The results show there is a big gap between China and UK on legal system, management of intellectual property right and main information channels etc. China still has a long way to go.

  20. A Comparative Study on SOI MOSFETs for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Affendi Rosli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon on Insulator (SOI technology has become one of the most promising technologies in semiconductor fabrication industry for its numerous advantages. This study presents merits and demerits of different SOIs presented in literatures and a comparative study is done based on several design and performance issues for low power applications. From the study it is found that Fully Depleted SOI MOSFET (FDSOI technology is preferred due to its thin size, reduced leakage current and improved power consumption characteristics etc. compared to those of PDSOI and bulk silicon technology.

  1. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  2. Joachim Wach and the Study of Religion: A Comparative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the life and career of Joachim Wach, a proponent of comparative study of religion (CSR). Reports that Wach envisioned "Religionwissenschaft," a unitary science taking a systematic approach to the study of religion using elements of theology, philosophy, and social science. Presents Wach's "basic and eternal" questions on ultimate…

  3. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  4. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  5. Comparative studies in Chelicerata II. Epimerata (Palpigradi and Actinotrichida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study is made of two groups of Chelicerata (Palpigradi and Actinotrichid mites, together constituting the Epimerata, a chelicerate class), and models of the evolution of epimerate characters are prepared. The study is based on the same methods and principles as the first part of the pr

  6. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative analysis

  7. A Comparative Study of Learning Organisation Practices of Indian Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…

  8. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  9. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  10. Tratamento da depressão bipolar The treatment of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Lafer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da depressão bipolar tem sido tema de debate. O uso de antidepressivos, principalmente tricíclicos, nestes pacientes está associado a piores desfechos clínicos. Estudos apontam para uma eficácia limitada de estabilizadores tradicionais como lítio, valproato e carbamazepina no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Em casos de depressão mais grave, há indicativos de que os antidepressivos podem ser úteis, sendo recomendado o uso concomitante de um estabilizador do humor. Novos agentes como a lamotrigina têm sido propostos como efetivos no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Estudos recentes utilizando lamotrigina sugerem a sua eficácia e seguraça no tratamento da depressão bipolar.The treatment of bipolar depression has been an area of debate. The use of antidepressants, particularly the triciclics, has been associated with worse clinical outcomes. Evidence points to a limited efficacy of traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar depression. In cases where depression is more severe, there is evidence that antidepressants may be useful. The use of antidepressants should be in association with a mood stabilizer. New agents such as lamotrigine have been put forward as effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. Recent studies using lamotrigine suggest its efficacy and safety in the treatment of bipolar depression.

  11. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  12. Comparative Studies of Programming Languages; Course Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Paquet, Joey

    2010-01-01

    Lecture notes for the Comparative Studies of Programming Languages course, COMP6411, taught at the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada. These notes include a compiled book of primarily related articles from the Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, as well as Comparative Programming Languages book and other resources, including our own. The original notes were compiled by Dr. Paquet.

  13. Controle químico da microflora oral em pacientes fissurados labiopalatais durante o tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico: estudo piloto Oral microflora chemical control in cleft lip and palate patients during orthodontic-surgical treatment pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Alcion Alves Silva; João Luiz Carlini; Solena Ziemer Kusma

    2004-01-01

    O risco de infecção é uma preocupação durante o tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico, principalmente em pacientes como os fissurados lábio palatais, pois as condições anatômicas e oclusais contribuem para a proliferação microbiana. Métodos manuais para o controle da microflora oral são muitas vezes insuficientes para a obtenção de uma higiene satisfatória. Técnicas alternativas, como agentes químicos, têm sido propostas como procedimentos auxiliares. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiên...

  14. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  15. Tratamento da endometriose Treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles Navarro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande heterogeneidade das manifestações clínicas relacionadas à endometriose, observa-se a sua elevada prevalência em mulheres inférteis e portadoras de dor pélvica crônica. O impacto sócio-econômico desta afecção enigmática é elevado e os dados relacionados à eficácia das diferentes abordagens terapêuticas descritas são bastante conflitantes. Assim, os objetivos do presente artigo são apresentar as evidências científicas disponíveis acerca das diferentes modalidades terapêuticas aplicáveis e estabelecer recomendações para o tratamento da infertilidade e da dor pélvica crônica relacionadas à endometriose. Em pacientes com endometriose mínima ou leve a supressão da função ovariana não é efetiva para melhorar a fertilidade, mas a ablação das lesões associadas à adesiólise parece ser mais efetiva do que a realização exclusiva da laparoscopia diagnóstica. Não há evidências suficientes para determinar se a excisão cirúrgica em casos de doença moderada ou severa melhoraria as taxas de gestação. A fertilização in vitro parece ser uma abordagem adequada, especialmente nos casos de coexistência de fatores de infertilidade e/ou falha de outras abordagens terapêuticas. Deve-se avaliar a possibilidade de usar agonistas do GnRH por 3 a 6 meses, previamente à realização de fertilização in vitro. Em relação ao alívio da dor, verifica-se que a supressão da função ovariana por 3 a 6 meses em pacientes com doença confirmada laparoscopicamente reduz a dor associada à endometriose. Todas as medicações estudadas parecem apresentar eficácia similar, embora os efeitos adversos e de os custos sejam diferentes. A ablação das lesões endometrióticas reduz a dor associada à endometriose, sendo menos efetiva nos casos de doença mínima. A exérese de endometriomas com diâmetro > 4 cm parece melhorar a taxa de fecundidade natural e após procedimentos de reprodução assistida, além de

  16. Manual de Protocolos de Tratamento da Neuro-oncologia

    OpenAIRE

    Felix,Francisco H. C.; Juvenia B. Fontenele

    2016-01-01

    Manuscrito de texto de revisão dos protocolos de tratamento utilizados pela neuro-oncologia do Centro Pediátrico do Câncer. Protocolo aqui significa um esquema de tratamento baseado em um ensaio clínico patrocinado por grandes grupos cooperativos de tratamento do câncer infantil. Nenhum destes protocolos inclui o texto completo ou trechos dos protocolos originais de pesquisa. Os pacientes tratados em nosso centro seguindo estes protocolos não estã...

  17. Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas: study of 10 cases Tratamento tópico do carcinoma basocelular superficial e nodular pelo imiquimod creme a 5%: observação de 10 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Festa Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Topical treatment with 5% imiquimod cream has been demonstrated to be effective in patients with basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, efficacy and tolerability of this treatment was analyzed in 10 patients with 13 different types of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas. METHODS: Imiquimod cream was applied daily for a mean period of 23 days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All patients responded favorably to the drug with healing of the lesions. No recurrence was observed during two to three months of follow up.FUNDAMENTOS: O uso tópico do imiquimod 5% em creme para o tratamento de carcinomas basocelulares tem-se mostrado eficaz. OBJETIVOS: Com base nesse fato o autor analisa a efetividade e tolerabilidade desse método em 10 doentes com 13 carcinomas basocelulares dos tipos superficial e nodular. MÉTODOS: As aplicações foram diárias, e o número médio de dias de tratamento foi 23. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Todos os doentes responderam à medicação com desaparecimento das lesões e são seguidos a cada dois ou três meses, até o momento sem recidiva do quadro.

  18. Dietilcarbamazina no tratamento da filariose bancroftiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Dreyer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram uma ampla revisão sobre o tratamento da filariose bancroftiana com a droga dietilcarbamazina. Os aspectos interessantes sobre o histórico de sua descoberta e os conceitos básicos de sua farmacologia foram relatados de forma resumida. Ênfase especial, por outro lado, foi dada às especulações feitas pelos diversos autores sobre os achados intrigantes descritos na literatura. Foram trazidos os novos avanços sobre o conhecimento da doença, como por exemplo, a visualização pela ultra-sonografia do verme vivo de Wuchereria bancrofti, no seu hospedeiro natural, o homem. Isso possibilitou a compreensão de muitos dos achados aparentemente paradoxais encontrados na literatura sobre o tratamento da infeção com a DEC. Assim, devido à inexistência de uma droga sucessora que reunisse efeitos micro e macrofilaricidas ideais e aos novos conhecimentos sobre a bancroftose e sobre a própria dietilcarbamazina, foi-lhe conferido um novo realce. Esses aspectos a colocaram numa posição de destaque no cenário da infecção, à época do seu quase cinqüentenário de existência.The authors presented a detailed review about the tratment of bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine. The interesting aspects about the drug discovery and the basic concepts about its pharmacology were reported in a summarised form. On the other hand, emphasis was made about the speculation done by several authors about the intringuing findings regarding its efficacy reported in the literature. Latter, it was brought the new advances about the disease, as for example, the visualization by ultrasound of living Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm on its natural host3/4the human being. This made possible the comprehension of several paradoxical issues reported, focusing the treatment of infection using diethylcarbamazine. So far, because of the lack of ideal drug with micro and macrofilaricidal properties, together with the new understand about the

  19. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  20. Comparative study on direct burning of oil shale and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmad; Al Asfar, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the direct burning processes of oil shale and coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was done in this study using ANSYS Fluent software to solve numerically the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and mass diffusion using finite volume method. The model was built based on an existing experimental combustion burner unit. The model was validated by comparing the theoretical results of oil shale with proved experimental results from the combustion unit. It was found that the temperature contours of the combustion process showed that the adiabatic flame temperature was 1080 K for oil shale compared with 2260 K for coal, while the obtained experimental results of temperatures at various locations of burner during the direct burning of oil shale showed that the maximum temperature reached 962 K for oil shale. These results were used in economic and environmental analysis which show that oil shale may be used as alternative fuel for coal in cement industry in Jordan.

  1. Magnetic resonance arthrography in recurrent anterior shoulder instability as compared to arthroscopy: a prospective comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar H

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR arthrographic imaging in the diagnosis of glenoid labral and ligament tears in recurrent shoulder instability. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, comparative study at a tertiary care centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with three or more episodes of anterior shoulder dislocation were enrolled in the study. They were subjected to magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA for delineation of abnormalities. The findings obtained at MRA were compared with those found at arthroscopy and surgical exploration. RESULTS: MRA detected glenoid tears in all 22 patients with 20 (90% patients having antero-inferior tears, 3 (14% patients had superior labral involvement and 2 (10% patients had posterior labral abnormality. On arthroscopy, antero-inferior, superior and posterior labral tear were found in 21 (95%, 5 (22% and 7 (32% patients respectively. MRA showed a sensitivity of 95%, and a specificity of 100% for the detection of the antero-inferior labral tears. The sensitivity of MRA for the detection of superior, middle and inferior glenohumeral ligament tear was 83%, 80% and 86% with a specificity of 100%, 71% and 93% respectively. MRA was 100% sensitive for the detection of rotator cuff injuries and detection of bony lesions like Hill-Sach′s and bony Bankart′s lesion. CONCLUSIONS: MRA is a sensitive and specific modality for evaluation of anterior shoulder instability.

  2. A Review of Different Comparative Studies on Mobile Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to discuss the different comparative studies on mobile operating system. From the last few years with the use of mobile, the mobile technology is also increasing at a fast speed. Now a day's different mobile phone companies are competing in the market each having its own hardware and software. Each company mobile phone has its own interface and they are looking to provide new features to their customers. Each company use different operating system like Apple using iOS, Samsung using Android and Nokia using Symbian. In this study we will give, you review of different comparative studies on mobile operating systems done by different authors.

  3. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents.

  4. Conhecimento de adultos sobre o papel da atividade física na prevenção e tratamento de diabetes e hipertensão: estudo de base populacional no Sul do Brasil Public knowledge on the role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and hypertension: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Knuth

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento dos adultos de Pelotas, Sul do Brasil, sobre o papel da atividade física na prevenção e tratamento de diabetes e hipertensão arterial, e os fatores associados aos conhecimentos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostragem por conglomerados, incluindo 972 indivíduos de 20 a 69 anos. O conhecimento dos efeitos da atividade física na prevenção e tratamento foi maior para a hipertensão (82% do que para diabetes (47,2%. Para a prevenção de diabetes maiores conhecimentos se associaram ao sexo feminino (RP = 1,16; IC95%: 1,03-1,31, e no tratamento além destes, indivíduos ativos, obesos e de elevado nível econômico, tiveram maior conhecimento. Na prevenção da hipertensão, elevado conhecimento associou-se ao maior nível econômico (RP = 1,23; IC95%: 1,11-1,36. Quanto ao tratamento, mulheres, indivíduos ativos e obesos apresentaram maior conhecimento. Em síntese, o conhecimento sobre o papel da atividade física no tratamento de diabetes e hipertensão é maior, em comparação à prevenção; tal achado merece destaque, pois a capacidade de prevenção da atividade física não parece estar tão bem difundida em termos populacionais.The aim of this study was to evaluate public knowledge on the role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and hypertension, and the factors associated with such knowledge. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, southern Brazil, including 972 adults aged 20 to 69 years, selected with a clustering protocol. Knowledge on the preventive and curative benefits of physical activity was higher for hypertension (87.2% than for diabetes (47.2%. Women were more knowledgeable on the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes (PR: 1.16; 95%CI: 1.03-1.31. In terms of treatment, greater knowledge was associated with female gender, current physical activity, obesity, subjects, and

  5. Home exercises for pelvic floor in continent women one year after physical therapy treatment for urinary incontinence: an observational study Exercício domicilar para o assoalho pélvico em mulheres continentes após tratamento fisioterapêutico para incontinência urinária: um estudo observacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Krüger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of home exercise targeting the pelvic floor in continent women one year after the end of a physical therapy treatment for the following outcomes: functional assessment of the pelvic floor and urinary incontinence. METHODS: This is an observational study that evaluated fifteen women one year after physical therapy treatment for Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI. The outcomes for this study were: situations of urinary loss, use of daily protection, practice of home exercises for the pelvic floor, functional assessment of the pelvic floor (FAPF and patient satisfaction. We also investigated some confounding variables such as hormonal status, number of vaginal deliveries and previous history of episiotomy. RESULTS: One year after completion of physical therapy treatment, we observed that the FAPF median remained stable over time (Median=5, p=0.08. The presence of urinary incontinence was reported by 40% of women in the sample, however, was characterized as mild (i.e. not requiring the use of daily protection. There was also a significant association (p=0.001 between the completion of home exercises (twice or more per week and the normal clinical status. Confounding variables, which could compromise the clinical status, showed no significant association with the outcomes (p≥0.05. CONCLUSION: Home exercises contributed to the maintenance of continence following a physical therapy treatment.OBJETIVOS: Descrever os resultados da prática de exercícios domicilares para o assoalho pélvico em mulheres continentes nos quesitos avaliação funcional do assoalho pélvico (AFA e presença de incontinência urinária após um ano de tratamento fisioterapêutico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional com 15 mulheres um ano após o tratamento fisioterapêutico para incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE. As variáveis analisadas neste estudo foram: situações de perda urinária, utilização de proteção diária, manuten

  6. Sources for comparative studies of placentation I. Embryological collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2008-01-01

    A rich source of material for comparative studies of the placenta is the collections made by pioneers in the field such as H.W. Mossman, A.A.W. Hubrecht and J.P. Hill. This overview gives a brief description of collections known to be available and information on how each can be accessed. Included...

  7. Comparative studies in Chelicerata IV. Apatellata, Arachnida, Scorpionida, Xiphosura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study is made of four chelicerate classes: Apatellata (Solifugae and Pseudoscorpionida), Arachnida s. str. (both groups of Uropygi, i.e. Holopeltida and Schizomida, Amblypygi and Araneida), Scorpionida and Xiphosura. Methods, principles and terminology, adopted in this paper, correspon

  8. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  9. The Social Sciences and the Comparative Study of Educational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joseph, Ed.

    Aiming at the comprehension of schools as social, political, economic, and cultural systems, this book suggests that education does not constitute a separate academic discipline but is dependent upon the social sciences for its elucidation and for its comparative study. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches within four social sciences…

  10. Usability problem reports for comparative studies: consistency and inspectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Attema, J.; Akar, E.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Erburg, Ç.; Berkman, A.E.; Maguire, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores issues of consistency and inspectability in usability test data analysis processes and reports. Problem reports resulting from usability tests performed by three professional usability labs in three different countries are compared. Each of the labs conducted a usability test on

  11. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such

  12. COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF 3 SEMIAUTOMATED SPECULAR MICROSCOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDESZ, M; SIERTSEMA, JV; VANRIJ, G

    1995-01-01

    We compared two clinical video-assisted specular microscopes (Zeiss, noncontact, and the wide-field Keeler Konan sp 3300, contact) with an autofocus microscope (Konan noncon Robo-ca sp 8000, noncontact) with built-in analyzing software by studying the morphometry of the central corneal endothelium o

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY UNDER PROGRESSIVELY FIRST FAILURE CENSORED RAYLEIGH DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan Prakash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study presented in this article for two different asymmetric loss functions is based on simulation. Two-parameter Rayleigh model is considered here as the underline model for evaluating the properties of Bayes estimators under progressive first failure censored data. Known and unknown both cases of location parameter are considered here for Bayes estimation of scale parameter.

  14. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  15. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  16. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such b

  17. A comparative study of baseline algorithms of face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shahid; Khan, Samee U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative study of two well-known face recognition algorithms. The contribution of this work is to reveal the robustness of each FR algorithm with respect to various factors, such as variation in pose and low resolution of the images used for recognition. This evaluation

  18. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devika R.

    2014-01-01

    Education is the ability to meet one's life. How the child adjusts with varying situations determines the success of life. The child's adjustment is determined by a number of factors like Home, Social, Educational and Financial adjustment. The investigator here aims to make a comparative study on the adjustment of secondary school students. The…

  19. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  20. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two ...

  1. Estudo prospectivo randomizado sobre a luxação traumática de patela: tratamento conservador versus reconstrução do ligamento femoropatelar medial com tendão patelar - mínimo de dois anos de seguimento Randomized prospective study on traumatic patellar dislocation: conservative treatment versus reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the patellar tendon, with a minimum of two years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Carneiro Bitar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os resultados da cirurgia (reconstrução do ligamento femoropatelar medial; LFPM com os resultados do tratamento conservador da luxação primária de patela. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove pacientes (41 joelhos com luxação de patela foram randomizados em dois grupos (um grupo foi tratado conservadoramente - imobilização e fisioterapia - e o outro cirurgicamente com a reconstrução do LFPM e foram avaliados com um seguimento mínimo de dois anos. O questionário de Kujala foi aplicado para avaliar dor e qualidade de vida e as recidivas foram avaliadas. Os testes do Qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fisher foram utilizados na avaliação estatística. RESULTADOS: A análise estatística mostrou que a média do escore de Kujala foi significativamente mais baixa no grupo conservador (70,8 quando comparada à média do grupo cirúrgico (88,9, com p = 0,001. O grupo cirúrgico apresentou maior porcentagem de resultados bom/excelente (71,43% no escore de Kujala quando comparados ao grupo conservador (25% com p = 0,003. O grupo conservador apresentou um número maior de recorrências (35% dos casos, enquanto que no grupo cirúrgico não houve relatos de recorrências e/ou subluxações. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento com a reconstrução do ligamento femoropatelar medial com o tendão patelar produziu melhores resultados, com base na análise das recorrências pós-tratamento e nos resultados finais melhores no questionário de Kujala após um seguimento mínimo de dois anos.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the surgical results from reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL with non-operative treatment of primary patellar dislocation. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (41 knees with patellar dislocation were randomized into two groups. One group was treated conservatively (immobilization and physiotherapy and other was treated surgically with reconstruction of the MPFL, and the

  2. Comparative Advantage: Theory, Empirical Measures And Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri WIDODO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three main parts i.e. theory, analytical tool and case studies of comparative advantage. Firstly, we review the theory and various empirical measures of comparative advantage. We would argue that for the catching-up economies, like ASEAN countries, the meaning of “leading exported products” could be examined from the two points of view i.e. international competitiveness and country’s trade balance. Secondly, we combine two indexes of comparative advantage, i.e. Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA index by Dalum et al. (1998 and Laursen (1998, and Trade Balance Index (TBI by Lafay (1992, which represent well the two points of view, to propose an analytical tool, namely “products mapping”. Thirdly, this analytical tool is applied to analyze exported products (defined as 3-digit SITC Revision 2 of the ASEAN countries. This paper concludes that in the cases of ASEAN countries, the higher the comparative advantage for a specific product, the higher the possibility of the country as a net-exporter becomes. This finding strongly supports the theory of comparative advantage.

  3. Estudo da reabsorção radicular apical após o uso de aparelho extrabucal no tratamento da má oclusão do tipo Classe II, 1ª divisão dentária Study of apical root resorption after occipital headgear wear on the treatment of dental Class II, division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Célia Vieira de Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo verificou o efeito do uso do aparelho extrabucal (AEB sobre a intensidade da reabsorção radicular apical nos primeiros molares permanentes superiores submetidos à ação do aparelho. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas as radiografias periapicais da região dos primeiros molares permanentes superiores, bilateralmente, de 19 jovens leucodermas, do gênero feminino, com idades entre 8 e 10 anos, com má oclusão do tipo Classe II, 1ª divisão dentária, pré e pós-tratamento com AEB de tração alta. As 76 radiografias foram divididas em dois grupos, de acordo com o grau de formação radicular. O grupo A consistiu de 18 radiografias com formação radicular incompleta, com exceção da raiz palatina, ao início do tratamento e 18 ao final. O grupo B consistiu de 20 radiografias com formação radicular completa ao início do tratamento e 20 ao final. Mensurou-se os comprimentos radiculares utilizando um paquímetro digital e submeteu-se as medidas obtidas ao teste de erro do método e à análise estatística (teste t de Student para verificar as diferenças no comprimento radicular antes e após o tratamento com o AEB. RESULTADOS: no grupo A ocorreu um aumento significativo dos comprimentos radiculares, enquanto no grupo B as diferenças dos comprimentos radiculares não foram significativas. As medidas pós-tratamento no grupo A não diferiram das medidas pré-tratamento no grupo B, ou seja, os dentes com formação radicular incompleta ao início do tratamento apresentaram crescimento radicular normal durante o tratamento ativo. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que o uso do AEB não influenciou negativamente na formação radicular e não provocou reabsorção apical nos molares submetidos à ação do aparelho, sugerindo que o AEB não apresentou riscos à estrutura e formação radicular quando corretamente indicado e aplicado.AIM: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of occipital headgear wear on the intensity of

  4. Técnica de implante subpeitoral para tratamento de infecção de loja de marcapasso: estudo inicial Subpectoral pacemaker implantation technique for treatment of generator pocket infection: initial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acrisio Sales VALENTE

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução/Objetivo: O implante de marcapasso cardíaco definitivo é um procedimento caracterizado por um baixo índice de complicações. No entanto, a infecção, principalmente a de loja de fonte geradora, caracteriza-se como uma das complicações mais comuns, com incidências variando entre 1-5% na maioria dos centros. Diversas abordagens terapêuticas para o tratamento desta afecção vêm sendo descritas com resultados controversos. Observa-se, entretanto, uma tendência a melhores resultados, com menores índices de falência de tratamento ou reinfecção, nas abordagens mais agressivas, estas sempre relacionadas à alta morbidade e a altos custos finais. Com base nos princípios já bem descritos do poder bactericida dos flaps musculocutâneos associados à antibioticoterapia na esterilização de áreas pouco vascularizadas infectadas, foi desenvolvida e avaliada neste estudo inicial a técnica de implante subpeitoral para o tratamento dos casos de infecção restrita de loja de fonte geradora, objetivando-se menores morbidades e custos com, bons resultados. Casuística e Método: Foi considerado no presente estudo o período de janeiro de 1996 a março de 2000 onde foram realizados 574 procedimentos, entre implantes e trocas de fontes geradoras, na Santa Casa de São Paulo, com um índice de infecção de 1,11% (6 casos e 2 casos de extrusão de fonte geradora sem infecção aparente. Quatro casos tratavam-se de infecção exclusiva de loja de fonte e em 2 casos houve comprometimento sistêmico com sepse. Os germes infectantes foram S.aureus, S.epidermidis e Pseudomonas. Foi utilizada como abordagem terapêutica para todos os casos sem comprometimento sistêmico a técnica de implante subpeitoral da mesma fonte geradora associada à antibioticoterapia específica. Resultados: Não houve óbitos, casos de reinfecção ou falência de tratamento nos pacientes submetidos à técnica. O tempo médio de internação foi 7,3 dias. O

  5. Estudo de fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento não farmacológico em portadores de diabetes mellitus assistidos pelo Programa Saúde da Família, Ventosa, Belo Horizonte A study of factors associated to non-pharmacological treatment delivered by the Family Health Program in Ventosa, Belo Horizonte, to carriers of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Silva Assunção

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus vem se tornando um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no Brasil. Há vários fatores que podem contribuir para a baixa adesão ao tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre fatores educacionais, demográficos, socioeconômicos, de saúde, percepção da doença, suporte social e adesão ao tratamento não farmacológico em portadores de diabetes mellitus assistidos pelo Programa Saúde da Família do Centro de Saúde Ventosa, em Belo Horizonte. As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas com 164 diabéticos que estavam aguardando o acolhimento do Centro de Saúde. Na análise univariada, verificou-se associação significante entre a adesão ao tratamento não farmacológico e baixa renda, local de residência, conhecimento sobre complicações, motivação com o tratamento, fazer parte de grupo de diabéticos e orientações recebidas pelo enfermeiro e fisioterapeuta. Após análise multivariada, as variáveis "motivação com o tratamento" e "faz parte de algum grupo de diabético" foram estatisticamente significativas para a adesão total (pDiabetes Mellitus is turning into one of the main public health problems in Brazil. Many factors may contribute to the low adherence to treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between educational and social-economic factors and factors related to the health, the perception of disease, social support and adherence to non-pharmacological treatment of carriers of diabetes mellitus assisted in the family health program of the Health Center in Ventosa, Belo Horizonte. Data were collected in interviews with 164 diabetics who were waiting for assistance in the health center. Univariate analysis showed significant association between adhesion to the non-pharmacological treatment and low income; place of residence; knowledge about consequences; motivation with regard to the treatment; making part of a diabetics

  6. Estudo sobre os ambientes favoráveis à produção da líquida não-lateral /r/ no tratamento do desvio fonológico Study of the favorable environment to the production of the non-lateral liquid /r/ in the phonological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Keske-Soares

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os ambientes favoráveis são contextos facilitadores para a aquisição do segmento tratado. Eles podem ser analisados sob os seguintes aspectos: tonicidade, contexto antecedente e vogal seguinte. O objetivo deste relato de caso foi analisar a influência das variáveis lingüísticas (ambiente favorável no tratamento de um sujeito com desvio fonológico evolutivo. Participou do estudo um sujeito com desvio fonológico, com idade de 6:8 no início do tratamento, do sexo masculino, tratado pelo Modelo ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas. Foram analisados os dados de fala pré e pós-tratamento e as Provas Alvo Básicas do primeiro ciclo de tratamento. Nas palavras-alvo selecionadas para terapia, foram analisadas as aquisições quanto ao alvo de tratamento, a líquida não-lateral /r/, e os ambientes favoráveis à aquisição no que se refere à tonicidade e aos contextos (antecedente e seguinte. Observou-se que o /r/, nas palavras-alvo selecionadas, não era encontrado em ambientes mais favoráveis; em geral, encontrava-se em ambiente neutro ou menos favorecedor. No entanto, verificou-se generalização no que se refere à aquisição da líquida não-lateral /r/ em Onset Medial, e a produção do fonema nas palavras-alvo selecionadas foi efetiva, destacando-se as produções das palavras [ba´rata], [ko´ruZa] e [mo´rãgu], que apresentaram maior número de ocorrências.Favorable environments are contexts that make the acquisition of the segment treated easier. They can be analyzed under the following aspects: tonicity, preceding context and following vowel. This case report had the aim to analyze the influence of linguistic variables (favorable environment at the treatment of a patient suffering from phonological disorder. A male patient, aged 6:8 at the beginning of the treatment, treated by the Model ABAB-Withdrawal and Multiple Probes participated in this study. Pre and post-treatment speech data and the Basic Target Proof of the first

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON POVIDONE-IODINE OINTMENT AND GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mangilal*, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik , R. Sivakumar , Y. Sudhakar and S. K. Basu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-Iodine Ointment was prepared using polyethylene glycol base by fusion method and the gel was prepared using Poloxamer 407 as a gelling agent by cold process. The different characteristics of povidone-iodine ointment and gel were compared from the results obtained for assay and total, available and complex iodine contents. These values were comparable with marketed formulations. The formulations were tested for wound healing and antimicrobial activity. Wound healing studies show that the time taken for complete wound healing was slightly less for prepared povidone-iodine ointment and gel than the marketed preparations. Antimicrobial activity also found to be almost equal for the different formulations.

  8. Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijnasa Patil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Exclusion is an important phenomenon in distributed systems. In this paper, we analyze and compare various mutual exclusion algorithms in distributed systems. In permission based mutual exclusion process waits for permission from other processes to enter into a critical section. In token based mutual exclusion, a special message called token is passed over the system and process holding the token can enter into the critical section. We present a comparative study of quorum based, token ring token asking and multiple token algorithms for mutual exclusion in distributed systems.

  9. A Comparative Study of Two Chinese Versions of Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; CHENG Jing

    2016-01-01

    Animal Farm succeeds in establishing George Orwell’s position as a master in literature with its profound moral and hidden but killing sarcasms. And it has been translated into many languages around the world, arousing heated response. So far, there are seventeen versions in China. However, the academic studies focus on the significance of its literary value and political aspects, paying little attention to the systemic study of its translations. The thesis chooses the versions of Rong Rude and Fu Wei-ci and compares them from lexical, syntactical and discourse aspects. Through the comparative study, the author finds out that the two translators apply different translation strategies. Rong tends to adopt foreignization strategy, while Fu is inclined to ap-ply domestication strategy.

  10. Comparative study of three methods of esophageal anastomosis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Abd Al-Maseeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to compare three methods of esophageal anastomosis. Twenty four healthy adult dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups; each one consisted of 8 animals. In group 1; two layers were used to perform the esophageal anastomosis. The first layer represented simple interrupted suture to close the mucosa with knot inside the lumen, and the second layer represented horizontal mattress interrupted suture to close the other layers of esophagus. While in group 2; one layer of cross interrupted mattress suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall, and in group 3; one layer of Schmieden's suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall. The results of clinical, radiological and histopathological studies after 15 and 30 days of surgical operation revealed that most of the animals showed different degrees of difficulty concerning the moderate dysphagia and regurgitation. The radiological study showed significant difference of stenosis. The best results were recorded in the second group where the mean degree of stenosis was 7.69%, however the mean degree of stenosis was 42.80% in the first group, while the mean degree of stenosis in the third groups was 37.81%, through 30 days. The histopathological study of group 2 showed rapid healing of the site of anastomosis, lack of granulation tissue and consequently the less degree of stricture and other complications as compared with groups 1 and 3. The Schmieden's suture was characterized by its standard short time as compared with group 1 and 2, although accompanied by some complications. In conclusion this study revealed that the cross mattress suture used in the second group characterized by faster healing and minimal amount of fibrous tissue formation manifested by decrease in moderate degree of stenosis as compared with the two other suture patterns used in the first and third groups.

  11. A Comparative Study on Temporal Mobile Access Pattern Mining Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Fahmy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users behavior patterns is one of the most critical issues that need to be explored in mobile agent systems. Recently the algorithms of discovering frequent mobile user’s behavior patterns have been studied extensively. Existing mining methods have proposed frequent mobile user's behavior patterns statistically based on requested services and location information. Therefore, other studies considered that the mobile user's dynamic behavior patterns are usually associated with temporal access patterns. In this paper, temporal mobile access pattern methods are studied and compared in terms of complexity and accuracy. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be summarized as well

  12. It pays to compare: an experimental study on computational estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Jon R; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2009-04-01

    Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N=157) learned about estimation either by comparing alternative solution strategies or by reflecting on the strategies one at a time. At posttest and retention test, students who compared were more flexible problem solvers on a variety of measures. Comparison also supported greater conceptual knowledge, but only for students who already knew some estimation strategies. These findings indicate that comparison is an effective learning and instructional practice in a domain with multiple acceptable answers.

  13. A comparative study of flurbiprofen and piroxicam in osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra N

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available In this single-blind, multiple-dose study the efficacy and tolerability of flurbiprofen was compared with that of piroxicam in 60 adult patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either flurbiprofen 100 mg twice daily or piroxicam 20 mg once daily for a period of four weeks. Clinical assessments w.r.t. pain, tenderness, stiffness, swelling and general activity of patient were carried out prior to initiation of trial therapy and thereafter at weekly intervals for four weeks. The findings were graded. Though significant improvements as compared to baseline data occurred in both the treatment groups, flurbiprofen was found to be superior to piroxicam in improving pain on movement and at rest (p < 0.05. The incidence of side effects was less in the group receiving flurbiprofen (6% compared to 47% observed with piroxicam.

  14. Comportamento dos indicadores de halitose após diferentes fases do tratamento periodontal não cirúrgico : tratamento da gengivite versus tratamento da periodontite

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Pereira Butze

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo é uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico randomizado, com o objetivo de avaliar, por meio de diferentes métodos de diagnóstico de halitose, o efeito de distintas fases do tratamento periodontal sobre as medições de hálito. Para tanto, 49 pacientes (51,59±9,34 anos; 63,3% mulheres; 34,7% fumantes), com diagnóstico de gengivite e de periodontite de moderada a severa foram examinados em T1 (baseline), T2 (após o tratamento da gengivite) e T3 (após o tratamento da periodont...

  15. Therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia with imatinib mesylate in Brazil: a study of 98 cases Tratamento da leucemia mielóide crônica com imatinib mesilato no Brasil: estudo de 98 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneuza A. M. Funke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is a clonal disease characterized by balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 (Philadelphia chromosome. The resulting BCR-ABL gene has tyrosine kinase activity which stimulates cellular growth. Imatinib mesylate is a potent and specific inhibitor of all ABL related kinases. Ninety-eight CML patients were treated with imatinib mesylate from October 2000 to January 2003. Disease stage was: late chronic phase resistant or intolerant to alpha-interferon (CP: 28; accelerated phase (AP: 55; blastic phase (BP: 15 patients. Dose: 400 mg for CP and 600 mg for AP or CB. The objectives were to evaluation the efficacy, safety and survival with imatinib mesylate therapy in all phases of CML. The median follow up time was 545 days (range: 7-862, complete hematologic response was 86% in CP, 47% in AP and 13% in BP. Complete cytogenetic response was 61%, 24% and 0% respectively. BCR-ABL was not detected by nested RT-PCR in 9% of patients. Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was seen in 21% of CP, 74% of AP and 87% of BP patients. Grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicity was observed in 11% of CP, 51% of AP and 53% of BP patients. Two-year overall survival was 64% for all patients, 96% for CP and 36% for AP patients. All BP patients died within a median of 60 days. Imatinib mesylate induced cytogenetic responses in Brazilian patients with previously treated CML in chronic and accelerated phase. Adverse events are similar to those reported in the literature, except for lower rates of gastrointestinal symptoms and muscle cramps in our study group.INTRODUÇÃO: A Leucemia Mielóide Crônica (LMC é uma doença clonal caracterizada pela presença da translocação entre os cromossomos 9 e 22 (cromossomo Philadelphia. O gene resultante BCR-ABL possui atividade de tirosino-quinase, que estimula o crescimento celular. O mesilato de imatinibe é um inibidor potente e específico de todas as quinases relacionadas ao ABL. PACIENTES E M

  16. Recognition of Faces in Unconstrained Environments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative study of face recognition methods that are suitable to work in unconstrained environments. The analyzed methods are selected by considering their performance in former comparative studies, in addition to be real-time, to require just one image per person, and to be fully online. In the study two local-matching methods, histograms of LBP features and Gabor Jet descriptors, one holistic method, generalized PCA, and two image-matching methods, SIFT-based and ERCF-based, are analyzed. The methods are compared using the FERET, LFW, UCHFaceHRI, and FRGC databases, which allows evaluating them in real-world conditions that include variations in scale, pose, lighting, focus, resolution, facial expression, accessories, makeup, occlusions, background and photographic quality. Main conclusions of this study are: there is a large dependence of the methods on the amount of face and background information that is included in the face's images, and the performance of all methods decreases largely with outdoor-illumination. The analyzed methods are robust to inaccurate alignment, face occlusions, and variations in expressions, to a large degree. LBP-based methods are an excellent election if we need real-time operation as well as high recognition rates.

  17. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  18. Determinantes da adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral em Brasília, DF: um estudo de caso-controle Determinants of antiretroviral treatment adherence in Brasília, Federal District: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Viveiros de Carvalho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar os fatores relacionados à adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral no Distrito Federal. De 150 pacientes entrevistados em sete centros de referência, 35 não aderentes foram definidos como casos, sendo selecionados 70 controles aderentes, pareados por idade. Avaliaram-se variáveis sócio-demográficas, hábitos, suporte social, qualidade de vida, questões relacionadas a doença, estado clínico, tratamento e serviço. Na análise bivariada, houve associação da adesão com raça/cor, escolaridade, centros de referência em que faz acompanhamento e renda familiar. Após ajuste, cor parda, centros de referência localizado no Plano Piloto, escolaridade alta e receber apoio dos amigos quanto às necessidades permaneceram associados com adesão. Retirando raça/cor do modelo, mantiveram-se centros de referência, escolaridade, profissão, renda, apoio (contar com alguém que demonstre gostar de você e satisfação com o atendimento na farmácia de dispensação. Além dos fatores já consolidados na literatura, questões relacionadas ao apoio no âmbito micro-social e aos serviços de assistência mostraram-se associados à observância terapêutica.We sought to evaluate factors relating to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in the Federal District. Out of 150 patients interviewed at seven reference centers; 35 non-adherent subjects were considered to be cases; we selected 70 age-matched adherent individuals as controls. Variables relating to sociodemographics, habits, social support, quality of life, disease-related issues, clinical conditions, treatment and healthcare services were evaluated. Bivariate analysis showed that adherence was associated with race/color, educational level, the reference center where the patient was followed up and familial income. After adjustments, mixed race (parda, reference center location in central Brasília, high educational level and friends’ support for needs remained associated with

  19. Cost-effectiveness of community health worker versus home-based guardians for directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil Custo-efetividade dos agentes comunitários de saúde versus supervisores domiciliares na realização do tratamento supervisionado da tuberculose, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Nascimento do Prado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the costs and outcomes associated with guardian-supervised directly observed treatment relative to the standard of care Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course (DOTS provided by community health workers (CHW. New cases of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB treated in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, between January 2005 and December 2006 were interviewed and chose their preferred treatment strategy. Costs incurred by providers and patients (and patients' families were estimated, and cost-effectiveness was assessed by comparing costs per successfully treated patient. 130 patients were included in the study; 84 chose CHW-supervised DOTS and 46 chose guardian-supervised DOTS. 45 of 46 (98% patients treated with guardian-supervised DOTS were cured or completed treatment compared to 70/84 (83% of the CHW-supervised patients (p = 0.01. Logistic regression showed only the strategy of supervision to be a significant association with treatment outcome, with guardian-supervised care strongly protective. Cost per patient treated with guardian-supervised DOTS was US$398, compared to US$548 for CHW-supervised DOTS. The guardian-supervised DOTS is an attractive option to complement CHW-supervised DOTS.Comparar os custos e os resultados associados ao tratamento de tuberculose (TB supervisionado por domiciliares quanto ao realizado pelos agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS. Participaram do estudo todos os casos de TB pulmonar com cultura positiva tratada na cidade de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2006. Os pacientes escolheram a estratégia de tratamento preferencial. Os custos incorridos pelos prestadores e os doentes foram estimados, e relação custo-efetividade foi avaliada comparando os custos por doente tratado com sucesso. Um total de 130 pacientes foi incluído no estudo, 84 escolheram ACS e 46 escolheram tratamento supervisionado por domiciliares. 45 de

  20. Comparative study of infrared wavefront sensing solutions for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, C.; Fusco, T.; Guerineau, N.; Derelle, S.; Robert, C.

    2016-07-01

    The development of new low-noise infrared detectors, such as RAPID (CEA LETI/Sofradir) or SAPHIRA (Selex), has given the possibility to consider infrared wavefront sensing at low ux. We propose here a comparative study of near infrared (J and H bands) wavefront sensing concepts for mid and high orders estimation on a 8m- class telescope, relying on three existing wavefront sensors: the Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer. We consider several conceptual designs using the RAPID camera, making a trade-off between background flux, optical thickness and compatibility with a compact cryostat integration. We then study their sensitivity to noise in order to compare them in different practical scenarios. The pyramid provides the best performance, with a gain up to 0.5 magnitude, and has an advantageous setup.

  1. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Khamitkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN, Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN, Speckle (SPKN. Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF, Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF, Gaussian Filter (GF, Standard Median Filter (SMF and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF. The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  2. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    CERN Document Server

    Al-amri, Salem Saleh; Khamitkar, S D

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN), Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN), Speckle (SPKN). Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF), Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF), Gaussian Filter (GF), Standard Median Filter (SMF) and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF). The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE) and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  3. Comparative study of Danish prefab houses made of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The use of wood in Danish prefab building projects is increasing, but there is not a strong architectural tradition in Denmark for constructing timber housing. This paper therefore contains a comparative study of various manners of incorporating architectural features in prefab houses made of wood....... In the study four Danish prefab housing concepts based on wood con¬struc¬tion is compared and discussed, in order to investigate and exemplify how it is possible to work with architectural quality in prefab timber housing and maximise the use of the material, the prefab production and the architectural values....... It was concluded that especially two aspects are of great importance for the concrete handling of the architectural quality of prefab houses made of wood; 1) flexibility in relation to user and site, and 2) the interaction between form, logics and material. It is suggested that keeping these two aspects in mind...

  4. Comparative study of variational chaos indicators and ODEs' numerical integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Darriba, Luciano A; Cincotta, Pablo M; Giordano, Claudia M

    2012-01-01

    The reader can find in the literature a lot of different techniques to study the dynamics of a given system and also, many suitable numerical integrators to compute them. Notwithstanding the recent work of Maffione et al. (2011a) for mappings, a detailed comparison among the widespread indicators of chaos in a general system is still lacking. Such a comparison could lead to select the most efficient algorithms given a certain dynamical problem. Furthermore, in order to choose the appropriate numerical integrators to compute them, more comparative studies among numerical integrators are also needed. This work deals with both problems. We first extend the work of Maffione et al. (2011) for mappings to the 2D H\\'enon & Heiles (1964) potential, and compare several variational indicators of chaos: the Lyapunov Indicator (LI); the Mean Exponential Growth Factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO); the Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) and its generalized version, the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI); the Fast Lyapunov Indi...

  5. Comparative study of approaches to estimate pipe break frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.; Talja, H.; Saarenheimo, A.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The report describes the comparative study of two approaches to estimate pipe leak and rupture frequencies for piping. One method is based on a probabilistic fracture mechanistic (PFM) model while the other one is based on statistical estimation of rupture frequencies from a large database. In order to be able to compare the approaches and their results, the rupture frequencies of some selected welds have been estimated using both of these methods. This paper highlights the differences both in methods, input data, need and use of plant specific information and need of expert judgement. The study focuses on one specific degradation mechanism, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This is the major degradation mechanism in old stainless steel piping in BWR environment, and its growth is influenced by material properties, stresses and water chemistry. (au)

  6. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  7. Techniques for preparing of guide planes: in vitro comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Eduardo Shigueyuki; Assistant Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry of the São Paulo State University.; Silva, João Maurício; Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos - UNESP; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Assistant Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry of the São Paulo State University.; Yamamoto, Eron Toshio Colauto; Clinical Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the School of Dentistry of the 9th of July University.

    2014-01-01

    The correct parallelism of guiding planes when constructing a Removable Partial Denture not only defines the axis of insertion and removal of the prosthesis, but also limits the possible axes of movement during functioning. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare some techniques and the use of an intra-oral device for those preparations. Dummies were performed in a direct manner, simulating the absence of teeth 15, 45, 12 and 42. The four preparation techniques chosen were: Group 1...

  8. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Phani Kumar; Biplab; Umakanta; Sandip; Ciranjit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, com...

  9. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  10. Comparative study of various PKINIT methods used in Advanced Kerberos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. Thorat,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional authentication method is password, but it cannot resist dictionary and playback attack. Thus, applications, which send an unencrypted password over the network, are extremely vulnerable. Kerberos can be used as a solution to these network security problems. The Kerberos protocol with public key cryptography may help client to prove its identity to a server (and vice-versa across an insecurenetwork connection. This paper shows comparative study of various PKINIT methods used in Kerberos with their results.

  11. Comparative Study of EMC Greenplum and Oracle Exadata

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Ektaa; Yadav, Harshita; Singh, Ayushi

    2013-01-01

    Our paper deals with the comparative study of two databases namely EMC Greenplum and Oracle Database .Greenplum is a massively parallel processing database server that is designed to support the next generation of data warehousing and large-scale analytics processing. Oracle is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost effective way to manage information and applications.Our paper focuses on the efficiency, complexity and capacity of both the databa...

  12. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Legault, Élise P; Descarreaux, Martin; Cantin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain, symptoms or injuries are prevalent in the adolescent athlete population as well as in the general adolescent population, and often have significant consequences on their future musculoskeletal health. However, differences between these two populations in regards to their musculoskeletal health are not known and have not yet been explored. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to 1) compare the 6-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their...

  13. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Ways of Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2009-01-01

    From a cross-cultural pragmatic perspective,this paper nakes a comparative study on American and Chinese ways of address,and finds that due to different cultural values,languages differ in the actual realization of address strategies and modifications,which leads to varied interactional styles,and thus holds that there exist distinctive cultural differences in the interactional styles of verbal behaviors,which challenges the universality of pragmatic rules among different languages and cultures.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL PATTERN USING LUMINAL PLASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venketesh G Kamath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tracheobronchial pattern of human lungs is well known. An attempt was made to compare the pattern with that of sheep lung using luminal plastination of sheep lung. Several similarities were observed between the two patterns, due to which, the sheep lung serves as an ideal experimental model to study the effect of treatment in several human airway diseases. Objective: The first objective was to compare the two tracheobronchial patterns. Moreover the study also provided an opportunity to the authors to attempt a luminal plastination. The final objective is to highlight the various advantages of advances in luminal plastination in current medical education and research. Materials and methods: Silicon sealant was injected into the tracheobroncheal tree of sheep after thoroughly cleaning the lungs with saline. After the sealant solidified the surrounding lung tissue was destroyed by boiling. Thus a luminal cast was prepared. Result: The result was a splendid luminal cast of the sheep lung showing its tracheobronchial pattern. Conclusion: It was observed that the tracheobronchial division pattern showed significant similarities and a single variation. Therefore the sheep lung is an ideal experimental model and luminal plastination can be applied to comparative anatomical study to identify more such models.

  15. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  16. The Executive Branch: The Government (2 - Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Carausan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fundamental Laws of the European Union member states establish the institutional system and also the Government’s organisation. In the present article, after we already studied the organisation of the Chief of State institution, we will analyse the other vector of the executive power: the Government. Each state understands to organise public administration system differently, according to their administrative culture and to their constitutional rules. The second part of the study based on the comparative method and on the analysis of the Constitutional rules will emphasize the unity and also the diversity of the government organisation in the European Union systems.

  17. Comparative Statistical Study of Some SAP UI Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdie, Adela; Osaci, Mihaela; Dan Lemle, Ludovic

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a comparative study on some web UI (User Interface) technologies that involve the creation of web applications on the platform SAP Net Weaver AS 7.01 of the integrated SAP (System Application Products) system. The attention will be directed mainly to the ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programing) development environment and to the Web Dynpro (WD) technologies, Floor Plan Manager (FPM) and Web Client UI. Through this study, we make an assesment regarding the decision of choosing a technology for the realisation of a project which consists of a web application.

  18. Comparative study of radiosensitivity of hemopoietic tissues of Meriones unguiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samokhvalova, N.S.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.; Domareva, O.P. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative study on dynamics of radiation damage and recovery of radiation induced injuries is conducted. Bone marrow, spleen and thymus of Mongolian sandwort have been investigated. It is shown that fractionation of radiation dose as compared with single irradiation of total dose reduces the period of intense devastation of hemopoietic tissues of Mongolian sandwort thus accelerating the period of post-radiation recovery. Study on dynamics of interphase cell killing and aplasia of tissues has disclosed an essential role of protective-restoring processes in determining the value of radiation damage of the hemopoietic system of Mongolian sandwort.

  19. Ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors : 6 month comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, A. [LufftUSA, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many wind power developers are looking to reduce the high cost of mechanical sensors by replacing them with ultrasonic sensors. This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to evaluate and compare ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors. The aim of the study was to determine is ultrasonic sensor data is reliable and accurate. Participants in the study included 2 sensor manufacturers and a third party engineering firm. Wind resource assessments, turbine pitch and yaw, and power curve tests were conducted on meteorological towers. Ground-based SODAR and LIDAR measurements were conducted for micrositing and resource assessment. An International Electrochemical Council (IEC) compliant methodology was used to test the sensors at various locations throughout the United States. The benefits of each sensor technology were considered, and a cost comparison was conducted. Results of the study showed that ultrasonic sensors are suitable for permanent tower installations and where resistance to ice and turbulence is required. tabs., figs.

  20. Comparative Simulation Study on Synchronous Generators Sudden Short Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Lupşa-Tătaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although of a great extent in time, the research works directed at studying transients in synchronous generators have not yet provided fully sufficient comparative studies in respect to sudden short circuits of the machine. The present paper puts forward novel and comprehensive process models for dynamic simulation of short circuit faults of initially unloaded synchronous generators, using the generalized d-q-0 mathematical model as starting point in derivation. Distinct from the time-domain analysis, the technique proposed here allows an effective comparative overview by employing a specialized procedure to perform repeated time-domain simulations accompanied by peak values recording for the various circumstances. The time consuming matrix numerical inversion at each step of integration, usually performed when selecting currents as state variables, is eliminated by advancing the process models in a convenient split matrix form that allows the symbolic processing. Also, the computational efficiency is being increased by introducing a set of auxiliary variables common to different state equations. The models derivation is carried out without altering the structural equations of the generalized d-q-0 mathematical model of synchronous generators whilst the simulation results are both compared and discussed in detail.

  1. A comparative clinical study on the Carisolv caries removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaboura, Afrodite; Masouras, Costas; Staikou, Olga; Vougiouklakis, George

    2003-04-01

    Carisolv is a relatively new chemomechanical method for caries removal. The aim of this clinical study was to compare Carisolv with the conventional drilling technique. Forty-five volunteers, ages 18 to 55 years, each with two contralateral primary coronal mesio-occlusal or disto-occlusal carious lesions, similar in extent, participated in the study. Two calibrated operators treated all lesions. One operator treated both lesions in one visit (one lesion with Carisolv and the other with conventional drilling). Following the filling procedure, the opinion of each patient regarding each caries removal method was recorded. The need for drilling in addition to the Carisolv application, the time required for caries removal, the need for anesthesia, and the gingival reaction to the Carisolv gel were recorded by each operator for each case. The patients found Carisolv treatment more pleasant (82%) and preferable (88%) to drilling. Of the patients treated with drilling, 40% required anesthesia compared to the 8% treated with Carisolv. Additional drilling for complete caries removal was needed in 10% of Carisolv-treated lesions. Carisolv induced no gingival reaction. Significantly longer times were required for caries removal with Carisolv (12.2 +/- 4.1 minutes) compared to drilling (6.8 +/- 2.8 minutes). The Carisolv technique was: (a) accepted by the majority of patients, (b) efficient for caries removal, (c) considered a time-consuming technique for the dentists, and (d) considered less dependent on local anesthesia.

  2. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  3. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  4. Comparative Study of Static Task Scheduling Algorithms for Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss. Kalpana A. Manudhane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the distributed or parallel heterogeneous computing systems, an application is usually decomposed into several interdependent sets of co-operating subtasks and assigned to a set of available processors for execution. Task scheduling is in general NP-compete problem. Static task scheduling algorithms are categorized as Heuristic based and Guided random search based scheduling algorithms. Heuristic algorithms guaranteed to find near optimal solution in less than polynomial time. Heuristic based list scheduling algorithms are Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT and Critical-Path-On- -Processor (CPOP. Whereas, Guided random search based scheduling algorithms have shown robust performance on verity of schedulingproblems. Typical examples are Multiple Priority Queueing Genetic Algorithm (MPQGA, Tabu Search(TS, Ant Colony System (ACS. This paper gives comparative study of all these static task scheduling algorithms and compares them on the basis of average makespan, schedule length ratio (SLR and speedup and running time of algorithm.

  5. A comparative study of three methods for robot kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspragathos, N A; Dimitros, J K

    1998-01-01

    Three methods for the formulation of the kinematic equations of robots with rigid links are presented in this paper. The first and most common method in the robotics community is based on 4x4 homogeneous matrix transformation, the second one is based on Lie algebra, and the third one on screw theory expressed via dual quaternions algebra. These three methods are compared in this paper for their use in the kinematic analysis of robot arms. The basic theory and the transformation operators, upon which every method is based, are referenced. Three analytic algorithms are presented for the solution of the direct kinematic problem corresponding to each method, and the geometric significance of the transformation operators and parameters is explained. Finally, a comparative study on the computation and storage requirements for the three methods is worked out.

  6. Comparative study of convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryam, Hina; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Awan, Gul Hameed; Hassan, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The present research is about to draw a comparison between heat transfer characteristics of gold/deionized water (DIW) and silver/DIW based nanofluid under same heat flux for laminar flow. Experiments are performed on both nanofluid by using different concentrations (0.015, 0.045, 0.0667%) of nano-particles (NPs) in DIW as a base fluid. The experimental study concludes that an appreciable intensification in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of both nanofluid has been attained as compare to base fluid. However, gold/DIW based nanofluid exhibit better convective heat transfer intensification compared with silver/DIW based nanofluid but Shah correlation cannot predict as much augmentation as in experimental work for both nanofluid. It is also noticed that the anomalous enhancement in Nusselt number and HTC is not only due to the accession in thermal properties but also by the formation of thinner thermal boundary layer at the entrance of the tube due to NPs.

  7. Comparative Study of Various Techniques on Outlier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K, Varma Mamta and Rajesh Nigam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse patterns from web data, commonly referred to as web outliers or exceptional cases or noise; exist in many real-world databases. Detection of such outliers is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce. Outliers are data objects with different characteristics compared to other data objects. Formal definition of outliers is given by D.Hawkins. as “An Outlier is an observation that deviates so much from other observations so that it arouses suspicion that it is generated by a different mechanism”. Detection of such outliers (outlier mining is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce, video surveillance, weather prediction, intrusion detection and pharmaceutical research. This paper has focus on comparative study of various techniques on Outlier Detection.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THYROID GLAND IN SOME MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Doley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Goitre or swelling of thyroid gland is very common in North-East region and is encountered frequently in clinical practice. Goitre is a compensatory hypertrophy of thyroid gland and it has been recognised for centuries even back to the times of Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC (LE McDonald. The thyroid is the largest endocrine gland present in all mammals. In some disease conditions, an individual has to undergo a complete thyroidectomy and live on thyroid supplements for life. Is there a possibility of xenograft and xenotransplant? With this view a comparative study of the thyroid gland was under taken in the Dept. of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The main purpose of the study was to see if thyroid gland of human was in any way similar to thyroid gland of other mammals. Xenograft and Xenotransplantation are the latest research studies going on these days. By these techniques, tissues and organs of one species can be transplanted or grafted into another species. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study of thyroid gland was conducted in Dept. of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College. The various species included for studies were of human, pig and goat. They were divided into three groups I, II, and III. The specimen of human was collected from morgue of Gauhati Medical College. The specimen of pig and goat were collected from College of Veterinary Sciences, Gauhati. In all animals, the size, shape, length, breadth, thickness was recorded. RESULT The length, breadth, thickness of thyroid gland in group I, II and III were taken with the help of Vernier callipers. Weight was measured with the help of electronic weighing machine. The results were statistically analysed. DISCUSSION The findings of this study were compared with the findings of work done by other authors previously. CONCLUSION In this study, it was observed that biometrical values were different in all the mammals but morphological characters were almost similar

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NALBUPHINE VS. PENTAZOCINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Ganpatrao Tirpude

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To provide postoperative pain relief is a prime duty of health care providers. Failure to relieve pain is morally and ethically unacceptable. Post-operative pain may results in adverse effects such as: a Physiological Changes: Reduced pulmonary functions, e.g. vital capacity, tidal volume, functional residual capacity; sympathetic stimulation; reduced the physical activity of patients; thereby increasing the risk of venous thrombosis. b Psychological disturbances: Anger, Resentment, Depression, Adversarial Relationship with Doctors, Insomnia. Aim of this study was 1. To investigate whether “Postoperative analgesia with Nalbuphine is longer than Pentazocine”. 2. To investigate whether “Side effects/complications are less with Nalbuphine as compared to Pentazocine”. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective randomized double blind observational study. Eighty patients of hydrocoele & inguinal hernia were operated under spinal anaesthesia of age group 20-70 years, ASA grade I & II & patients with controlled co-morbid conditions. In postoperative period, Group N- Inj. Nalbuphine (0.3 mg/kg IM or Group P- Inj. Pentazocine (0.5 mg/kg IM was administered to provide postoperative pain relief & to know the duration of pain relief & its side effects. RESULTS On statistical analysis, demographic data i.e. age, sex had no influence on outcome of study. Mean VAS score in group N was highly significant (p-value in Inj. Pentazocine group. 2. Side Effects - Incidence of sedation was more in Nalbuphine group as compared to Pentazocine group. Nausea & Vomiting were more so in Pentazocine group as compared to Nalbuphine group. Limitation of the present study was that sample size was very small.

  10. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  11. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  12. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  13. Feature Based Correspondence: A Comparative Study on Image Matching Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim Tanvir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Image matching and recognition are the crux of computer vision and have a major part to play in everyday lives. From industrial robots to surveillance cameras, from autonomous vehicles to medical imaging and from missile guidance to space exploration vehicles computer vision and hence image matching is embedded in our lives. This communication presents a comparative study on the prevalent matching algorithms, addressing their restrictions and providing a criterion to define the level of efficiency likely to be expected from an algorithm. The study includes the feature detection and matching techniques used by these prevalent algorithms to allow a deeper insight. The chief aim of the study is to deliver a source of comprehensive reference for the researchers involved in image matching, regardless of specific applications.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  15. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the country. An attempt is made to suggest how the religious course in a plural society like Malaysia, in the future, can be used to achieve Vision 2020 by integrating science and religion based on the position that science is a problem-solving activity.

  16. Discourse Formation in Comparative Education. 4th, Revised Edition. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, Jurgen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    New theories and theory-based methodological approaches have found their way into Comparative Education--just as into Comparative Social Science more generally--in increasing number in the recent past. The essays of this volume express and critically discuss quite a range of these positions such as, inter alia, the theory of self-organizing social…

  17. A comparative study of ICU patient diaries vs. hospital charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2010-10-01

    Intensive care survivors often suffer from memory disorders, and some go on to develop anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Since the 1980s nurses have written diaries for intensive care patients to help them understand their illness and come to terms with their experiences after discharge. The central question we posed in this study was: Why do nurses write diaries in addition to conventional charting in the medical record? To answer this question, we compared intensive care diaries and hospital charts using textual analysis and narrative theory. The aims of our study were to compare patient diaries and hospital charts to explore (a) what each documentation instrument has to offer patients in their quest to make sense of their illness, and (b) why it is worthwhile for nurses to sustain the practice of writing diaries. The study findings show that the diary is coherent, personal, and supportive, whereas the hospital chart is fragmented, impersonal, and technical. The diary tells a comprehensive story that might help the patient to construct or reconstruct his or her own illness narrative.

  18. A Comparative Study of Actuator Configurations for Satellite Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kristiansen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controllability study of different actuator configurations consisting of magnetic torquers, reaction wheels and a gravity boom is presented. The theoretical analysis is performed with use of controllability gramians, and simulation results with the different configurations are presented and compared regarding settling time and power consumption to substantiate the theoretical analysis. A reference model is also introduced to show how the power consumption can he lowered to the same magnitude as when magnetic torquers are used, without degrading the satellite response significantly.

  19. Goal oriented requirements engineering in data warehouses: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Cravero Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouses provide historical information about the organization that needs to be analyzed by the decision makers; therefore, it is essential to develop them in the context of a strategic business plan. In recent years, a number of engineering approaches for goal-oriented requirements have been proposed, which can obtain the information requirements of a data warehouse using traditional techniques and the objectives of the modeling. This paper provides an overview and a comparative study of the treatment of the requirements in the existing approaches to serve as a starting point for further research.

  20. Multiple comparative studies of Green Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lihui; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    for their products. Such organizations in developing countries like India and China are under pressure to adopt green concepts in supply chain operations to compete in the market and satisfy their customers' increasing needs. This paper offers a comparative study of pressures that impact the adoption of Green Supply...... friendly operation strategies to lower their overall carbon footprint. Currently, there is increased awareness among customers even in developing countries about eco friendly manufacturing solutions. Multi-national firms have identified economies of developed nations as a potential market...

  1. Comparative study of SEA experiences between EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    making, such as: How inclusive will the system be in relation to environmental, economic and social indicators? And how can the appropriate aggregation level for indicators be found? This paper makes a comparative study of the experiences of using indicators in SEA in two European countries and China...... SEA legislation and guidelines, this paper evaluates the different requirements related to indicator use within SEA in different national contexts. Furthermore, technical questions of how to design and use indicators in SEA are investigated. Finally, it is explored, from a political perspective, how...

  2. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  3. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  4. Comparative study of Palito inspection and MFL Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sabino, Joao Marcos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/UN-RN/CE), Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara

    2009-07-01

    A 16 inches oil pipeline was surveyed with MFL and Palito pig in 2007. The MFL inspection was performed by Pipeway Engenharia while Palito inspection was performed by PETROBRAS. A comparison between the results of these two ILI inspections has been made to validate Palito Pig and to assess main characteristics and differences between the two techniques. The purpose of this paper is to detail the methodology applied to perform the comparison and to present a comparative study of results registered in the MFL and Palito inspections by Pipeway Engenharia, PETROBRAS/CENPES and CPTI/PUC-Rio. (author)

  5. Mining Frequent Itemsets from Online Data Streams: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HebaTallah Mohamed Nabil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Online mining of data streams poses many new challenges more than mining static databases. In addition to the one-scan nature, the unbounded memory requirement, the high data arrival rate of data streams and the combinatorial explosion of itemsets exacerbate the mining task. The high complexity of the frequent itemsets mining problem hinders the application of the stream mining techniques. In this review, we present a comparative study among almost all, as we are acquainted, the algorithms for mining frequent itemsets from online data streams. All those techniques immolate with the accuracy of the results due to the relatively limited storage, leading, at all times, to approximated results.

  6. Thalamus segmentation from MP2RAGE: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Blicher, Jakob

    , increasing the number of training images in the library of SNIPE improves segmentation accuracy (Figure 4). Even though the DSI seems to plateau around a library size of 10-11 images, increasing the library may improve the accuracy even further. Conclusions: Widely used atlas based segmentation methods...... the Freesurfer pipeline, which is a high failure rate compared to studies running Freesurfer on conventional MPRAGE images [7]. All evaluated methods under-segments the thalamus, which may be desirable from a clinical point of view, if segmentation masks are used for characterizing the structure using e...

  7. A comparative study of two computer-aided measurement methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gronau, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    Growth and developmental disorders of the elbow joint are frequent causes of lameness of the thoracic limb of the dog. Golden Retriever is one of the mainly affected breeds. Two different computer-aided methods of measurement will be compared in this study. The aim is to find out whether one of these measurement methods is more suitable to distinguish affected from unaffected joints and to recognize a possible predisposition for elbow dysplasia (ED). X-Rays of the elbow joints in the medio-la...

  8. Comparative Study of Various SDLC Models on Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of a software development project greatly depends upon which process model is used. This paper emphasizes on the need of using appropriate model as per the application to be developed. In this paper we have done the comparative study of the following software models namely Waterfall, Prototype, RAD (Rapid Application Development Incremental, Spiral, Build and Fix and V-shaped. Our aim is to create reliable and cost effective software and these models provide us a way to develop them. The main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features of each model.

  9. A Comparative Study on Decision Making Methods with Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM models are used to solve a number of decision making problems universally. Most of these methods require the use of integers as input data. However, there are problems which have indeterminate values or data intervals which need to be analysed. In order to solve problems with interval data, many methods have been reported. Through this study an attempt has been made to compare and analyse the popular decision making tools for interval data problems. Namely, I-TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, DI-TOPSIS, cross entropy, and interval VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimiza-cija I Kompromisno Resenje have been compared and a novel algorithm has been proposed. The new algorithm makes use of basic TOPSIS technique to overcome the limitations of known methods. To compare the effectiveness of the various methods, an example problem has been used where selection of best material family for the capacitor application has to be made. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is able to overcome the known limitations of the previous techniques. Thus, it can be easily and efficiently applied to various decision making problems with interval data.

  10. A Comparative Study Of Psychiatric Morbidity In Dermatological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neelu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric morbidity in five chronic and disfiguring diseases, namely psoriasis, chronic urticaria, leprosy, vitiligo and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC was assessed and compared using the standardized Hindi (Vernacular languages version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-H. Thirty new untreated patients of each of the above skin diseases between the age group of 18-60 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence of the psychiatric morbidity was found to be 39%, depression and anxiety were present in 13% and 10.66% of the patients and suicidal ideations and somatisation in 16% and 13% of the patients respectively. Prevalence of interpersonal conflict and suicidal attempt were 10% and 2.6% respectively. On comparative analysis of psychiatric morbidity, significant difference was observed between vitiligo and other disorders (p=0.0028, i.e., chronic urticaria (p=0.0242 and psoriasis and other disorders (p=0.0028, however no significant difference could be elicited between psoriasis and leprosy or leprosy and vitiligo. Comparative analysis of anxiety revealed statistically significant difference between the patients of LSC and vitiligo (p=0.02 or vitiligo and chronic urticaria (p=0.04 but no significant difference was observed for vitiligo and leprosy of psoriasis and leprosy. The prevalence of somatic complaints showed significant difference between the patients of LSC and Leprosy.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy; Nanoparticulas magneticas para o tratamento do cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakuzis, Andris F. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    Full text: Magnetic nanoparticles have been used in several biomedical applications, spanning from cell separation, early diagnosis of metastasis to even the treatment of cancer via magnetic hyperthermia (MH). This last technique consists in the increase of temperature of nanoparticles when their magnetic moments interact with a magnetic alternating field. This effect has been suggested as an innovative therapy to cancer treatment, due to the delivery of heat or therapeutic agents, such as drugs, genes, and others. In addition, several clinical studies has demonstrated synergetic effects between hyperthermia and radiotherapy [1]. This indicates a great therapeutic potential for this noninvasive and targeted technique. In this talk we will discuss results from the literature and from our own group in the treatment of cancer via magnetic hyperthermia. Several types of magnetic nanoparticles suggested for this application will be discussed, as well as the historical evolution of this procedure, which although suggested in the late 50' only recently was approved in Europe for treatment of humans with brain tumors. (author) [Portuguese] Full text: Nanoparticulas magneticas tem sido utilizadas em diversas aplicacoes biomedicas, desde a separacao de celulas, marcacao de celulas-tronco, diagnostico precoce de metastases ao tratamento do cancer via hipertermia magnetica (HM). Esta ultima tecnica consiste no aumento da temperatura de nanoparticulas quando seus momentos magneticos interagem de forma adequada com um campo magnetico alternado. Este efeito tem sido idealizado como uma nova terapia para o tratamento do cancro, seja via entrega seletiva de calor ou mesmo pela liberacao de farmacos, genes ou outros agentes terapeuticos por meio desta acao externa. Adicionalmente, diversos estudos clinicos tem demonstrado efeitos sinergicos entre a hipertermia e tecnicas tradicionais de tratamento oncologico, como quimioterapia e radioterapia. Isto indica um forte potencial

  12. Innovation Policies: A comparative study Between Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comparison between the main actions promoted to encourage innovation by France, as well as the current stage of research and development initiatives (R&D, in relation to Brazil. Is a qualitative study that the procedures for its development ranks as literature and documents. The data collection technique was documentary and had as a data source primary and secondary documents, coming from public archives and statistical sources. For the survey of brazilian data for the development of this study, it was used as informational basis the fifth edition of the Innovation Research (PINTEC 2011. The data from France raised through the use of OECD year Report 2014 " Reviews of Innovation Policy France in 2014."  For the presentation of the study results comparative charts and tables were used. As the present study results can be highlighted, among others: France is a country with a long scientific tradition and technique, and plays a significant role in the world in this area. On the other hand, Brazil has one of the lowest proportions of R&D and export of high technology to GDP. The completion of this study brought an important diagnosis: there is a wide and interesting research topic that is still little explored by Brazilian researchers.

  13. Estudos comparados: sua epistemologia e sua historicidade Compared studies: epistemology and historicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciavatta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparação parte da analogia que é o processo de perceber as diferenças e semelhanças na relação com o outro, pessoas e objetos. A questão do outro e do reconhecimento da alteridade é a base do conhecimento da identidade de si mesmo e da distinção em relação aos demais seres. Assim como as ciências têm uma gênese e um desenvolvimento ao longo da história da humanidade, as questões epistemológicas também possuem uma historicidade. Ao refletir sobre a verdade dos estudos comparados, sobre sua epistemologia, vemos que eles se fazem compreensíveis e convincentes na medida em que a sociologia, a história, a antropologia, a política, a educação etc. são remetidas à história de sua elaboração. Nelas estão presentes os sujeitos sociais que as produziram e as ideologias que permearam suas ideias sobre a verdade científica. Neste texto, após algumas questões preliminares que o tratamento do tema requer, a saber, conhecimento e verdade, história e historicidade e o sentido da comparação, apresento alguns autores de referência que se ocuparam do tema e, a seguir, alguns estudos comparativos que desenvolvi em elaborações anteriores sobre a questão.The comparison is based on the analogy that is the process of perceiving the differences and similarities in the relationship with the other, people and objects. The issue about the other and the recognition of alterity is the basis of the knowledge of the very own identity and of the distinction in regards to the other beings. Just as sciences have a genesis and a development along the mankind history, the epistemological issues also bear a historicity. When reflecting about the truth of compared studies, about their epistemology, we see they are understandable and convincing as the sociology, the history, the anthropology, the politics, the education etc. refer to the history of their creation. There in the social subjects who produced them are present, as well as the

  14. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, comparative, randomized interventional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. 40 diagnosed cases of chronic dacryocystitis were randomized into two groups. Group A included 20 patients who underwent external Dacryocystorhinostomy and group B included the rest of the 20 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS: In group A patients, 9 cases had bleeding during surgery, tearing of the anterior nasal flap was seen in 5 cases and punctal laceration in 4 cases. In group B patients 3 cases had bleeding, 5 cases had Trauma to the middle turbinate while accidental entry into anterior ethmoidal cells was in 4 cases. In 8 cases there was difficulty in making a bone window. In group A patients, duration of surgery is comparatively more than in group B. In post-operative period group A patients, had epistaxis, rhinostomy site closure, hypertrophied external scar and medial canthi damage as its complication while group B epistaxis, nasal Synechea, intra nasal granulation at the ostium are major complication. After a period of 3months by syringing the lacrimal sac of the patients in group A patients, 18 patients had a patent sac (success rate is 90%. In group B patients, 16 patients had a patent sac (success rate being 80%. CONCLUSION: DCR either by external or endonasal route can be considered for treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The external route has an easy and short learning curve with reduced cost of equipment. Whereas

  15. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  16. Carcinoma hepatocelular: parte 2. Tratamento Hepatocelular carcinoma: part 2. Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinício Paride CONTE

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available São revisadas as formas de tratamento, particularmente as ressecções cirúrgicas, a quimioembolização arterial e as injeções percutâneas de etanol e de ácido acético. Alguns aspectos relativos à dieta, com particular atenção à aflatoxina B1 e aos retinóides, são abordados quanto ao seu desempenho na etiopatogenia e no tratamento da afecção mais comumente encontrada nos países em desenvolvimento. Em relação ao tratamento, fazem-se considerações também referentes ao uso de octreotide, nitrosaminas e outras drogas. A coagulação intersticial a laser e as drogas de ação antivascular também mereceram abordagem sucinta. O problema do carcinoma hepatocelular precoce e a sua destruição é sinalizado de modo sumário. A quimioprevenção com o uso do interferon alfa recombinante considerado e o transplante de fígado encerram a revisão, antes dos comentários finais.Recent improvements on the therapeutical management of hepatocellular carcinoma are revised with special attention to evaluate the role of surgery for the disease. Considering that definitive surgical intervention is not feasible in most cases because of extreme tumor extension, multiplicity of tumor foci, and associated advanced liver cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis, others forms of treatment are listed, such as transcatheterarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ethanol and acetic acid injections, and chemotherapy only to a small portion of patients with no indication for standard treatments The emerging role of retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents, was examined and may offer a significant new potential treatment for cancer, inclusive the possibility of combining other anticancer drugs with exogenous retinoids or modulation of endogenous retinoids as a real opportunity to advance our ability to treat or prevent human cancer effectively. Octreotide, nitrosamine and other drugs are analyzed and is concluded that improves survival and is a valuable

  17. A comparability study of 5 commercial KRAS tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuris Tibor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activating mutations in the KRAS gene occur frequently in human tumors, including colorectal carcinomas; most mutations occur in codons 12 and 13. Mutations in KRAS have been associated with poor response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Therefore, an accurate and readily available analysis of KRAS mutational status is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate concordance between KRAS assays performed by 6 different laboratories. Methods Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tumor samples were obtained. Sample sections were submitted for KRAS mutation analysis to 5 independent commercial laboratories (Agencourt, Gentris, Genzyme, HistoGeneX, and Invitek and to the Amgen DNA Sequencing Laboratory for direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing. The assay used by Invitek is no longer commercially available and has been replaced by an alternative technique. Results from the commercial services were compared with those from Amgen direct sequencing by κ statistics. Results KRAS mutations were observed in codon 12 and/or 13 in 20 of 40 (50% samples in Amgen direct sequencing assays. Results from HistoGeneX (κ = 0.95, Genzyme (κ = 0.94, and Agencourt (κ = 0.94 were in almost perfect agreement with these results, and the results from Gentris were in substantial agreement with the results from Amgen (κ = 0.75. The Invitek allele-specific assay demonstrated slight agreement (κ = 0.13. Conclusions This study provides data on the comparability of KRAS mutational analyses. The results suggest that most (but not all commercial services provide analysis that is accurate and comparable with direct sequencing.

  18. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblebicioglu Hakan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.

  19. A comparative study of ketanserin and metoprolol in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J A; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; Gould, S E

    1986-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of ketanserin was compared with metoprolol in a double-blind parallel group study. After a 4-week placebo run-in on no treatment patients with a diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 95 mmHg or more received ketanserin 40 mg (n = 16) or metoprolol 100 mg (n = 17) twice daily. Blood pressure was measured in duplicate using a Hawksley random zero sphygmomanometer. Both blood pressure and heart rate were recorded after 5 min supine and 1 min standing. Patients visited after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BPs, both supine and standing, were significantly reduced from week 2 by both treatments (P less than 0.05, Student's t-test). The mean (+/- s.e.m.) changes in supine BP at 3 months compared with baseline were -15.7 (3.6) mmHg systolic and -13.9 (2.7) mmHg diastolic in the ketanserin group and -26.6 (7.9) mmHg systolic and -15.2 (2.7) mmHg diastolic in the metoprolol group. There was a tendency for the fall in systolic BP to be greater in the metoprolol group, but this did not reach statistical significance except for the standing systolic BP at 1 month. Metoprolol caused a significant fall in heart rate compared with baseline values throughout the study, and the metoprolol group was significantly different from the ketanserin group at 2 months for the supine heart rate and at all time points for standing heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  1. A Comparative Study of Antarctic Arctic and Himalayan Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Pathak

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic, Antarctic and inaccessible lofty regions of Himalayas,which are geographically diverse areas and have been a constant source of inspiration, envisages a challenging field of study 'by early adventurers and scientists of the world. Characteristics of ice obtained at Arctic and Antarctic do not possess similar properties. Even thesalient properties of snow and ice of western and central Himalayas vary due to its differing free water content. A study has been carriedout based on recent Antarctic Expedition by Indian scientists and the data gathered along litha-tectonic regions of Himalayas and their characteristics have been compared, wkich brings out stratigraphic and metamorphic characteristics of the ice and snow. In the present paper,an analysis of the ice and snow properties of Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan regions has been presented.

  2. A Comparative Study of Group Key Management in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Bashary,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a self organized network, with no fixed infrastructure, limited resources and limited physical security. Security in such an environment is an essential requirement. Key management is a salient element in MANET security. It is responsible for key generation, storage, distribution, updating, revocation, deleting, and archiving. Key management protocols are classified into symmetric, asymmetric, group, and hybrid. Group key management is a point of interest for researchers with the growing usage of mobile devices and the rising of multicast communication. This paper surveys different approaches in group key management schemes. A comparative study is demonstrated in terms of reliability, computational complexity, storage cost, communication overheads, pre-requirements, security levels, robustness, vulnerabilities, scalability, energy and mobility. Finally, the study concludes the pros and cons of each protocol.

  3. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  4. The Comparative Study of Color Metaphors in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琦

    2014-01-01

    With the development of human civilization, the significance of the color terms gradually emerges in our daily life and the unique charm which the color terms express and display, makes us regard them with special esteem. Color terms not only have the literal meanings, describing the things in nature, they also have the extended or metaphorical meanings, expressing dif erent and complex human emotions as well as the characteristic of the changing matters. This paper tries to give a comparative study of some basic color metaphors in English and Chinese as I discover that though color metaphors used in different languages have something in common they also have the difference, which deserves our further study.

  5. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  6. Thalamus segmentation from MP2RAGE: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Blicher, Jakob

    methods may not work well with this new sequence. In this study we tested three different automatic methods for the important task of segmenting the thalamus from human brain MP2RAGE images. Methods: Twelve healthy control subjects (age range 19 – 38 years, two females) were scanned with a whole brain MP2.......g. diffusion or perfusion parameters obtained from other MRI sequences. For volumetric studies parameters of SNIPE can be adjusted to balance the over- and under-segmentation ratios......., such as Freesurfer and ANIMAL, do not work well with the new MP2RAGE sequence without modifications. Non-local patch based segmentation methods are better suited for the task, which is demonstrated by the improved accuracy of SNIPE compared to Freesurfer and ANIMAL. In addition, 25% of test images failed...

  7. Clinicopharmacological comparative study of rizatriptan versus conventional therapy in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, Anjali; Tomar, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological problem, which accounts for large morbidity and disability. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of moderate to severe migraine. This study compared the safety, efficacy and pharmaco-economics of rizatriptan (5HT(IB/ID) agonist) versus conventional therapy (paracetamol 500 mg + metoclopramide 10 mg + flunarizine 10 mg + alprazolam 0.5 mg). In this study, drug combinations used in conventional therapy was indigenously designed by the neurologist. Rizatriptan was found more efficacious than conventional therapy in terminating an attack of migraine and its' associated symptoms but looking into the contra-indications, side-effects and cost of the former there has been limitation in its prescription as well as the use.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim and objective of this study is to compare the pulmonary function variables with the help of spirometer among beedi smokers, cigarette smokers and subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. BACKGROUND Smoking is a major public health problem and a major cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths all over the world. Pulmonary function variables will differ based on the type of smoking i.e. Beedi smokers, cigarette smokers, subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. METHODS Cross sectional study done on 90 male smokers attending the Pulmonary Outpatient Department of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. Spirometry was done to assess the pulmonary function. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function values showed significant reduction in beedi smokers than people who smoke both beedi and cigarette, followed by subjects who smoked cigarette alone.

  9. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2017-08-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  10. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  11. Comparative visualization for parameter studies of dataset series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Muddassir; Heinzl, Christoph; Eduard Gröller, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes comparison and visualization techniques to carry out parameter studies for the special application area of dimensional measurement using 3D X-ray computed tomography (3DCT). A dataset series is generated by scanning a specimen multiple times by varying parameters of an industrial 3DCT device. A high-resolution series is explored using our planar-reformatting-based visualization system. We present a novel multi-image view and an edge explorer for comparing and visualizing gray values and edges of several datasets simultaneously. Visualization results and quantitative data are displayed side by side. Our technique is scalable and generic. It can be effective in various application areas like parameter studies of imaging modalities and dataset artifact detection. For fast data retrieval and convenient usability, we use bricking of the datasets and efficient data structures. We evaluate the applicability of the proposed techniques in collaboration with our company partners.

  12. A comparative study of Raman enhancement in capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Irizar, Juan; Hulbert, Laila; Helmy, Amr S.

    2011-06-01

    This work reports on the comparative studies of Raman enhancement in liquid core waveguides (LCWs). The theoretical considerations that describe Raman enhancement in LCWs is adapted to analyze and compare the performance of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) to conventional Teflon capillary tubes. The optical losses in both platforms are measured and used to predict their performance for different lengths. The results show that for an optimal waveguide length, two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal can be achieved for aqueous solutions using HCPCFs. This length, however, cannot be achieved using normal capillary effects. By integrating the interface of the fluidic pump and the HCPCF into a microfluidic chip, we are able to control fluid transport and fill longer lengths of HCPCFs regardless of the viscosity of the sample. The long-term stability and reproducibility of Raman spectra attained through this platform are demonstrated for naphthalenethiol, which is a well-studied organic compound. Using the HCPCF platform, the detection limit of normal Raman scattering in the range of micro-molars has been achieved. In addition to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman signal from the HCPCF-platform, more Raman modes of naphthalenethiol are revealed using this platform.

  13. A comparative phylogenetic study of genetics and folk music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (folk music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.

  14. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues.

  15. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L

    2007-05-01

    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  16. Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.; Muller, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The new IPhreeqc module provides an application programming interface (API) to facilitate coupling of other codes with the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical model PHREEQC. Traditionally, loose coupling of PHREEQC with other applications required methods to create PHREEQC input files, start external PHREEQC processes, and process PHREEQC output files. IPhreeqc eliminates most of this effort by providing direct access to PHREEQC capabilities through a component object model (COM), a library, or a dynamically linked library (DLL). Input and calculations can be specified through internally programmed strings, and all data exchange between an application and the module can occur in computer memory. This study compares simulations programmed in C++ and Python that are tightly coupled with IPhreeqc modules to the traditional simulations that are loosely coupled to PHREEQC. The study compares performance, quantifies effort, and evaluates lines of code and the complexity of the design. The comparisons show that IPhreeqc offers a more powerful and simpler approach for incorporating PHREEQC calculations into transport models and other applications that need to perform PHREEQC calculations. The IPhreeqc module facilitates the design of coupled applications and significantly reduces run times. Even a moderate knowledge of one of the supported programming languages allows more efficient use of PHREEQC than the traditional loosely coupled approach.

  17. Comparative planning study for proton radiotherapy of benign brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, L.; Nicolini, G.; Fogliata, A. [Medical Physics, Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E. [Medical Physics, Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Medical Physics Specialization School, Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: a comparative study of different systems for proton-based radiotherapy was conducted. Material and methods: the Paul Scherrer Institute method for spot scanning was compared with the systems for passive scattering from the helax-TMS and the varian eclipse. Twelve cases of ''benign'' brain tumors were considered (meningiomas, neurinomas, and hypophyseal adenomas). Organs at risk included chiasm, brainstem, eyes and optic nerves as well as the not otherwise specified healthy brain tissue in view of long-term toxicity. Results: the results showed that high target coverage was achievable (V{sub 90} > 98% for all systems). Plans designed with the spot-scanning technique presented the minimum involvement of healthy tissue (e.g., the lowest maximum significant dose to healthy brain [25.6 Gy] or the lowest conformity index [CI{sub 95} = 1.3], between 38% and 46% lower than for the other techniques). Conclusion: in this study, no definitive indication of superiority of any technique can be drawn but spot scanning can better conform dose distributions and minimize the irradiation of healthy volumes at medium to low dose levels, a factor of interest when long life expectancy is considered. (orig.)

  18. Femoral anteversion measured by ultrasound and CT: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, A. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway); Terjesen, T. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway); Eine, J. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway); Kvistad, K.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway)

    1995-02-01

    Both computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography have been used successfully to estimate the femoral anteversion (AV) angle. In this study, AV angles in 20 human adult femurs were determined by ultrasonography and CT and the measurements compared. On CT the real AV angle was measured as the angle between the head-neck centreline and the posterior condylar plane. In addition, the angle between the anterior head-trochanter (HT) tangent and the posterior condylar plane was determined. The latter angle was also measured by ultrasonography using the tilted transducer technique. The mean interobserver variation in the ultrasound measurements was 1.9 . We found ultrasonography to correlate very well with CT, both when comparing with the HT angle (r=0.95) and with the AV angle (r=0.93). The HT angle was on average 4 greater than the AV angle. In this study the accuracy of ultrasonography was {+-}5 and the method is recommended for screening in patients with rotational disorders of the femur. (orig.)

  19. CAECUM AND APPENDIX IN RUMINANTS AND MAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in the trends of living and dietary habits prompted the inquisitiveness in finding out if there are obvious changes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. Ruminants are entirely dependent on the environment for their food and take a long time to feed themselves with foliage which is first taken in and then digested. The changing ecological balance and dwindling reserves in the past few years and changing climatic conditions could probably have an effect on the digestive tract. It has been observed that the cow, sheep and goat have started feeding on debris from the environment. Man has also started changing dietary habits according to convenience and has become aware of organic foods and vegetarian diets. Therefore an attempt was made to see if there are notable changes that can be recorded in the digestive tract. The study here attempted to compare the caecum of man with that of ruminants. The caecum was found to be the largest in the cow in proportion to the weight of the animal. The caecum was almost of the same dimensions in goat and sheep compared with that of man. The appendix was noted only in man. The study attempts to describe the importance of appendix in man and a large caecum in ruminants.

  20. Effect of lincomycin treatment of root surface in dental replantation: a study in rats = Efeito da lincomicina como tratamento da superfície radicular no reimplante de dentes: estudo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Daniela Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudos sobre antibióticos usados topicamente na superfície radicular de dentes avulsionados buscam avaliar suas propriedades anti-reabsortivas que favoreçam o reparo do ligamento periodontal e o restabelecimento da articulação dentoalveolar. Neste mesmo propósito, esta pesquisa avaliou o efeito da lincomicina na superfície radicular, antes do reimplante. Metodologia: Dez ratos foram distribuídos em dois grupos de 05 animais (I – controle e II – experimental. O incisivo superior direito dos animais foi extraído e estocado em leite por 30 min. Em seguida, no grupo I, os dentes foram irrigados com soro fisiológico e reimplantados; no grupo II, os incisivos foram imersos em lincomicina por 5 min, antes do reimplante. Os animais foram eutanasiados no 21º dia pós-operatório e a hemimaxila direita submetida a cortes histológicos, corados em HE, para avaliação microscópica. Resultados: No grupo I, o ligamento periodontal apresentou-se disperso, com infiltrado linfoplasmocitário moderado a intenso e a articulação dentoalveolar não foi restabelecida; no grupo II, notou-se completo reparo do ligamento, poucas células inflamatórias e pequenas áreas de reabsorção inflamatória e anquilose. Conclusões: o uso tópico da lincomicina no tratamento da superfície radicular promoveu o reparo do ligamento periodontal, reduziu o processo inflamatório, mas ainda foram observadas áreas de reabsorção inflamatória e anquilose

  1. [Generations of Italian nurses compared: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Gregori, Dario; Poletti, Piera

    2015-01-01

    The influence that generations have on complex nursing work environment have not been investigated yet in Italy. The majority of studies realized on this topic up to now has a small sample size and is monocentric. None Italian study has directly investigated nursing multigenerational workforce. The study aimed to investigate the existence of generational differences in Italian nurses professional within the italian context and describe their characteristics. A 33 items questionnaire devised for the purpose was administred to a sample of 317 nurses of two major Italian North-East hospital. Five dimensions were analyzed: professional space, professional role, professional culture, orientation to care, relationships among generations. Data showed statistically significant differences among nurses generations in 9 items. The dimensions with the greatest number of significant items were found to be relationship among generations (6 items), followed by orientation to care, professional space and professional role (1 item each). Results highlighted the existence of generational differences and give some information on perceptions and relationships between italian nurses generations. Being the first exploratory study on Italian nurses, it is currently impossible to compare these results with those of previous studies. Further investigation is needed to make more comparisons with international literature.

  2. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COLD KNIFE ADENOTONSILLECTOMY AND COBLATION ADENOTONSILLECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Col . S. K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To compare intra and postoperative recovery after Cold dissection adenotonsillectomy ( P rocedure 1 and Coblation assisted adenotonsillectomy ( P rocedure 2 and to determine whether there is a significant difference betwe en the two methods i n terms of benefit to the patients. METHODS: A single blind comparative study of 60 pediatric patients aged 5 to 16 years undergoing adenotonsillectomy was conducted. The study assessed the results of two procedures in terms of duration, intra and post - operative bleeding, resumption to normal activi ty and quality of life assessment. The parameters were statistically compared between the two groups. RESULTS: 60 patients who underwent surgery (30 for cold dissection and 30 for coblation adenoton sillectomy were found to have comparable demographic dat a with a mean age of 9.33 and 9.37 in procedure 1 & 2 respectively. The distribution of symptoms and grades of adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy was found statistically insignificant. The duration of the surgical procedure was significantly higher in the cobl ation group with a mean of 29.18 minutes in comparison to the other procedure with a mean of 22.8 minutes. The blood loss was around 20 ml for coblation versus 35 ml for cold steel method which was significant. T he mean pain scores at 6 hrs post - surgery wer e low in coblation group, similar results were seen at 12hrs and again at 2 days there was low pain score. There was not much difference after 1 month in both the groups. Coblation procedure had a quicker return to normal diet with a mean duration of 2.67 d ays which was significant than th e cold dissection method (mean - 4.16 days. The quality of life scores were found similar in both the groups at the end of 6 months. CONCLUSION: The reduction of intraoperative blood loss in Coblation tonsillectomy was obvio us and reduction of the postoperative pain and early return to normal diet were statistically significant. But the duration

  4. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of "institutions" and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study's methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed.

  5. Translation Evaluation: A Comparative Study of an Oblique Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    / Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation is of an absolute necessity in today’s world. Robinson (1997 states that the study of translation is an integral part of intercultural relations and of conveying scientific and technological knowledge. He further mentions that “translators need to be able to process linguistic materials quickly and efficiently; but they also need to be able to recognize problem areas and to slow down to solve them in complex analytical ways” (p. 2. This study is an attempt to explore and evaluate an oblique translation of a text from English into Persian to find the most frequent translation strategy. To reach the goal of the study, the researchers selected one hundred and ten sentences of an original English text which had been translated freely at random and compared them with their Persian counterparts. The findings of the study indicated that Persian translator used equivalent strategy with the highest percentage (45% in the translated corpus. After that, modulation, and transposition had the highest percentages respectively.

  6. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  7. A new approach to exfoliative cytology: A comparative cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, M; Shetty, P; Pai, P

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of oral premalignancy and malignancy using simple screening aids play a promising role in curbing the disease. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate and the secondary aim of this study is to compare the cytomorphometry and cellular atypia in keratinocytes obtained from oral rinse and conventional exfoliative cytology in normal oral mucosa and clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia. The study comprised of 55 clinically diagnosed cases of leukoplakia and 55 age and sex matched normal controls. Smears were prepared using oral rinse technique followed by the conventional exfoliative cytology. Papanicoloau stained smears were evaluated for atypia and subjected to image analysis. Based on the presence of atypia they were further divided into three groups (Group 1-cases with atypia, Group 2-without atypia and Group 3-normal controls) and analyzed. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test for intergroup analysis and unpaired students t-test to compare the two methods. Smears prepared with both methods demonstrated atypia in 18 cases. The cellular diameter and cellular area (CA) were progressively increased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3 in both the smears. Nuclear diameter and nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio progressively decreased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3. Both the methods showed no significant differences among the cellular parameters except in normal controls. Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes obtained with oral rinse method and wooden spatula can serve as a useful screening aid to detect oral leukoplakia. Oral rinse method being more convenient results in smears of better quality.

  8. A new approach to exfoliative cytology: A comparative cytomorphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shaila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Early detection of oral premalignancy and malignancy using simple screening aids play a promising role in curbing the disease. Aim: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate and the secondary aim of this study is to compare the cytomorphometry and cellular atypia in keratinocytes obtained from oral rinse and conventional exfoliative cytology in normal oral mucosa and clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 55 clinically diagnosed cases of leukoplakia and 55 age and sex matched normal controls. Smears were prepared using oral rinse technique followed by the conventional exfoliative cytology. Papanicoloau stained smears were evaluated for atypia and subjected to image analysis. Based on the presence of atypia they were further divided into three groups (Group 1-cases with atypia, Group 2-without atypia and Group 3-normal controls and analyzed. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test for intergroup analysis and unpaired students t-test to compare the two methods. Results: Smears prepared with both methods demonstrated atypia in 18 cases. The cellular diameter and cellular area (CA were progressively increased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3 in both the smears. Nuclear diameter and nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio progressively decreased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3. Both the methods showed no significant differences among the cellular parameters except in normal controls. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes obtained with oral rinse method and wooden spatula can serve as a useful screening aid to detect oral leukoplakia. Oral rinse method being more convenient results in smears of better quality.

  9. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubo A. Sonibare; Adedapo A. Adeniran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods:Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results: More than 80%shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30%whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions: The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant.

  10. Texture analysis of multiple sclerosis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tong, Longzheng; Wang, Lei; Li, Ning

    2008-10-01

    The difficulty of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) stems from the subtle pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, texture analysis was performed on MR images of MS patients and normal controls and a combined set of texture features were explored in order to better discriminate tissues between MS lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal white matter (NWM). Features were extracted from gradient matrix, run-length (RL) matrix, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet analysis, and were selected based on greatest difference between different tissue types. The results of the combined set of texture features were compared with our previous results of GLCM-based features alone. The results of this study demonstrated that (1) with the combined set of texture features, classification was perfect (100%) between MS lesions and NAWM (or NWM), less successful (88.89%) among the three tissue types and worst (58.33%) between NAWM and NWM; (2) compared with GLCM-based features, the combined set of texture features were better at discriminating MS lesions and NWM, equally good at discriminating MS lesions and NAWM and at all three tissue types, but less effective in classification between NAWM and NWM. This study suggested that texture analysis with the combined set of texture features may be equally good or more advantageous than the commonly used GLCM-based features alone in discriminating MS lesions and NWM/NAWM and in supporting early diagnosis of MS.

  11. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5% and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration.

  12. Antiamoebic chemoprophylaxis using quinfamide in children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas; Diaz, Rosalinda; Alarcon, Alfonso; Barreda, Roberto

    2002-04-20

    This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC) in three samples over consecutive days using Faust"s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating c2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2%) had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study, Group 1 presented

  13. Antiamoebic Chemoprophylaxis Using Quinfamide in Children: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Padilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC in three samples over consecutive days using Faust’s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating X2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2% had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study

  14. Comparative study on diagonal equivalent methods of masonry infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Aniendhita Rizki; Iranata, Data

    2017-06-01

    ratio of height to width of 1 to 1.5. Load used in the experiment was based on Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1991. Every method compared was calculated first to get equivalent diagonal strut width. The second step was modelling method using structure analysis software as a frame with a diagonal in a linear mode. The linear mode was chosen based on structure analysis commonly used by structure designers. The frame was loaded and for every model, its load and deformation values were identified. The values of load - deformation of every method were compared to those of experimental test specimen by Mehrabi and open frame. From comparative study performed, Holmes' and Bazan-Meli's equations gave results the closest to the experimental test specimen by Mehrabi. Other equations that gave close values within the limit (by comparing it to the open frame) are Saneinejad-Hobbs, Stafford-Smith, Bazan-Meli, Liauw Kwan, Paulay and Priestley, FEMA 356, Durani Luo, Hendry, Papia and Chen-Iranata.

  15. Contrasting tropical estuarine ecosystem functioning and stability: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Maria Ching

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of the Sine-saloum (Senegal) and Gambia (The Gambia) estuaries was performed based on trophic model outputs that describe the system structure and functioning. These trophic models were constructed such as to differentiate main energetic flows in the systems and express how climate change may have impacted ecosystem resilience to change. Estuarine fish assemblages are highly resilient despite exposure to vast hydrodynamic variations and stress. Coupled with strong anthropogenic-driven stresses such as fisheries and climate change, ecosystems may undergo severe regime shifts that may weaken their resilience and stability. Taxonomically related and morphologically similar species do not necessarily play similar ecological roles in these two ecosystems. Biomass and production in the Sine-saloum are concentrated at trophic levels (TLs) 2 and 3, while for the Gambia, both are concentrated at TL3. Higher TL biomasses in Gambia compared to Sine-Saloum may be explained by the latter ecosystem being characterized by inverse hypersalinity. Higher TL of production in Sine-Saloum is due to higher exploitations compared to Gambia where fishing activities are still less developed. High production and consumption rates of some groups in both ecosystems indicate high system productivity. Elevated productivity may be due to higher abundance of juvenile fishes in most groups that utilize the latter as refuge and/or nursery zones. Both ecosystems are phytoplankton-driven. Differences in group trophic and ecological roles are mainly due to adaptive responses of these species to seasonal and long-term climate and anthropogenic stressors. System indicators suggest different levels of ecosystem resilience and stability as a function of biodiversity. Relevance of other observations on ecosystem functioning and indicators in relation to perturbation is discussed.

  16. DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL FOR ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe cardiovascular response in the form of tachycardia and hypertension occur during induction of general anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation. This can cause deleterious effects in hypertensive and other cardiovascular disease patients. Alpha-2 (α-2 agonists are increasingly used as adjuncts in anaesthesia. Nowadays, dexmedetomidine, α-2 adrenoreceptor agonist, is gaining popularity for its sympatholytic, sedative, anaesthetic sparing and haemodynamic stabilizing properties without significant respiratory depression. The stable hemodynamic and decreased oxygen consumption due to enhanced sympathoadrenal stability make dexmedetomidine very useful pharmacologic agent. The present study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in attenuating the response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. We enrolled 100 patients in age range 18-50 years of ASA I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective operation of short duration. Patients were randomly selected and allocated into two Groups. Group D: Received dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg intravenous (IV bolus and Group F: received fentanyl 1μg/kg IV bolus 10min before induction. All patients were induced with thiopentone sodium and vecuronium. Patients in both the Groups were continuously monitored for heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP and data recorded. After induction and intubation HR, SBP, DBP and MAP were significantly lower in Group D than Group F (P<0.004, P=0.00, P<0.04, P<0.006 respectively. The need for thiopentone was decreased by 9% in the dexmedetomidine Group as compared to the fentanyl Group. Post-operative sedation and pain scores were comparably less in Group D than Group F. We conclude, Preoperative infusion of 1μg/kg of both dexmedetomidine and fentanyl are effective in attenuating the sympathetic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation however, dexmedetomidine blunts this

  17. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  18. Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.

  19. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  20. A comparative kinetic study of SNCR process using ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, M. Tayyeb; Ahmed, Z.; Ibrahim, M. Asim; Irfan, N.

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents comparative kinetic modelling of nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gases by selective non-catalytic reduction process using ammonia as reducing agent. The computer code SENKIN is used in this study with the three published chemical kinetic mechanisms; Zanoelo, Kilpinen and Skreiberg. Kinetic modeling was performed for an isothermal plug flow reactor at atmospheric pressure so as to compare it with the experimental results. A 500 ppm NOx background in the flue gas is considered and kept constant throughout the investigation. The ammonia performance was modeled in the range of 750 to 1250{sup o}C using the molar ratios NH{sub 3}/NOx from 0.25 to 3.0 and residence times up to 1.5 seconds. The modeling using all the mechanisms exhibits and confirms a temperature window of NOx reduction with ammonia. It was observed that 80% of NOx reduction efficiency could be achieved if the flue gas is given 300 msec to react with ammonia, while it is passing through a section within a temperature range of 910 to 1060{sup o}C (Kilpinen mechanism) or within a temperature range of 925 to 1030{sup o}C (Zanoelo mechanism) or within a temperature range of 890 to 1090{sup o}C (Skreiberg mechanism). 20 refs., 6 figs.

  1. A comparative study of the Poetry of Hafez and Emerson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فتوحی رود معجنی فتوحی رود معجنی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Persian poetry on American literature is one of the discussions that have been reviewed to a lesser degree by those, who have done research in the field of comparative literature. The subject of the current article is to examine the influence of Hafez of Shiraz on the romantic poet and the transcendentalist philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson. The given research first gives a short introduction on his life and framework of thought, then introduces Emerson’s literary style, and provides information on his acquaintance with Hafez through German median texts. The second part examines Hafez’s personality in the eyes of the American poet-philosopher, and evaluates the quality of Emerson’s translations of the works of Hafez. In the final part, through a comparative study of Emerson’s and Hafez’s poetry, intellectual and stylistic similarities of the two poets, and the extent of Hafez’s influence on Emerson are examined. Hafez’s influence on Emerson is not only evident in his contents and imagination forms, but also in his intellectual framework. These similarities are illustrated through citation of articles, as well as the poetry of Emerson and their comparison with Hafez’s poetry. Key words: Hafez of Shiraz, Emerson, American Literature, influence of Eastern Literature on the West.

  2. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Durán-Díaz, Ángel; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROFITABILITY OF TOURISTIC PENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion that rural tourism has witnessed in the late XIXth century was determined by the existence of two reasons: on the one side the revival and development of the rural area, and the other side the alternative tourism form compared to traditional, classic or table tourism. It is known that regardless of the external environment in which tourist accommodation units operate, an important role belongs to the quality of the services offered and the satisfaction level of the customers. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the economic efficiency of the Confort Pension located in a rural area and the Danacris Pension from the urban area. The reason for choosing these two units was that the types of tourism they represent are significant areas of operation, namely leisure tourism ("Confort " Pension from Suceava area and business tourism ("Danacris" Pension fromBucharest. Based on the existing methodology in the specialized literature, specific indicators were calculated in order to highlight economic efficiency. Based on the analysis of the main financial standing indicators and the evolution of income and expenditure one may conclude that both companies were profitable.

  4. Kinematics Comparative Study of Two Overconstrained Parallel Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study of kinematics characteristics of two overconstrained 2-RPU&SPR parallel manipulators (PMs is introduced in this paper. The two 2-RPU&SPR PMs have the same kinematics properties in terms of one translational degree of freedom (DOF and two rotational DOFs kinematics outputs. But there are some differences between the two PMs as far as joints distribution is concerned, leading to the differences in respect of workspace and dexterity of the two PMs. Firstly, based on screw theory, the structural characteristics and DOFs of the two PMs are analyzed. Secondly, the inverse and forward displacements problems for the two PMs are formulated by analytic formulae. Some numerical examples are simulated by software. Thirdly, based on algorithm for the direct displacement solution, the workspace characteristics of the two PMs are analyzed and compared. Then, the Jacobian matrices of the mechanisms are formulated. Based on the Jacobian matrices, the dexterities of the two PMs are established and compared. Finally, according to the comparisons of the properties between the two PMs, some useful conclusions are provided.

  5. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Talamás-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  6. A Comparative Study of Default Reasoning and Epistemic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study between the theories of default reasoning and open logic is given.Some concepts of open logic,such as new premises,rejections by facts,reconstructions ,epistemic processes,and its limit are introduced to describe th evolution of hypotheses.An improved version of the limit theorem is given and proved.A model-theoretic interpretation of the closed normal defaults is given using the above concepts and the corresponding completeness is proved.Any extension of a closed normal default theory is proved to be the linit of a δ-partial increasing epistemic process of that theory,and vice versa.It is proved that there exist two distinct extensions of a closed normal default theory iff there is an δ-non-monotonic epistemic process of that theory.The completeness of Reiter's proof is also given and proved,in terms of the epistemic processes.Finally,the work is compared with Gaerdenfors's theory of knowledge in flux.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  8. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cortesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  9. Mode of administration does matter: comparability study using IPAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Magalhães Bandeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compared all-domains and domain-specific physical activity scores assessed through four variations of the IPAQ long version: (a typical week, administered by an interviewer; (b typical week, self-administered; (c past seven days, interviewer-administered; (d past seven days, self-administered. The sample included 38 physical education college students. Self-reported scores were in general twice higher than interview-administered scores, regardless the recall period used. In terms of domain-specific scores, occupational physical activity scores generated by self-report were 6-7 times greater than those originated from interviews. The same trend was observed for household physical activity. Transport physical activity scores did not change according to the mode of administration. In terms of leisure-time physical activity, scores were similar except for the interviewer-administered past seven days, whose scores were lower than the other three versions of IPAQ. In conclusion, the mode of administration of IPAQ does matter; higher scores are obtained through self-report as compared to interviews, probably by misinterpretation of the instrument in self-report mode. The recall period had little effect on physical activity estimates.

  10. [Stereoscopic neuroanatomy: comparative study between anaglyphic and light polarization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Murilo Sousa; Cruz, André Vieira; Castro, Izara Almeida; Pedrozo, Ari A

    2002-09-01

    The need of didactic material is increasing in medical science nowadays. The lack of anatomical specimens, and the toxicity of conservators, have originated an intense search for alternative ways of demonstrating the human anatomy. As a solution for this difficulty, three-dimensional (3-D) images may be used, facilitating the learning process. This study aims at comparing and describing two techniques of reproduction of bi-dimensional images into three dimensions, which is called stereoscopy. The methods evaluated are filter of colors (anaglyphic) and polarized light. Techniques were analyzed for clearness and 3-D effect. Fourteen images were evaluated by 5 people, with scores ranging from 0 to 4. Total mean scores of polarized light was superior compared to the anaglyphic technique. Both methods use the codification of the image, which means separation and exclusivity with each eye seeing its corresponding image. After several photographic essays and gradual adaptation to a better technique, based on optical physics, photography and neuroanatomical knowledge, we concluded that both techniques are suitable means for production of 3-D images. The best technique, however, considering the final quality of image was polarized light, which did not alter the natural color of the specimen, conserving clearness of images with lower cost.

  11. Colloidal Dispersions for the Delivery of Acyclovir: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M.; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  12. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  13. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.

  14. Manual tracing versus smartphone application (app) tracing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gülşilay; Kilinc, Delal Dara

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the results of conventional manual cephalometric tracing with those acquired with smartphone application cephalometric tracing. The cephalometric radiographs of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) were traced via the manual and app methods and were subsequently examined with Steiner's analysis. Five skeletal measurements, five dental measurements and two soft tissue measurements were managed based on 21 landmarks. The durations of the performances of the two methods were also compared. SNA (Sella, Nasion, A point angle) and SNB (Sella, Nasion, B point angle) values for the manual method were statistically lower (p app method. The ANB value for the manual method was statistically lower than that of app method. L1-NB (°) and upper lip protrusion values for the manual method were statistically higher than those for the app method. Go-GN/SN, U1-NA (°) and U1-NA (mm) values for manual method were statistically lower than those for the app method. No differences between the two methods were found in the L1-NB (mm), occlusal plane to SN, interincisal angle or lower lip protrusion values. Although statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, the cephalometric tracing proceeded faster with the app method than with the manual method.

  15. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  16. Comparing the Leadership Styles of Two Heads of Department at Carnelian School: Comparative Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandalo, Marthese

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare and contrast the Leadership Styles of two Heads of Department who work at Carnelian Secondary School (anonymized). It augments a previous paper (Parascandalo 2011) which examined the role of the middle leader in secondary schools in educational literature. The investigation by means of two…

  17. A Comparative Study of Comparative and Politeness Principles between Chinese and English Cultures(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席晓

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that people lay special emphasis on difference aspects of"Comparative principle"or"politeness principle"in the light of their own culture in cross-culture communication.And it analyses what the differences of PP in the language using in Pragmatic are,and why?It deals with the differences between English and Chinese cultures.

  18. Communication linguistique: Etude comparative faite sur le terrain (Linguistic Communication: A Comparative Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Compares the four international systems of linguistic communication used in the field (systems used in the United Nations, multinationals, the European Union, and Esperanto organizations) on select criteria (e.g., previous government investment). Discusses research that shows unilingual systems (English used alone, Esperanto) are those that…

  19. A Comparative Characteristic Study of Jatropha and Cardanol Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhenthi, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Muthuraman, R. K.; Vivek, P.; Parthiban, A.

    2017-03-01

    The demand in fuel needs and the depleting fossil fuels raised the need towards bio-fuels. The emerging trend in research field is highly focused on biodiesel production and their characteristic analysis. Since pollution is a major threat to the environment, emission parameter analyses are much important to be concentrated. As the entire world contains plenty of biofuels, it is necessary to explore them for its efficiency and analyze their parameters. In this experimental work jatropha and cashew nut shell biodiesel (Cardanol) was extracted and they were blended with diesel. The characteristics of jatropha and cardanol biodiesel were studied in the DI diesel engine by varying the load at the same speed. In brief, this experimental analysis is carried out to compare the emission characteristics between Jatropha biodiesel at 20% (B20) and 40% (B40) and Cardanol biodiesel blends at 20% (C20) and 40% (C40).

  20. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  1. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  2. Comparative Study of Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki Maeda; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Manabu Takao; Keita Sakurada; Tae-Ho Kin; Kenji Kaneko

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the performances of the turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion in the near future, under various irregular wave conditions. The turbines included in the paper are as follows: (a) Wells turbine with guide vanes; (b) impulse turbine with self-pitch-controlled guide vanes; (c) impulse turbine with fixed guide vanes. In this study, experimental investigations were carried out to clarify the performances of the turbines under steady flow conditions, and then a numerical simulation was used for predicting the performances under irregular wave conditions with various significant wave heights. As a result, it was found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine.

  3. Comparative Study of Clustering Algorithms in Text Mining Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdennour Mohamed Jalil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectacular increasing of Data is due to the appearance of networks and smartphones. Amount 42% of world population using internet [1]; have created a problem related of the processing of the data exchanged, which is rising exponentially and that should be automatically treated. This paper presents a classical process of knowledge discovery databases, in order to treat textual data. This process is divided into three parts: preprocessing, processing and post-processing. In the processing step, we present a comparative study between several clustering algorithms such as KMeans, Global KMeans, Fast Global KMeans, Two Level KMeans and FWKmeans. The comparison between these algorithms is made on real textual data from the web using RSS feeds. Experimental results identified two problems: the first one quality results which remain for algorithms, which rapidly converge. The second problem is due to the execution time that needs to decrease for some algorithms.

  4. Comparative study of electron conduction in azulene and naphthalene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudipta Dutta; S Lakshmi; Swapan K Pati

    2008-06-01

    We have studied the feasibility of electron conduction in azulene molecule and compared with that in its isomer naphthalene. We have used non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism to measure the current in our systems as a response of the external electric field. Parallely we have performed the Gaussian calculations with electric field in the same bias window to observe the impact of external bias on the wave functions of the systems. We have found that the conduction of azulene is higher than that of naphthalene inspite of its intrinsic donor–acceptor property, which leads a system to more insulating state. Due to stabilization through charge transfer the azulene system can be fabricated as a very effective molecular wire. Our calculations show the possibility of huge device application of azulene in nano-scale instruments.

  5. PREDICTING THE INTENTION TO USE INTERNET – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Brumec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an application of the Triandis Model in researching Internet usage and the intention to use Internet. Unlike other TAM-based studies undertaken to date, the Triandis Model offers a sociological account of interaction between the various factors, particularly attitude, intention, and behavior. The technique of Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the impact those factors have on intention to use the Internet in accordance with the relationships posited by the Triandis Model. The survey was administered to Croatian undergraduate students at and employed individuals. The survey results are compared to the results of a similar survey that was carried out by two universities in Hong Kong.

  6. Social Capital in Russia and Denmark: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation...... and eventually to economic growth. The main results are: (r1) The differences in social capital between the two countries is similar by all social capital measures used. (r2) The level of beneficial social capital is roughly three times higher in the old democracy than in the former communist dictatorship. (r3......) Social capital matters in the earnings equation. In both countries it explains roughly 40% of what human capital explains in both countries....

  7. A comparative study of preservation and storage of Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga C Aulet de Saab

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of conservation by freezing the strains of Haemophilus influenzae at -20ºC and -70ºC. Skim milk supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and glycerol allowed highest viability of H. influenzae both at -20ºC and -70ºC from the media analyzed. Trypticase soy broth and brain heart infusion broth supplemented with glycerol, allowed excellent recovery. Use of cotton swaps as supporting material, with or without addition of cryoprotective agents, did not modify H. influenzae viability after six months of storage. Concentration of the initial inoculum positively affected viability when stored at -20ºC. Initial concentration did not influence survival after storage at -70ºC. Thawing at room temperature should not exceed 3 h as to get highest survival percentage.

  8. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  9. Comparative Study on Property Income of Farmers in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hong

    2012-01-01

    According to statistic data of Shaanxi Province during 1997 to 2010,I conducted a comparative analysis on farmers’ property income from region,urban and rural factors and structure,established regression model,and studied the relationship between farmers’ property income and gross income.Results show that the growth of average property income of farmers in Shaanxi Province is clearly slow,and the gap is widening from the average national level;except 2001 and 2002,the average property income of urban and rural residents of Shaanxi Province kept a great difference;the proportion of rural residents’ property income is very small,basically not higher than 3%;there is a significant correlation between the property income and gross income of farmers in Shaanxi Province.Energetically developing rural economy and increasing farmers’ property are favorable to growth of farmers’ property income.

  10. A comparative study of input devices for digital slide navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Jesper; Lundström, Claes; Fjeld, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2014, Linköping, Sweden. Quick and seamless integration between input devices and the navigation of digital slides remains a key barrier for many pathologists to "go digital." To better understand this integration, three different input device implementations were compared in terms of time to diagnose, perceived workload and users' preferences. Six pathologists reviewed in total nine cases with a computer mouse, a 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DOF) navigator and a touchpad. The participants perceived significantly less workload (P device used on the time to diagnose was observed. Five out of six pathologists preferred the 6DOF navigator, while the touchpad was the least preferred device. While digital slide navigation is often designed to mimic microscope interaction, the results of this study demonstrate that in order to minimize workload there is reason to let the digital interaction move beyond the familiar microscope tradition.

  11. Comparative Study of Two Vitreous Humor Sampling Methods in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHOU Weiguang; REN Liang; LIU Qian; LIU Liang

    2006-01-01

    To compare and evaluate two methodologies, entire-sampling and micro-sampling for the harvesting of vitreous humor, the vitreous humor of rabbits were sampled with the two methods respectively, and the concentrations of calcium, chlorine, potassium, sodium and phosphorus of the were measured. The results showed that the differences in the variance coefficient and two-eye concentrations of micro-sampled specimens were less than those of the entire-sampled specimens. In the micro-sampling group, the concentrations of repeated micro-sampling showed no differences among different groups (P>0.05) and the intra-ocular fluid dynamics did not have significant influence on post-mortem sampling. The sampling technique may affect the concentrations of specimen collected.Our study suggests that micro-sampling is less influenced by the human factor and is reliable, reproducible, and more suitable for forensic investigation.

  12. Initial teacher education in Japan and Spain. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramírez Carpeño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine, from a comparative perspective, the initial teacher training systems in Spain and Japan. We will analyze the current design of teacher educational programs, from Infant level to Secondary level. The relevance of teacher performances has been endorsed by several studies, placing international attention on teachers’ training policies. The results show similar trends relating to programs’ structure and students’ selection. Nevertheless, there are many differences when analyzing duration, flexibility or accreditation, which could provided us with key elements to reflect upon our own educational context. Such reflections could contribute to the improvement of our teachers’ training systems, the promotion of theoretical and practical development on educational policies, and a higher quality of educational practices. 

  13. A Comparative Study of Distribution System Parameter Estimation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Williams, Tess L.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2016-07-17

    In this paper, we compare two parameter estimation methods for distribution systems: residual sensitivity analysis and state-vector augmentation with a Kalman filter. These two methods were originally proposed for transmission systems, and are still the most commonly used methods for parameter estimation. Distribution systems have much lower measurement redundancy than transmission systems. Therefore, estimating parameters is much more difficult. To increase the robustness of parameter estimation, the two methods are applied with combined measurement snapshots (measurement sets taken at different points in time), so that the redundancy for computing the parameter values is increased. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The results of this paper show that state-vector augmentation is a better approach for parameter estimation in distribution systems. Simulation studies are done on a modified version of IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder with varying levels of measurement noise and non-zero error in the other system model parameters.

  14. Attachment styles in maltreated children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, R; Cohen, O; Sapir, Y; Weizman, A

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the emotional impact of maltreatment on the attachment styles in three groups of children aged 6-12 years: children of drug-user fathers (n = 76), physically abused children (n = 41), neglected children (n = 38); non-abused/non-neglected children (n = 35)--control group. The secure style characterized 52% of the children of drug-user fathers and the insecure style characterized the other 48% (anxious/ambivalent or avoidant); physically abused children were characterized mainly by the avoidant attachment style, and neglected children by the anxious/ambivalent style. The conclusion is that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and sustained suspicion towards others; neglected children are at risk of social withdrawal, social rejection and feelings of incompetence, and children of drug-user fathers may be at risk of behavioral problems and drug use in adolescence.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES OF AIOU AND UKOU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amtul Hafeez CHOUDHRY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences of student support services in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU and United Kingdom Open University (UKOU and also to identify and enlist the deficiencies that AIOU students are facing in the student support services. The study found out that student support services of AIOU are quantitatively developing rapidly on the lines of UKOU. Though the regional campuses of both the institutions have almost the same status in the provision of student support service yet the UKOU students have better services in the guidance and counseling, modern communication facilities and career guidance. Moreover, there also exists Open University student association in UKOU. The conclusions led to the recommendation that AIOU regional campuses may be made independent like UKOU, counseling and guidance cell might be established at every regional campus, modern communication facilities like toll free, auto answer may be provided at AIOU regional campuses.

  16. A comparative study of two stochastic mode reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2005-09-01

    We present a comparative study of two methods for thereduction of the dimensionality of a system of ordinary differentialequations that exhibits time-scale separation. Both methods lead to areduced system of stochastic differential equations. The novel feature ofthese methods is that they allow the use, in the reduced system, ofhigher order terms in the resolved variables. The first method, proposedby Majda, Timofeyev and Vanden-Eijnden, is based on an asymptoticstrategy developed by Kurtz. The second method is a short-memoryapproximation of the Mori-Zwanzig projection formalism of irreversiblestatistical mechanics, as proposed by Chorin, Hald and Kupferman. Wepresent conditions under which the reduced models arising from the twomethods should have similar predictive ability. We apply the two methodsto test cases that satisfy these conditions. The form of the reducedmodels and the numerical simulations show that the two methods havesimilar predictive ability as expected.

  17. A Comparative Study of Novel Topologies of Magnetic Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxia Niu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic gear (MG is an emerging technology that has been proved to possess superior performance over the conventional mechanical gear in many aspects. However, the existing markets of traditional mechanical gears have not yet been replaced by MGs. One of the major reasons is that MGs are susceptible to the permanent magnet (PM materials, which are scarce and expensive, while mechanical counterparts are impervious to that. To solve such issues, the comparative studies of various designs of triple-layer PM-excited MGs are carried out to find out the optimal torque per unit PM volume design. The methodology of the Tabu algorithm is coupled with the finite element method (FEM to search out the optimal solution of MGs.

  18. Comparative study of maximum isometric grip strength in different sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gomes Borges Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare maximum isometric grip strength (Fmaxbetween different sports and between the dominant (FmaxD and non-dominant (FmaxND hand. Twenty-nine male aikido (AI, jiujitsu (JJ, judo (JU and rowing (RO athletes and 21non-athletes (NA participated in the study. The hand strength test consisted of maintainingmaximum isometric grip strength for 10 seconds using a hand dynamometer. The position of the subjects was that suggested by the American Society of Hand Therapy. Factorial 2X5 ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, followed by a paired t test and Tukey test, was used for statistical analysis. The highest Fmax values were observed for the JJ group when using the dominant hand,followed by the JU, RO, AI and NA groups. Variation in Fmax could be attributed to handdominance (30.9%, sports modality (39.9% and the interaction between hand dominance andsport (21.3%. The present results demonstrated significant differences in Fmax between the JJ and AI groups and between the JJ and NA groups for both the dominant and non-dominant hand. Significant differences in Fmax between the dominant and non-dominant hand were only observed in the AI and NA groups. The results indicate that Fmax can be used for comparisonbetween different sports modalities, and to identify differences between the dominant and nondominanthand. Studies involving a larger number of subjects will permit the identification of differences between other modalities.

  19. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  20. Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  2. The comparative study of solvents to expedite removal of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Manabu; Sugiyama, Masahide; Oyatsu, Yasuyuki; Fukai, Takao

    2009-03-01

    Hot-bitumen burn is a unique case in all types of burns. This melting substance is difficult to remove when it adheres to the skin and solidifies. It causes burns and sticks to the skin when it is cooled to the skin temperature. Some reports are available on many kinds of solvents for the removal of solid bitumen. However, there have thus far been no comparative studies. It is necessary to seek for an optimum method to remove bitumen without consuming so much time and with minimum injury to the skin. The selected solvents in this study were petrolatum, olive oil, salad oil, butter, Neosporin ointment and De-solv-it. They were often reported as being effective for hot-bitumen burn injuries with little irritation for a damaged skin. It is easy to purchase them commercially. Each solvent was poured over the bitumen in a test tube. Afterwards, the concentrations of the bitumen in the solvents were quantified with the fluorescence measurement technique. We consider De-solv-it is the one of the best solvent for the removal of bitumen and highly recommended for hot-bitumen burns. The results of this study suggest that dressing change should be done every 4 to 8 h or as frequently as needed until the bitumen is entirely removed.

  3. A Comparative Study of Compliment Responses in Russian and Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiydegul Alymidin Kyzy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Responding to compliments is particularly of great importance for researchers because they require a great deal of pragmatic knowledge. Strategies used in responding to a compliment vary from culture to culture. In order to master a foreign language, to be fully competent in a foreign language it is helpful for students to learn the social values and rules of that society. Not knowing the sociolinguistic rules of the language being used may cause pragmatic failure. This in turn may cause communication breakdown. In the light of these assumptions comparative and contrastive studies of languages can serve to ease the task of comprehending both the linguistic and pragmatic features of a language and the differences between native and the foreign languages. The present study investigates compliment responses (CR among Russian and Turkish speakers. The data were collected through the use of written Discourse Completion Tasks (DTC, with 12 questions on 4 topics (appearance, ability, possession and personality. Total 30 university students participated in the study.

  4. Comparative water balance study of forest and fallow plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móricz N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressure on groundwater due to land use change (e.g., afforestation and future climate change will alter the recharge of groundwater aquifers, causing shifts in water table levels and hence influencing the avai­lable groundwater resources. The effect of land use change on groundwater resources has initiated a major scientific debate during the last decades between foresters and experts in water management in Hungary and in several other countries. The aim of this study was to compare water balances of two different vegetation covers, a groundwater dependent oak forest and a nearby fallow area in the Hungarian Lowland. Water balance components for an oak and a fallow plots, exposed to similar weather conditions and with similar soils, were estimated and compared by calibrating the Hydrus 1-D model using mea­sured soil water content and groundwater levels. The difference in the groundwater consumption was analyzed in details during dry and wet growing seasons. Transpiration at the fallow plot was only about two-thirds of that in the oak forest, while groundwater consumption was three times higher in the forest than at the fallow plot throughout the two-year study. During the dry growing season, the proportion of groundwater use from the total transpiration reached up to 90% at the oak plot. According to the model, in the dry growing season in 2007 both vegetation covers relied significantly on groundwater resources, while in 2008 the consumption of groundwater was notably reduced due to the wet weather at both plots.

  5. Outpatient- and inpatient-based buckling surgery: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jin Cheol Lee,* Yu Cheol Kim*Department of Ophthalmology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, Korea *Both authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of ambulatory buckling surgery, comparing outpatient- with inpatient-based surgery.Methods: The authors performed a retrospective study of 80 consecutive cases of rhegmato genous retinal detachment from January 2009 to December 2011 treated by scleral buckling surgery. Two groups of patients were defined according to inpatient (group 1 or outpatient (group 2 surgery, and a comparison of several parameters between these two groups was performed.Results: Of the 80 subjects in this study, the average age of group 1 (50 patients was 49.7 years, and that of group 2 (30 patients was 47.5 years. There were no statistically significant differences in the average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution-visual acuity, the condition of the lens, or the presence of retinal lattice degeneration prior to the surgery between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the patterns of tear or retinal detachment or in surgical procedure between the groups. Comparing the best-corrected visual acuity after 6 months with that prior to the surgery, the changes in group 1 and group 2 were 0.26 and 0.31, respectively. The functional success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 90% and 93%, respectively, and the anatomical success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 94% and 96%, respectively, but these were also statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Hospitalization is not essential for buckling surgery in uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.Keywords: ambulatory, scleral buckling, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

  6. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In France, nuclear facilities were designed to very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, exceptional climatic events have given rise to surges much larger than observations (outliers and had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches including the Annual Maxima (AM, the Peaks-Over Threshold (POT and the r-Largest Order Statistics (r-LOS. These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All the data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameters stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on: (i the uncertainty degrees, (ii the adequacy criteria and tests and (iii the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distributions parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500 yr return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fitting at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativity of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  7. Comparative Study of Rice Morphogenesis wit Different Cultivation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to compare the morphological char- acteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with different cultivation methods and investigate the dynamics of organ growth and development characteristics of different rice culti- vars. [Method] Based on continuous field observation and destructive sampling over a growing season, detailed organ morphological data were obtained including leaf length, node number, plant height, tiller number, leaf angle, leaf area and specific leaf weight, to compare organ morphological differences among 4 rice cultivars of Baidao (indica), Jinnanfeng (japonica), 9325 (japonica) and 9915 (japonica) with 3 cultivation methods of field planting in Weigang, pot planting in Weigang, and field planting in Jiangpu. [Result] Maximum leaf length of each node gradually increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the later growth stage, the relationship between maximum leaf length and node position can be described by the equations y=a,,-~ and y=ax+b; node number, growth duration, leaf length and plant height of pot planting rice in Weigang were smaller than that of the other two field planting meth- ods; the relationship between plant height and sunshine duration, plant height and GDD (growing degree days) can be described by the equation y=ax+b, 19.23 ℃.d of GDD (≥10 ≥-d) and 8.12 h of sunshine duration were required to increase 1 cm of plant height; plant height, tiller number, and leaf area of Baidao were higher than that of the other 3 laponica rice cultivars, but the specific leaf weight and leaf angle were smaller. [Conclusion] Comparison of morphological characteristic differ- ences among rice cultivars is an important way to select water-saving and drought- tolerant rice varieties. In this study, the experimental results can be integrated into a rice functional-architectural model to simulate rice organ growth dynamics in a three- dimensional space, thereby providing reference for selecting water

  8. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Y.; Bardet, L.; Duluc, C.-M.; Rebour, V.

    2014-08-01

    In France, nuclear facilities were designed around very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, some extreme climatic events have given rise to exceptional observed surges (outliers) much larger than other observations, and have clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches to extreme value analysis, including the annual maxima (AM), the peaks-over-threshold (POT) and the r-largest order statistics (r-LOS). These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameter stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on (i) the uncertainty degrees, (ii) the adequacy criteria and tests, and (iii) the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distribution parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500-year return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fit at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativeness of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance, not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  11. Aspectos psicossociais na era dos novos tratamentos da AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Remor

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve o impacto no bem-estar (ansiedade e depressão e qualidade de vida das pessoas HIV+ quando o tratamento anti-retroviral não apresenta os resultados esperados. Foram avaliadas, através de questionários, as percepções e expectativas com o tratamento anti-retroviral, o nível de ansiedade e depressão, o nível de apoio social e a qualidade de vida percebida em 80 pacientes HIV+ em atendimento em um hospital universitário. Os resultados indicaram que as percepções e expectativas negativas com o tratamento podem modular o estado emocional e impactar negativamente a qualidade de vida das pessoas HIV+; e que um nível de apoio social adequado é capaz de atenuar este impacto negativo.

  12. Research proposal: evaluation of ART in adult patients Protocolo de pesquisa: avaliação do Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático em pacientes adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régia Luzia Zanata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the Atraumatic RestorativeTreatment (ART is to reduce the indication of tooth extraction by means of a low-cost technique. Considering the difficulties of Brazilian public services to meet the demand of care of the low-income population, with lack of care to the adult population, which usually receives only emergency care, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements accomplished by the modified atraumatic restorative treatment in one- and multiple-surface cavities, compared to the conventional restorative approach. It will be analyzed the clinical performance of the materials; cost (material and human resources; patient satisfaction with the treatment received; and preventive effect of treatment.O objetivo primeiro do Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático (TRA é reduzir a indicação de extrações dentárias através de uma técnica operatória de baixo custo. Considerando as dificuldades do Serviço de Saúde Pública do Brasil de suprir a demanda de serviço requerida pela população adulta de baixa renda, que usualmente recebe atendimento emergencial, o objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a performance clínica de um cimento de ionômero de vidro de alta viscosidade empregado através da técnica atraumática modificada em cavidades de uma e de múltiplas superfícies, comparativamente à abordagem restauradora convencional. Serão analisados a performance clínica dos materiais; o custo (material e recursos humanos; a satisfação do paciente com o tratamento recebido; e o impacto preventivo do tratamento.

  13. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE AND BUPIVACINE WITH NEOSTIGMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many drugs have been used to prolong analgesic effects of epidural local anesthetics. These are called adjuvants. We studied the epidural effect of Neostigmine when adminstered with Bupivacaine in comparison with Bupivacaine . OBJECTIVE: The objective for the study was to find a drug which enhances the onset of action, increases the duration of action of the local anesthetic with minimal or no side effects, instead of increasing the dose of local anaesthetic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospecti ve study was conducted on 100 adult patients, selected at random of either sex, of age between 20 - 65 years and belonging to ASA grade I or II. The study was designed to compare the effects of epidural Neostigmine with Bupivacaine and epidural Bupivacaine u sed alone with regard to onset, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic stability and level of anaesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 50 each. Group I received 19ml of 0.5% Bupivacaine+1ml of normal saline. Group II received 19ml of 0.5% Bupivaca ine+100μg of Neostigmine in 1ml of normal saline. In the operating room the patients were assessed for time of onset of analgesia, duration of anaesthesia, level of analgesia and complications. RESULTS : The addition of Neostigmine resulted in significant r apid onset of action, longer duration of analgesia and motor blockade. There was no incidence of respiratory depression, pruritus, fluctuations in blood pressure, or change in pulse rate, except one patient who developed bradycardia. CONCLUSION : Co adminis tration of epidural Neostigmine and Bupivacaine appears to be a useful technique for epidural anaesthesia as it provides faster onset, longer duration of action and haemodynamic stability.

  15. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (p<0.05). Also, there were fewer unplanned changes (p<0.0005) seen with SenSura than with the reference appliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (p<0.0005), and they had greater resistance to erosion (p<0.05). In conclusion, SenSura performed better than the reference appliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  16. Abdominal aorta morphometric study for endovascular treatment of aortic aneurysms: comparison between spiral CT and angiography; Estudo morfometrico da aorta abdominal para tratamento endovascular dos aneurismas aorticos: comparacao entre tomografia helicoidal e angiografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Gaudencio [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Dept. de Cirurgia Vascular; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Caramalho, Monica Ferreira [Hospital Miguel Couto, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barzola, Pedro [Medtronic-AVE do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Araujo, Adalberto Pereira de

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the computed tomography and angiography study of abdominal aortic aneurysms for posterior endograft implant. Method: From June 1997 to March 2001, 113 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm were submitted to study of the aorto-iliac axis with abdominal spiral computed tomography and angiography with calibrated catheter. The patient's ages ranged from 51 and 88 years (mean: 69). There were 104 males and nine females. Results: When comparing the mean computed tomography and angiography diameters, we observed that there was a statistical difference for the infra-renal neck (p<0.05) and for the aortic aneurysm diameters (p<0.001). There was no statistical difference for the iliac artery diameters (p>0.05). When comparing the mean lengths, we observed that there was a statistical difference for the aortic infra-renal neck (p<0.05), for the distance between the renal artery and the aortic bifurcation (p<0.05) and for the common iliac artery lengths (p<0.05). There was also a statistical difference for the length between the renal artery and the internal iliac artery (p<0.05). Conclusions: In the AAA pre-procedure imaging study there were statistical differences between the computed tomography and angiographic measurement studies. We believe that computed tomography is a superior method for the evaluation of diameters and the angiography with a calibrated catheter for the length evaluation. We conclude, that both methods are complementary and must be undertaken for accurate evaluation of all candidates for aortic endograft implant. (author)

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7%-83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2%-7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8%-24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2%-60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9%-6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9%-8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7%-13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging

  18. COMPARATIVE RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON ANAESTHESIA APPROACHES FOR LUMBAR SPINE SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangalakshmi S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Lumbar spinal surgeries have been performed with either spinal or general anaesthesia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the superiority of either spinal or general anaesthesia on lumbar spine surgery. METHODS After approval of institutional ethical committee, we retrospectively analysed 270 patients (ASA I and II undergoing surgery of lumbar spine from 2009 to 2015 by one surgeon. Of these 150 patients underwent general anaesthesia with controlled ventilation, 120 patients were offered spinal anaesthesia with conscious sedation. Patient records were reviewed to obtain demographic features, type of anaesthesia, baseline heart rate, mean arterial pressure, intraoperative maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, duration of surgery, amount of intravenous fluids, intraoperative blood loss, incidence of perioperative complications such as bleeding, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, and postoperative analgesic consumption. RESULTS Patient characteristics including baseline/intraoperative mean arterial pressure and heart rate values did not differ between groups. However, the spinal anaesthesia group experienced significantly shorter durations in the operating room and had a lower incidence of nausea, vomiting. Analgesic consumptions in general anaesthesia group was significantly higher than in spinal anaesthesia group. CONCLUSION The present study revealed that spinal anaesthesia is a safe and effective alternative to general anaesthesia for patients undergoing single level or two level lumbar laminectomy, discectomy, or even instrumentation below L2 level and has the advantage of decreased nausea, antiemetic, analgesic requirements, and fewer complications. It also ensures better postoperative recovery when compared to general anaesthesia

  19. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z.; Shopska, M.; Paneva, D.; Kovacheva, D.; Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media ( Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  20. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg; Shopska, M., E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Paneva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media (Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  1. Comparative study of Passiflora taxa leaves: II. A chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Wosch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Popularly known as passion fruit, some species of the genus Passiflora are widely used in folk medicines, such as sedatives and tranquilizers in many countries. Although these plants are employed for the same purposes, research with different species of Passiflora has indicated their heterogeneous chemical compositions. Since different chemical compositions can result in varying degrees of therapeutic efficiency, quality control based on the chemical constituents of each species is essential. To that end, the aim of this study was to compare pharmacognostically species of Passiflora in order to establish a chromatographic profile for the quality control of drugs in herbal medicines containing passion fruit. The study was conducted by collecting samples of leaves from twelve Passiflora taxa (i.e., ten species and two forms of P. edulis – P. actinia, P. alata, P. amethystina, P. capsularis, P. cincinnata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis, P. incarnata, P. morifolia, P. urnifolia, P. coccinea, and P. setacea – from different locations and obtaining their chromatographic profiles via thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both methods used the flavonoid C-glycosides isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin as reference compounds and could ultimately establish specific profiles for each species. The chromatographic analyses discussed here can be used to assist in determining the quality and authenticity of herbal drugs derived from Passiflora species.

  2. Comparative Study of Christian Trinity and Indian Trimurty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farhang Ghahfarokhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   Belief to the holy Trinity is the most critical axiom of Christian theology which has been criticized more than the others by the two Abrahamic religions, that is Judaism and Islam. The holy Quran calls it blasphemy and heresy in original Christianity but Christians whom call themselves Unitarian, interpret this Trinity in view of Unity so they believe that this antinomy is a mystery.   When studying other traditions we encounter ternaries which of course the Indian Trimurti: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva is the most important one. These two ternaries have simibrities and differences this Trimurti has had deep effects on the Indian society in the case that each of these Gods are appreciated and prayed independently in a pantheistic system. In this article, free from inter religion viewpoints we assess the essence of Trinity from the metaphysical viewpoint and it’s relation to Unity. Finally after investigating the meaning of Christian Trinity and Indian Trimurti we go to the comparative study of these two ternaries. 

  3. A comparative study on the dissolution of magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Huijun; Park, Jungsoon; Jung, Chonghun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Magnetite is the main iron oxide formed on the surface of iron-based metals especially in contact with coolant in nuclear power plants. It reduces the efficiency of water lines in water-cooled nuclear reactors. Many solution formulations have been developed to dissolve or to decontaminate metal surfaces from the oxide layers formed on the surface. The presence of Cr in the structural materials such as stainless steel could result in the formulation of Cr-substituted iron oxides, as Fe{sup 3+} (0.067 nm) and Cr {sup 3+} (0.064 nm) have similar ionic radii. The formation of solid solution between Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} with hematite and magnetite is reported. The best method of removing the radioactive nuclides such as Co-60, impregnated / embedded in these oxides, is to dissolve the oxide deposit without affecting the base metal. Dissolution of simple iron oxides is normally carried out using organic (inorganic) acid, reducing agent and chelating agent. Recently, it was reported that the chelating agent in a decontamination formulation affects the bad environmental effect during the disposal period of the radioactive waste. In the present study, the dissolution characteristics of magnetite in citric acid hydrazine system, in nitric acid-hydrazine system and in dithionite-sodium citrate system were investigated. The objective of the study is to compare the dissolution performance of the 3 kinds of the candidate decontamination formulation.

  4. Predicting Fault-Prone Modules: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao; Shu, Fengdi; Yang, Ye; Wang, Qing

    Offshore and outsourced software development is a rapidly increasing trend in global software business environment. Predicting fault-prone modules in outsourced software product may allow both parties to establish mutually satisfactory, cost-effective testing strategies and product acceptance criteria, especially in iterative transitions. In this paper, based on industrial software releases data, we conduct an empirical study to compare ten classifiers over eight sets of code attributes, and provide recommendations to aid both the client and vendor to assess the products’ quality through defect prediction. Overall, a generally high accuracy is observed, which confirms the usefulness of the metric-based classification. Furthermore, two classification techniques, Random Forest and Bayesian Belief Network, outperform the others in terms of predictive accuracy; in more detail, the former is the most cost-effective and the latter is of the lowest fault-prone module escaping rate. Our study also concludes that code metrics including size, traditional complexity, and object-oriented complexity perform fairly well.

  5. Tratamento fungicida e qualidade de sementes de mamona

    OpenAIRE

    Nilce Naomi Kobori

    2011-01-01

    O crescente interesse pelo uso de combustíveis renováveis nos últimos anos fez com que culturas oleaginosas, como a mamona, se tornassem importante objeto de estudo. No entanto, para a instalação de campos desta cultura, é imprescindível sementes de boa qualidade. Como não existem defensivos químicos registrados para a ricinocultura, avaliou-se o efeito de tratamentos fungicidas no tratamento de sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.), com produtos fungicidas recomendados para sementes de ou...

  6. Tratamento da anemia ferropriva com ferro por via oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    Full Text Available A anemia ferropriva permanece como uma das deficiências nutricionais mais frequentes e importantes no mundo. O tratamento com ferro deve ser iniciado preferencialmente por via oral e a investigação apropriada de sua causa é obrigatória. Os autores discutem os compostos com ferro atualmente disponíveis, o perfil de eficácia, segurança e tolerabilidade desses medicamentos, e o plano terapêutico mais adequado possível para o sucesso no tratamento dessa doença tão comum e importante.

  7. Atelectasias em pediatria: mecanismos, diagnóstico e tratamento

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston,Cíntia; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre os mecanismos, diagnóstico e tratamento das atelectasias pulmonares em pediatria. MÉTODOS:Efetuou-se uma pesquisa nos bancos de dados eletrônicos Medline e Scielo com os critérios de inclusão: artigos publicados entre os anos de 1960 e 2007, que abordassem a etiologia, fisiopatologia, conseqüências funcionais, avaliação, prevenção, tratamento e complicações das atelectasias pulmonares em pediatria. Palavras-chave: atelectasis, children, pedia...

  8. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  9. Comparative Study on Mechanical Properties between Pure and Recycled Polypropylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne L. Juwono

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP is one type of thermoplastics that is widely used in our daily activities. A combination of the high demand and the easiness of recycling process, the recycled PP has been generally applied. In this study, the structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received PPs, recycled PPs, and commercial recycled PPs were compared, especially for cloth hanger application. DSC test results showed that recycling process did not cause a significant change to the material's melting point, which stayed in a range of 160-163 oC. Meanwhile, FTIR test results showed that the commercial recycled PPs contained of Polyethylene (PE, which was not found in the as-received and the recycled PPs. Tensile and hardness tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the as-received and recycled PPs. In contrast, tensile test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the tensile strength, Young modulus and strain-at-break were lower than those of the as-received PPs by 22.1%, 8.1% and 65.7% respectively. The hardness test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the recycling process had a little effect on the material's hardness. These facts were supported by SEM observation on the surface that the contour of the commercial recycled PPs was relatively flatter and had smaller grain size than those of the as-received PPs. This indicated that the commercial recycled PPs were more brittle compared to the recycled PPs. To conclude, the recycled PPs have similar properties to the as-received PPs so that recycled PPs are suitable to be applied as cloth hanger application.

  10. Participatory Budgeting: A Comparative Study of Croatia, Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džinić Jasmina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Public Management movement regards citizens as customers and, accordingly, focuses on the quality of services provided by public-sector organizations. Since this approach negatively affected democratic values, there has been a shift of the focus from consumer satisfaction and quality of services to quality of governance. The latter implies the improvement of the relationship between government and citizens as active members of the community. Over the last twenty years, participatory budgeting (PB has become a popular form of co-production intended to improve the quality of local governance. The aim of the article is to provide a comparative analysis of the use and role of PB in Croatia, Poland and Slovakia and to identify the models of PB used in selected countries. In order to compare the case studies of municipalities in selected countries, a qualitative analysis has been used and the classification of PB models applied. Most analyzed local units use the “Porto Alegre adapted for Europe” model, but the “Consultation on public finances”, “Representation of Organized Interest” and “Proximity participation” models are also represented. The main findings are that PB indeed enables better allocation of public sources according to citizens’ needs (various public services were delivered following the trend of social innovation and co-creation, but the problem lies in the low amount assigned for PB from public budgets and the relatively low interest of citizens to participate in the PB processes. PB might also bring certain risks linked with its implementation, e.g. misuse of the idea for political reasons or additional costs of projects delivered in the PB process.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LICHTENSTEIN VERSUS DESARDA REPAIR FOR INGUINAL HERNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Inguinal hernia repair is the most frequently performed operation in any general surgical unit. The Bassini’s, Shouldice and other tissue-based techniques are still being acceptable for primary inguinal hernia repair. Desarda’s technique is originally a tissue based hernia repair using an undetached strip of external oblique aponeurosis to strengthen the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. The aim of the present study was to compare Lichtenstein hernia repair and Desarda herniorrhaphy. METHODS A total of 40 patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia were subjected either to Desarda herniorrhaphy or Lichtenstein hernioplasty. The patients were followed in terms of recurrence rate, post-operative complications, convalescence, chronic pain and cost effectiveness. RESULTS During the followup all patients had either mild or moderate pain, but the pain intensity was more in Lichtenstein repair compared to Desarda repair in the immediate postoperative period. In Lichenstein repair patients had chronic groin pain even at the end of one year, but none of the patients in Desarda repair had chronic groin pain. Complications such as seroma and wound infection were less in Desarda repair. Time taken to resume normal activities was significantly less in case of Desarda herniorrhaphy; however, there was no recurrence observed in both the groups during the followup period. Average cost incurred for Desarda repair was significantly less than Lichtenstein repair. CONCLUSION Lichtenstein method of hernia repair is simple and safe. But the mesh prosthesis has its drawbacks. Desarda hernia repair is based on physiological principles and the results are good with less convalescence period and fewer recurrences and no chronic groin pain. It is more cost effective.

  12. COMPARING STANDARD AND TOTALLY TUBELESS PCNL: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Raj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL was introduced in 1976, and rapidly evolved into the gold standard for treatment of large and complex renal stones. The procedure continues to evolve with an emphasis on maintaining a high success rate of stone treatment while improving patient outcome with decreased morbidity. With the improvement of instrumentation and experience of PCNL, several modifications to the procedure have taken place in order to reduce the morbidity & early return to normal lifestyle. First described by Wickham et al., another technical variation of tubeless PCNL is totally tubeless approach. The aim of this study is to compare standard and totally tubeless PCNL with respect to safety and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was performed in the Department of Urology, RajaRajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore from June 2015 to March 2016 after ethics committee clearance. Forty patients planned for PCNL and who gave informed written consent were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups, standard PCNL (with a nephrostomy tube and totally tubeless PCNL (no ureter stents or ureteric catheters. RESULTS Both the groups were similar in terms of patient and stone characteristics. The mean operation time was slightly longer in the standard group (106.74 minutes than in the totally tubeless group (100.32 minutes, but there was no statistically significant difference. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to serum creatinine change or blood loss. However, hospital stay and analgesia requirement was significantly less in the totally tubeless group. CONCLUSION Totally tubeless PCNL leads to shorter hospital stays and less postoperative pain. It can be used with a favourable outcome in selected patients (stone burden <2 cm, single tract access, no significant residual stones, minimal bleeding, and no requirement for a secondary procedure.

  13. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  14. A comparative study of corneal sensitivity in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Rodrigo P; Obón, Elena; Peña, Maria T; Costa, Daniel; Ríos, Jose; Leiva, Marta

    2014-05-01

    To determine and compare the corneal sensitivity in healthy wild diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey (BP) indigenous to Catalonia (Spain), and to establish if age is a determining factor in corneal sensitivity in those species. Ophthalmic examination was performed in 105 BP. Only birds with no ocular abnormalities were included in the study (n = 81): 21 diurnal BP (Falco tinnunculus: 16 fledglings, 5 adults) and 60 nocturnal BP (20 Athene noctua [9 fledglings, 11 adults], 20 Strix aluco [15 fledglings, 5 adults], and 20 Otus scops [6 fledglings and 14 adults]). Corneal touch threshold (CTT) was determined for each eye in five different corneal regions. Five attempts to cause a blink reflex were made in each region, and when three or more reflexes were positive, the pressure was deemed the CTT. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test for independent data or an anova model. The results between species and age groups were compared using the Generalized Estimated Equations model. There were no significant differences between any of the corneal regions (P = 0.25), or between the right (CTT = 4.9 ± 1.7 cm) and left (CTT = 4.8 ± 1.7 cm) eye in any of the species (P = 0.692). No difference was found between diurnal and nocturnal species (P = 0.913). Considering all the species, a significant difference was found between the mean CTT of fledglings (5.4 ± 1.2 cm) and adults (4.1 ± 2 cm), P < 0.001. A significant difference was found between fledglings and adults of A. noctua (P < 0.001) and S. aluco (P = 0.002). There is no significant difference in CTT between the different corneal regions in all the species studied. Corneal sensitivity is similar between diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey. Age is a determining factor in the CTT of A. noctua and S. aluco, with fledglings having a significantly higher CTT. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  16. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐振雄; 李德尚; 张曼平; 董双林

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studios on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% - 83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2% - 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% - 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polycultttre systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems.All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrngen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% -60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highost percentage in shrimp-scallop systems.During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% - 6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% - 8.9% of the total.The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% - 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polycul-ture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen

  18. Comparative study of sustained-release lipid microparticles and solid dispersions containing ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is one of the most important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In its pure state, ibuprofen presents poor physical and mechanical characteristics and its use in solid dosage forms needs the addition of excipients that improve these properties. The selection of the best excipients and the most suitable pharmaceutical dosage form to carry ibuprofen is very important for the industrial success of this drug. Given these factors, lipid microparticles and solid dispersions of ibuprofen with cetyl alcohol, stearic acid, and hydrogenated castor oil were prepared. These formulations were intended to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics and to sustain the release of this drug. Physical mixtures were also prepared with the same ingredients in similar proportions. The solid dispersions of ibuprofen/stearic acid and ibuprofen/hydrogenated castor oil showed the best flow characteristics compared with pure ibuprofen. Further, gelatin capsules filled with lipid microparticles and solid dispersions were submitted to dissolution tests in order to study the influence of the prepared systems in the release profiles of ibuprofen. Prolonged release of ibuprofen was achieved with the lipid microparticles and solid dispersions prepared with the different types of excipients.O ibuprofeno é um dos antiinflamatórios não esteróides mais utilizados no tratamento de patologias associadas a processos inflamatórios. Este fármaco, quando no seu estado puro, apresenta características físicas e mecânicas pouco satisfatórias e a sua utilização em formas sólidas só é possível se forem adicionados excipientes que permitam melhorar estas propriedades. A seleção dos excipientes ideais e da forma farmacêutica mais adequada para veicular o ibuprofeno é fundamental para o sucesso industrial deste fármaco. Tendo em conta estes fatores, prepararam-se micropartículas lipídicas e dispersões s

  19. Gravidez na adolescência: estudo comparativo Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Viviana Lopez Alegria

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma população de 349 mulheres que deram à luz no período de 01/05/86 a 31/07/86, num Serviço de Obstetrícia da Grande São Paulo. Os resultados revelam que o grupo de gestantes adolescentes (22,2% teve uma assistência pré-natal deficiente, já que a grande maioria (70,6% teve a primeira consulta no segundo trimestre, tendo em média duas consultas. Durante a gestação, este grupo apresentou menor incidência de patologias com tratamento ambulatorial (39,3% e hospitalar (7,9%, em comparação com as gestantes adultas (44,4% e 14,7%, respectivamente. Em relação ao tipo de parto, as adolescentes apresentaram maior proporção de partos operatórios, sendo 25,7% por fórceps e 22,9% cesárea, contra 14,7% e 19,7% nas gestantes adultas, respectivamente. Verificou-se nas gestantes adolescentes maior proporção de intercorrências intraparto (12,9% contra 8,2% nas gestantes adultas, predominando neste período a hemorragia e a toxemia. Quanto as intercorrências no puerpério, estas se verificaram em 15,7% das gestantes adolescentes e era 11,8% das adultas, sendo a anemia pós-parto, a toxemia e a infecção puerperal as patologias mais comuns.A population of 349 women who gave birth, in an Obstetric Clinic in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 01/05/86 to 31/07/86 were studied. The results show that the group of pregnant adolescents (22.2% received inadequate prenatal assistance, as the large majority of them (70.6% started consultations during the second trimester of their pregnancy, and had an average of two consultations. During pregnancy this group presented a lower incidence of pathological disorders leading to out-patient and hospital treatment (39.3% and 7.9%, respectively than did the adult pregnant women (44.4% and 14.7%, respectively. With regard to the type of delivery, the adolescents underwent a larger proportion of surgical deliveries, 25.7% of forceps births and 22.9% of cesarian sections, as

  20. comparative studies on the efficiency of lemna minor l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistiastratiotes In The Phytoremediation Of Refinery Waste Water. COMPARATIVE ... polycyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, metal derivatives, surface active ... water bodies with potentially consequences on the ecosystem (Aghalino.

  1. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  2. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  3. Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Nethravathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinically the three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who reported to the department of Periodontology, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, which include patients who underwent gingivectomy (Group A, apically repositioned flap (Group B and surgical extrusion using periotome (Group C. Clinical measurements such as clinical crown length, gingival zenith, interdental papilla height were taken at baseline and at 3 rd month post-operatively. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3 rd month suggest that surgical extrusion technique offers several advantages over the other conventional surgical techniques such as preservation of the interproximal papilla, gingival margin position and no marginal bone loss. Conclusions: This technique can be used to successfully treat a grossly damaged crown structure as a result of tooth fracture, dental caries and iatrogenic factors especially in the anterior region, where esthetics is of great concern.

  4. [Comparative study of different diagnostic methods in pulmonary alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate and analyze, clinical and roentgenological manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) 89 patients underwent bronchoscopy survey and functional test of lungs. Average age of patients was 38,3+/-5,8. Among examined 89 patients 31 (34,8%) patients were poultry farmers, 30 (33,7%) - millers, and 28 (31,5%) - tobacco-growers. EAA was found among 22 poultry farmers, 19 tobacco-growers, and 19 millers. IFA was found among 11 millers, 9 tobacco-growers and 9 poultry farmers. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) was found among 58 patients; 38 patients suffer from lung diseases. Control group consisted of 20 healthy people. Along with general blood analysis, all patients underwent - roentgenological analysis of thorax in two shifts. Recent studies show that CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung disease. Comparative analysis allowed concluding that Real-Time CT method is the most effective. CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung diseases.

  5. A Novel method of Starting Induction Motor - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Chakrasali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphase induction motor, when started from rest with full voltage impressed, the starting current is 5 to 8 or more times the rated current. The large line current drawn by such a motor is objectionable because of the possible sharp drop in voltage of the supply circuit and undesired effects upon other connected loads/devices. Accordingly it is customary to start such motors at reduced voltage by using auto transformers, star delta starters etc. This paper deals with a new approach to start poly phase induction motors without using any primary voltage compensators thereby limiting the inrush of starting current. The rotor of the motor is driven at suitable speed in the specified direction of rotation by using crank driving mechanism. Then te rated voltage is applied to the motor. This is enunciated using a case study on a 3- phase, 5hp, NGEF make motor with oscillographic records obtained from the experimentation and is compared with the various starting techniques. Keywords: Induction motor, starter, inrush current, voltage dip, new approach

  6. Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles in 6 DOF is analysed in the context of measurement noise. The performance of the adaptive control laws of Sadegh and Harowitz (1990 and Slotine and Benedetto (1990 are compared. Both these schemes require that all states are measured, that is the velocities and positions in surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw. However, for underwater vehicles it is difficult to measure the linear velocities whereas angular velocity measurements can be obtained by using a 3 axes angular rate sensor. This problem is addressed by designing a nonlinear observer for linear velocity state estimation. The proposed observer requires that the position and the attitude are measured, e.g. by using a hydroacoustic positioning system for linear positions, two gyros for roll and pitch and a compass for yaw. In addition angular rate measurements will be assumed available from a 3-axes rate sensor or a state estimator. It is also assumed that the measurement rate is limited to 2 Hz for all the sensors. Simulation studies with a 3 DOF AUV model are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the adaptive control laws and the velocity state observer.

  7. Clustering of Deep WebPages: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhunthaadithya C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The internethas massive amount of information. This information is stored in the form of zillions of webpages. The information that can be retrieved by search engines is huge, and this information constitutes the ‘surface web’.But the remaining information, which is not indexed by search engines – the ‘deep web’, is much bigger in size than the ‘surface web’, and remains unexploited yet. Several machine learning techniques have been commonly employed to access deep web content. Under machine learning, topic models provide a simple way to analyze large volumes of unlabeled text. A ‘topic’is a cluster of words that frequently occur together and topic models can connect words with similar meanings and distinguish between words with multiple meanings. In this paper, we cluster deep web databases employing several methods, and then perform a comparative study. In the first method, we apply Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA over the dataset. In the second method, we use a generative probabilistic model called Latent Dirichlet Allocation(LDA for modeling content representative of deep web databases.Both these techniques are implemented after preprocessing the set of web pages to extract page contents and form contents.Further, we propose another version of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA to the dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing clustering methods.

  8. Comparative study, based on metamodels, of methods for controlling performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitouche Samia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing evolution of technology and human behavior puts the company in an uncertain and evolving environment. The company must be responsive and even proactive; therefore, control performance becomes increasingly difficult. Choosing the best method of ensuring control by the management policy of the company and its strategy is also a decision problem. The aim of this paper is the comparative study of three methods: the Balanced Scorecard, GIMSI and SKANDIAs NAVIGATOR for choosing the best method for ensuring the orderly following the policy of the company while maintaining its durability. Our work is divided into three parts. We firstly proposed original structural and kinetic metamodels for the three methods that allow an overall view of a method. Secondly, based on the three metamodels, we have drawn a generic comparison to analyze completeness of the method. Thirdly, we performed a restrictive comparison based on a restrictive set of criteria related to the same aspect example organizational learning, which is one of the bricks of knowledge management for a reconciliation to a proactive organization in an environment disturbed and uncertain, and the urgent needs. We note that we applied the three methods are applied in our precedent works. [1][23

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MAIN SOLVENCY ASSESSMENT MODELS FOR INSURANCE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nicoleta SAHLIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the recent financial crisis of insurance domain, there were imposed new aspects that have to be taken into account concerning the risks management and surveillance activity. The insurance societies could develop internal models in order to determine the minimum capital requirement imposed by the new regulations that are to be adopted on 1 January 2016. In this respect, the purpose of this research paper is to offer a real presentation and comparing with the main solvency regulation systems used worldwide, the accent being on their common characteristics and current tendencies. Thereby, we would like to offer a better understanding of the similarities and differences between the existent solvency regimes in order to develop the best regime of solvency for Romania within the Solvency II project. The study will show that there are clear differences between the existent Solvency I regime and the new approaches based on risk and will also point out the fact that even the key principles supporting the new solvency regimes are convergent, there are a lot of approaches for the application of these principles. In this context, the question we would try to find the answer is "how could the global solvency models be useful for the financial surveillance authority of Romania for the implementation of general model and for the development of internal solvency models according to the requirements of Solvency II" and "which would be the requirements for the implementation of this type of approach?". This thing makes the analysis of solvency models an interesting exercise.

  10. A framework for the comparative study of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriagereka, Juan; Reggia, James A; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2013-07-18

    Comparative studies of language are difficult because few language precursors are recognized. In this paper we propose a framework for designing experiments that test for structural and semantic patterns indicative of simple or complex grammars as originally described by Chomsky. We argue that a key issue is whether animals can recognize full recursion, which is the hallmark of context-free grammar. We discuss limitations of recent experiments that have attempted to address this issue, and point out that experiments aimed at detecting patterns that follow a Fibonacci series have advantages over other artificial context-free grammars. We also argue that experiments using complex sequences of behaviors could, in principle, provide evidence for fully recursive thought. Some of these ideas could also be approached using artificial life simulations, which have the potential to reveal the types of evolutionary transitions that could occur over time. Because the framework we propose has specific memory and computational requirements, future experiments could target candidate genes with the goal of revealing the genetic underpinnings of complex cognition.

  11. Regionalization in the Black Sea Area: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rusu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-Cold War period in Europe was favourable for the development of new regionalization projects which surrounded the EU. The Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea became the centre of new European sub-regions. Each project stands out now through a certain image that it received mirroring its type and level of regionalization emerged at the junction of regional dynamics and external influences. While the Nordic region is addressed as a model of multi-level, locally driven cooperation, the Mediterranean region is embedded in the North- South developmental division approach with little cooperation and strong external influences. The Black Sea’s position is debated between the two models mentioned above. Thus, I propose a comparative analysis of these three cases aiming to trace down the similarities and differences between them with the focus on the Black Sea Region. The conclusion of the study places the Black Sea Region in between the cases with a genuine potential to follow the Nordic model but with its future evolution hanging on the EU’s policies toward the area.

  12. Scaling and predictability in stock markets: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huishu; Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US) stock market is a representative of emerging (developed) markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling.

  13. Scaling and predictability in stock markets: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishu Zhang

    Full Text Available Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US stock market is a representative of emerging (developed markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling.

  14. Subdigital and subcaudal microornamentation in Chamaeleonidae--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-06-01

    Locomotion on horizontal and vertical substrates requires effective attachment systems. In three clades of arboreal and rupicolous Iguanidae, Gekkota and Scincidae adhesive systems consisting of microscopic hair-like structures (setae) have been evolved independently. Also the substrate contacting sites on toes and tails of chameleons (Chamaeleonidae) are covered with setae. In the present comparative scanning electron microscopy study, we show that representatives from the chamaeleonid genera Calumma, Chamaeleo, Furcifer, and Trioceros feature highly developed setae that are species-specific and similar on their feet and tail. These 10 μm long, unbranched setae rather resemble those in anoline and scincid lizards than the larger and branched setae of certain gecko species. In contrast to the thin triangular tips of other lizards, all examined species of the genera Furcifer and Calumma and one of the five examined species of the genus Trioceros have spatulate tips. All other examined species of genera Trioceros and Chamaeleo bear setae with narrowed, fibrous tips. Unlike the setae of other lizards, chamaeleonid setal tips do not show any orientation along the axis of the toes, but they are flexible to bend in any direction. With these differences, the chameleon's unique microstructures on the zygodactylous feet and prehensile tail rather increase friction for arboreal locomotion than being a shear-induced adhesive system as setal pads of other lizards.

  15. ENDOSCOPIC TYMPANO PLASTY TEMPORALIS FASCIA VERSUS CARTILAGE : COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the graft acceptance rates and auditory outcomes of endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasty operations with those of endoscopic primary tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia in a homogenous group of patients . MATERIAL AND METHODS : This prospective study was conducted on 64 patients between the ages of 15 to 50 years. All patients had a central tympanic membrane perforation without infection in middle ear or upper respiratory tract. RESULTS : Anatomical results in terms of graft uptake and intact tympanic membrane over a period of 2 years showed good results both in 26(92.85% cases in cartilage group and in 33(91.66% cases in temporalis fascia group. The average post - operative Air bone gap in endoscopic fascia tympanoplasty group was 14.61db and 15.65db in endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasty group . CONCLUSION: Endoscopic tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive, sutureless procedure with better patient compliance. Tympanoplasty with cartilage graft has a high degree of graft take up. Tympanoplasty with cartilage provides better results in terms of integrity and intactness of the graft and less percentage of postoperative discharge from the operated ear.

  16. A comparative study of interaction of ibuprofen with biocompatible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iqrar A; Anjum, Kahkashan; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we are reporting the interaction of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBF) with various biocompatible polymers. Being amphiphilic, the drug interacts with the polymers similar to the interaction of surfactants and polymers. Therefore, we have considered the polymer-amphiphile interaction approach using conductimetry. The polymers of different charges (cationic, anionic, and nonionic) have been taken for the study. It was found that the critical aggregation concentration (cac) decreases on increasing the polymer concentrations of cationic as well as nonionic polymers whereas it increases for anionic polymers. The results imply that anionic IBF interacts with cationic and nonionic polymers more strongly as compared to the anionic polymers. A possible anionic-anionic repulsion is responsible for the weak interaction of IBF with anionic polymers. On the other side, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) increases for all polymers which is a usual indication of the interaction between amphiphiles and polymers. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were also computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IBF] isotherms.

  17. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  19. Wavelet Estimators in Nonparametric Regression: A Comparative Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anestis Antoniadis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet analysis has been found to be a powerful tool for the nonparametric estimation of spatially-variable objects. We discuss in detail wavelet methods in nonparametric regression, where the data are modelled as observations of a signal contaminated with additive Gaussian noise, and provide an extensive review of the vast literature of wavelet shrinkage and wavelet thresholding estimators developed to denoise such data. These estimators arise from a wide range of classical and empirical Bayes methods treating either individual or blocks of wavelet coefficients. We compare various estimators in an extensive simulation study on a variety of sample sizes, test functions, signal-to-noise ratios and wavelet filters. Because there is no single criterion that can adequately summarise the behaviour of an estimator, we use various criteria to measure performance in finite sample situations. Insight into the performance of these estimators is obtained from graphical outputs and numerical tables. In order to provide some hints of how these estimators should be used to analyse real data sets, a detailed practical step-by-step illustration of a wavelet denoising analysis on electrical consumption is provided. Matlab codes are provided so that all figures and tables in this paper can be reproduced.

  20. [Teledermatology versus consultations--a comparative study of 120 consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F E; Sönnichsen, K; Blum, A

    2005-10-01

    Dermatology fulfills the prerequisites for telemedicine. An important application of telemedicine might be the field of dermatologic consultations. In this comparative study images of skin disease were taken of 120 patients hospitalized in the University Hospitals of Tuebingen to answer the following questions: (1) are the preconditions in daily routine given for teledermatology, (2) is there adequate agreement between the diagnoses reached in dermatologic consultations and with teledermatology, and (3) can the images be utilized for teaching purposes. Patient acceptance was very good and the images captured with a digital camera were easily obtained. The results of intraobserver analysis for the two teledermatologists without any knowledge of the patients' history were 70.2% and 46.4%, respectively, and with knowledge of the history 76.6% and 64.3%. The results of interobserver analysis without any knowledge of the patients' history were 46.4% and 57.2% and with knowledge of the history 64.3% and 66%, respectively. With the reduction of the image quality, reduced reliability of the diagnoses was observed. Seven of ten images could be used for teaching purposes. It was demonstrated that in dermatology telemedicine is applicable in many, but not in all patients who are referred for dermatologic consultations.

  1. Osseointegration of alumina bioceramic granules: A comparative experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerikh, V. V.; Avetisyan, A. R.; Zaydman, A. M.; Anikin, K. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Nikulina, A. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Aronov, A. M.; Semantsova, E. S.

    2016-08-01

    To perform a comparative analysis of osseointegration of bioceramic alumina-based granules, hydroxyapatite-based granules, and deproteinized bone granules. The experiment was conducted on 52 adult male Kyoto-Wistar rats weighing 350 to 520 g. The animals were divided into five matched groups that differed only in the type of an implanted material. The granules were implanted in the lumbar vertebral bodies and in the distal right femur of each laboratory animal. Two months after surgery, the animals were euthanized, followed by tissue sampling for morphological studies. An examination of specimens from the groups with implanted alumina granules revealed the newly formed trabecular bone with remodeling signs. The bone tissue filled the intragranular space, tightly adhering to the granule surface. There was no connective tissue capsule on the border between bone tissue and alumina granules. Cylindrical bioceramic alumina-based granules with an open internal channel have a higher strength surpassing than that of analogs and the osseointegration ability close to that of hydroxyapatite and deproteinized bone granules.

  2. Visual fields of four batoid fishes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The visual fields of elasmobranch fishes are not well characterized even though this is a fundamental element of the visual system. The batoid fishes (skates, rays) form a monophyletic clade within the subclass Elasmobranchii and exhibit a broad range of morphologies and corresponding ecologies. We hypothesized that their visual field characteristics would reflect their diverse morphology and ecology. This was tested by quantifying the monocular, binocular and cyclopean horizontal and vertical visual fields of four batoid species (Raja eglanteria, Urobatis jamaicensis, Dasyatis sabina and Rhinoptera bonasus) that encompassed a range from a basal skate to a more derived ray. The horizontal and vertical visual fields differed significantly among species; however, all species possessed horizontal anterior and dorsal binocular overlaps. Urobatis jamaicensis, a small reef-associated stingray, demonstrated a 360 degrees panoramic visual field in the horizontal plane, and R. bonasus, a schooling benthopelagic ray, a 360 degrees panoramic view in the vertical plane. Large anterior binocular overlaps were measured in D. sabina (72 degrees ) and R. bonasus (46 degrees ) but came at the expense of large posterior blind areas. The anterior binocular overlaps in R. eglanteria (28 degrees ) and U. jamaicensis (34 degrees ) were smaller but were coupled with large monocular fields that provided expansive peripheral views. The most phylogenetically basal species, the clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), had the most reduced visual field in contrast to the more derived ray species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first comparative assessment of visual fields in basal vertebrates.

  3. Liposomes- and ethosomes-associated distamycins: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Romagnoli, Romeo; Drechsler, Markus; Menegatti, Enea; Zaid, Abdel N; Ravani, Laura; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2010-12-01

    The present article describes a comparative study of the performances of liposomes and ethosomes as specialized delivery systems for distamycin A (DA) and two of its derivatives. Liposomes and ethosomes were prepared by classical methods, extruded through polycarbonate filters, and characterized in terms of dimensions, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency. It was found that DA was associated with vesicles (either liposomes or ethosomes) by around 16.0%, while both derivatives of DA showed a percentage of association around 80% in the case of liposomes and around 50% in the case of ethosomes. In vitro antiproliferative activity experiments performed on cultured human and mouse leukemic cells demonstrated that vesicles were able to increase the activity of both derivatives of DA. In addition, it was demonstrated that the aging of both liposomes- and ethosomes-associated distamycin suspensions did not heavily influence the vesicle size, while all samples showed a relevant drug leakage with time. Moreover, according to the different physicochemical characteristics of DA and its derivatives (i.e., log P), vesicle-associated DA showed the highest loss of drug with respect to both its derivatives. In conclusion, the enhancement of drug activity expressed by these specialized delivery systems-associated DD could be interesting to obtain an efficient therapeutic effect aimed at reducing or minimizing toxic effects occurring with distamycins administration.

  4. Spheroid model study comparing the biocompatibility of Biodentine and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérard, Matthieu; Le Clerc, Justine; Watrin, Tanguy; Meary, Fleur; Pérez, Fabienne; Tricot-Doleux, Sylvie; Pellen-Mussi, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the biological effects of a new dentine substitute based on Ca₃SiO₅ (Biodentine™) for use in pulp-capping treatment, on pseudo-odontoblastic (MDPC-23) and pulp (Od-21) cells. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on gene expression in cultured spheroids. We used the acid phosphatase assay to compare the biocompatibility of Biodentine and MTA. Cell differentiation was investigated by RT-qPCR. We investigated the expression of genes involved in odontogenic differentiation (Runx2), matrix secretion (Col1a1, Spp1) and mineralisation (Alp). ANOVA and PLSD tests were used for data analysis. MDPC-23 cells cultured in the presence of MTA had higher levels of viability than those cultured in the presence of Biodentine and control cells on day 7 (P = 0.0065 and P = 0.0126, respectively). For Od-21 cells, proliferation rates on day 7 were significantly lower in the presence of Biodentine or MTA than for control (P MTA than in those cultured in the presence of Biodentine and in control cells. Biodentine and MTA may modify the proliferation of pulp cell lines. Their effects may fluctuate over time, depending on the cell line considered. The observed similarity between Biodentine and MTA validates the indication for direct pulp-capping claimed by the manufacturers.

  5. Comparative study of nail sampling techniques in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Avner; Davidovici, Batya; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz

    2009-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem. Obtaining accurate laboratory test results before treatment is important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare results of curettage and drilling techniques of nail sampling in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and to establish the best technique and location of sampling. We evaluated 60 patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis and lateral subungual onychomycosis using curettage and vertical and horizontal drilling sampling techniques from three different sites of the infected nail. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. At each sample site, the horizontal drilling technique has a better culture sensitivity than curettage. Trichophyton rubrum was by far the most common pathogen detected by both techniques from all sampling sites. The drilling technique was found to be statistically better than curettage at each site of sampling, furthermore vertical drilling from the proximal part of the affected nail was found to be the best procedure for nail sampling. With each technique we found that the culture sensitivity improved as the location of the sample was more proximal. More types of pathogens were detected in samples taken by both methods from proximal parts of the affected nails.

  6. COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON SHODHANANGA AROHANA AND SADYO SNEHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Chaturvedi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oleation therapy used in the preoperative of shodhana (purification is shodhanaga snehana (pre purification oleation therapy. Generally sneha is administered in arohana (increasing manner for 3 to 7 days or till the appearance of proper oleation features. In the present days it is being observed that though many of the patients require shodhana (purification, but it is not feasible as about seven days period is required for oleation therapy. In addition texts also mention instant pre purification oleation therapy, which can be done in one day. If instant oleation is also equally effective, then the duration of preoperative procedure may be reduced remarkably. With this idea it was planned to study the effect of instant oleation therapy and arohana (increment oleation therapy on proper oleation features. Objectives: To compare the effect of increment oleation and instant oleation in attaining proper oleation features.Methods: 20 volunteers were assigned into increment oleation group & instant oleation therapy group consisting of 10 each.Results: The oleation grade showed in increment oleation group was 75 %, where as in instant oleation therapy group it was 24.2%.  The mean of 66.7% and 44.4% of laingiki lakshana (features of proper purification was observed in increment and instant oleation therapy group.Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study it can be concluded that increment oleation therapy method should be choice for oleation therapy prior to purgation therapy as in this group less discomfort during digestion, more oleation features and more benifits by purgation therapy were noticed.

  7. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  8. Comparative hemolysis study of clinically available centrifugal pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, K; Suenaga, E; Cao, Z L; Suda, H; Ueno, T; Natsuaki, M; Itoh, T

    1996-06-01

    Centrifugal pumps have become important devices for cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory assistance. Five types of centrifugal pumps are clinically available in Japan. To evaluate the blood trauma caused by centrifugal pumps, a comparative hemolysis study was performed under identical conditions. In vitro hemolysis test circuits were constructed to operate the BioMedicus BP-80 (Medtronic, BioMedicus), Sarns Delphin (Sarns/3M Healthcare), Isoflow (St. Jude Medical [SJM]), HPM-15 (Nikkiso), and Capiox CX-SP45 (Terumo). The hemolysis test loop consisted of two 1.5 m lengths of polyvinyl chloride tubing with a 3/8-inch internal diameter, a reservoir with a sampling port, and a pump head. All pumps were set to flow at 6 L/min against the total pressure head of 120 mm Hg. Experiments were conducted simultaneously for 6 h at room temperature (21 degrees C) with fresh bovine blood. Blood samples for plasma-free hemoglobin testing were taken, and the change in temperature at the pump outlet port was measured during the experiment. The mean pump rotational speeds were 1,570, 1,374, 1,438, 1,944, and 1,296 rpm, and the normalized indexes of hemolysis were 0.00070, 0.00745, 0.00096, 0.00066, 0.00090 g/100 L for the BP-80, Sarns, SJM, Nikkiso, and Terumo pumps, respectively. The change in temperature at the pump outlet port was the least for the Nikkiso pump (1.8 degrees C) and the most with the SJM pump (3.8 degrees C). This study showed that there is no relationship between the pump rotational speed (rpm) and the normalized index of hemolysis in 5 types of centrifugal pumps. The pump design and number of impellers could be more notable factors in blood damage.

  9. Antileucotrienos no tratamento da asma e rinite alérgica Antileukotrienes in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Dirceu Ribeiro

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os antagonistas de leucotrienos (ARLT aos outros grupos de medicamentos utilizados para tratar a asma e a rinite alérgica. FONTES DOS DADOS: MEDLINE, LILACS e Biblioteca Cochrane. Palavras chaves: leucotrienos, antileucotrienos, tratamento da asma, tratamento da rinite alérgica, asma e rinite alérgica. Procurou-se agrupar os principais trabalhos e revisões sobre o assunto. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os ARLT são mais eficazes do que placebo e potencializam os efeitos dos corticosteróides inalados. A associação de corticosteróides inalados com agentes beta2 agonistas de longa duração (LABA é mais eficaz do que a associação de cortiscoteróides inalados + ARLT. Embora pareça racional o uso de ARLT na crise aguda de asma e rinite alérgica, mais estudos são necessários para comprovar esse benefício. Os ARLT promovem redução no tempo de hospitalização e no número de crises de sibilância em lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda pelo vírus respiratório sin