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Sample records for comparative structure-function analysis

  1. A comparative structure-function analysis of active-site inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae cholix toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-09-01

    Cholix toxin from Vibrio cholerae is a novel mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxin that shares structural and functional properties with Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Herein, we have used the high-resolution X-ray structure of full-length cholix toxin in the apo form, NAD(+) bound, and 10 structures of the cholix catalytic domain (C-domain) complexed with several strong inhibitors of toxin enzyme activity (NAP, PJ34, and the P-series) to study the binding mode of the ligands. A pharmacophore model based on the active pose of NAD(+) was compared with the active conformation of the inhibitors, which revealed a cationic feature in the side chain of the inhibitors that may determine the active pose. Moreover, a conformational search was conducted for the missing coordinates of one of the main active-site loops (R-loop). The resulting structural models were used to evaluate the interaction energies and for 3D-QSAR modeling. Implications for a rational drug design approach for mART toxins were derived.

  2. Structured Functional Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Haochang; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Greven, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Summary Motivated by modern observational studies, we introduce a class of functional models that expand nested and crossed designs. These models account for the natural inheritance of the correlation structures from sampling designs in studies where the fundamental unit is a function or image. Inference is based on functional quadratics and their relationship with the underlying covariance structure of the latent processes. A computationally fast and scalable estimation procedure is developed for high-dimensional data. Methods are used in applications including high-frequency accelerometer data for daily activity, pitch linguistic data for phonetic analysis, and EEG data for studying electrical brain activity during sleep. PMID:25327216

  3. Truncated Moment Analysis of Nucleon Structure Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Psaker; W. Melnitchouk; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel

    2007-11-16

    We employ a novel new approach using "truncated" moments, or integrals of structure functions over restricted regions of x, to study local quark-hadron duality, and the degree to which individual resonance regions are dominated by leading twists. Because truncated moments obey the same Q^2 evolution equations as the leading twist parton distributions, this approach makes possible for the first time a description of resonance region data and the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality directly from QCD.

  4. STRUCTURE FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM QUASAR VARIABILITY

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    de Vries, W; Becker, R; White, R; Loomis, C

    2004-11-15

    In our second paper on long-term quasar variability, we employ a much larger database of quasars than in de Vries, Becker & White. This expanded sample, containing 35,165 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2, and 6,413 additional quasars in the same area of the sky taken from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey, allows us to significantly improve on our earlier conclusions. As before, all the historic quasar photometry has been calibrated onto the SDSS scale by using large numbers of calibration stars around each quasar position. We find the following: (1) the outbursts have an asymmetric light-curve profile, with a fast-rise, slow-decline shape; this argues against a scenario in which micro-lensing events along the line-of-sight to the quasars are dominating the long-term variations in quasars; (2) there is no turnover in the Structure Function of the quasars up to time-scales of {approx}40 years, and the increase in variability with increasing time-lags is monotonic and constant; and consequently, (3) there is not a single preferred characteristic outburst time-scale for the quasars, but most likely a continuum of outburst time-scales, (4) the magnitude of the quasar variability is a function of wavelength: variability increases toward the blue part of the spectrum, (5) high-luminosity quasars vary less than low-luminosity quasars, consistent with a scenario in which variations have limited absolute magnitude. Based on this, we conclude that quasar variability is intrinsic to the Active Galactic Nucleus, is caused by chromatic outbursts/flares with a limited luminosity range and varying time-scales, and which have an overall asymmetric light-curve shape. Currently the model that has the most promise of fitting the observations is based on accretion disk instabilities.

  5. Analysis of DIS structure functions of the nucleon within truncated Mellin moments approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kotlorz, D

    2016-01-01

    We present generalized evolution equations and factorization in terms of the truncated Mellin moments (TMM) of the parton distributions and structure functions. We illustrate the $x$ and $Q^2$ dependence of TMM in the polarized case. Using the TMM approach we compare the integrals of $g_1$ with HERMES and COMPASS data from the limited $x$-ranges.

  6. Analysis of structure-function network decoupling in the brain systems of spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongha; Pae, Chongwon; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae; Um, Min-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Manifestation of the functionalities from the structural brain network is becoming increasingly important to understand a brain disease. With the aim of investigating the differential structure-function couplings according to network systems, we investigated the structural and functional brain networks of patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy with periventricular leukomalacia compared to healthy controls. The structural and functional networks of the whole brain and motor system, constructed using deterministic and probabilistic tractography of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images and Pearson and partial correlation analyses of resting-state functional magnetic resonance images, showed differential embedding of functional networks in the structural networks in patients. In the whole-brain network of patients, significantly reduced global network efficiency compared to healthy controls were found in the structural networks but not in the functional networks, resulting in reduced structural-functional coupling. On the contrary, the motor network of patients had a significantly lower functional network efficiency over the intact structural network and a lower structure-function coupling than the control group. This reduced coupling but reverse directionality in the whole-brain and motor networks of patients was prominent particularly between the probabilistic structural and partial correlation-based functional networks. Intact (or less deficient) functional network over impaired structural networks of the whole brain and highly impaired functional network topology over the intact structural motor network might subserve relatively preserved cognitions and impaired motor functions in cerebral palsy. This study suggests that the structure-function relationship, evaluated specifically using sparse functional connectivity, may reveal important clues to functional reorganization in cerebral palsy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5292-5306, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  7. Regression analysis of the structure function for reliability evaluation of continuous-state system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz, M.L., E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.e [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Martinez Miranda, M.D. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Technical systems are designed to perform an intended task with an admissible range of efficiency. According to this idea, it is permissible that the system runs among different levels of performance, in addition to complete failure and the perfect functioning one. As a consequence, reliability theory has evolved from binary-state systems to the most general case of continuous-state system, in which the state of the system changes over time through some interval on the real number line. In this context, obtaining an expression for the structure function becomes difficult, compared to the discrete case, with difficulty increasing as the number of components of the system increases. In this work, we propose a method to build a structure function for a continuum system by using multivariate nonparametric regression techniques, in which certain analytical restrictions on the variable of interest must be taken into account. Once the structure function is obtained, some reliability indices of the system are estimated. We illustrate our method via several numerical examples.

  8. Structure-function relationship of Chikungunya nsP2 protease: A comparative study with papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Kutumbarao, Nidamarthi H V; Suhitha, Sivasubramanian; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2016-11-07

    Chikungunya virus is a growing human pathogen transmitted by mosquito bite. It causes fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, headache, and swelling in the joints. Its replication and propagation depend on the protease activity of the Chikungunya virus-nsP2 protein, which cleaves the nsP1234 polyprotein replication complex into individual functional units. The N-terminal segment of papain is structurally identical with the Chikungunya virus-nsP2 protease. Hence, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare molecular mechanism of these proteases. The Chikungunya virus-snP2 protease shows more conformational changes and adopts an alternate conformation. However, N-terminal segment of these two proteases has identical active site scaffold with the conserved catalytic diad. Hence, some of the non-peptide inhibitors of papain were used for induced fit docking at the active site of the nsP2 to assess the binding mode. In addition, the peptides that connect different domains/protein in Chikungunya virus poly-protein were also subjected for docking. The overall results suggest that the active site scaffold is the same in both the proteases and a possibility exists to experimentally assess the efficacy of some of the papain inhibitors to inhibit the Chikungunya virus-nsP2.

  9. QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering: Laplace transform and Jacobi polynomials approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Tehrani, S. Atashbar; Mahdavi, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions x F3(x ,Q2) , based on Laplace transforms and the Jacobi polynomials approach. The analysis corresponds to the next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order approximations of perturbative QCD. The Laplace transform technique, as an exact analytical solution, is used for the solution of nonsinglet Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations at low- and large-x values. The extracted results are used as input to obtain the x and Q2 evolution of x F3(x ,Q2) structure functions using the Jacobi polynomials approach. In our work, the values of the typical QCD scale ΛMS¯ (nf) and the strong coupling constant αs(MZ2) are determined for four quark flavors (nf=4 ) as well. A careful estimation of the uncertainties shall be performed using the Hessian method for the valence-quark distributions, originating from the experimental errors. We compare our valence-quark parton distribution functions sets with those of other collaborations, in particular with the CT14, MMHT14, and NNPDF sets, which are contemporary with the present analysis. The obtained results from the analysis are in good agreement with those from the literature.

  10. Coupled analysis of in vitro and histology tissue samples to quantify structure-function relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Acar

    Full Text Available The structure/function relationship is fundamental to our understanding of biological systems at all levels, and drives most, if not all, techniques for detecting, diagnosing, and treating disease. However, at the tissue level of biological complexity we encounter a gap in the structure/function relationship: having accumulated an extraordinary amount of detailed information about biological tissues at the cellular and subcellular level, we cannot assemble it in a way that explains the correspondingly complex biological functions these structures perform. To help close this information gap we define here several quantitative temperospatial features that link tissue structure to its corresponding biological function. Both histological images of human tissue samples and fluorescence images of three-dimensional cultures of human cells are used to compare the accuracy of in vitro culture models with their corresponding human tissues. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior work on a quantitative comparison of histology and in vitro samples. Features are calculated from graph theoretical representations of tissue structures and the data are analyzed in the form of matrices and higher-order tensors using matrix and tensor factorization methods, with a goal of differentiating between cancerous and healthy states of brain, breast, and bone tissues. We also show that our techniques can differentiate between the structural organization of native tissues and their corresponding in vitro engineered cell culture models.

  11. Low $Q^{2}$ low $\\times$ structure function analysis of CCFR data for $F_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Tamminga, B H; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; Barbaro, L; Barbaro, P D; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D A; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Vaitaitis, A G; Yang, U K; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of structure functions (SFs) from neutrino and muon deep inelastic scattering data have shown discrepancies in F2 for x < 0.1. A new SF analysis of the CCFR collaboration data examining regions in x down to x=.0015 and 0.4 < Q^2 < 1.0 is presented. Comparison to corrected charged lepton scattering results for F2 from the NMC and E665 experiments are made. Differences between muon and neutrino scattering allow that the behavior of F2 from muon scattering could be different from F2 from neutrino scattering as Q^2 approaches zero. Comparisons between F2 muon and F2 neutrino are made in this limit.

  12. QCD analysis of DIS structure functions in neutrino-nucleon scattering: Laplace transform and Jacobi polynomials approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, S Mohammad Moosavi; Tehrani, S Atashbar; Mahdavi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions $xF_3 (x, Q^2)$, based on Laplace transforms and Jacobi polynomials approach. The analysis corresponds to the next-to-leading order (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) approximation of perturbative QCD. The Laplace transform technique, as an exact analytical solution, is used for the solution of nonsinglet DGLAP evolution equations at low- and large-$x$ values. The extracted results are used as input to obtain the $x$ and Q$^2$ evolution of $xF_3(x, Q^2)$ structure functions using the Jacobi polynomials approach. In our work, the values of the typical QCD scale $\\Lambda_{\\overline{\\rm MS}}^{(n_f)}$ and the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2)$ are determined for four quark flavors ($n_f=4$) as well. A careful estimation of the uncertainties shall be performed using the Hessian method for the valence-quark distributions, originating from the experimental errors. We compare our valence-quark PDFs sets with those of other collabora...

  13. Structure-function analysis of two variants of mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Santos-López

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A point mutation from guanine (G to adenine (A at nucleotide position 1081 in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene has been associated with neurovirulence of Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine. This mutation corresponds to a glutamic acid (E to lysine (K change at position 335 in the HN glycoprotein. We have experimentally demonstrated that two variants of Urabe AM9 strain (HN-A1081 and HN-G1081 differ in neurotropism, sialic acidbinding affinity and neuraminidase activity. In the present study, we performed a structure-function analysis of that amino acid substitution; the structures of HN protein of both Urabe AM9 strain variants were predicted. Based on our analysis, the E/K mutation changes the protein surface properties and to a lesser extent their conformations, which in turn reflects in activity changes. Our modeling results suggest that this E/K interchange does not affect the structure of the sialic acid binding motif; however, the electrostatic surface differs drastically due to an exposed short alpha helix. Consequently, this mutation may affect the accessibility of HN to substrates and membrane receptors of the host cells. Our findings appear to explain the observed differences in neurotropism of these vaccine strains.

  14. QCD analysis of neutrino charged current structure function F2 in deep inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Aleem, F.

    1985-08-01

    An analytic expression for the neutrino charged current structure function F2 (x, Q2) in deep inelastic scattering, consistent with quantum chromodynamics, is proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Structure-Function Analysis of Inositol Hexakisphosphate-induced Autoprocessing in Clostridium difficile Toxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Chagot, Benjamin; Cover, Michael; Chazin, Walter J.; Spiller, Ben; Lacy, D. Borden; (Vanderbilt)

    2009-09-25

    The action of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B depends on inactivation of host small G-proteins by glucosylation. Cellular inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) induces an autocatalytic cleavage of the toxins, releasing an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain into the host cell cytosol. We have defined the cysteine protease domain (CPD) responsible for autoprocessing within toxin A (TcdA) and report the 1.6 {angstrom} x-ray crystal structure of the domain bound to InsP6. InsP6 is bound in a highly basic pocket that is separated from an unusual active site by a {beta}-flap structure. Functional studies confirm an intramolecular mechanism of cleavage and highlight specific residues required for InsP6-induced TcdA processing. Analysis of the structural and functional data in the context of sequences from similar and diverse origins highlights a C-terminal extension and a {pi}-cation interaction within the {beta}-flap that appear to be unique among the large clostridial cytotoxins.

  16. Structure-function analysis of peroxidasin provides insight into the mechanism of collagen IV crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Enikő; Péterfi, Zalán; Sirokmány, Gábor; Kovács, Hajnal A; Klement, Eva; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Geiszt, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Basement membranes provide structural support and convey regulatory signals to cells in diverse tissues. Assembly of collagen IV into a sheet-like network is a fundamental mechanism during the formation of basement membranes. Peroxidasin (PXDN) was recently described to catalyze crosslinking of collagen IV through the formation of sulfilimine bonds. Despite the significance of this pathway in tissue genesis, our understanding of PXDN function is far from complete. In this work we demonstrate that collagen IV crosslinking is a physiological function of mammalian PXDN. Moreover, we carried out structure-function analysis of PXDN to gain a better insight into its role in collagen IV synthesis. We identify conserved cysteines in PXDN that mediate the oligomerization of the protein into a trimeric complex. We also demonstrate that oligomerization is not an absolute requirement for enzymatic activity, but optimal collagen IV coupling is only catalyzed by the PXDN trimers. Localization experiments of different PXDN mutants in two different cell models revealed that PXDN oligomers, but not monomers, adhere on the cell surface in "hot spots," which represent previously unknown locations of collagen IV crosslinking.

  17. Structure function monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  18. Coarse-Grained Multifractality Analysis Based on Structure Function Measurements to Discriminate Healthy from Distressed Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined coarse-grained multifractal method to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses. The coarse-graining operation was performed by means of a coarse-grained procedure and the multifractal operation was based on a structure function. The proposed method was evaluated by one hundred recordings including eighty normal foetuses and twenty distressed foetuses. We found that it was possible to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses using the Hurst exponent, singularity, and Holder spectra.

  19. Patchwork structure-function analysis of the Sendai virus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet-Osman, Geneviève; Miazza, Vincent; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roux, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Paramyxoviruses contain a bi-lipidic envelope decorated by two transmembrane glycoproteins and carpeted on the inner surface with a layer of matrix proteins (M), thought to bridge the glycoproteins with the viral nucleocapsids. To characterize M structure-function features, a set of M domains were mutated or deleted. The genes encoding these modified M were incorporated into recombinant Sendai viruses and expressed as supplemental proteins. Using a method of integrated suppression complementation system (ISCS), the functions of these M mutants were analyzed in the context of the infection. Cellular membrane association, localization at the cell periphery, nucleocapsid binding, cellular protein interactions and promotion of viral particle formation were characterized in relation with the mutations. At the end, lack of nucleocapsid binding go together with lack of cell surface localization and both features definitely correlate with loss of M global function estimated by viral particle production.

  20. A next-to-leading-order QCD analysis of neutrino-iron structure functions at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, W.G.

    1997-06-01

    Nucleon structure functions measured in neutrino-iron and antineutrino-iron charged-current interactions are presented. The data were taken in two high-energy high-statistics runs by the LAB-E detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Structure functions are extracted from a sample of 950,000 neutrino and 170,000 antineutrino events with neutrino energies from 30 to 360 GeV. The structure functions F{sub 2} and xF{sub 3} are compared with the predictions of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD). The combined non-singlet and singlet evolution in the context of PQCD gives value of {Lambda}NLO,(4)/MS = 337 {+-} 28 (exp.) MeV, which corresponds to {alpha}{sub S}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) = 0.119 {+-} 0.002 (exp.) {+-} 0.004 (theory), and with a gluon distribution given by xG(x,Q{sub 0}{sup 2} = 5GeV{sup 2}) = (2.22 {+-} 0.34) {times} (1 {minus} x){sup 4.65{+-}0.68}.

  1. A next-to-leading-order QCD analysis of neutrino-iron structure functions at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, William Glenn [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Nucleon structure functions measured in neutrino-iron and antineutrino-iron charged-current interactions are presented. The data were taken in two high-energy high-statistics runs by the LAB-E detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Structure functions are extracted from a sample of 950,000 neutrino and 170,000 antineutrino events with neutrino energies from 30 to 360 GeV. The structure functions F2 and xF3 are compared with the predictions of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD). The combined non-singlet and singlet evolution in the context of PQCD gives value of ΛNLO,(4)/MS = 337 ± 28 (exp.) MeV, which corresponds to αS(MZ2) = 0.119 ± 0.002 (exp.) ± 0.004 (theory), and with a gluon distribution given by xG(x,Q02 = 5GeV2) = (2.22 ± 0.34) x (1 - x)4.65±0.68.

  2. Genome Analysis of Structure-Function Relationships in Respiratory Complex I, an Ancient Bioenergetic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2015-11-27

    Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a ubiquitous bioenergetic enzyme formed by over 40 subunits in eukaryotes and a minimum of 11 subunits in bacteria. Recently, crystal structures have greatly advanced our knowledge of complex I but have not clarified the details of its reaction with ubiquinone (Q). This reaction is essential for bioenergy production and takes place in a large cavity embedded within a conserved module that is homologous to the catalytic core of Ni-Fe hydrogenases. However, how a hydrogenase core has evolved into the protonmotive Q reductase module of complex I has remained unclear. This work has exploited the abundant genomic information that is currently available to deduce structure-function relationships in complex I that indicate the evolutionary steps of Q reactivity and its adaptation to natural Q substrates. The results provide answers to fundamental questions regarding various aspects of complex I reaction with Q and help re-defining the old concept that this reaction may involve two Q or inhibitor sites. The re-definition leads to a simplified classification of the plethora of complex I inhibitors while throwing a new light on the evolution of the enzyme function.

  3. Alanine scan of an immunosuppressive peptide (CP): analysis of structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguine, Laura; Ali, Marina; Bender, Veronika; Diefenbach, Eve; Doddareddy, Munikumar Reddy; Hibbs, David; Manolios, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Core peptide is a hydrophobic peptide, the sequence of which is derived from the T-cell antigen receptor alpha-chain transmembrane region. Previous studies have shown that core peptide can inhibit T-cell-mediated immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the role each constituent amino acid plays within core peptide using an alanine scan and the amino acid effect on function using a biological antigen presentation assay. The biophysical behaviour of these analogues in model membranes was analysed using surface plasmon resonance studies and then binding correlated with T-cell function. Removal of any single hydrophobic amino acid between the two charged amino acids in core peptide (R, K) resulted in lower binding. Changing the overall net charge of core peptide, by removing either of the positively charged residues (R or K), had varying effects on peptide binding and IL-2 production. There was a direct correlation (ρ = 0.718) between peptide binding to model membranes and peptide ability to inhibit IL-2. Except for IL-2 inhibition, production of other T-cell cytokines such as GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and T-cell antigen receptor alpha-chain was not detected using a fluorescent bead immunoassay. This study provides important structure-function relationships essential for further drug design. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Structure-function analysis of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum RNA ligase – engineering a thermostable ATP independent enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelkovsky Alexander M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA ligases are essential reagents for many methods in molecular biology including NextGen RNA sequencing. To prevent ligation of RNA to itself, ATP independent mutant ligases, defective in self-adenylation, are often used in combination with activated pre-adenylated linkers. It is important that these ligases not have de-adenylation activity, which can result in activation of RNA and formation of background ligation products. An additional useful feature is for the ligase to be active at elevated temperatures. This has the advantage or reducing preferences caused by structures of single-stranded substrates and linkers. Results To create an RNA ligase with these desirable properties we performed mutational analysis of the archaeal thermophilic RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. We identified amino acids essential for ATP binding and reactivity but dispensable for phosphodiester bond formation with 5’ pre-adenylated donor substrate. The motif V lysine mutant (K246A showed reduced activity in the first two steps of ligation reaction. The mutant has full ligation activity with pre-adenylated substrates but retained the undesirable activity of deadenylation, which is the reverse of step 2 adenylation. A second mutant, an alanine substitution for the catalytic lysine in motif I (K97A abolished activity in the first two steps of the ligation reaction, but preserved wild type ligation activity in step 3. The activity of the K97A mutant is similar with either pre-adenylated RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA as donor substrates but we observed two-fold preference for RNA as an acceptor substrate compared to ssDNA with an identical sequence. In contrast, truncated T4 RNA ligase 2, the commercial enzyme used in these applications, is significantly more active using pre-adenylated RNA as a donor compared to pre-adenylated ssDNA. However, the T4 RNA ligases are ineffective in ligating ssDNA acceptors. Conclusions

  5. Longitudinal Structure Function FL from Charm Structure Function F2c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Rezaei; G.R.Boroun

    2013-01-01

    We predict the effect of the charm structure function on the longitudinal structure function at small x.In NLO analysis we find that the hard Pomeron behavior gives a good description of FL and Fkc (k =2,L) at small x values.We conclude that a direct relation between FL∝ F2c would provide useful information on how to measure longitudinal structure function at high Q2 values.Having checked that this model gives a good description of the data,when compared with other models.

  6. Flavin adenine dinucleotide content of quinone reductase 2: analysis and optimization for structure-function studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kevin Ka Ki; Litchfield, David W; Shilton, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) is a broadly expressed enzyme implicated in responses to a number of compounds, including protein kinase inhibitors, resveratrol, and antimalarial drugs. NQO2 includes a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, but X-ray crystallographic analysis of human NQO2 expressed in Escherichia coli showed that electron density for the isoalloxazine ring of FAD was weak and there was no electron density for the adenine mononucleotide moiety. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the NQO2 preparation indicated that FAD was not present and only 38% of the protomers contained flavin mononucleotide (FMN), explaining the weak electron density for FAD in the crystallographic analysis. A method for purifying NQO2 and reconstituting with FAD such that the final content approaches 100% occupancy with FAD is presented here. The enzyme prepared in this manner has a high specific activity, and there is strong electron density for the FAD cofactor in the crystal structure. Analysis of NQO2 crystal structures present in the Protein Data Bank indicates that many may have sub-stoichiometric cofactor content and/or contain FMN rather than FAD. This method of purification and reconstitution will help to optimize structural and functional studies of NQO2 and possibly other flavoproteins.

  7. Measurement of the Electron Structure Function at LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W-D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Asman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K-H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Berat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besancon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Bruckman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, Ph; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D; Cuevas, J; D'Hondt, J; da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; De Boer, W; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; de Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelof, T; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Foeth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; Garcia, C; Gavillet, Ph; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S-O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouznetsov, O; Krumstein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; Lopez, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Marechal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J-C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martinez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; Mc Nulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W; Mjoernmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Moenig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mueller, U; Muenich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nemecek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, Th D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdniakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Richard, F; Ridky, J; Rivero, M; Rodriguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovsky, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Slominski, W; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassov, T; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Szwed, J; Tabarelli, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tome, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2010-01-01

    The hadronic part of the Electron Structure Function (ESF) has been measured for the first time, using e+e- data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies sqrt(s) = 91.2-209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The ESF data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the quasi-real photon virtuality contribution is significant. The presented data can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function analyses and help in refining existing parametrizations.

  8. Structural, functional and mutational analysis of the pfr gene encoding a ferritin from Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, S; Waidner, U; Odenbreit, S; Lichte, F; Fassbinder, F; Bode, G; Kist, M

    1998-09-01

    The function of the pfr gene encoding the ferritin from Helicobacter pylori was investigated using the Fur titration assay (FURTA) in Escherichia coli, and by characterization of a pfr-deficient mutant strain of H. pylori. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pfr region is conserved among strains (> 95% nucleotide identity). Two transcriptional start sites, at least one of them preceded by a sigma 70-dependent promoter, were identified. Provision of the H. pylori pfr gene on a multicopy plasmid resulted in reversal of the Fur-mediated repression of the fhuF gene in E. coli, thus enabling the use of the FURTA for cloning of the ferritin gene. Inactivation of the pfr gene, either by insertion of a resistance cassette or by deletion of the up- and downstream segments, abolished this function. Immunoblot analysis with a Pfr-specific antiserum detected the Pfr protein in H. pylori and in E. coli carrying the pfr gene on a plasmid. Pfr-deficient mutants of H. pylori were generated by marker-exchange mutagenesis. These were more susceptible than the parental strain to killing by various metal ions including irons, copper and manganese, whereas conditions of oxidative stress or iron deprivation were not discriminative. Analysis by element-specific electron microscopy revealed that growth of H. pylori in the presence of iron induces the formation of two kinds of cytoplasmic aggregates: large vacuole-like bodies and smaller granules containing iron in association with oxygen or phosphorus. Neither of these structures was detected in the pfr-deficient mutant strain. Furthermore, the ferritin accumulated under iron overload and the pfr-deficient mutant strains lacked expression of a 12 kDa protein which was negatively regulated by iron in the parental strain. The results indicate that the nonhaem-iron ferritin is involved in the formation of iron-containing subcellular structures and contributes to metal resistance of H. pylori. Further evidence for an interaction of

  9. Structure-function analysis of Staphylococcus aureus amidase reveals the determinants of peptidoglycan recognition and cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix Michael; Zoll, Sebastian; Nega, Mulugeta; Götz, Friedrich; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-04-18

    The bifunctional major autolysin AtlA of Staphylococcus aureus cleaves the bacterium's peptidoglycan network (PGN) at two distinct sites during cell division. Deletion of the enzyme results in large cell clusters with disordered division patterns, indicating that AtlA could be a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. One of the two functions of AtlA is performed by the N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase AmiA, which cleaves the bond between the carbohydrate and the peptide moieties of PGN. To establish the structural requirements of PGN recognition and the enzymatic mechanism of cleavage, we solved the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of AmiA (AmiA-cat) in complex with a peptidoglycan-derived ligand at 1.55 Å resolution. The peptide stem is clearly visible in the structure, forming extensive contacts with protein residues by docking into an elongated groove. Less well defined electron density and the analysis of surface features indicate likely positions of the carbohydrate backbone and the pentaglycine bridge. Substrate specificity analysis supports the importance of the pentaglycine bridge for fitting into the binding cleft of AmiA-cat. PGN of S. aureus with l-lysine tethered with d-alanine via a pentaglycine bridge is completely hydrolyzed, whereas PGN of Bacillus subtilis with meso-diaminopimelic acid directly tethered with d-alanine is not hydrolyzed. An active site mutant, H370A, of AmiA-cat was completely inactive, providing further support for the proposed catalytic mechanism of AmiA. The structure reported here is not only the first of any bacterial amidase in which both the PGN component and the water molecule that carries out the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the scissile bond are present; it is also the first peptidoglycan amidase complex structure of an important human pathogen.

  10. Structural, Functional and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sperm Lysozyme-Like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Shalini; Pradeep, Mangottil Ayyappan; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kaushik, Jai K

    2016-01-01

    Sperm lysozyme-like proteins belonging to c-type lysozyme family evolved in multiple forms. Lysozyme-like proteins, viz., LYZL2, LYZL3 or SLLP1, LYZL4, LYZL5 and LYZL6 are expressed in the testis of mammals. Not all members of LYZL family have been uniformly and unambiguously identified in the genome and proteome of mammals. Some studies suggested a role of SLLP1 and LYZL4 in fertilization; however, the function of other LYZL proteins is unknown. We identified all known forms of LYZL proteins in buffalo sperm by LC-MS/MS. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Lyzl cDNA showed 38-50% identity at amino acid level among the buffalo LYZL paralogs, complete conservation of eight cysteines and other signature sequences of c-type lysozyme family. Catalytic residues in SLLP1, LYZL4 and LYZL5 have undergone replacement. The substrate binding residues showed significant variation in LYZL proteins. Residues at sites 62, 101, 114 in LYZL4; 101 in SLLP1; 37, 62, and 101 in LYZL6 were more variable among diverse species. Sites 63 and 108 occupied by tryptophan were least tolerant to variation. Site 37 also showed lower tolerance to substitution in SLLP1, LYZL4 and LYZL5, but more variable in non-testicular lysozymes. Models of LYZL proteins were created by homology modeling and the substrate binding pockets were analyzed in term of binding energies and contacting residues of LYZL proteins with tri-N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)3 in the A-B-C and B-C-D binding mode. Except LYZL6, LYZL proteins did not show significant difference in binding energies in comparison to hen egg white lysozyme in the A-B-C mode. (NAG)3 binding energy in the B-C-D mode was higher by 1.3-2.2 kcal/mol than in A-B-C mode. Structural analysis indicated that (NAG)3 was involved in making more extensive interactions including hydrogen bonding with LYZL proteins in B-C-D mode than in A-B-C mode. Despite large sequence divergence among themselves and with respect to c-type lysozymes, substrate binding residues as

  11. Structure-function analysis of the NB-ARC domain of plant disease resistance proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooijen, Gerben; Mayr, Gabriele; Kasiem, Mobien M A; Albrecht, Mario; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Takken, Frank L W

    2008-01-01

    Resistance (R) proteins in plants are involved in pathogen recognition and subsequent activation of innate immune responses. Most resistance proteins contain a central nucleotide-binding domain. This so-called NB-ARC domain consists of three subdomains: NB, ARC1, and ARC2. The NB-ARC domain is a functional ATPase domain, and its nucleotide-binding state is proposed to regulate activity of the R protein. A highly conserved methionine-histidine-aspartate (MHD) motif is present at the carboxy-terminus of ARC2. An extensive mutational analysis of the MHD motif in the R proteins I-2 and Mi-1 is reported. Several novel autoactivating mutations of the MHD invariant histidine and conserved aspartate were identified. The combination of MHD mutants with autoactivating hydrolysis mutants in the NB subdomain showed that the autoactivation phenotypes are not additive. This finding indicates an important regulatory role for the MHD motif in the control of R protein activity. To explain these observations, a three-dimensional model of the NB-ARC domain of I-2 was built, based on the APAF-1 template structure. The model was used to identify residues important for I-2 function. Substitution of the selected residues resulted in the expected distinct phenotypes. Based on the model, it is proposed that the MHD motif fulfils the same function as the sensor II motif found in AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities)-co-ordination of the nucleotide and control of subdomain interactions. The presented 3D model provides a framework for the formulation of hypotheses on how mutations in the NB-ARC exert their effects.

  12. Structure-Function Analysis of the DNA Translocating Portal of the Bacteriophage T4 Packaging Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special five-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1 and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the E. coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and fit the dodecamer into the cryoEM density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone-shaped with the wider end containing the “wing” and “crown” domains inside the phage head. A long “stem” encloses a central channel, and a narrow “stalk” protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and portal. The “tunnel” loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. PMID:24126213

  13. An extended structure-function model and its application to the analysis of solar wind intermittency properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Tu

    Full Text Available An extended structure-function model is developed by including the new effect in the p-model of Meneveau and Sreenivasan which shows that the averaged energy cascade rate changes with scale, a situation which has been found to prevail in non-fully-developed turbulence in the inner solar wind. This model is useful for the small-scale fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, where the turbulence is not fully developed and cannot be explained quantitatively by any of the previous intermittency turbulence models. With two model parameters, the intrinsic index of the energy spectrum α, and the fragmentation fraction P1, the model can fit, for the first time, all the observed scaling exponents of the structure functions, which are calculated for time lags ranging from 81 s to 0.7 h from the Helios solar wind data. From the cases we studied we cannot establish for P1 either a clear radial evolution trend, or a solar-wind-speed or stream-structure dependence or a systematic anisotropy for both the flow velocity and magnetic field component fluctuations. Generally, P1 has values between 0.7 and 0.8. However, in some cases in low-speed wind P1 has somewhat higher values for the magnetic components, especially for the radial component. In high-speed wind, the inferred intrinsic spectral indices α of the velocity and magnetic field components are about equal, while the experimental spectral indices derived from the observed power spectra differ. The magnetic index is somewhat larger than the index of the velocity spectrum. For magnetic fluctuations in both high- and low-speed winds, the intrinsic exponent α has values which are near 1.5, while the observed spectral exponent has much higher values. In the solar wind with considerable density fluctuations near the interplanetary current sheet near 1 AU, it is found that P1 has a comparatively high value of 0

  14. Structure-function analysis of STRUBBELIG, an Arabidopsis atypical receptor-like kinase involved in tissue morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vaddepalli

    Full Text Available Tissue morphogenesis in plants requires the coordination of cellular behavior across clonally distinct histogenic layers. The underlying signaling mechanisms are presently being unraveled and are known to include the cell surface leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG in Arabidopsis. To understand better its mode of action an extensive structure-function analysis of STRUBBELIG was performed. The phenotypes of 20 EMS and T-DNA-induced strubbelig alleles were assessed and homology modeling was applied to rationalize their possible effects on STRUBBELIG protein structure. The analysis was complemented by phenotypic, cell biological, and pharmacological investigations of a strubbelig null allele carrying genomic rescue constructs encoding fusions between various mutated STRUBBELIG proteins and GFP. The results indicate that STRUBBELIG accepts quite some sequence variation, reveal the biological importance for the STRUBBELIG N-capping domain, and reinforce the notion that kinase activity is not essential for its function in vivo. Furthermore, individual protein domains of STRUBBELIG cannot be related to specific STRUBBELIG-dependent biological processes suggesting that process specificity is mediated by factors acting together with or downstream of STRUBBELIG. In addition, the evidence indicates that biogenesis of a functional STRUBBELIG receptor is subject to endoplasmic reticulum-mediated quality control, and that an MG132-sensitive process regulates its stability. Finally, STRUBBELIG and the receptor-like kinase gene ERECTA interact synergistically in the control of internode length. The data provide genetic and molecular insight into how STRUBBELIG regulates intercellular communication in tissue morphogenesis.

  15. Structure-function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L.; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure-function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division.

  16. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties of Neutral Hydrogen Gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure-function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian; Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index (γ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.

  17. Structure-function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-27

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure-function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division.

  18. Structure/function analysis of PARP-1 in oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced monomeric ADPR formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Buelow

    Full Text Available Poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is a multifunctional enzyme that is involved in two major cellular responses to oxidative and nitrosative (O/N stress: detection and response to DNA damage via formation of protein-bound poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose (PAR, and formation of the soluble 2(nd messenger monomeric adenosine diphosphate-ribose (mADPR. Previous studies have delineated specific roles for several of PARP-1's structural domains in the context of its involvement in a DNA damage response. However, little is known about the relationship between the mechanisms through which PARP-1 participates in DNA damage detection/response and those involved in the generation of monomeric ADPR. To better understand the relationship between these events, we undertook a structure/function analysis of PARP-1 via reconstitution of PARP-1 deficient DT40 cells with PARP-1 variants deficient in catalysis, DNA binding, auto-PARylation, and PARP-1's BRCT protein interaction domain. Analysis of responses of the respective reconstituted cells to a model O/N stressor indicated that PARP-1 catalytic activity, DNA binding, and auto-PARylation are required for PARP-dependent mADPR formation, but that BRCT-mediated interactions are dispensable. As the BRCT domain is required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to sites of DNA damage, these results suggest that DNA repair and monomeric ADPR 2(nd messenger generation are parallel mechanisms through which PARP-1 modulates cellular responses to O/N stress.

  19. Systematic structure-function analysis of androgen receptor Leu 701 mutants explains the properties of the prostate cancer mutant L701H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. van de Wijngaart (Dennis); M. Molier; S.J. Lusher (Scott); R. Hersmus (Remko); G.W. Jenster (Guido); J. Trapman (Hans); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOne mechanism of prostate tumors for escape from androgen ablation therapies is mutation of the androgen receptor (AR). Weinvestigated the unique properties of theARL701H mutant, which is strongly stimulated by cortisol, by a systematic structure-function analysis. Most amino acid substi

  20. Structure Function Estimated From Histological Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Aiguo; O'Brien, William D

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic scattering is determined by not only the properties of individual scatterers but also the correlation among scatterer positions. The role of scatterer spatial correlation is significant for dense medium, but has not been fully understood. The effect of scatterer spatial correlation may be modeled by the structure function as a frequency-dependent factor in the backscatter coefficient (BSC) expression. The structure function has been previously estimated from the BSC data. The aim of this study is to estimate the structure function from histology to test if the acoustically estimated structure function is indeed caused by the scatterer spatial distribution. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections from dense cell pellet biophantoms were digitized. The scatterer positions were determined manually from the histological images. The structure function was calculated from the extracted scatterer positions. The structure function obtained from histology showed reasonable agreement in the shape but not in the amplitude, compared with the structure function previously estimated from the backscattered data. Fitting a polydisperse structure function model to the histologically estimated structure function yielded relatively accurate cell radius estimates ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, two types of mouse tumors that have similar cell size and shape but distinct cell spatial distributions were studied, where the backscattered data were shown to be related to the cell spatial distribution through the structure function estimated from histology. In conclusion, the agreement between acoustically estimated and histologically estimated structure functions suggests that the acoustically estimated structure function is related to the scatterer spatial distribution.

  1. The nonsinglet structure function evolution by Laplace method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G. R., E-mail: grboroun@gmail.com, E-mail: boroun@razi.ac.ir; Zarrin, S. [Razi University, Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We derive a general scheme for the evolution of the nonsinglet structure function at the leadingorder (LO) and next-to-leading-order (NLO) by using the Laplace-transform technique. Results for the nonsinglet structure function are compared with MSTW2008, GRV, and CKMT parameterizations and also EMC experimental data in the LO and NLO analysis. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data and other parameterizations in the low- and large-x regions.

  2. Structure/Function Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions and Role of Dynamic Motions in Mercuric Ion Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Susan M.

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the activities and findings of our structure/function studies of the bacterial detoxification enzyme mercuric ion reductase. The objectives of the work were to obtain crystal structure information for the catalytic core of this enzyme, use the information to investigate the importance of specific parts of the enzyme to its function, and investigate the role of one domain of the enzyme in its function within cells. We describe the accomplishments towards these goals including many structures of the wild type and mutant forms of the enzyme that highlight its interactions with its Hg(II) substrate, elucidation of the role of the N-terminal domain in vitro and in vivo, and elucidation of the roles of at two conserved residues in the core in the mechanism of catalysis.

  3. A long-term study of AGN X-ray variability . Structure function analysis on a ROSAT-XMM quasar sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middei, R.; Vagnetti, F.; Bianchi, S.; La Franca, F.; Paolillo, M.; Ursini, F.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Variability in the X-rays is a key ingredient in understanding and unveiling active galactic nuclei (AGN) properties. In this band, flux variations occur on short timescales (hours) as well as on larger timescales. While short timescale variability is often investigated in single source studies, only a few works are able to explore flux variation on very long timescales. Aims: This work aims to provide a statistical analysis of the AGN long term X-ray variability. We study variability on the largest time interval ever investigated for the 0.2-2 keV band, up to approximately 20 yr rest-frame for a sample of 220 sources. Moreover, we study variability for 2700 quasars up to approximatley eight years rest-frame in the same (soft) band. Methods: We built our source sample using the 3XMM serendipitous source catalogue data release 5, and data from ROSAT All Sky Survey Bright and Faint source catalogues. To ensure that we selected AGN only, we used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogues data releases 7 and 12. Combining ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations, we investigated variability using the structure function analysis which describes the amount of variability as a function of the lag between the observations. Results: Our work shows an increase of the structure function up to 20 yr. We find no evidence of a plateau in the structure function on these long timescales. Conclusions: The increase of the structure function at long time lags suggests that variability in the soft X-rays can be influenced by flux variations originated in the accretion disk or that they take place in a region large enough to justify variation on such long timescales.

  4. Structure functions and parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom); Roberts, R.G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed.

  5. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  6. Validity of quadratic two-source spherical wave structure functions in analysis of beam propagation through generalized atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Tong, Shoufeng; Li, Yanfang

    2014-12-01

    Two distinct methods based on which two different quadratic-form expressions for the two-source spherical wave structure function (WSF) can be derived are reviewed. The validity of closed-form expressions for the beam-wave cross-spectral density function (CSDF) due to generalized atmospheric turbulence featuring an arbitrary spectral index ranging from 3 to 4, developed based on the quadratic two-source spherical WSFs, is examined in detail. New formulations for the conditions under which the said closed-form expressions for the beam-wave CSDF are strictly valid are developed and several novel interesting findings are elucidated. In particular, the closed-form beam-wave CSDF derived based on the small-separation asymptotic two-source spherical WSF can be considered a rigorous asymptotic solution under the strong-turbulence condition only when the separation distance between the two observation points is much smaller than the inner scale of turbulence; moreover it is also a rigorous asymptotic solution when a certain relation among the initial beam radius, initial transverse coherence width and inner scale holds, regardless of the turbulence strength and spectral index. On the other hand, the accuracy of the closed-form beam-wave CSDF derived based on the large-separation-approximation two-source spherical WSF depends on the spectral index, and a spectral index closer to 4 results in better accuracy.

  7. Kinetic and sequence-structure-function analysis of known LinA variants with different hexachlorocyclohexane isomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Here we report specific activities of all seven naturally occurring LinA variants towards three different isomers, α, γ and δ, of a priority persistent pollutant, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH. Sequence-structure-function differences contributing to the differences in their stereospecificity for α-, γ-, and δ-HCH and enantiospecificity for (+- and (--α -HCH are also discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Enzyme kinetic studies were performed with purified LinA variants. Models of LinA2(B90A A110T, A111C, A110T/A111C and LinA1(B90A were constructed using the FoldX computer algorithm. Turnover rates (min(-1 showed that the LinAs exhibited differential substrate affinity amongst the four HCH isomers tested. α-HCH was found to be the most preferred substrate by all LinA's, followed by the γ and then δ isomer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The kinetic observations suggest that LinA-γ1-7 is the best variant for developing an enzyme-based bioremediation technology for HCH. The majority of the sequence variation in the various linA genes that have been isolated is not neutral, but alters the enantio- and stereoselectivity of the encoded proteins.

  8. Structure-function analysis of porcine cytochrome P450 3A29 in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyue Cheng

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin, one of the type A trichothecenes, presents a potential hazard to human and animal health. Our previous work demonstrated that porcine cytochrome P450 3A29 (CYP3A29 played an important role in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin. To identify amino acids involved in this metabolic process, T-2 toxin was docked into a homology model of CYP3A29 based on a crystal structure of CYP3A4 using AutoDock 4.0. Nine residues of CYP3A29, Arg105, Arg106, Phe108, Ser119, Lys212, Phe213, Phe215, Arg372 and Glu374, which were found within 5 Å around T-2 toxin were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. In the oxidation of nifedipine, the CLint value of R106A was increased by nearly two-folds compared with the wild-type CYP3A29, while the substrate affinities and CLint values of S119A and K212A were significantly reduced. In the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin, the generation of 3'-OH-T-2 by R105A, S119A and K212A was significantly less than that by the wild-type, whereas R106A slightly increased the generation of 3'-OH-T-2. These results were further confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry analysis, suggesting that these four residues are important in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin and Arg105 may be a specific recognition site for the toxin. Our study suggests a possible structure-function relationship of CYP3A29 in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin, providing with new insights into the mechanism of CYP3A enzymes in the biotransformation of T-2 toxin.

  9. Integrating functional and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging for analysis of structure-function relationship in the human language network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to measure structural and functional connectivity in the human brain have motivated growing interest in characterizing the relationship between these measures in the distributed neural networks of the brain. In this study, we attempted an integration of structural and functional analyses of the human language circuits, including Wernicke's (WA, Broca's (BA and supplementary motor area (SMA, using a combination of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD and diffusion tensor MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional connectivity was measured by low frequency inter-regional correlations of BOLD MRI signals acquired in a resting steady-state, and structural connectivity was measured by using adaptive fiber tracking with diffusion tensor MRI data. The results showed that different language pathways exhibited different structural and functional connectivity, indicating varying levels of inter-dependence in processing across regions. Along the path between BA and SMA, the fibers tracked generally formed a single bundle and the mean radius of the bundle was positively correlated with functional connectivity. However, fractional anisotropy was found not to be correlated with functional connectivity along paths connecting either BA and SMA or BA and WA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that structure-function relations in the human language circuits may involve a number of confounding factors that need to be addressed. Nevertheless, the insights gained from this work offers a useful guidance for continued studies that may provide a non-invasive means to evaluate brain network integrity in vivo for use in diagnosing and determining disease progression and recovery.

  10. Next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the revised CCFR data for $xF_3$ structure function and the higher twist contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L; Parente, G; Sidorov, A V

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the recently revised experimental data of the CCFR collaboration for the $xF_3$ structure function using the Jacobi polynomial expansion method. The effects of the higher twist contributions are included into the fits following the infrared renormalon motivated model. The special attention is paid to the checks of the predictive abilities of the infrared renormalon model and to the independent extraction of the $x$-shape of the twist-4 contributions to the $xF_3$ structure function in the process of the leading order, next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order fits of the revised CCFR data. We stress that at the next-to-next-to-leading order the results for We obtain the following result $\\alpha_s(M_Z)^{NNLO}=0.117 \\pm 0.002(stat) \\pm 0.005 (syst)\\pm 0.003 (theory)$. The comparison of the outcomes of our next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order analysis indicate that the theoretical QCD uncertainties were u...

  11. Recent Structure Function Results from CCFR

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, B T; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, L; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Vaitaitis, A G; Yang, U K; Yu, J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2000-01-01

    A new structure function analysis of CCFR deep inelastic nu-N and nubar-N scattering data is presented for previously unexplored kinematic regions down to Bjorken x=0.0045 and Q^2=0.3 GeV^2. Comparisons to charged lepton scattering data from NMC and E665 experiments are made and the behavior of the structure function F2_nu is studied in the limit Q^2 -> 0

  12. Monoclonal antibody-assisted structure-function analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domain of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Rynkiewicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in host defense against a variety of pathogens including influenza A virus (IAV). Ligand binding by SP-D is mediated by the trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human SP-D and a panel...... of mutant collectin NCRD constructs to identify functionally and structurally important epitopes. The ability of SP-D to bind to IAV and mannan involved partially overlapping binding sites that are distinct from those involved in binding to the glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) scavenger receptor protein. A species...... abrogated antiviral activity, were associated with decreased binding to multiple blocking mAbs, consistent with critical structural roles. More conservative substitutions at 335, which showed a significant increase in neutralization activity, caused selective loss of binding to one mAb. The analysis reveals...

  13. An Insight Into Structure, Function, and Expression Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakshi Devi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus is one of the richest sources of high-value isoprenoid aromatic compounds used as flavour, fragrance, and therapeutic elements. These isoprenoid compounds are synthesized by 2 independent pathways: mevalonate pathway and 2-C-methyl- d -erythritol-4-phosphate pathway. Evidence suggests that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR is a rate-controlling enzyme for the synthesis of variety of isoprenoids. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and tissue-specific expression analysis of HMGR from citronella. The modelled HMGR is a class I type of HMGR enzyme with 3-domain architecture. The active site comprises a cofactor (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and the substrate-binding motifs. The real-time and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results revealed equal expression level in both leaf sheath and root tissue. The results from our study shall be a valuable resource for future molecular intervention to alter the metabolic flux towards improvement of key active ingredient in this important medicinal plant.

  14. MODEL OF STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF VISUALS IN RUSSIAN ABC BOOKS AND PRIMERS OF LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Teterin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the prevalence of visual information coding determines the changes in the text and extra-textual components of the textbook, the problem affects the placement and number of illustrative material, defines the relationship and interaction of text and image information, focuses on new forms of organization of the learning process. The movement of humanity from the dominant culture of text oriented logos or the spread and adoption of visual forms of information broadcast began at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. It was during this period in the academic literature visual components acquired independent didactic value. I began to develop a holistic visual range of a school textbook.The visual tutorial series has been the subject of special study for many scientific disciplines. The overall goal of our research is to answer the question. What didactic features were inherent in visual range of textbooks for initial literacy in Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX century, why, how, and how they changed. In this article, we will focus on the issue of allocation of structural components of the visual range of the spectrum and the functions they perform.Offering a model of this analysis, we relied on the development problems of the textbook functions V. Krajewski, V. Beilinson, I. Lerner, V. Bespal'ko and characteristics of the major structural components of the textbook, the proposed D. Zuev, A. Sochor, J. Mickey and others. 

  15. Structure-function analysis of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein – is the whole a sum of its parts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Frederick A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biochemical analysis of the retinoblastoma protein's function has received considerable attention since it was cloned just over 20 years ago. During this time pRB has emerged as a key regulator of the cell division cycle and its ability to block proliferation is disrupted in the vast majority of human cancers. Much has been learned about the regulation of E2F transcription factors by pRB in the cell cycle. However, many questions remain unresolved and researchers continue to explore this multifunctional protein. In particular, understanding how its biochemical functions contribute to its role as a tumor suppressor remains to be determined. Since pRB has been shown to function as an adaptor molecule that links different proteins together, or to particular promoters, analyzing pRB by disrupting individual protein interactions holds tremendous promise in unraveling the intricacies of its function. Recently, crystal structures have reported how pRB interacts with some of its molecular partners. This information has created the possibility of rationally separating pRB functions by studying mutants that disrupt individual binding sites. This review will focus on literature that investigates pRB by isolating functions based on binding sites within the pocket domain. This article will also discuss the prospects for using this approach to further explore the unknown functions of pRB.

  16. Identification and structural-functional analysis of cyclin-dependent kinases of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Gomes

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs are a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for cell cycle progression. Herein, we describe the participation of CDKs in the physiology of Rhipicephalus microplus, the southern cattle tick and an important disease vector. Firstly, amino acid sequences homologous with CDKs of other organisms were identified from a R. microplus transcriptome database in silico. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of CDK1 and CDK10 from R. microplus showed that both have caspase-3/7 cleavage motifs despite their differences in motif position and length of encoded proteins. CDK1 has two motifs (DKRGD and SAKDA located opposite to the ATP binding site while CDK10 has only one motif (SLLDN for caspase 3-7 near the ATP binding site. Roscovitine (Rosco, a purine derivative that inhibits CDK/cyclin complexes by binding to the catalytic domain of the CDK molecule at the ATP binding site, which prevents the transfer of ATP's γphosphoryl group to the substrate. To determine the effect of Rosco on tick CDKs, BME26 cells derived from R. microplus embryo cells were utilized in vitro inhibition assays. Cell viability decreased in the Rosco-treated groups after 24 hours of incubation in a concentration-dependent manner and this was observed up to 48 hours following incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of a cell cycle protein in arachnids, and the sensitivity of BME26 tick cell line to Rosco treatment suggests that CDKs are potential targets for novel drug design to control tick infestation.

  17. Identification and Structural-Functional Analysis of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases of the Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helga; Romeiro, Nelilma C.; Braz, Gloria R. C.; de Oliveira, Eduardo Alves Gamosa; Rodrigues, Camilla; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Githaka, Naftaly; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; Moraes, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for cell cycle progression. Herein, we describe the participation of CDKs in the physiology of Rhipicephalus microplus, the southern cattle tick and an important disease vector. Firstly, amino acid sequences homologous with CDKs of other organisms were identified from a R. microplus transcriptome database in silico. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of CDK1 and CDK10 from R. microplus showed that both have caspase-3/7 cleavage motifs despite their differences in motif position and length of encoded proteins. CDK1 has two motifs (DKRGD and SAKDA) located opposite to the ATP binding site while CDK10 has only one motif (SLLDN) for caspase 3–7 near the ATP binding site. Roscovitine (Rosco), a purine derivative that inhibits CDK/cyclin complexes by binding to the catalytic domain of the CDK molecule at the ATP binding site, which prevents the transfer of ATP's γphosphoryl group to the substrate. To determine the effect of Rosco on tick CDKs, BME26 cells derived from R. microplus embryo cells were utilized in vitro inhibition assays. Cell viability decreased in the Rosco-treated groups after 24 hours of incubation in a concentration-dependent manner and this was observed up to 48 hours following incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of a cell cycle protein in arachnids, and the sensitivity of BME26 tick cell line to Rosco treatment suggests that CDKs are potential targets for novel drug design to control tick infestation. PMID:24146826

  18. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Argentinas Olympic AUA (Austria) PIA (Pakistan) Avianca (Colombia) Pan American British Airways PAL (Philippines) East African Qantas Egyptair Sabena El...S.TP OFR O T PEIDCV E Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis TRlES IS1j0’~fJ 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER AU TNOR( ) Sign . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...OF I NOVa IS 1 OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE j",.n Des. Enterod) 87 jO 1 4 Xb AIRLINE SAFETY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS by Mary Katherine

  19. Next-order structure-function equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Reginald J.; Boratav, Olus N.

    2001-01-01

    Kolmogorov's equation [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 32, 16 (1941)] relates the two-point second- and third-order velocity structure functions and the energy dissipation rate. The analogous next higher-order two-point equation relates the third- and fourth-order velocity structure functions and the structure function of the product of pressure-gradient difference and two factors of velocity difference, denoted Tijk. The equation is simplified on the basis of local isotropy. Laboratory and numerical simulation data are used to evaluate and compare terms in the equation, examine the balance of the equation, and evaluate components of Tijk. Atmospheric surface-layer data are used to evaluate Tijk in the inertial range. Combined with the random sweeping hypothesis, the equation relates components of the fourth-order velocity structure function. Data show the resultant error of this application of random sweeping. The next-order equation constrains the relationships that have been suggested among components of the fourth-order velocity structure function. The pressure structure function, pressure-gradient correlation, and mean-squared pressure gradient are related to Tijk. Inertial range formulas are discussed.

  20. Measurement of the electron structure function F{sub 2}{sup e} at LEP energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. [LPNHE, IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Paris VI et VII, 4 place Jussieu, FR-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Abreu, P. [LIP, IST, FCUL, Av. Elias Garcia, 14-1" o, PT-1000 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Adam, W. [Institut für Hochenergiephysik, Österr. Akad. d. Wissensch., Nikolsdorfergasse 18, AT-1050 Vienna (Austria); Adzic, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, P.O. Box 60228, GR-15310 Athens (Greece); Albrecht, T. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universität Karlsruhe, Postfach 6980, DE-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Alemany-Fernandez, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Allmendinger, T. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universität Karlsruhe, Postfach 6980, DE-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Allport, P.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Amaldi, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Univ. di Milano-Bicocca and INFN-Milano, Piazza della Scienza 3, IT-20126 Milan (Italy); Amapane, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Università di Torino and INFN, Via P. Giuria 1, IT-10125 Turin (Italy); Amato, S. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528 Cidade Univ., Ilha do Fundão, BR-21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anashkin, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Via Marzolo 8, IT-35131 Padua (Italy); Andreazza, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN-Milano, Via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milan (Italy); Andringa, S.; Anjos, N. [LIP, IST, FCUL, Av. Elias Garcia, 14-1" o, PT-1000 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Antilogus, P. [LPNHE, IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Paris VI et VII, 4 place Jussieu, FR-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2014-10-07

    The hadronic part of the electron structure function F{sub 2}{sup e} has been measured for the first time, using e{sup +}e{sup −} data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of √(s)=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F{sub 2}{sup e} data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F{sub 2}{sup γ} analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  1. Measurement of the electron structure function F2e at LEP energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic part of the electron structure function F2e has been measured for the first time, using e+e− data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of s=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F2e data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F2γ analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  2. Structure-Function Analysis of the Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase (nmMLCK) Isoform by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling: Influence of MYLK Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kui; Ramirez, Benjamin; Mapes, Brandon; Shen, Grace R; Gokhale, Vijay; Brown, Mary E; Santarsiero, Bernard; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Dudek, Steven M; Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe G N

    2015-01-01

    The MYLK gene encodes the multifunctional enzyme, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), involved in isoform-specific non-muscle and smooth muscle contraction and regulation of vascular permeability during inflammation. Three MYLK SNPs (P21H, S147P, V261A) alter the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the non-muscle isoform of MLCK (nmMLCK) and are highly associated with susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI) and asthma, especially in individuals of African descent. To understand the functional effects of SNP associations, we examined the N-terminal segments of nmMLCK by 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy, a 2-D NMR technique, and by in silico molecular modeling. Both NMR analysis and molecular modeling indicated SNP localization to loops that connect the immunoglobulin-like domains of nmMLCK, consistent with minimal structural changes evoked by these SNPs. Molecular modeling analysis identified protein-protein interaction motifs adversely affected by these MYLK SNPs including binding by the scaffold protein 14-3-3, results confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blot studies. These structure-function studies suggest novel mechanisms for nmMLCK regulation, which may confirm MYLK as a candidate gene in inflammatory lung disease and advance knowledge of the genetic underpinning of lung-related health disparities.

  3. 现代休闲体育结构功能主义分析%Analysis of Structural Functionalism of Modern Leisure Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀华; 廖文豪

    2015-01-01

    运用社会学理论中的结构功能主义理论中的帕森斯的 AGIL 模型分析,结合莫顿的经验功能主义对其的补充,从“中层理论”的视角对休闲体育的机构功能进行分析和阐释,解释了休闲体育在整个社会发展中的功能和意义,并以此为依据,给出休闲体育的相关定义。%By application of AGIL model analysis in the sociological structural functionalism theory,combined with its suppliment by Madun′s experience functionalism the experience Modun supplement function doctrine of the ″ Intermedi-ate Theory″ ,from the perspective of the function of Intermediate Theory′s analysis and interpretation on leisure sports’ mechanic function,this paper explain the function and significance of leisure sports in the development of the whole socie-ty and proposes the relevant definition of leisure sports on this basis.

  4. Structure-Function Analysis of a Mixed-linkage β-Glucanase/Xyloglucanase from the Key Ruminal Bacteroidetes Prevotella bryantii B(1)4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Nicholas; Morar, Mariya; Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Stogios, Peter; Lenfant, Nicolas; Yin, Victor; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Cui, Hong; Henrissat, Bernard; Savchenko, Alexei; Brumer, Harry

    2016-01-15

    The recent classification of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) members into subfamilies enhances the prediction of substrate specificity by phylogenetic analysis. However, the small number of well characterized members is a current limitation to understanding the molecular basis of the diverse specificity observed across individual GH5 subfamilies. GH5 subfamily 4 (GH5_4) is one of the largest, with known activities comprising (carboxymethyl)cellulases, mixed-linkage endo-glucanases, and endo-xyloglucanases. Through detailed structure-function analysis, we have revisited the characterization of a classic GH5_4 carboxymethylcellulase, PbGH5A (also known as Orf4, carboxymethylcellulase, and Cel5A), from the symbiotic rumen Bacteroidetes Prevotella bryantii B14. We demonstrate that carboxymethylcellulose and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose are in fact relatively poor substrates for PbGH5A, which instead exhibits clear primary specificity for the plant storage and cell wall polysaccharide, mixed-linkage β-glucan. Significant activity toward the plant cell wall polysaccharide xyloglucan was also observed. Determination of PbGH5A crystal structures in the apo-form and in complex with (xylo)glucan oligosaccharides and an active-site affinity label, together with detailed kinetic analysis using a variety of well defined oligosaccharide substrates, revealed the structural determinants of polysaccharide substrate specificity. In particular, this analysis highlighted the PbGH5A active-site motifs that engender predominant mixed-linkage endo-glucanase activity vis à vis predominant endo-xyloglucanases in GH5_4. However the detailed phylogenetic analysis of GH5_4 members did not delineate particular clades of enzymes sharing these sequence motifs; the phylogeny was instead dominated by bacterial taxonomy. Nonetheless, our results provide key enzyme functional and structural reference data for future bioinformatics analyses of (meta)genomes to elucidate the biology of

  5. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  6. Structural Functionalism as a Heuristic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that structural functionalism as a method for conducting fieldwork and as a format for the analysis of ethnographic data remains a powerful model, one that is easily understood by professional educators. As a heuristic device, functionalist theory can help in the solution of a problem that is otherwise incapable of theoretical…

  7. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  8. Crystal Structure of PG16 and Chimeric Dissection with Somatically Related PG9: Structure-Function Analysis of Two Quaternary-Specific Antibodies That Effectively Neutralize HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancera, Marie; McLellan, Jason S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Changela, Anita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Zhou, Tongqing; Phogat, Sanjay; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (Aids Vaccine)

    2010-11-03

    HIV-1 resists neutralization by most antibodies. Two somatically related human antibodies, PG9 and PG16, however, each neutralize 70 to 80% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. Here we present the structure of the antigen-binding fragment of PG16 in monoclinic and orthorhombic lattices at 2.4 and 4.0 {angstrom}, respectively, and use a combination of structural analysis, paratope dissection, and neutralization assessment to determine the functional relevance of three unusual PG9/PG16 features: N-linked glycosylation, extensive affinity maturation, and a heavy chain-third complementarity-determining region (CDR H3) that is one of the longest observed in human antibodies. Glycosylation extended off the side of the light chain variable domain and was not required for neutralization. The CDR H3 formed an axe-shaped subdomain, which comprised 42% of the CDR surface, with the axe head looming {approx}20 {angstrom} above the other combining loops. Comprehensive sets of chimeric swaps between PG9 and PG16 of light chain, heavy chain, and CDR H3 were employed to decipher structure-function relationships. Chimeric swaps generally complemented functionally, with differences in PG9/PG16 neutralization related primarily to residue differences in CDR H3. Meanwhile, chimeric reversions to genomic V genes showed isolate-dependent effects, with affinity maturation playing a significant role in augmenting neutralization breadth (P = 0.036) and potency (P < 0.0001). The structural and functional details of extraordinary CDR H3 and extensive affinity maturation provide insights into the neutralization mechanism of and the elicitation pathway for broadly neutralizing antibodies like PG9 and PG16.

  9. Structure-Function Analysis of Mammalian CYP2B Enzymes Using 7-Substituted Coumarin Derivatives as Probes: Utility of Crystal Structures and Molecular Modeling in Understanding Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish B; Liu, Jingbao; Huo, Lu; Zhang, Qinghai; Dearing, M Denise; Wilderman, P Ross; Szklarz, Grazyna D; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R

    2016-04-01

    Crystal structures of CYP2B35 and CYP2B37 from the desert woodrat were solved in complex with 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole (4-CPI). The closed conformation of CYP2B35 contained two molecules of 4-CPI within the active site, whereas the CYP2B37 structure demonstrated an open conformation with three 4-CPI molecules, one within the active site and the other two in the substrate access channel. To probe structure-function relationships of CYP2B35, CYP2B37, and the related CYP2B36, we tested the O-dealkylation of three series of related substrates-namely, 7-alkoxycoumarins, 7-alkoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarins, and 7-alkoxy-4-methylcoumarins-with a C1-C7 side chain. CYP2B35 showed the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) with 7-heptoxycoumarin as a substrate, followed by 7-hexoxycoumarin. In contrast, CYP2B37 showed the highest catalytic efficiency with 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (7-EFC), followed by 7-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (7-MFC). CYP2B35 had no dealkylation activity with 7-MFC or 7-EFC. Furthermore, the new CYP2B-4-CPI-bound structures were used as templates for docking the 7-substituted coumarin derivatives, which revealed orientations consistent with the functional studies. In addition, the observation of multiple -Cl and -NH-π interactions of 4-CPI with the aromatic side chains in the CYP2B35 and CYP2B37 structures provides insight into the influence of such functional groups on CYP2B ligand binding affinity and specificity. To conclude, structural, computational, and functional analysis revealed striking differences between the active sites of CYP2B35 and CYP2B37 that will aid in the elucidation of new structure-activity relationships.

  10. Momentum Fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of proton structure functions at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, D K; Kalita, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports analysis of momentum fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of Proton structure functions at small $x$. First, we analyze the model proposed by Lastovicka based on self-similarity sometime back. We then make a similar analysis for a second model based on the same notion which is also free from singularity in $x$ : $0compared with a recent QCD based Froissart bound compatible model of proton structure function at small $x$, suggested by Block, Durand, Ha and McKay. The results are then compared with the corresponding study in perturbative and Lattice QCD.

  11. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  12. Proton structure functions at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Bruno

    2001-10-01

    The electron-proton collider HERA, like an electron-mycroscope, explores the structure of the proton down to 10-16 cm and up to the situation of very high parton densities. The proton energy was upgraded from 820 to 920 GeV in the Fall of '98 and the luminosity has also substantially improved, with another factor of 3 upgrade expected to follow this year. Inclusive proton structure functions have been studied with incident e+ and e- of 27 GeV in the neutral (NC) and charged (CC) current interactions as functions of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q2, and of the fractional proton momentum carried by partons, x. The structure function F2, as well as the γ-Z0 interference term xF3, have been measured in a range of Q2 and 1/x that extends by orders of magnitude that reached by fixed target experiments. The DGLAP evolution equations [1] allow for a perturbative NLO QCD fit of the measured non-perturbative structure functions in the available kinematic range: αS and the gluon density at low x are fitted at the same time with good precision. The longitudinal structure function, FL, can be determined within the DGLAP formalism. With CC, the electroweak unification has been tested; at high x, a first flavor decomposition of the light quarks is achieved. The contribution to F2 of the charm quark has been measured and results to be relevant. Bounds on the radius of quarks and on compositeness are derived from the data at the highest Q2, 100

  13. Structure functions at large x

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z

    2002-01-01

    Structure function data together with other measurements from fixed-target deep inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collider experiments which contribute to our knowledge of the parton density functions are reviewed. The inclusive cross-section measurements of neutral and charged current interactions at HERA are presented and their impact on the parton density functions is discussed. Future prospects for an improved knowledge of the parton density functions at large x are briefly mentioned.

  14. Evolutionary Analysis and Classification of OATs, OCTs, OCTNs, and Other SLC22 Transporters: Structure-Function Implications and Analysis of Sequence Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Christopher; Nigam, Kabir B; Date, Rishabh C; Bush, Kevin T; Springer, Stevan A; Saier, Milton H; Wu, Wei; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    The SLC22 family includes organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic carnitine and zwitterion transporters (OCTNs). These are often referred to as drug transporters even though they interact with many endogenous metabolites and signaling molecules (Nigam, S.K., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 14:29-44, 2015). Phylogenetic analysis of SLC22 supports the view that these transporters may have evolved over 450 million years ago. Many OAT members were found to appear after a major expansion of the SLC22 family in mammals, suggesting a physiological and/or toxicological role during the mammalian radiation. Putative SLC22 orthologs exist in worms, sea urchins, flies, and ciona. At least six groups of SLC22 exist. OATs and OCTs form two Major clades of SLC22, within which (apart from Oat and Oct subclades), there are also clear Oat-like, Octn, and Oct-related subclades, as well as a distantly related group we term "Oat-related" (which may have different functions). Based on available data, it is arguable whether SLC22A18, which is related to bacterial drug-proton antiporters, should be assigned to SLC22. Disease-causing mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other functionally analyzed mutations in OAT1, OAT3, URAT1, OCT1, OCT2, OCTN1, and OCTN2 map to the first extracellular domain, the large central intracellular domain, and transmembrane domains 9 and 10. These regions are highly conserved within subclades, but not between subclades, and may be necessary for SLC22 transporter function and functional diversification. Our results not only link function to evolutionarily conserved motifs but indicate the need for a revised sub-classification of SLC22.

  15. Structure-function analysis of the glioma targeting NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide corresponding to the tubulin-binding site on the light neurofilament subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Berges

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a 24 amino acid peptide (NFL-TBS.40-63 corresponding to the tubulin-binding site located on the light neurofilament subunit, selectively enters in glioblastoma cells where it disrupts their microtubule network and inhibits their proliferation. Here, we analyzed the structure-function relationships using an alanine-scanning strategy, in order to identify residues essential for these biological activities. We showed that the majority of modified peptides present a decreased or total loss to penetrate in these cells, or to alter microtubules. Correspondingly, circular dichroism measurements showed that this peptide forms either β-sheet or α-helix structures according to the solvent and that alanine substitution modified or destabilized the structure, in relation with changes in the biological activities. Moreover, substitution of serine residues by phosphoserine or aspartic acid concomitantly decreased the cell penetrating activity and the structure stability. These results indicate the importance of structure for the activities, including selectivity to glioblastoma cells of this peptide, and its regulation by phosphorylation.

  16. Structure-function analysis of the glioma targeting NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide corresponding to the tubulin-binding site on the light neurofilament subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Raphael; Balzeau, Julien; Takahashi, Masayuki; Prevost, Chantal; Eyer, Joel

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a 24 amino acid peptide (NFL-TBS.40-63) corresponding to the tubulin-binding site located on the light neurofilament subunit, selectively enters in glioblastoma cells where it disrupts their microtubule network and inhibits their proliferation. Here, we analyzed the structure-function relationships using an alanine-scanning strategy, in order to identify residues essential for these biological activities. We showed that the majority of modified peptides present a decreased or total loss to penetrate in these cells, or to alter microtubules. Correspondingly, circular dichroism measurements showed that this peptide forms either β-sheet or α-helix structures according to the solvent and that alanine substitution modified or destabilized the structure, in relation with changes in the biological activities. Moreover, substitution of serine residues by phosphoserine or aspartic acid concomitantly decreased the cell penetrating activity and the structure stability. These results indicate the importance of structure for the activities, including selectivity to glioblastoma cells of this peptide, and its regulation by phosphorylation.

  17. Structure/Function Analysis of DNA-glycosylases That Repair Oxidized Purines and Pyrimidines and the Influence of Surrounding DNA Sequence on Their Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Susan S.

    2005-08-22

    The overall goal of this project was to elucidate the structure/function relationships between oxidized DNA bases and the DNA repair enzymes that recognize and remove them. The NMR solution structure of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) that recognizes oxidized DNA purines was to be determined. Furthermore, the solution structures of DNA molecules containing specific lesions recognized by Fpg was to be determined in sequence contexts that either facilitate or hinder this recognition. These objectives were in keeping with the long-term goals of the Principal Investigator's laboratory, that is, to understand the basic mechanisms that underpin base excision repair processing of oxidative DNA lesions and to elucidate the interactions of unrepaired lesions with DNA polymerases. The results of these two DNA transactions can ultimately determine the fate of the cell. These objectives were also in keeping with the goals of our collaborator, Dr. Michael Kennedy, who is studying the repair and recognition of damaged DNA. Overall the goals of this project were congruent with those of the Department of Energy's Health Effects and Life Sciences Research Program, especially to the Structural Biology, the Human Genome and the Health Effects Programs. The mission of the latter Program includes understanding the biological effects and consequences of DNA damages produced by toxic agents in the many DOE waste sites so that cleanup can be accomplished in a safe, effective and timely manner.

  18. Non-singlet structure functions: Combining the leading logarithms resummation at small-x with DGLAP

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2005-01-01

    The explicit expressions for the non-singlet DIS structure functions obtained at small x by resumming the most singular logarithmic contributions are discussed and compared in detail with the DGLAP evolution for different values of x and Q^2. The role played by the initial conditions for the parton densities currently used in the DGLAP analysis, on the small-$x$ behavior of the non-singlet structure functions is discussed. Explicit expressions are presented which implement the NLO DGLAP contributions with our small-x results.

  19. Structure-Function Analysis of Friedreich's Ataxia Mutants Reveals Determinants of Frataxin Binding and Activation of the Fe-S Assembly Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridwell-Rabb, Jennifer; Winn, Andrew M; Barondeau, David P [TAM

    2012-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with the loss of function of the protein frataxin (FXN) that results from low FXN levels due to a GAA triplet repeat expansion or, occasionally, from missense mutations in the FXN gene. Here biochemical and structural properties of FXN variants, including three FRDA missense mutations (N146K, Q148R, and R165C) and three related mutants (N146A, Q148G, and Q153A), were determined in an effort to understand the structural basis for the loss of function. In vitro assays revealed that although the three FRDA missense mutations exhibited similar losses of cysteine desulfurase and Fe-S cluster assembly activities, the causes for these activation defects were distinct. The R165C variant exhibited a kcat/KM higher than that of native FXN but weak binding to the NFS1, ISD11, and ISCU2 (SDU) complex, whereas the Q148R variant exhibited the lowest kcat/KM of the six tested FXN variants and only a modest binding deficiency. The order of the FXN binding affinities for the SDU Fe-S assembly complex was as follows: FXN > Q148R > N146A > Q148G > N146K > Q153A > R165C. Four different classes of FXN variants were identified on the basis of their biochemical properties. Together, these structure-function studies reveal determinants for the binding and allosteric activation of the Fe-S assembly complex and provide insight into how FRDA missense mutations are functionally compromised.

  20. Structure-function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure-function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not.

  1. Tests of QCD and non-asymptotically-free theories of the strong interaction by an analysis of the nucleon structure functions xF/sub 3 /, F/sub 2/, and q

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Duda, J; Dydak, F; Eisele, F; Flottmann, T; Geweniger, C; Guyot, C; He, J T; Klasen, H P; Kleinknecht, K; Knobloch, J; Królikowski, J; May, J; Merlo, J P; Palazzi, P; Para, A; Peyaud, B; Pszola, B; Rander, J; Ranjard, F; Renk, B; Rothberg, J E; Ruan, T Z; Schlatter, W D; Schuller, J P; Steinberger, J; Taureg, H; Tittel, K; Turlay, René; von Rüden, Wolfgang; Wahl, H; Willutzki, H J; Wotschack, J; Wu, W M

    1982-01-01

    The scaling violations of the structure functions F/sub 2/, xF/sub 3/, and q, as measured in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering at high hadron class W, have been compared with the predictions of QCD and other candidate field theories of strong interactions. Non- asymptotically free theories with scalar and vector gluons are incompatible with the data. This leaves QCD as the only field theory that gives a consistent description of all the observed scaling violations. The data do not, however, permit a sensitive test of the existence of the gluon self-coupling.

  2. Expression and functional analysis of two osmotin (PR5) isoforms with differential antifungal activity from Piper colubrinum: prediction of structure-function relationship by bioinformatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Tomson; Sivakumar, K C; Manjula, S

    2012-11-01

    Osmotin, a pathogenesis-related antifungal protein, is relevant in induced plant immunity and belongs to the thaumatin-like group of proteins (TLPs). This article describes comparative structural and functional analysis of the two osmotin isoforms cloned from Phytophthora-resistant wild Piper colubrinum. The two isoforms differ mainly by an internal deletion of 50 amino acid residues which separates them into two size categories (16.4 kDa-PcOSM1 and 21.5 kDa-PcOSM2) with pI values 5.6 and 8.3, respectively. Recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli and antifungal activity assays of the purified proteins demonstrated significant inhibitory activity of the larger osmotin isoform (PcOSM2) on Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium oxysporum, and a markedly reduced antifungal potential of the smaller isoform (PcOSM1). Homology modelling of the proteins indicated structural alterations in their three-dimensional architecture. Tertiary structure of PcOSM2 conformed to the known structure of osmotin, with domain I comprising of 12 β-sheets, an α-helical domain II and a domain III composed of 2 β-sheets. PcOSM1 (smaller isoform) exhibited a distorted, indistinguishable domain III and loss of 4 β-sheets in domain I. Interestingly, an interdomain acidic cleft between domains I and II, containing an optimally placed endoglucanase catalytic pair composed of Glu-Asp residues, which is characteristic of antifungal PR5 proteins, was present in both isoforms. It is well accepted that the presence of an acidic cleft correlates with antifungal activity due to the presence of endoglucanase catalytic property, and hence the present observation of significantly reduced antifungal capacity of PcOSM1 despite the presence of a strong acidic cleft, is suggestive of the possible roles played by other structural features like domain I or/and III, in deciding the antifungal potential of osmotin.

  3. Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachera, David; Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    A certified static analysis is an analysis whose semantic validity has been formally proved correct with a proof assistant. The recent increasing interest in using proof assistants for mechanizing programming language metatheory has given rise to several approaches for certification of static analysis. We propose a panorama of these techniques and compare their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  4. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production....... Finally, pedagogical implication of CFL is discussed and future research is suggested. Keywords: error analysis, comparative sentences, comparative structure ‘‘bǐ - 比’, Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), written production...

  5. Millisecond single-molecule localization microscopy combined with convolution analysis and automated image segmentation to determine protein concentrations in complexly structured, functional cells, one cell at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We present a single-molecule tool called the CoPro (concentration of proteins) method that uses millisecond imaging with convolution analysis, automated image segmentation and super-resolution localization microscopy to generate robust estimates for protein concentration in different compartments of single living cells, validated using realistic simulations of complex multiple compartment cell types. We demonstrate its utility experimentally on model Escherichia coli bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae budding yeast cells, and use it to address the biological question of how signals are transduced in cells. Cells in all domains of life dynamically sense their environment through signal transduction mechanisms, many involving gene regulation. The glucose sensing mechanism of S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying gene regulatory signal transduction. It uses the multi-copy expression inhibitor of the GAL gene family, Mig1, to repress unwanted genes in the presence of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations. We fluorescently labelled Mig1 molecules with green fluorescent protein (GFP) via chromosomal integration at physiological expression levels in living S. cerevisiae cells, in addition to the RNA polymerase protein Nrd1 with the fluorescent protein reporter mCherry. Using CoPro we make quantitative estimates of Mig1 and Nrd1 protein concentrations in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartments on a cell-by-cell basis under physiological conditions. These estimates indicate a ∼4-fold shift towards higher values in the concentration of diffusive Mig1 in the nucleus if the external glucose concentration is raised, whereas equivalent levels in the cytoplasm shift to smaller values with a relative change an order of magnitude smaller. This compares with Nrd1 which is not involved directly in glucose sensing, and which is almost exclusively localized in the nucleus under high and low external glucose levels. CoPro facilitates time-resolved quantification of

  6. Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus caudatus ... and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), using standard analytical methods The result ... content (74.8%) and lipid content (5.5%), while Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) contain ...

  7. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salojärvi Jarkko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE are a group of plant-specific proteins which have important functions in stress adaptation and development. They contain the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP domain and a C-terminal RST (RCD-SRO-TAF4 domain. In addition to these domains, several, but not all, SROs contain an N-terminal WWE domain. Results SROs are present in all analyzed land plants and sequence analysis differentiates between two structurally distinct groups; cryptogams and monocots possess only group I SROs whereas eudicots also contain group II. Group I SROs possess an N-terminal WWE domain (PS50918 but the WWE domain is lacking in group II SROs. Group I domain structure is widely represented in organisms as distant as humans (for example, HsPARP11. We propose a unified nomenclature for the SRO family. The SROs are able to interact with transcription factors through the C-terminal RST domain but themselves are generally not regulated at the transcriptional level. The most conserved feature of the SROs is the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PS51059 domain. However, bioinformatic analysis of the SRO PARP domain fold-structure and biochemical assays of AtRCD1 suggested that SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Conclusions The SROs are a highly conserved family of plant specific proteins. Sequence analysis of the RST domain implicates a highly preserved protein structure in that region. This might have implications for functional conservation. We suggest that, despite the presence of the catalytic core of the PARP domain, the SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Nevertheless, the function of SROs is critical for plants and might be related to transcription factor regulation and complex formation.

  8. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Pinja; Overmyer, Kirk; Wrzaczek, Michael; Vainonen, Julia P; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Reddy, Ramesha A; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2010-03-12

    The SROs (SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE) are a group of plant-specific proteins which have important functions in stress adaptation and development. They contain the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain and a C-terminal RST (RCD-SRO-TAF4) domain. In addition to these domains, several, but not all, SROs contain an N-terminal WWE domain. SROs are present in all analyzed land plants and sequence analysis differentiates between two structurally distinct groups; cryptogams and monocots possess only group I SROs whereas eudicots also contain group II. Group I SROs possess an N-terminal WWE domain (PS50918) but the WWE domain is lacking in group II SROs. Group I domain structure is widely represented in organisms as distant as humans (for example, HsPARP11). We propose a unified nomenclature for the SRO family. The SROs are able to interact with transcription factors through the C-terminal RST domain but themselves are generally not regulated at the transcriptional level. The most conserved feature of the SROs is the catalytic core of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PS51059) domain. However, bioinformatic analysis of the SRO PARP domain fold-structure and biochemical assays of AtRCD1 suggested that SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. The SROs are a highly conserved family of plant specific proteins. Sequence analysis of the RST domain implicates a highly preserved protein structure in that region. This might have implications for functional conservation. We suggest that, despite the presence of the catalytic core of the PARP domain, the SROs do not possess ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. Nevertheless, the function of SROs is critical for plants and might be related to transcription factor regulation and complex formation.

  9. Structural, functional and molecular analysis of the effects of aging in the small intestine and colon of C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steegenga Wilma T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By regulating digestion and absorption of nutrients and providing a barrier against the external environment the intestine provides a crucial contribution to the maintenance of health. To what extent aging-related changes in the intestinal system contribute to the functional decline associated with aging is still under debate. Methods Young (4 M and old (21 M male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control low-fat (10E% or a high-fat diet (45E% for 2 weeks. During the intervention gross energy intake and energy excretion in the feces were measured. After sacrifice the small and large intestine were isolated and the small intestine was divided in three equal parts. Swiss rolls were prepared of each of the isolated segments for histological analysis and the luminal content was isolated to examine alterations in the microflora with 16S rRNA Q-PCR. Furthermore, mucosal scrapings were isolated from each segment to determine differential gene expression by microarray analysis and global DNA methylation by pyrosequencing. Results Digestible energy intake was similar between the two age groups on both the control and the high-fat diet. Microarray analysis on RNA from intestinal scrapings showed no marked changes in expression of genes involved in metabolic processes. Decreased expression of Cubilin was observed in the intestine of 21-month-old mice, which might contribute to aging-induced vitamin B12 deficiency. Furthermore, microarray data analysis revealed enhanced expression of a large number of genes involved in immune response and inflammation in the colon, but not in the small intestine of the 21-month-old mice. Aging-induced global hypomethylation was observed in the colon and the distal part of the small intestine, but not in the first two sections of the small intestine. Conclusion In 21-month old mice the most pronounced effects of aging were observed in the colon, whereas very few changes were observed in the small intestine.

  10. Analysis of structure-function relationships in cytochrome c oxidase and its biomimetic analogs via resonance Raman and surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Inez M

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the four electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water while avoiding the formation of toxic peroxide; a quality that is of high relevance for the development of oxygen-reducing catalysts. Resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used since many years as a technique to identify electron transfer pathways in cytochrome c oxidase and to identify the key intermediates in the catalytic cycle. This information can be compared to artificial systems such as modified heme-copper enzymes, molecular heme-copper catalysts or CcO/electrode complexes in order to shed light into the reaction mechanism of these non-natural systems. Understanding the structural commonalities and differences of CcO with its non-natural analogs is of great value for designing efficient oxygen-reducing catalysts. In this review therefore Raman spectroscopic measurements on artificial heme-copper enzymes and model complexes are summarized and compared to the natural enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems.

  11. Structure-function analysis of the human sialyltransferase ST3Gal I - Role of N-glycosylation and a novel conserved sialylmotif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanneau, C.; Chazalet, V.; Auge, C.

    2004-01-01

    of these residues and of the conserved residues of motif VS (HX4E) was assessed using as a template the human ST3Gal I. Mutational analysis showed that residues His(299) and Tyr(300) of the new motif, and His(316) of the VS motif, are essential for activity since their substitution by alanine yielded inactive...... showed that none of the mutants tested had any significant effect in nucleotide donor binding. Instead the mutant proteins were affected in their binding to the acceptor and/or demonstrated lower catalytic efficiency. Although the human ST3Gal I has four N-glycan attachment sites in its catalytic domain...... that are potentially glycosylated, none of them was shown to be necessary for enzyme activity. However, N-glycosylation appears to contribute to the proper folding and trafficking of the enzyme....

  12. Analysis of the effects of polymorphism on pollen profilin structural functionality and the generation of conformational, T- and B-cell epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C Jimenez-Lopez

    Full Text Available An extensive polymorphism analysis of pollen profilin, a fundamental regulator of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics, has been performed with a major focus in 3D-folding maintenance, changes in the 2-D structural elements, surface residues involved in ligands-profilin interactions and functionality, and the generation of conformational and lineal B- and T-cell epitopes variability. Our results revealed that while the general fold is conserved among profilins, substantial structural differences were found, particularly affecting the special distribution and length of different 2-D structural elements (i.e. cysteine residues, characteristic loops and coils, and numerous micro-heterogeneities present in fundamental residues directly involved in the interacting motifs, and to some extension these residues nearby to the ligand-interacting areas. Differential changes as result of polymorphism might contribute to generate functional variability among the plethora of profilin isoforms present in the olive pollen from different genetic background (olive cultivars, and between plant species, since biochemical interacting properties and binding affinities to natural ligands may be affected, particularly the interactions with different actin isoforms and phosphoinositides lipids species. Furthermore, conspicuous variability in lineal and conformational epitopes was found between profilins belonging to the same olive cultivar, and among different cultivars as direct implication of sequences polymorphism. The variability of the residues taking part of IgE-binding epitopes might be the final responsible of the differences in cross-reactivity among olive pollen cultivars, among pollen and plant-derived food allergens, as well as between distantly related pollen species, leading to a variable range of allergy reactions among atopic patients. Identification and analysis of commonly shared and specific epitopes in profilin isoforms is essential to gain knowledge

  13. The structure function as a metric for roughness and figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.; Tuell, Michael T.

    2016-09-01

    As optical designs become more sophisticated and incorporate aspheric and free form surfaces, the need to specify limits on mid-spatial frequency manufacturing errors becomes more critical, particularly as we better understand the effects of these errors on image quality. While there already exist methods based on Fourier analysis to specify these errors in most commercial interferometry software, the method of calculation and the power spectral density (PSD) results remain obscure to many in the optical design and manufacturing field. We suggest that the structure functions (SF) contains the same information as in the Fourier based PSD but in a way that is much more transparent to analysis, interpretation and application as a specification. The units of measure are more familiar and the concept behind the analysis is simpler to understand. Further, the information contained in the structure function (or PSD) allows a complete specification of an optical surface from the finest measurable detail of roughness to the overall figure. We discuss the origin of the structure function in the field of astronomy to describe the effects of air turbulence on image quality, the simple mathematical definition of the structure function and its easy means of calculation and how its results should be scaled depending on the location of the optical surface in a system from pupil to image plane. Finally, we give an example of how to write a specification of an optical surface using the structure function.

  14. Photon structure function in supersymmetric QCD revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahara, Ryo, E-mail: sahara@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uematsu, Tsuneo, E-mail: uematsu@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kitadono, Yoshio, E-mail: kitadono@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-07

    We investigate the virtual photon structure function in the supersymmetric QCD (SQCD), where we have squarks and gluinos in addition to the quarks and gluons. Taking into account the heavy particle mass effects to the leading order in QCD and SQCD we evaluate the photon structure function and numerically study its behavior for the QCD and SQCD cases.

  15. Photon Structure Function in Supersymmetric QCD Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Sahara, Ryo; Kitadono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the virtual photon structure function in the supersymmetric QCD (SQCD), where we have squarks and gluinos in addition to the quarks and gluons. Taking into account the heavy particle mass effects to the leading order in QCD and SQCD we evaluate the photon structure function and numerically study its behavior for the QCD and SQCD cases.

  16. Structure-Function Correlation Analysis of Connexin50 Missense Mutations Causing Congenital Cataract: Electrostatic Potential Alteration Could Determine Intracellular Trafficking Fate of Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroop Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin50 (Cx50 mutations are reported to cause congenital cataract probably through the disruption of intercellular transport in the lens. Cx50 mutants that undergo mistrafficking have generally been associated with failure to form functional gap junction channels; however, sometimes even properly trafficked mutants were found to undergo similar consequences. We hereby wanted to elucidate any structural bases of the varied functional consequences of Cx50 missense mutations through in silico approach. Computational studies have been done based on a Cx50 homology model to assess conservation, solvent accessibility, and 3-dimensional localization of mutated residues as well as mutation-induced changes in surface electrostatic potential, H-bonding, and steric clash. This was supplemented with meta-analysis of published literature on the functional properties of connexin missense mutations. Analyses revealed that the mutation-induced critical alterations of surface electrostatic potential in Cx50 mutants could determine their fate in intracellular trafficking. A similar pattern was observed in case of mutations involving corresponding conserved residues in other connexins also. Based on these results the trafficking fates of 10 uncharacterized Cx50 mutations have been predicted. Further experimental analyses are needed to validate the observed correlation.

  17. Structure-function analysis of human TYW2 enzyme required for the biosynthesis of a highly modified Wybutosine (yW base in phenylalanine-tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Posttranscriptional modifications are critical for structure and function of tRNAs. Wybutosine (yW and its derivatives are hyper-modified guanosines found at the position 37 of eukaryotic and archaeal tRNA(Phe. TYW2 is an enzyme that catalyzes α-amino-α-carboxypropyl transfer activity at the third step of yW biogenesis. Using complementation of a ΔTYW2 strain, we demonstrate here that human TYW2 (hTYW2 is active in yeast and can synthesize the yW of yeast tRNA(Phe. Structure-guided analysis identified several conserved residues in hTYW2 that interact with S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet, and mutation studies revealed that K225 and E265 are critical residues for the enzymatic activity. We previously reported that the human TYW2 is overexpressed in breast cancer. However, no difference in the tRNA(Phe modification status was observed in either normal mouse tissue or a mouse tumor model that overexpresses Tyw2, indicating that hTYW2 may have a role in tumorigenesis unrelated to yW biogenesis.

  18. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova E.V.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ecological indicators designed and specified for Moldova and similar indicators of the countries of CIS is made in the work. Some general items of information about power systems of the countries of CIS (the established capacities, manufacture of the electric power are given, the analysis of dynamics of emissions GHG- СО2, NOx, SO2 in Moldova and comparison with the emissions level in other countries of CIS is made.

  19. Structure-function analysis of the GmRIC1 signal peptide and CLE domain required for nodulation control in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Dugald E; Li, Dongxue; Ferguson, Brett J; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Legumes control the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in response to external and internal stimuli, such as nitrate, and via systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON). Overexpression of the CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) pre-propeptide-encoding genes GmNIC1 (nitrate-induced and acting locally) and GmRIC1 (Bradyrhizobium-induced and acting systemically) suppresses soybean nodulation dependent on the activity of the nodulation autoregulation receptor kinase (GmNARK). This nodule inhibition response was used to assess the relative importance of key structural components within and around the CLE domain sequences of these genes. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, mutants were produced at each amino acid within the CLE domain (RLAPEGPDPHHN) of GmRIC1. This approach identified the Arg1, Ala3, Pro4, Gly6, Pro7, Asp8, His11, and Asn12 residues as critical to GmRIC1 nodulation suppression activity (NSA). In contrast, none of the mutations in conserved residues outside of the CLE domain showed compromised NSA. Chimeric genes derived from combinations of GmRIC1 and GmNIC1 domains were used to determine the role of each pre-propeptide domain in NSA differences that exist between the two peptides. It was found that the transit peptide and CLE peptide regions of GmRIC1 significantly enhanced activity of GmNIC1. In contrast, the comparable GmNIC1 domains reduced the NSA of GmRIC1. Identification of these critical residues and domains provides a better understanding of how these hormone-like peptides function in plant development and regulation.

  20. Use of the steroid derivative RPR 106541 in combination with site-directed mutagenesis for enhanced cytochrome P-450 3A4 structure/function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J C; Domanski, T L; Harlow, G R; White, R B; Orton, E; Halpert, J R

    1999-08-01

    RPR 106541 (20R-16alpha,17alpha-[butylidenebis(oxy)]-6al pha, 9alpha-difluoro-11beta-hydroxy-17beta-(methylthio)androst a-4-en-3-one) is an airway-selective steroid developed for the treatment of asthma. Two metabolites produced by human liver microsomes were identified as R- and S-sulfoxide diastereomers based on liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and cochromatography with standards. Sulfoxide formation was determined to be cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4-dependent by correlation with CYP3A4-marker nifedipine oxidase activity, inhibition by cyclosporin A and troleandomycin, and inhibition of R- (70%) and S- (64%) sulfoxide formation by anti-3A antibody. Expressed CYP2C forms catalyzed RPR 106541 sulfoxidation; however, other phenotyping approaches failed to confirm the involvement of CYP2C forms in these reactions in human liver microsomes. Expressed CYP3A4 catalyzed the formation of the sulfoxide diastereomers in a 1:1 ratio, whereas CYP3A5 displayed stereoselectivity for formation of the S-diastereomer. The high rate of sulfoxidation by CYP3A4 and the blockage of oxidative metabolism at the electronically favored 6beta-position provided advantages for RPR 106541 over other substrates as an active site probe of CYP3A4. Therefore, oxidation of RPR 106541 by various CYP3A4 substrate recognition site (SRS) mutants was assessed. In SRS-4, A305V and F304A showed dramatically reduced rates of R-diastereomer formation (83 and 64% decreases, respectively), but S-diastereomer formation was affected to a lesser extent. A370V (SRS-5) showed decreased formation of the R-sulfoxide (52%) but increased formation of the S-diastereomer. In the SRS-2 region, the most dramatic change in sulfoxide ratios was observed for L210A. In conclusion, the structure of RPR 106541 imposes specific constraints on enzyme binding and activity and thus represents an improved CYP3A4 probe substrate.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, Christine P J; Gatenby, Piers A C; Herceg, Zdenko; Lima, Sheila C S; Pinto, Luis F R; Watson, Anthony; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers: genomic polymorphisms, the genetic and epigenetic drivers in esophageal cancers, and the collection of data in the UK Barrett's Oesophagus Registry.

  2. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  3. Structure function analysis of mammalian cryptochromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tamanini (Filippo); I. Chaves (Ines); M.I. Bajek (Monika); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMembers of the photolyase/cryptochrome family are flavoproteins that share an extraordinary conserved core structure (photolyase homology region, PHR), but the presence of a carboxy-terminal extension is limited to the cryptochromes. Photolyases are DNA-repair enzymes that remove

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of eutherian kallikrein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Premzl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study made attempts to update and revise eutherian kallikrein genes implicated in major physiological and pathological processes and in medical molecular diagnostics. Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and free available genomic sequence assemblies, the tests of reliability of eutherian public genomic sequences annotated most comprehensive curated third party data gene data set of eutherian kallikrein genes including 121 complete coding sequences among 335 potential coding sequences. The present analysis first described 13 major gene clusters of eutherian kallikrein genes, and explained their differential gene expansion patterns. One updated classification and nomenclature of eutherian kallikrein genes was proposed, as new framework of future experiments.

  5. Structure function of the UV variability of Q0957+561

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, L J; Gil-Merino, R; Ullán, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed structure function analysis of the UV variability of Q0957+561. From new optical observations, we constructed normalized structure functions of the quasar luminosity at restframe wavelengths of 2100 and 2600 \\AA. Old optical records also allow the structure function to be obtained at 2100 \\AA, but 10 years ago in the observer's frame. These three structure functions are then compared to predictions of both simple and relatively sophisticated (incorporating two independent variable components) Poissonian models. We do not find clear evidence of a chromatic mechanism of variability. From the recent data, 100-d time-symmetric and 170-d time-asymmetric flares are produced at both restframe wavelengths. Taking into account measurements of time delays and the existence of an EUV/radio jet, reverberation is probably the main mechanism of variability. Thus, two types of EUV/X-ray fluctuations would be generated within or close to the jet and later reprocessed by the disc gas in the two emission ...

  6. A measurement of the photon structure function F sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Ishi, Y.; Miyano, K.; Miyata, H. (Niigata Univ. (Japan)); Yamagishi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Kojima, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Yasuda, T. (Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Kirk, P.; Lim, J.; McNeil, R.R.; Metcalf, W.; Myung, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Cheng, C.P.; Gu, P.; Ye, M.H.; Zhu, Y.C. (Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics); Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Hu, K.P.; Lai, A.Z.; Low, E.H.; Mattson, M.E.; Piilonen, L.; Sterner, K.L. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA)); Li, Y.K.; Lusin, S.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wang, A.T.M.; Wilson, S. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia (USA)); Frautschi, M.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA)); Breedon, R.E.; Kim, G.N. (California Univ., Davis (USA) National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ko, W.; Lander, R.L.; Maeshima, K.; Malchow, R.L.; Rowe, J.; Smith, J.R.; Stuart, D. (California Univ., Davis (USA)); Abe, K.; Fujii, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Kim, S.K.; AMY Collaboration

    1990-12-20

    The photon structure function F{sub 2} has been measured at average Q{sup 2} values of 73, 160 and 390 (GeV/c){sup 2}. We compare the x dependence of the Q{sup 2}=73(GeV/c){sup 2} data with thereotical expectations based on QCD. In addition we present results on the Q{sup 2} evolution of the structure function for the intermediate x range (0.3{le}x{le}0.8). The results are consistent with QCD. (orig.).

  7. Nuclear effects in the structure functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Marco; E Oset; S K Singh

    2003-11-01

    By using a relativistic framework and accurate nuclear spectral function the structure functions 2 and 3 of deep inelastic charged lepton and neutrino scattering are calculated in nuclei and results are presented.

  8. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...

  9. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  10. ROMANIAN COUNTY RATING MEASUREMENT. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second wave of financial crisis, namely the sovereign debt crisis, the country’s most affected by this phenomenon are Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and last year Cyprus joined. Future more the crisis in Greece in 2015 requires local authorities to evaluate constantly their rating in order to prevent bankruptcy. In this paper we conducted a comparative analysis using Altman method and the Stickney method and correlate the scores with ratings agencies Standard & Poor's and Moody's.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Repository Software

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This proposal outlines the design of a comparative analysis of the four institutional repository software packages that were represented at the 4th International Conference on Open Repositories held in 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia: EPrints, DSpace, Fedora and Zentity (The 4th International Conference on Open Repositories website, https://or09.library.gatech.edu). The study includes 23 qualitative and quantitative measures taken from default installations of the four repositories on a benchmark ma...

  12. Polarized deuteron structure functions at small x

    CERN Document Server

    Edelmann, J; Weise, W

    1997-01-01

    We investigate shadowing corrections to the polarized deuteron structure functions g_1^d and b_1. In the kinematic domain of current fixed target experiments we observe that shadowing effects in g_1^d are approximately twice as large as for the unpolarized structure function F_2^d. Furthermore, we find that b_1 is surprisingly large at x < 0.1 and receives dominant contributions from coherent double scattering.

  13. Off-shell Corrections and Moments of the Deep Inelastic Nuclear Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cothran, C D; Liuti, S

    1998-01-01

    We present an improved method for handling off-shell effects in deep inelastic nuclear scattering. With a firm understanding of the effects of the nuclear wave function, including these off-shell corrections as well as binding and nucleon-nucleon correlations, we can begin to examine the role of QCD in nuclei through an analysis of the moments of the nuclear structure function. Our analysis is aimed at extracting the Q^2 dependence of the moments of the nucleon structure function by using the recent high x world Iron data and by properly removing nuclear effects from the perturbative contribution. In addition, we compare quantitatively the behavior of the extracted moments with a simple O(1/Q^2) phenomenological form and we determine the mass term for this parametrization.

  14. Structure functions in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2011-01-01

    A combined numerical–experimental investigation on the scaling of velocity structure functions in turbulent rotating Rayleigh–B´enard convection is carried out. Direct numerical simulations in a cylindrical domain and a horizontally periodic domain are compared with experiments using a cylindrical t

  15. A comparative analysis of frog early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino, Eugenia M; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Montenegro-Larrea, Paola; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Moya, Iván M; Alarcón, Ingrid; Sudou, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Taira, Masanori

    2007-07-17

    The current understanding of Xenopus laevis development provides a comparative background for the analysis of frog developmental modes. Our analysis of development in various frogs reveals that the mode of gastrulation is associated with developmental rate and is unrelated to egg size. In the gastrula of the rapidly developing embryos of the foam-nesting frogs Engystomops coloradorum and Engystomops randi, archenteron and notochord elongation overlapped with involution at the blastopore lip, as in X. laevis embryos. In embryos of dendrobatid frogs and in the frog without tadpoles Eleutherodactylus coqui, which develop somewhat more slowly than X. laevis, involution and archenteron elongation concomitantly occurred during gastrulation; whereas elongation of the notochord and, therefore, dorsal convergence and extension, occurred in the postgastrula. In contrast, in the slow developing embryos of the marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae, only involution occurred during gastrulation. The processes of archenteron and notochord elongation and convergence and extension were postgastrulation events. We produced an Ab against the homeodomain protein Lim1 from X. laevis as a tool for the comparative analysis of development. By the expression of Lim1, we were able to identify the dorsal side of the G. riobambae early gastrula, which otherwise was difficult to detect. Moreover, the Lim1 expression in the dorsal lip of the blastopore and notochord differed among the studied frogs, indicating variation in the timing of developmental events. The variation encountered gives evidence of the modular character of frog gastrulation.

  16. Inpatient care in Kazakhstan: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur B Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reforms in inpatient care are critical for the enhancement of the efficiency of health systems. It still remains the main costly sector of the health system, accounting for more than 60% of all expenditures. Inappropriate and ineffective use of the hospital infrastructure is also a big issue. We aimed to analyze statistical data on health indices and dynamics of the hospital stock in Kazakhstan in comparison with those of developed countries. Materials and Methods: Study design is comparative quantitative analysis of inpatient care indicators. We used information and analytical methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, and comparative analysis of statistical data on health system and dynamics of hospital stock in Kazakhstan and some other countries of the world [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, USA, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, and Korea] over the period 2001-2011. Results : Despite substantial and continuous reductions over the past 10 years, hospitalization rates in Kazakhstan still remain high compared to some developed countries, including those of the OECD. In fact, the hospital stay length for all patients in Kazakhstan in 2011 is around 9.9 days, hospitalization ratio per 100 people is 16.3, and hospital beds capacity is 100 per 10,000 inhabitants. Conclusion: The decreased level of beds may adversely affect both medical organization and health system operations. Alternatives to the existing inpatient care are now being explored. The introduction of the unified national healthcare system allows shifting the primary focus on primary care organizations, which can decrease the demand on inpatient care as a result of improving the health status of people at the primary care level.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Hand Gesture Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana K. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During past few years, human hand gesture for interaction with computing devices has continues to be active area of research. In this paper survey of hand gesture recognition is provided. Hand Gesture Recognition is contained three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction or matching and Classification or recognition. Each stage contains different methods and techniques. In this paper define small description of different methods used for hand gesture recognition in existing system with comparative analysis of all method with its benefits and drawbacks are provided.

  18. Greenfields and acquisitions: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARINESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares greenfields and acquisitions as foreign direct investment (FDI alternatives used by transnational corporations (TNCs. First, the determinants leading to the choice of companies between the two modes of entry into a foreign market are laid out. Then, specific features of each alternative are highlighted, by contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of both types of FDI. Based on this analysis, some conclusions are drawn in the end concerning the most important factors that influence the decision of a company whether to choose a greenfield investment or an acquisition.

  19. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koid, Amy E; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C; Caron, David A; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Koid

    Full Text Available Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists.

  2. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Saito, K; Watanabe, T

    2010-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to the AMD, the Be-9 nucleus consists of two alpha-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F_2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in Be-9. It indicates that the anomalous Be-9 result should be explain...

  3. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  4. Deep Inelastic Structure Functions at small x

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2006-01-01

    Explicit expressions for the non-singlet and singlet structure functions g_1 in the small-x region are obtained. They include the total resummation of the double- and single- logarithms of x and account for the running QCD coupling effects. Both the non-singlet and singlet structure functions are Regge behavied asymptotically, with the intercepts predicted in agreement with experiments. A detailed comparison with the DGLAP evolution equations for different values of x and Q^2 is performed. Finally, the role played by singular terms in DGLAP fits is discussed and explicitly shown to mimic the resummation of leading logarithms at small x.

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  6. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Biomarker Selection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Dessì

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection has become the essential step in biomarker discovery from high-dimensional genomics data. It is recognized that different feature selection techniques may result in different set of biomarkers, that is, different groups of genes highly correlated to a given pathological condition, but few direct comparisons exist which quantify these differences in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a general methodology for comparing the outcomes of different selection techniques in the context of biomarker discovery. The comparison is carried out along two dimensions: (i measuring the similarity/dissimilarity of selected gene sets; (ii evaluating the implications of these differences in terms of both predictive performance and stability of selected gene sets. As a case study, we considered three benchmarks deriving from DNA microarray experiments and conducted a comparative analysis among eight selection methods, representatives of different classes of feature selection techniques. Our results show that the proposed approach can provide useful insight about the pattern of agreement of biomarker discovery techniques.

  9. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  10. Structure-function analysis of CYP27B1 and CYP27A1. Studies on mutants from patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, N; Sakaki, T; Kitanaka, S; Kato, S; Inouye, K

    2001-12-01

    We have determined eight types of missense mutants of CYP27B1 from Japanese vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) patients [Kitanaka, S., Takeyama, K., Murayama, A., Sato, T., Okumura, K., Nogami, M., Hasegawa, Y., Niimi, H., Yanagisawa, J., Tanaka, T. & Kato, S. (1998) New England J. Med., 338, 653-661 and Kitanaka, S., Murayama, A., Sakaki, T., Inouye, K., Seino, Y., Fukumoto, S., Shima, M., Yukizane, S., Takayanagi, M., Niimi, H., Takeyama, K. & Kato, S. (1999) J. Clin. Endocrine Metab., 84, 4111-4117]. None of the CYP27B1 mutants showed 1alpha-hydroxylase activity towards 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Thus, it was assumed that the mutated amino-acid residues play important roles in the 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, such as substrate binding, activation of molecular oxygen, interaction with adrenodoxin, and folding of the cytochrome P450 structure. To examine our hypothesis, we generated various mutants of CYP27B1 and studied their enzymatic properties. In addition, the corresponding mutations were introduced to CYP27A1, which belongs to the same family as CYP27B1. As CYP27A1 showed much higher expression level than CYP27B1 in Escherichia coli, further analysis including heme-binding and substrate-binding was performed with CYP27A1 in place of CYP27B1. Western blot analysis, spectral analysis including reduced CO-difference spectra and substrate-induced difference spectra, and enzymatic analysis of the mutant CYP27A1 gave information on the structure-function relationships of both CYP27A1 and CYP27B1. Although the sequence alignment suggested that Arg107, Gly125, and Pro497 of CYP27B1 might be involved in substrate binding, the experimental data strongly suggested that mutations of these amino-acid residues destroyed the tertiary structure of the substrate-heme pocket. It was also suggested that Arg389 and Arg453 of CYP27B1 were involved in heme-propionate binding, and Asp164 stabilized the four-helix bundle consisting of D, E, I and J helices, possibly by forming

  11. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Ghahramany; G.R.Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2) from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  12. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Ghahramany; G.R. Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2)from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, wefind the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  13. Minimalist models for proteins: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina

    2010-08-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the coarse-grained (CG) models for biopolymers, also stimulated by the needs of modern molecular biology, dealing with nano- to micro-sized bio-molecular systems and larger than microsecond timescale. This combination of size and timescale is, in fact, hard to access by atomic-based simulations. Coarse graining the system is a route to be followed to overcome these limits, but the ways of practically implementing it are many and different, making the landscape of CG models very vast and complex. In this paper, the CG models are reviewed and their features, applications and performances compared. This analysis, restricted to proteins, focuses on the minimalist models, namely those reducing at minimum the number of degrees of freedom without losing the possibility of explicitly describing the secondary structures. This class includes models using a single or a few interacting centers (beads) for each amino acid. From this analysis several issues emerge. The difficulty in building these models resides in the need for combining transferability/predictive power with the capability of accurately reproducing the structures. It is shown that these aspects could be optimized by accurately choosing the force field (FF) terms and functional forms, and combining different parameterization procedures. In addition, in spite of the variety of the minimalist models, regularities can be found in the parameters values and in FF terms. These are outlined and schematically presented with the aid of a generic phase diagram of the polypeptide in the parameter space and, hopefully, could serve as guidelines for the development of minimalist models incorporating the maximum possible level of predictive power and structural accuracy.

  14. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  15. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed in two information categories as personal information and institutes and their virtual education applications. The English web design of the online questionnaire and the database has been prepared by Microsoft ASP codes which is the script language of Microsoft Front Page editor and has been tested on personal web site. The questionnaire has been pre applied in institutions providing virtual education in Australia. The English text of the questionnaire and web site design have been sent to educational technology and virtual education specialists in the countries of the study group. With the feedback received, the spelling mistakes have been corrected and concept and language validity have been completed. The application of the questionnaire has taken 40 weeks during March-November 2004. Only 135 institutes have replied. Two of the questionnaires have been discharged because they included mistaken coding, names of the institutions and countries. Valid 133 questionnaires cover approximately 44% of the study group. Questionnaires saved in the online database have been transferred to Microsoft Excel and then to SPSS by external database connection. In regards of the research objectives, the data collected has been analyzed on computer and by using SPSS statistics package program. In data analysis frequency (f, percentage (% and arithmetic mean ( have been used. In comparisons of country, institute, year, and other variables, che-square test, independent t

  16. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  17. AUDITOR ROTATION - A CRITICAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocanu Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts out from the challenge regarding auditor tenure launched in 2010 by the Green Paper of the European Commission Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis. According to this document, the European Commission speaks both in favor of the mandatory rotation of the audit firm, and in favor of the mandatory rotation of audit partners. Rotation is considered a solution to mitigate threats to independence generated by familiarity, intimidation and self-interest in the context of a long-term audit-client relationship. At international level, there are several studies on auditor rotation, both empirical (e.g. Lu and Sivaramakrishnan, 2009, Li, 2010, Kaplan and Mauldin, 2008, Jackson et al., 2008 and normative in nature (e.g. Marten et al., 2007, Muller, 2006 and Gelter, 2004. The objective of the present paper is to perform a critical and comparative analysis of the regulations on internal and external rotation in force at international level, in the European Union and in the United States of America. Moreover, arguments both in favor and against mandatory rotation are brought into discussion. With regard to the research design, the paper has a normative approach. The main findings are first of all that by comparison, all regulatory authorities require internal rotation at least in the case of public interest entities, while the external rotation is not in the focus of the regulators. In general, the most strict and detailed requirements are those issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission from the United States of America. Second of all, in favor of mandatory rotation speaks the fact that the auditor becomes less resilient in case of divergence of opinions between him and company management, less stimulated to follow his own interest, and more scrupulous in conducting the audit. However, mandatory rotation may also have negative consequences, thus the debate on the opportunity of this regulatory measure remains open-ended.

  18. Comparative naval architecture analysis of diesel submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Torkelson, Kai Oscar

    2005-01-01

    CIVINS Many comparative naval architecture analyses of surface ships have been performed, but few published comparative analyses of submarines exist. Of the several design concept papers, reports and studies that have been written on submarines, no exclusively diesel submarine comparative naval architecture analyses have been published. One possible reason for few submarine studies may be the lack of complete and accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel subma...

  19. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  20. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  1. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  2. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  3. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  4. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maina A. S. Waweru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage. The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved. Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 companies...

  5. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Nucleon structure functions in noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiei, A.; Rezaei, Z.; Mirjalili, A. [Yazd University, Physics Department, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    In the context of noncommutative space-time we investigate the nucleon structure functions which play an important role in identifying the internal structure of nucleons. We use the corrected vertices and employ new vertices that appear in two approaches of noncommutativity and calculate the proton structure functions in terms of the noncommutative tensor θ{sub μν}. To check our results we plot the nucleon structure function (NSF), F{sub 2}(x), and compare it with experimental data and the results from the GRV, GJR and CT10 parametrization models. We show that with the new vertex that arises the noncommutativity correction will lead to a better consistency between theoretical results and experimental data for the NSF. This consistency will be better for small values of the Bjorken variable x. To indicate and confirm the validity of our calculations we also act conversely. We obtain a lower bound for the numerical values of Λ{sub NC} scale which correspond to recent reports. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of inclusive spin structure functions of the deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Dodge, G. E.; Forest, T. A.; Taiuti, M.; Adams, G. S.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bertozzi, W.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Brooks, W. K.; Bueltmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J.; Sanctis, E. De; Vita, R. De; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Demirchyan, R. A.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L. C.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Djalali, C.; Domingo, J.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Eckhause, M.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Farhi, L.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Fissum, K.; Freyberger, A.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gaff, S. J.; Gai, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gavrilov, V. B.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Golovatch, E.; Gordon, C. I.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hancock, D.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Heimberg, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Keith, C.; Kelley, J. H.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Lawrence, D.; Leksin, G. A.; Loukachine, K.; Major, R. W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McNabb, J. W.; McCarthy, J.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morrow, S.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L. Y.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niczyporuk, B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Ohandjanyan, M. S.; Opper, A.; Ossipenko, M.; Park, K.; Patois, Y.; Peterson, G. A.; Philips, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rock, S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C. W.; Sapunenko, V.; Sargsyan, M.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Shuvalov, S. M.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D. I.; Sorrell, L.; Spraker, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tung, T. Y.; Tur, C.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weller, H.; Welsh, R.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, S.; Witkowski, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.

    2003-05-01

    We report the results of a new measurement of spin structure functions of the deuteron in the region of moderate momentum transfer [Q2=0.27 1.3 (GeV/c)2] and final hadronic state mass in the nucleon resonance region (W=1.08 2.0 GeV). We scattered a 2.5 GeV polarized continuous electron beam at Jefferson Lab off a dynamically polarized cryogenic solid state target (15ND3) and detected the scattered electrons with the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. From our data, we extract the longitudinal double spin asymmetry A|| and the spin structure function gd1. Our data are generally in reasonable agreement with existing data from SLAC where they overlap, and they represent a substantial improvement in statistical precision. We compare our results with expectations for resonance asymmetries and extrapolated deep inelastic scaling results. Finally, we evaluate the first moment of the structure function gd1 and study its approach to both the deep inelastic limit at large Q2 and to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule at the real photon limit (Q2→0). We find that the first moment varies rapidly in the Q2 range of our experiment and crosses zero at Q2 between 0.5 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2, indicating the importance of the Δ resonance at these momentum transfers.

  8. Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arash, F; Arash, Firooz; Atashbar-Tehrani, Shahin

    1999-01-01

    We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STEEL AND ALUMINUM STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Peko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined steel and aluminum variants of modern exhibition structures in which the main design requirements include low weight (increased span/depth ratio, transportation, and construction and durability (resistance to corrosion. This included a design situation in which the structural application of aluminum alloys provided an extremely convenient and practical solution. Viability of an aluminum structure depends on several factors and requires a detailed analysis. The overall conclusion of the study indicated that aluminum can be used as a structural material and as a viable alternative to steel for Croatian snow and wind load values and evidently in cases in which positive properties of aluminum are required for structural design. Furthermore, a structural fire analysis was conducted for an aluminum variant structure by using a zone model for realistic fire analysis. The results suggested that passive fire protection for the main structural members was not required in the event of areal fire with duration of 60 min.

  10. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.

  11. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  12. Comparative analysis of multiple target tracking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kamaraj Devadoss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many applications such as intelligent transportation, video surveillance, robotics of computer vision mainly depend on task of multiple object tracking. It includes the process of detection, classifications and tracking. The main focus of the study is to develop an efficient and effective multiple target tracking methods to solve the issues of illumination changes, occlusions and affinity matching. Accordingly, the various multiple target tracking methods are tested and evaluated using the metrics on publicly available datasets from which it is obvious that the outcome of the global energy minimization and optimization techniques is comparatively better than any other existing techniques in all aspects. This comparative study work will also help in better understanding of the problem, knowledge of the methods and experimental evaluation skill for further research works.

  13. Orthodoxy and reflexivity in international comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jens; Valkenburg, Ben

    2002-01-01

    project, in which we have tried to deal with these consequences. Fourth, and hopefully as a result of the first three aims, we want to argue that a reflexive approach of international, comparative research is not only desirable, but attainable as well. In order to do so, we begin with a short discussion...... upon the consequences on the level of empirical research. We want to avoid that, so our second and third subject will be the practical implications of reflexivity for empirical research as well as for social policy. Our discussion on these subjects is based on the practical experiences in the INPART...... on the main issues in the so-called ?reflexive approach? and consider the main consequences of this approach for both social science and social policy. Against this background we will discuss the implications for comparative research and the experiences of the INPART project end up with a few central issues...

  14. Loss Given Default Modelling: Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yashkir, Olga; Yashkir, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated several most popular Loss Given Default (LGD) models (LSM, Tobit, Three-Tiered Tobit, Beta Regression, Inflated Beta Regression, Censored Gamma Regression) in order to compare their performance. We show that for a given input data set, the quality of the model calibration depends mainly on the proper choice (and availability) of explanatory variables (model factors), but not on the fitting model. Model factors were chosen based on the amplitude of their correlati...

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chol-Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant

  16. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Multistage Interconnection Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    increasing-failure-rate (IFR) lifetime-distributions. II 4-- 57 65.6.1 Exact Reliability Analysis Let rsE (t) be the time-dependent reliability of the basic...elements in series. Hence, the reliability of an N x N SEN is given by RSEN(t) = [ rsE (t)12NL (5.4) For the 4 x 4 SEN, it is clear that the reliability...is RSEN(t) = [ rSE (t)] 4 (5.5) since there are four identical SEs. The 4 x 4 SEN+ has six SEs; two in each of three stages. The four SEs which comprise

  18. Comparative analysis of life insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malynych, Anna Mykolayivna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive analysis of statistic insight into development of the world and regional life insurance markets on the basis of macroeconomic indicators. The author located domestic life insurance market on the global scale, analyzed its development and suggested the methods to calculate the marketing life insurance index. There was also approbated the mentioned methods on database of 77 countries all over the world. The author also defined the national rating on the basis of marketing life insurance index.

  19. Nigerian Criminal Networks; A comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkholt, Aimar

    2010-01-01

    Why is an African federation the home to one of the more dominating criminal networks operating globally? Nigeria is not well known for its high level of Internet-infrastructure. Still, it is in a class of its own when it comes to e-fraud or 419 spam mails. It is also prominent within the drug trade and the African-European trafficking network. By comparatively analysing other forms of Organized Crime against the Nigerian Brand, the thesis has tried to find the particulars of Nigerian Crimina...

  20. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  1. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  3. Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.

  4. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  5. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  6. Comparative promoter region analysis powered by CORG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Peter F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoters are key players in gene regulation. They receive signals from various sources (e.g. cell surface receptors and control the level of transcription initiation, which largely determines gene expression. In vertebrates, transcription start sites and surrounding regulatory elements are often poorly defined. To support promoter analysis, we present CORG http://corg.molgen.mpg.de, a framework for studying upstream regions including untranslated exons (5' UTR. Description The automated annotation of promoter regions integrates information of two kinds. First, statistically significant cross-species conservation within upstream regions of orthologous genes is detected. Pairwise as well as multiple sequence comparisons are computed. Second, binding site descriptions (position-weight matrices are employed to predict conserved regulatory elements with a novel approach. Assembled EST sequences and verified transcription start sites are incorporated to distinguish exonic from other sequences. As of now, we have included 5 species in our analysis pipeline (man, mouse, rat, fugu and zebrafish. We characterized promoter regions of 16,127 groups of orthologous genes. All data are presented in an intuitive way via our web site. Users are free to export data for single genes or access larger data sets via our DAS server http://tomcat.molgen.mpg.de:8080/das. The benefits of our framework are exemplarily shown in the context of phylogenetic profiling of transcription factor binding sites and detection of microRNAs close to transcription start sites of our gene set. Conclusion The CORG platform is a versatile tool to support analyses of gene regulation in vertebrate promoter regions. Applications for CORG cover a broad range from studying evolution of DNA binding sites and promoter constitution to the discovery of new regulatory sequence elements (e.g. microRNAs and binding sites.

  7. Comparative analysis of Debrecen sunspot catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, L.; Ludmány, A.; Baranyi, T.

    2017-02-01

    Sunspot area data are important for studying solar activity and its long-term variations. At the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory, we compiled three sunspot catalogues: the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD), the SDO/HMI Debrecen Data (HMIDD) and the SOHO/MDI Debrecen Data. For comparison, we also compiled an additional sunspot catalogue, the Greenwich Photoheliographic Data, from the digitized Royal Greenwich Observatory images for 1974-76. By comparing these catalogues when they overlap in time, we can investigate how various factors influence the measured area of sunspots, and, in addition, we can derive area cross-calibration factors for these catalogues. The main findings are as follows. Poorer seeing increases the individual corrected spot areas and decreases the number of small spots. Interestingly, the net result of these two effects for the total corrected spot area is zero. DPD daily total corrected sunspot areas are 5 per cent smaller than the HMIDD ones. Revised DPD daily total corrected umbra areas are 9 per cent smaller than those of HMIDD. The Greenwich photoheliographic areas are only a few per cent smaller than DPD areas. A 0.2° difference between the north directions of the DPD and MDI images is found. This value is nearly the same as was found (0.22°) by us in a previous paper comparing HMI and MDI images. The area measurement practice (spots smaller than 10 mh were not directly measured but an area of 2 mh was assigned to each) of the Solar Observing Optical Network cannot explain the large area deficit of the Solar Observing Optical Network.

  8. The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Osipenko; G. Ricco; S. Simula; M. Battaglieri; M. Ripani

    2005-07-01

    The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.

  9. The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Simula, S; Battaglieri, M; Ripani, M; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Cazes, A; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Li, J; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nefedov, G; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J

    2005-01-01

    The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.

  10. Nuclear medium modification of the F2 structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We study the nuclear effects in the electromagnetic structure function $F_{2}(x, Q^2)$ in nuclei in the deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering process by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. The ratios $R_{F2}^A(x,Q^2)=\\frac{2F_2^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2}^{Deut}(x,Q^2)}$ are obtained and compared with the recent JLAB results for light nuclei that show a non trivial A dependence.

  11. Nuclear effects in F_3 structure function of nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2007-01-01

    We study nuclear effects in the $F^A_3(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio $R(x,Q^2)=\\frac{F^A_3(x,Q^2)}{AF^N_3(x, Q^2)}$ and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith(GLS) integral $G(x,Q^2)=\\int_x^1 dx F^A_3(x,Q^2)$ in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data.

  12. Comparative proteomics analysis of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Jian-Fang Li; Ying Qu; Xue-Hua Chen; Jian-Min Qin; Qin-Long Gu; Min Yan; Zheng-Gang Zhu; Bing-Ya Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and identify differentially expressed proteins between cancer and normal tissues of gastric cancer by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).METHODS: Soluble fraction proteins of gastric cancer tissues and paired normal tissues were separated by 2-DE.The differentially expressed proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search.RESULTS: 2-DE profiles with high resolution and reproducibility were obtained.Twenty-three protein spots were excised from sliver staining gel and digested in gel by trypsin,in which fifteen protein spots were identified successfully.Among the identified proteins,there were ten over-expressed and five under-expressed proteins in stomach cancer tissues compared with normal tissues.CONCLUSION: In this study,the well-resolved,reproducible 2-DE patterns of human gastric cancer tissue and paired normal tissue were established and optimized and certain differentially-expressed proteins were identified.The combined use of 2-DE and MS provides an effective approach to screen for potential tumor markers.

  13. LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Alpatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyses the book on political systems and processes in the East prepared by MGIMO-University authors and edited by Alexei D. Voskressenski in order to show the differences in approach and methods used in linguistics and political science. The author shows two significant differences in present-day stressing that linguistics of the XIX century was closer to the present-day political science? As he believes. The first difference includes monism of political science approach, since the book reveals monistic scale from totalitarianism to democracy, while linguistic has abandoned the monistic view on typology. The second difference is the value-addedness of the political science approach. The value-free norm in linguistics presupposes setting up of a single standard for all speakers in order to reach full mutual understanding. In political science subjective criteria are decisive for evaluation. The article gives examples from the book to prove that political science, compared to linguistics, is not aimed at overcoming contradictions, distinguishing between the terms, avoiding unproved statements and subjective evaluations.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana Nampalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2, (G+4, (G+6 storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cases are selected i.e. frames with prismatic members and frames with non-prismatic members. The structural response of various members when geometry changes physically, as in case of linear and parabolic haunches provided beyond the face of columns at beam column joints or step variations as in case of stepped haunches was also studied. Frames have been analyzed statically as well as dynamically using ETABS-9.7.4 software referring IS: 456-2000, IS: 1893 (Part-12002 and the results so obtained are grouped into various categories

  15. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic low rectal resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Chernikovsky

    2015-01-01

    to 9.3 versus 6.2 in Group1. ULAR required consumables costing an average of 45 000 rubles more than did ISR. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures are comparable in the duration of a surgical intervention, the volume of intraoperative blood loss, and the quality of TME. ULAR with a reservoir is functionally more preferential.  

  16. ELISA: Structure-Function Inferences based on statistically significant and evolutionarily inspired observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeLisi Charles

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of functional annotation based on homology modeling is primary to current bioinformatics research. Researchers have noted regularities in sequence, structure and even chromosome organization that allow valid functional cross-annotation. However, these methods provide a lot of false negatives due to limited specificity inherent in the system. We want to create an evolutionarily inspired organization of data that would approach the issue of structure-function correlation from a new, probabilistic perspective. Such organization has possible applications in phylogeny, modeling of functional evolution and structural determination. ELISA (Evolutionary Lineage Inferred from Structural Analysis, http://romi.bu.edu/elisa is an online database that combines functional annotation with structure and sequence homology modeling to place proteins into sequence-structure-function "neighborhoods". The atomic unit of the database is a set of sequences and structural templates that those sequences encode. A graph that is built from the structural comparison of these templates is called PDUG (protein domain universe graph. We introduce a method of functional inference through a probabilistic calculation done on an arbitrary set of PDUG nodes. Further, all PDUG structures are mapped onto all fully sequenced proteomes allowing an easy interface for evolutionary analysis and research into comparative proteomics. ELISA is the first database with applicability to evolutionary structural genomics explicitly in mind. Availability: The database is available at http://romi.bu.edu/elisa.

  17. A comparative analysis of strategic marketing planning adoption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of strategic marketing planning adoption in Nigerian ... approaches to strategic marketing planning were examined using ANOVA. ... industry,organisational performance, marketing mix, top management commitment.

  18. A First Measurement of Low x Low $Q^{2}$ Structure Functions in Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, B T; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, L; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Suwonjandee, N; Vaitaitis, A G; Vakili, M; Yang, U K; Yu, J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2001-01-01

    A new structure function analysis of CCFR deep inelastic nu-N and nubar-N scattering data is presented for previously unexplored kinematic regions down to Bjorken x=0.0045 and Q^2=0.3 GeV^2. Comparisons to charged lepton scattering data from NMC and E665 experiments are made and the behavior of the structure function F2_nu is studied in the limit Q^2 -> 0.

  19. Structure-function relationships in calpains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Calpains are a family of complex multi-domain intracellular enzymes that share a calcium-dependent cysteine protease core. These are not degradative enzymes, but instead carry out limited cleavage of target proteins in response to calcium signalling. Selective cutting of cytoskeletal proteins to facilitate cell migration is one such function. The two most abundant and extensively studied members of this family in mammals, calpains 1 and 2, are heterodimers of an isoform-specific 80 kDa large subunit and a common 28 kDa small subunit. Structures of calpain-2, both Ca2+-free and bound to calpastatin in the activated Ca2+-bound state, have provided a wealth of information about the enzyme's structure-function relationships and activation. The main association between the subunits is the pairing of their C-terminal penta-EF-hand domains through extensive intimate hydrophobic contacts. A lesser contact is made between the N-terminal anchor helix of the large subunit and the penta-EF-hand domain of the small subunit. Up to ten Ca2+ ions are co-operatively bound during activation. The anchor helix is released and individual domains change their positions relative to each other to properly align the active site. Because calpains 1 and 2 require ~30 and ~350 μM Ca2+ ions for half-maximal activation respectively, it has long been argued that autoproteolysis, subunit dissociation, post-translational modifications or auxiliary proteins are needed to activate the enzymes in the cell, where Ca2+ levels are in the nanomolar range. In the absence of robust support for these mechanisms, it is possible that under normal conditions calpains are transiently activated by high Ca2+ concentrations in the microenvironment of a Ca2+ influx, and then return to an inactive state ready for reactivation.

  20. Factorization and infrared properties of non-perturbative contributions to DIS structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the non-perturbative components of the hadronic scattering amplitudes and the DIS structure functions are not usually obtained from theoretical considerations, but are introduced phenomenologically by fitting the data. We derive some restrictions for such contributions from the general concepts of factorization and integrability. These restrictions are obtained in the context of both k_T and collinear factorizations. We also show that the use of the collinear factorization basically makes the DIS structure functions be dependent on the factorization scale. Our analysis shows that singular factors of the type x^{-a} in the initial parton densities can be used for the singlet component of the structure function F_1, provided a <1, but excludes the use of them for the other structure functions. The restrictions for the non-perturbative contributions we obtain can also be applied to other QCD reactions at high energies.

  1. Fatigue In A Bravery Culture A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    present paper’s comparative analysis , achieving mastery or near-mastery over a non- intelligent adversary, as in the science of manned flight or...VALLEY INTELLIGENCE CENTER The DVIC advertised itself as a “24/7 all-hazard, all-crime, information and intelligence collection, analysis , and...BRAVERY CULTURE— A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS by John Anthony Romero December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Lauren F. Wollman Second Reader: Mark Perez

  2. Longitudinal and transverse structure functions in high Reynolds-number magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, J; Schäfer, T; Grauer, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scaling behavior of longitudinal and transverse structure functions in homogeneous and isotropic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence by means of an exact hierarchy of structure function equations as well as by direct numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional MHD turbulence. In particular, rescaling relations between longitudinal and transverse structure functions are derived and utilized in order to compare different scaling behavior in the inertial range. It is found that there are no substantial differences between longitudinal and transverse structure functions in MHD turbulence. This finding stands in contrast to the case of hydrodynamic turbulence which shows persistent differences even at high Reynolds numbers. We propose a physical picture that is based on an effective reduction of pressure contributions due to local regions of same magnitude and alignment of velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. Finally, our findings underline the importance of the pressure term for ...

  3. Measuring populism: comparing two methods of content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Pauwels, T.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of populism - particularly over time and space - has received only scarce attention. In this research note two different ways to measure populism are compared: a classical content analysis and a computer-based content analysis. An analysis of political parties in the United Kingdom,

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE FUNDAMENTAL AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrusheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of investing and trading, in order to have a definite advantage and constantly create profit, you need to have a strategic approach. Generally speaking, the two main schools of thought and strategies in financial markets are fundamental and technical analysis. Fundamental and technical analysis differ in several aspects, such as the way of functioning and execution, the time horizon used, the tools used and their objective. These differences lead to certain advantages and disadvantages of each of the analyses. Fundamental and technical analysis are also a subject of critical reviews by the academic and scientific community and many of these reviews concern the methods of their application, i.e. the possibility of combining the two analyses and using them complementarily to fully utilize their strengths and advantages.

  5. 基于结构功能理论的民办本科高校可持续发展路径分析%The Analysis of Sustainable Development Path of Private Undergraduate Universities Based on Structural Functionalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁政宏; 李云涛

    2014-01-01

    Private undergraduate universities are confronted with crises of living ,developing and competing. Their significance and value face great challenges. Structural functionalism researches on the internal development structure and its function of private undergraduate universities to determine their development path. They should regard cultivating talents as the development base ,improving the quality as the core ,building up brand features as the soul,increasing internal motivation as the source,and revolution and innovation as the wings. Only by doing these,can they continue to exert influence in education field and realize sustainable development.%民办本科高校面对生存、发展和竞争危机,其存在的意义和价值面临重大挑战。运用结构功能理论对民办本科高校内部发展结构及其结构的功能发挥进行研究,从而确定其发展路径。民办本科高校需要将确定人才培养目标作为发展之基、将提升质量内涵路径作为发展之核、将树立品牌特色路径作为发展之魂、将增强内部动力路径作为发展之源、将改革和创新路径作为发展之翼,才能继续在教育领域发挥作用,实现可持续发展。

  6. Measuring spin-dependent structure functions at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The author analyses whether CEBAF with a 10 GeV beam could contribute significantly to the understanding of spin-dependent deep-inelastic scattering as well as semi-inclusive reactions. The main advantage of CEBAF is the much better attainable statistics, its great disadvantage its comparably low energy, which limits the accessible x-range to about 0.15 to 0.7. Within these constraints CEBAF could provide (1) high precision data which would be very valuable to understand the Q{sup 2} dependence of the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}(x) and G{sub 2}(x) and (2) the by far most precise determination of the third moments of g{sub 1}(x) and g{sub 2}(x) the latter of which the author argues to be related to a fundamental property of the nucleon.

  7. Measurements of the longitudinal structure function and |$V_{cs}$| in the CCFR experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, U K; Arroyo, C G; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Budd, H S; Conrad, J; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Lamm, M J; Lefmann, W C; Marsh, W; McFarland, K S; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Quintas, P Z; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino nucleon interactions in the CCFR detector are used to extract the structure functions, F_2, xF_3(nu), xF_3(nubar) and R(longitudinal) in the kinematic region 0.01compared with a QCD based fit to previous data. The CKM matrix element |V_cs| is extracted from a combined analysis of xF_3 and dimuon data.

  8. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port ... the effects of the marketer's socioeconomic variables on the volume of sales. ... policies that would enhance frozen fish marketers' access to loans in order to increase ...

  9. A comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of English in Kenya and Uganda. ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT ... [1] East Tennessee State University. [2] University of Eastern ...

  10. a comparative analysis of the rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE REBOUND HAMMER ... Abstract. This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech- .... require separate calibration or correlation charts. [12].

  11. Comparative analysis of rubber seed methyl ester with other methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of rubber seed methyl ester with other methyl esters. ... In order to achieve a two-step transesterification process was developed to convert rubber seed oil to its methyl esters. The first step, acid catalyzed ... Article Metrics.

  12. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment returns in Abuja. ... The study utilized mean score, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of ... is more risky than commercial property due to the risk variation of 0.15605 that ...

  13. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  14. A comparative analysis of returns of various financial asset classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of returns of various financial asset classes in South Africa: a triumph of bonds? ... Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... This study does not take tax into consideration. After adjusting ...

  15. A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cats

    OpenAIRE

    Schötz, Susanne; Eklund, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results from a comparative analysis of purring in four domesticcats. An acoustic analysis describes sound pressure level, duration, number ofcycles and fundamental frequency for egressive and ingressive phases. Significantindividual differences are found between the four cats in several respects.

  16. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  17. Small-x asymptotics of structure function $g_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I

    1997-01-01

    Nonsinglet structure function g_2(x) for deep inelastic scattering of a lepton on a constituent quark is calculated in the double logarithmic approximation at x<<1. Small-x asymptotics of g_2 is shown to have the same singular behaviour as asymptotics of the nonsinglet structure function g_1.

  18. Nucleon structure functions in noncommutative space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Rafiei, Ali; Mirjalili, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    In the context of noncommutative space-time, we investigate the nucleon structure functions which plays an important role to identify the internal structure of nucleons. We use the corrected vertices and employ new vertices that appear in two approaches of noncommutativity and calculate the proton structure functions in terms of noncommutative tensor \\theta_{\\mu\

  19. Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Models of the Human Brain Connectome. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2011, 7, 2.1‒2.28. Butts, C. T. Revisiting the Foundations of Network Analysis...Mini-review. Gerontology 2010, 56, 112‒119. Madden, D. J.; Bennett, I. J.; Song, A. W. Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Aging...EEG Data Using the Imaginary Part of Coherency. Clinical Neurophysiology 2004, 115 (10), 2292‒307. Nieuwenhuys, R.; Voogd, J.; van Huijzen, C. The

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatases: structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Lydia; Aricescu, A Radu; Jones, E Yvonne; Szedlacsek, Stefan E

    2008-03-01

    Structural analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) has expanded considerably in the last several years, producing more than 200 structures in this class of enzymes (from 35 different proteins and their complexes with ligands). The small-medium size of the catalytic domain of approximately 280 residues plus a very compact fold makes it amenable to cloning and overexpression in bacterial systems thus facilitating crystallographic analysis. The low molecular weight PTPs being even smaller, approximately 150 residues, are also perfect targets for NMR analysis. The availability of different structures and complexes of PTPs with substrates and inhibitors has provided a wealth of information with profound effects in the way we understand their biological functions. Developments in mammalian expression technology recently led to the first crystal structure of a receptor-like PTP extracellular region. Altogether, the PTP structural work significantly advanced our knowledge regarding the architecture, regulation and substrate specificity of these enzymes. In this review, we compile the most prominent structural traits that characterize PTPs and their complexes with ligands. We discuss how the data can be used to design further functional experiments and as a basis for drug design given that many PTPs are now considered strategic therapeutic targets for human diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  1. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  2. Nuclear effects in the deuteron structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sassot, R. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina))

    1992-08-06

    An analysis of nuclear effects in the deuteron quark distributions is carried out in connection with the Gottfried sum rule (GSR), the Drell-Yan proton-neutron asymmetry and the Bjorken sum rule (BSR). It is shown that the small amount of nuclear effects necessary to saturate the GSR experimental data modifies the Drell-Yan asymmetry in an entirely different way as an asymmetric sea does. These effects are of little consequence in the convergence of the BSR to the expected value. (orig.).

  3. Measuring structural-functional correspondence: spatial variability of specialised brain regions after macro-anatomical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Martin A; Goebel, Rainer

    2012-01-16

    The central question of the relationship between structure and function in the human brain is still not well understood. In order to investigate this fundamental relationship we create functional probabilistic maps from a large set of mapping experiments and compare the location of functionally localised regions across subjects using different whole-brain alignment schemes. To avoid the major problems associated with meta-analysis approaches, all subjects are scanned using the same paradigms, the same scanner and the same analysis pipeline. We show that an advanced, curvature driven cortex based alignment (CBA) scheme largely removes macro-anatomical variability across subjects. Remaining variability in the observed spatial location of functional regions, thus, reflects the "true" functional variability, i.e. the quantified variability is a good estimator of the underlying structural-functional correspondence. After localising 13 widely studied functional areas, we found a large variability in the degree to which functional areas respect macro-anatomical boundaries across the cortex. Some areas, such as the frontal eye fields (FEF) are strongly bound to a macro-anatomical location. Fusiform face area (FFA) on the other hand, varies in its location along the length of the fusiform gyrus even though the gyri themselves are well aligned across subjects. Language areas were found to vary greatly across subjects whilst a high degree of overlap was observed in sensory and motor areas. The observed differences in functional variability for different specialised areas suggest that a more complete estimation of the structure-function relationship across the whole cortex requires further empirical studies with an expanded test battery.

  4. Comparative analysis of genomic signal processing for microarray data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert S H; Sungoor, Ala; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Genomic signal processing is a new area of research that combines advanced digital signal processing methodologies for enhanced genetic data analysis. It has many promising applications in bioinformatics and next generation of healthcare systems, in particular, in the field of microarray data clustering. In this paper we present a comparative performance analysis of enhanced digital spectral analysis methods for robust clustering of gene expression across multiple microarray data samples. Three digital signal processing methods: linear predictive coding, wavelet decomposition, and fractal dimension are studied to provide a comparative evaluation of the clustering performance of these methods on several microarray datasets. The results of this study show that the fractal approach provides the best clustering accuracy compared to other digital signal processing and well known statistical methods.

  5. A Comparative Study on Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world opinions play important role in every aspects of life so, that it is an emerging topic for discussion. It can be calculated as sentimental analysis or opinion mining. All business and important events are based on analysis and feedback of customer reviews in a positive way therefore they increases productivity and performance related to services of items. In our paper we have expressed importance of sentimental analysis and various approaches to achieve bag-of –words in convenient and easy way using opinions techniques and with briefly represented by a diagram. In this paper we have illustrate important field of sentiment analysis for emotion detection, building resources, transfer learning etc. In paper we also covered different view of sentimental analysis approach, their comparison with showing table and in last we have compared different sentimental analysis approach.

  6. Informatics in Education and Koli Calling: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The journal Informatics in Education and the conference Koli Calling are compared, starting with Simon's system for the classification of computing education papers and going on to conduct a brief bibliometric analysis of the authors of papers in both publications, including their repeat rates and the countries from which they come. The analysis finds that despite their different natures, the Lithuanian journal and the Finnish conference are highly comparable in many respects. The broad conclusion is that the two publications work well together - but it would be good to see some Lithuanian authors contributing papers to Koli Calling.

  7. A comparative analysis of multi-output frontier models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHANG; Eoghan GARVEY

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there have been more debates on the methods of measuring efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to make a sensitivity analysis for different frontier models and compare the results obtained from the different methods of estimating multi-output frontier for a specific application. The methods include stochastic distance function frontier, stochastic ray frontier,and data envelopment analysis. The stochastic frontier regressions with and without the inefficiency effects model are also com-pared and tested. The results indicate that there are significant correlations between the results obtained from the alternative estimation methods.

  8. MRI in Optic Neuritis: Structure, Function, Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan

    2011-01-01

    resonance imaging (MRI), and the visual evoked potential (VEP) continues to show a delayed P100 indicating persistent demyelination. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy between structure and function could be due to either a redundancy in the visual pathways so that some degree of signal loss...... are low. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can measure brain activity with a high spatial resolution. Recently, technical and methodological advancements have made it feasible to record VEPs and fMRI simultaneously and the relationship between averaged VEPs and averaged fMRI signals...... have been described. Still, to take full advantage of simultaneously recorded VEP-fMRI one would ideally want to track single-trial changes in the VEP and use this information in the fMRI analysis. In order to do this we examined 10 healthy volunteers with simultaneous VEP-fMRI. Different measures...

  9. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  10. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  11. Gap Analysis Comparing LLNL ISMS and ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, T B

    2004-08-09

    A gap analysis was conducted comparing the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) with the international standard ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. This analysis was accomplished as part of LLNL's assessment of the impacts of adopting DOE Order 450.1 and comprises a portion of its continuous improvement efforts under ISMS.

  12. Comparability of Mixed IC50 Data – A Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomo Kalliokoski; Christian Kramer; Anna Vulpetti; Peter Gedeck

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry man...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese and Shona Vowels

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Mushangwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis between Chinese and Shona vowel system. The research is biased towards helping Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona however it is expected to benefit other researchers interested in comparative researches. The main focus of this research is on the major differences that exist between these two languages, with an aim to predict and combat the possible pronunciation errors that may result from native language transfer. The research findings...

  14. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  15. Extracting nucleon spin structure functions from nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, A.W.; Afnan, I.R.; Bissey, F. [CSSM, University of Adelaide (Australia)

    2000-05-01

    The determination of the spin-dependent structure functions of the nucleons from nuclear data requires a knowledge of the changes induced by the nuclear medium. This is especially important for the neutron because there are no free neutron targets. We present the results of a study of the accuracy with which one can extract the neutron spin structure function from data on polarized {sup 3}He. This study is based on a three-body calculation of the wave function of the A=3 system, which is then used to calculate the nuclear structure functions including binding and off-shell effects. (author)

  16. Measurement of the hadronic structure function of the photon

    CERN Document Server

    Affholderbach, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The hadronic structure function of the photon, Fγ 2 , is measured using a data sample of 52.9 pb−1, recorded with the ALEPH detector at the LEP storage ring in 1997. Approximately 2100 single-tag two-photon events at a centre-of-mass energy of √s ≈ 183GeV are selected from this data sample. The data are analysed in the two Q2 ranges from 7 to 24 and from 17 to 200 GeV2 with mean values of 13.7 and 56.5 GeV2 . The measured distributions of kinematic variables are compared to different model predictions, based on the HERWIG and PHOJET Monte Carlo generators. To determine Fγ 2(x,Q2), a two-dimensional unfolding method employing the principle of maximum entropy is used. In addition to the Bjorken variable x, the variable E17 is introduced, denoting the hadronic energy measured in the polar angle range below 17◦ and is also used in the unfolding. The two-dimensional unfolding method significantly reduces the systematic errors compared to one-dimensional methods which is shown by various unfolding tests. ...

  17. The proteome: structure, function and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Keiran; Kelley, Lawrence A; Islam, Suhail A; MacCallum, Robert M; Muller, Arne; Pazos, Florencio; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2006-03-29

    This paper reports two studies to model the inter-relationships between protein sequence, structure and function. First, an automated pipeline to provide a structural annotation of proteomes in the major genomes is described. The results are stored in a database at Imperial College, London (3D-GENOMICS) that can be accessed at www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk. Analysis of the assignments to structural superfamilies provides evolutionary insights. 3D-GENOMICS is being integrated with related proteome annotation data at University College London and the European Bioinformatics Institute in a project known as e-protein (http://www.e-protein.org/). The second topic is motivated by the developments in structural genomics projects in which the structure of a protein is determined prior to knowledge of its function. We have developed a new approach PHUNCTIONER that uses the gene ontology (GO) classification to supervise the extraction of the sequence signal responsible for protein function from a structure-based sequence alignment. Using GO we can obtain profiles for a range of specificities described in the ontology. In the region of low sequence similarity (around 15%), our method is more accurate than assignment from the closest structural homologue. The method is also able to identify the specific residues associated with the function of the protein family.

  18. Zinc finger structure-function in Ikaros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marvin; A; Payne

    2011-01-01

    The zinc finger motif was used as a vehicle for the initial discovery of Ikaros in the context of T-cell differentiation and has been central to all subsequent analyses of Ikaros function.The Ikaros gene is alternately spliced to produce several isoforms that confer diversity of function and consequently have complicated analysis of the function of Ikaros in vivo.Key features of Ikaros in vivo function are associated with six C2H2 zinc fingers;four of which are alternately incorporated in the production of the various Ikaros isoforms.Although no complete structures are available for the Ikaros protein or any of its family members,considerable evidence has accumulated about the structure of zinc fingers and the role that this structure plays in the functions of the Ikaros family of proteins.This review summarizes the structural aspects of Ikaros zinc fingers,individually,and in tandem to provide a structural context for Ikaros function and to provide a structural basis to inform the design of future experiments with Ikaros and its family members.

  19. Measurements of the Separated Longitudinal Structure Function F_L from Hydrogen and Deuterium Targets at Low Q^2

    CERN Document Server

    Tvaskis, V; Niculescu, I; Abbott, D; Adams, G S; Afanasev, A; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Brash, E; Breuer, H; Chang, G; Chant, N; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Khayari, N El; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gaskell, D; Garrow, K; Gilman, R; Gueye, P; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Jackson, H; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Joo, K; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, J; Kinney, E; Klein, A; Kubarovsky, V; Liang, M; Liang, Y; Lolos, G; Lung, A; Mack, D; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; Mbianda, G; McGrath, E; Mckee, D; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Nozar, M; Ostapenko, T; Papandreou, Z; Potterveld, D; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Telfeyan, J; Todor, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yan, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zihlmann, B; Zhu, H

    2016-01-01

    Structure functions, as measured in lepton-nucleon scattering, have proven to be very useful in studying the quark dynamics within the nucleon. However, it is experimentally difficult to separately determine the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and consequently there are substantially less data available for the longitudinal structure function in particular. Here we present separated structure functions for hydrogen and deuterium at low four--momentum transfer squared, Q^2< 1 GeV^2, and compare these with parton distribution parameterizations and a k_T factorization approach. While differences are found, the parameterizations generally agree with the data even at the very low Q^2 scale of the data. The deuterium data show a smaller longitudinal structure function, and smaller ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross section R, than the proton. This suggests either an unexpected difference in R for the proton and neutron or a suppression of the gluonic distribution in nuclei.

  20. A comparative analysis of different DEM interpolation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Arun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of geospatial entities generally entails Digital Elevation Models (DEMs that are interpolated to establish three dimensional co-ordinates for the entire terrain. The accuracy of generated terrain model depends on the interpolation mechanism adopted and hence it is needed to investigate the comparative performance of different approaches in this context. General interpolation techniques namely Inverse Distance Weighted, kriging, ANUDEM, Nearest Neighbor, and Spline approaches have been compared. Differential ground field survey has been conducted to generate reference DEM as well as specific set of test points for comparative evaluation. We have also investigated the suitability of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper Digital Elevation Mapper for Indian terrain by comparing it with the Survey of India (SOI Digital Elevation Model (DEM. Contours were generated at different intervals for comparative analysis and found SRTM as more suitable. The terrain sensitivity of various methods has also been analyzed with reference to the study area.

  1. comparative analysis of the compressive strength of hollow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... 1,2,3 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA ... This research performed a comparative analysis of the compressive strength ... Print ISSN: 0331-8443, Electronic ISSN: 2467-8821 ..... Journal. of Engineering Project and Production.

  2. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents in the removal of Cr(VI) ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Generally, the result showed an increase in adsorption by Cr(VI) with increase in mass ...

  3. Initial implementation of a comparative data analysis ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Chisham, Brandon; Pontelli, Enrico; Thompson, Julie D; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2009-07-03

    Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species) are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: "Operational Taxonomic Units" (OTUs), representing the entities to be compared; "character-state data" representing the observations compared among OTUs; "phylogenetic tree", representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and "transitions", the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO). CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc.) that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  4. Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Existing Risk Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article lies on the specific features of the existing software packages for risk management differentiating three categories. Representative for these categories we consider the Crystal Ball, Haufe Risikomanager and MIS - Risk Management solutions, outlining the strenghts and weaknesses in a comparative analysis.

  5. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Method Books for Class Jazz Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare instructional topics and teaching approaches included in selected class method books for jazz pedagogy through content analysis methodology. Frequency counts for the number of pages devoted to each defined instructional content category were compiled and percentages of pages allotted to each…

  7. QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOOSPHERE DEVELOPMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the total problems of formation and development of the knowledge economy, we highlighted the environmental aspect and the comparative analysis of the fundamental ideas of the knowledge economy and the noosphere concept development in terms of their complementarity

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  9. Comparative Analysis Of Agricultural News Covered By Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis Of Agricultural News Covered By Federal, Stated Owned And Privately Owned Nigerian Newspapers. ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/joten.v10i1.35723.

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Fiber Elongating Process in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan; YANG Yi-wei; BIAN Shao-min

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was performed to explore the mechanism of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers.The temporal changes of global proteomes at five representative development stages (5~25 days post-anthesis [DPA]) were examined using 2-D electrophoresis.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Cryptography Library in IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uday; Borgohain, Tuhin; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-05-01

    The paper aims to do a survey along with a comparative analysis of the various cryptography libraries that are applicable in the field of Internet of Things (IoT). The first half of the paper briefly introduces the various cryptography libraries available in the field of cryptography along with a list of all the algorithms contained within the libraries. The second half of the paper deals with cryptography libraries specifically aimed for application in the field of Internet of Things. The various libraries and their performance analysis listed down in this paper are consolidated from various sources with the aim of providing a single comprehensive repository for reference to the various cryptography libraries and the comparative analysis of their features in IoT.

  12. Squark Contributions to Photon Structure Functions and Positivity Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kitadono, Yoshio; Uematsu, Tsuneo; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Photon structure functions in supersymmetric QCD are investigated in terms of the parton model where squark contributions are evaluated. We calculate the eight virtual photon structure functions by taking the discontinuity of the squark massive one-loop diagrams of the photon-photon forward amplitude. The model-independent positivity constraints derived from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequalities are satisfied by the squark parton model calculation and actually the two equality relations hold for the squark contribution. We also show that our polarized photon structure function $g_1^\\gamma$ for the real photon leads to the vanishing 1st moment sum rule, and the constraint $|g_1^\\gamma|\\leq F_1^\\gamma$ is satisfied by the real photon. We also discuss a squark signature in the structure function $W_{TT}^\\tau$.

  13. Neutron structure function and A=3 mirror nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R.; Bissey, F.; Gomez, J.; Katramatou, A.T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Petratos, G.G.; Thomas, A.W.

    2000-06-01

    The authors demonstrate that the free neutron structure function can be extracted in deep-inelastic scattering from A=3 mirror nuclei, with nuclear effects canceling to within 2% for x {approx_lt} 0.85.

  14. An inertial range length scale in structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, R M; Gotoh, T; Kerr, Robert M.; Meneguzzi, Maurice; Gotoh, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    It is shown using experimental and numerical data that within the traditional inertial subrange defined by where the third order structure function is linear that the higher order structure function scaling exponents for longitudinal and transverse structure functions converge only over larger scales, $r>r_S$, where $r_S$ has scaling intermediate between $\\eta$ and $\\lambda$ as a function of $R_\\lambda$. Below these scales, scaling exponents cannot be determined for any of the structure functions without resorting to procedures such as extended self-similarity (ESS). With ESS, different longitudinal and transverse higher order exponents are obtained that are consistent with earlier results. The relationship of these statistics to derivative and pressure statistics, to turbulent structures and to length scales is discussed.

  15. Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-26

    The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.

  16. Deep Inelastic Scattering from A=3 Nuclei and the Neutron Structure Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Afnan; F. Bissey; J. Gomez; A. Katramatou; S. Liuti; W. Melnitchouk; G. Petratos; A.W. Thomas

    2003-03-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of deep inelastic scattering from {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H, focusing in particular on the extraction of the free neutron structure function, F{sup n}{sub 2}. Nuclear corrections are shown to cancel to within 1-2% for the isospin-weighted ratio of {sup 3}He to {sup 3}H structure functions, which leads to more than an order of magnitude improvement in the current uncertainty on the neutron to proton ratio F{sup 2n}{sub 2}/F{sup p}{sub 2} at large x. Theoretical uncertainties originating tom the nuclear wave function, including possible non-nucleonic components, are evaluated. Measurement of the {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H structure functions will, in addition, determine the magnitude of the EMC effect in all A [lte] 3 nuclei.

  17. Deep Inelastic Scattering from A=3 Nuclei and the Neutron Structure Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Afnan; F. Bissey; J. Gomez; A. Katramatou; S. Liuti; W. Melnitchouk; G. Petratos; A.W. Thomas

    2003-03-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of deep inelastic scattering from {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H, focusing in particular on the extraction of the free neutron structure function, F{sup n}{sub 2}. Nuclear corrections are shown to cancel to within 1-2% for the isospin-weighted ratio of {sup 3}He to {sup 3}H structure functions, which leads to more than an order of magnitude improvement in the current uncertainty on the neutron to proton ratio F{sup 2n}{sub 2}/F{sup p}{sub 2} at large x. Theoretical uncertainties originating tom the nuclear wave function, including possible non-nucleonic components, are evaluated. Measurement of the {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H structure functions will, in addition, determine the magnitude of the EMC effect in all A [lte] 3 nuclei.

  18. Deep inelastic scattering from A=3 nuclei and the neutron structure function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Bissey, F.; Gomez, J.; Katramatou, A. T.; Liuti, S.; Melnitchouk, W.; Petratos, G. G.; Thomas, A. W.

    2003-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of deep inelastic scattering from 3He and 3H, focusing in particular on the extraction of the free neutron structure function Fn2. Nuclear corrections are shown to cancel to within 1 2% for the isospin-weighted ratio of 3He to 3H structure functions, which leads to more than an order of magnitude improvement in the current uncertainty in the neutron to proton ratio Fn2/Fp2 at large x. Theoretical uncertainties originating from the nuclear wave function, including possible non-nucleonic components, are evaluated. Measurements of the 3He and 3H structure functions will, in addition, determine the magnitude of the EMC effect in all A⩽3 nuclei.

  19. Non-singlet structure functions: Combining the leading logarithms resummation at small-x with DGLAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ermolaev@mail.cern.ch; Greco, M. [Department of Physics and INFN, University Rome III, Rome (Italy); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2005-08-25

    The explicit expressions for the non-singlet DIS structure functions F{sub 1} and g{sub 1}, obtained at small-x by resumming the leading logarithmic contributions to all orders, are discussed and compared in detail with the DGLAP evolution for different values of x and Q{sup 2}. The role played by the DGLAP inputs for the initial parton densities on the small-x behavior of the non-singlet structure functions is discussed. It is shown that the singular factors included into the fits ensure the Regge asymptotics of the non-singlet structure functions and mimic the impact of the total resummation of the leading logarithms found explicitly in our approach. Explicit expressions are presented which implement the NLO DGLAP contributions with our small-x results.

  20. Neutron Structure Function and A=3 Mirror Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Bissey, F.; Gomez, J.; Katramatou, A. T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Petratos, G. G.; Thomas, A. W.

    2000-10-01

    We describe how to extract the free neutron structure function from measurements of deep-inelastic scattering from ^3He and ^3H nuclei. Nuclear corrections are shown to cancel to within 2% for the isospin-weighted ratio of ^3He to ^3H structure functions, independent of the nuclear wave function. Such measurements will in addition determine the magnitude of the EMC effect in all A <= 3 nuclei. We also describe a proposed experiment to perform these measurements at Jefferson Lab.

  1. Nucleon Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing; LI Ming-Fei

    2003-01-01

    Based on a simple nonrelativistic constituent quark model, the nucleon structure function F2 in theresonance region is estimated by taking the contributions from low-lying nucleon resonances into account. Calculatedresults are employed to study quark-hardon duality in the nucleon electron scattering process by comparing them to thescaling behavior from the data in deep inelastic scattering region.

  2. The exponent (,2) of the proton structure function 2(,2) at low

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Choudhury; P K Sahariah

    2003-03-01

    The exponent of the structure function 2 ∼ - is calculated using the solution of the DGLAP equation for gluon at low reported recently by the present authors. The quantity is calculated both as a function of at fixed 2 and as a function of 2 at fixed and compared with the most recent data from H1.

  3. New Structure Function Results at Low x and High $Q^{2}$ from HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z

    2000-01-01

    A precise proton structure function F_2 at low x is measured. The data is interpreted in the framework of QCD with an extraction of gluon density xg. The charm contribution to F_2 is determined in an extended kinematic range. Neutral and charged current cross-sections at high Q^2 are also measured and compared with the Standard Model predictions.

  4. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  5. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbum Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  6. BLAT-based comparative analysis for transposable elements: BLATCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbum; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Han, Kyudong

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  7. Revisiting Stochastic Variability of AGNs with Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies between reported structure function (SF) slopes and their overall flatness as compared to expectations from the damped random walk (DRW) model, generally well-describing the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN), has triggered us to study this problem in detail. We review common AGN variability observables and identify their most common problems. Equipped with this knowledge, we study ~9000 r-band AGN light curves from Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, using SFs described by stochastic processes with the power exponential covariance matrix of the signal. We model the "sub-ensemble" SFs in the redshift-absolute magnitude bins with the full SF equation (including the turnover and the noise part) and a single power-law (SPL; in the "red noise regime" after subtracting the noise term). The distribution of full-equation SF (SPL) slopes peaks at gamma=0.55+/-0.08 (0.52+/-0.06) and is consistent with DRW. There is a hint of a weak correlation of gamma with the luminosity and a lack of co...

  8. Structure-function investigations of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, M M; Fufina, T Yu; Vasilieva, L G; Shuvalov, V A

    2011-12-01

    During photosynthesis light energy is converted into energy of chemical bonds through a series of electron and proton transfer reactions. Over the first ultrafast steps of photosynthesis that take place in the reaction center (RC) the quantum efficiency of the light energy transduction is nearly 100%. Compared to the plant and cyanobacterial photosystems, bacterial RCs are well studied and have relatively simple structure. Therefore they represent a useful model system both for manipulating of the electron transfer parameters to study detailed mechanisms of its separate steps as well as to investigate the common principles of the photosynthetic RC structure, function, and evolution. This review is focused on the research papers devoted to chemical and genetic modifications of the RCs of purple bacteria in order to study principles and mechanisms of their functioning. Investigations of the last two decades show that the maximal rates of the electron transfer reactions in the RC depend on a number of parameters. Chemical structure of the cofactors, distances between them, their relative orientation, and interactions to each other are of great importance for this process. By means of genetic and spectral methods, it was demonstrated that RC protein is also an essential factor affecting the efficiency of the photochemical charge separation. Finally, some of conservative water molecules found in RC not only contribute to stability of the protein structure, but are directly involved in the functioning of the complex.

  9. Dermoscopy analysis of RGB-images based on comparative features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Neretin, Evgeny Y.; Kozlov, Sergey V.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for color and texture analysis for dermoscopic images of human skin based on Haar wavelets, Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Histogram Analysis. This approach is a modification of «7-point checklist» clinical method. Thus, that is an "absolute" diagnostic method because one is using only features extracted from tumor's ROI (Region of Interest), which can be selected manually and/or using a special algorithm. We propose additional features extracted from the same image for comparative analysis of tumor and healthy skin. We used Euclidean distance, Cosine similarity, and Tanimoto coefficient as comparison metrics between color and texture features extracted from tumor's and healthy skin's ROI separately. A classifier for separating melanoma images from other tumors has been built by SVM (Support Vector Machine) algorithm. Classification's errors with and without comparative features between skin and tumor have been analyzed. Significant increase of recognition quality with comparative features has been demonstrated. Moreover, we analyzed two modes (manual and automatic) for ROI selecting on tumor and healthy skin areas. We have reached 91% of sensitivity using comparative features in contrast with 77% of sensitivity using the only "absolute" method. The specificity was the invariable (94%) in both cases.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of eutherian interferon-γ-inducible GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premzl, Marko

    2012-11-01

    The interferon-γ-inducible GTPases, IFGGs, are intracellular proteins involved in immune response against pathogens. A comprehensive comparative genomic review and analysis of eutherian IFGGs was carried out using public genomic sequences. The 64 eutherian IFGG genes were examined in detail and annotated. The eutherian IFGG promoter types were first catalogued followed by a phylogenetic analysis of eutherian IFGGs, which described five major IFGG clusters. The patterns of differential gene expansions and protein regions that may regulate IFGG catalytic features suggested a new classification of eutherian IFGGs. This mini-review has also provided new tests of reliability of public genomic sequences as well as tests of protein molecular evolution.

  11. Structural, functional, and evolutionary analysis of moeZ, a gene encoding an enzyme required for the synthesis of the Pseudomonas metabolite, pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Ronald L

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid (pdtc is a small secreted metabolite that has a high affinity for transition metals, increases iron uptake efficiency by 20% in Pseudomonas stutzeri, has the ability to reduce both soluble and mineral forms of iron, and has antimicrobial activity towards several species of bacteria. Six GenBank sequences code for proteins similar in structure to MoeZ, a P. stutzeri protein necessary for the synthesis of pdtc. Results Analysis of sequences similar to P. stutzeri MoeZ revealed that it is a member of a superfamily consisting of related but structurally distinct proteins that are members of pathways involved in the transfer of sulfur-containing moieties to metabolites. Members of this family of enzymes are referred to here as MoeB, MoeBR, MoeZ, and MoeZdR. MoeB, the molybdopterin synthase activating enzyme in the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis pathway, is the most characterized protein from this family. Remarkably, lengths of greater than 73% nucleic acid homology ranging from 35 to 486 bp exist between Pseudomonas stutzeri moeZ and genomic sequences found in some Mycobacterium, Mesorhizobium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, and cyanobacteria species. Conclusions The phylogenetic relationship among moeZ sequences suggests that P. stutzeri may have acquired moeZ through lateral gene transfer from a donor more closely related to mycobacteria and cyanobacteria than to proteobacteria. The importance of this relationship lies in the fact that pdtc, the product of the P. stutzeri pathway that includes moeZ, has an impressive set of capabilities, some of which could make it a potent pathogenicity factor.

  12. Structure/Function Analysis of Recurrent Mutations in SETD2 Protein Reveals a Critical and Conserved Role for a SET Domain Residue in Maintaining Protein Stability and Histone H3 Lys-36 Trimethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Kathryn E; Fahey, Catherine C; Shinsky, Stephen A; Chiang, Yun-Chen J; DiFiore, Julia V; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Vo, Andy H; Shavit, Jordan A; Davis, Ian J; Strahl, Brian D; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2016-09-30

    The yeast Set2 histone methyltransferase is a critical enzyme that plays a number of key roles in gene transcription and DNA repair. Recently, the human homologue, SETD2, was found to be recurrently mutated in a significant percentage of renal cell carcinomas, raising the possibility that the activity of SETD2 is tumor-suppressive. Using budding yeast and human cell line model systems, we examined the functional significance of two evolutionarily conserved residues in SETD2 that are recurrently mutated in human cancers. Whereas one of these mutations (R2510H), located in the Set2 Rpb1 interaction domain, did not result in an observable defect in SETD2 enzymatic function, a second mutation in the catalytic domain of this enzyme (R1625C) resulted in a complete loss of histone H3 Lys-36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). This mutant showed unchanged thermal stability as compared with the wild type protein but diminished binding to the histone H3 tail. Surprisingly, mutation of the conserved residue in Set2 (R195C) similarly resulted in a complete loss of H3K36me3 but did not affect dimethylated histone H3 Lys-36 (H3K36me2) or functions associated with H3K36me2 in yeast. Collectively, these data imply a critical role for Arg-1625 in maintaining the protein interaction with H3 and specific H3K36me3 function of this enzyme, which is conserved from yeast to humans. They also may provide a refined biochemical explanation for how H3K36me3 loss leads to genomic instability and cancer.

  13. Comparative Genomics via Wavelet Analysis for Closely Related Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuzhou Song

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics has been a valuable method for extracting and extrapolating genome information among closely related bacteria. The efficiency of the traditional methods is extremely influenced by the software method used. To overcome the problem here, we propose using wavelet analysis to perform comparative genomics. First, global comparison using wavelet analysis gives the difference at a quantitative level. Then local comparison using keto-excess or purine-excess plots shows precise positions of inversions, translocations, and horizontally transferred DNA fragments. We firstly found that the level of energy spectra difference is related to the similarity of bacteria strains; it could be a quantitative index to describe the similarities of genomes. The strategy is described in detail by comparisons of closely related strains: S.typhi CT18, S.typhi Ty2, S.typhimurium LT2, H.pylori 26695, and H.pylori J99.

  14. Comparative Genomics via Wavelet Analysis for Closely Related Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiuzhou; Ware, Tony; Liu, Shu-Lin; Surette, M.

    2004-12-01

    Comparative genomics has been a valuable method for extracting and extrapolating genome information among closely related bacteria. The efficiency of the traditional methods is extremely influenced by the software method used. To overcome the problem here, we propose using wavelet analysis to perform comparative genomics. First, global comparison using wavelet analysis gives the difference at a quantitative level. Then local comparison using keto-excess or purine-excess plots shows precise positions of inversions, translocations, and horizontally transferred DNA fragments. We firstly found that the level of energy spectra difference is related to the similarity of bacteria strains; it could be a quantitative index to describe the similarities of genomes. The strategy is described in detail by comparisons of closely related strains: S.typhi CT18, S.typhi Ty2, S.typhimurium LT2, H.pylori 26695, and H.pylori J99.

  15. Mammalian comparative sequence analysis of the Agrp locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Kaelin

    Full Text Available Agouti-related protein encodes a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake. Agrp expression in the brain is restricted to neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is elevated by states of negative energy balance. The molecular mechanisms underlying Agrp regulation, however, remain poorly defined. Using a combination of transgenic and comparative sequence analysis, we have previously identified a 760 bp conserved region upstream of Agrp which contains STAT binding elements that participate in Agrp transcriptional regulation. In this study, we attempt to improve the specificity for detecting conserved elements in this region by comparing genomic sequences from 10 mammalian species. Our analysis reveals a symmetrical organization of conserved sequences upstream of Agrp, which cluster into two inverted repeat elements. Conserved sequences within these elements suggest a role for homeodomain proteins in the regulation of Agrp and provide additional targets for functional evaluation.

  16. A novel comparative molecule/pseudo receptor interaction analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; TONG Jianbo; TIAN Feifei; LI Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Comparative molecule/pseudo receptor interaction analysis (CoMPIA) is developed as a novel 3D-QSAR method by adding postulated pseudo receptor and GA-optimized probe into comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). CoMPIA is used to find the pseudo receptor mode by optimizing probe distributions and to establish the optimal model of high qualities and good interpretations. Correlative coefficient R2, cross-validated correlative coefficient Q2 and root mean square error RMSEP of the resulting model are 0.940, 0.868 and 0.502, respectively by applying CoMPIA to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 31 classical steroids.

  17. Strategic planning effectiveness comparative analysis of the Macedonian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Šuklev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is an important element in the organizational success and the key to effectiveness and overall competitiveness of the organizations. Strategic planning practice and effectiveness has been the subject of much academic debate in the Western context, but little empirical research and comparative analysis exists on this subject in emerging and developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between strategic planning and the organizational effectiveness with the examination of a wider list of strategic planning dimensions and different approaches and measures to assess the strategic planning effectiveness in the case of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as to conduct comparative analysis of the strategic planning effectiveness in different emerging and developing countries. After the initial processing of the total number of received questionnaires, 113 questionnaires proceeded to the next phase of processing, as companies were found to be strategic planners. Two regression models were performed, enclosed with necessary tests, as well as in order to achieve unidimensionality, factor analysis was performed for all stated items for each of the investigated variables. The empirical analysis conducted in Macedonian companies shows that strategic planning can generally contribute to organizational effectiveness. A significant correlation between different strategic planning dimensions and the strategic planning effectiveness was found in the relationship between the formality of strategic planning, the management participation in strategic planning and the employee participation in strategic planning. The comparative analysis conducted in this study with the purpose of comparing the case of Republic of Macedonia with the studies in the other emerging and developing counties, and indicating the probable reasons for potential differences in strategic planning effectiveness in different counties, refers to

  18. Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  19. Comparative visual analysis of 3D urban wind simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Salim, Mohamed; Grawe, David; Leitl, Bernd; Böttinger, Michael; Schlünzen, Heinke

    2016-04-01

    Climate simulations are conducted in large quantity for a variety of different applications. Many of these simulations focus on global developments and study the Earth's climate system using a coupled atmosphere ocean model. Other simulations are performed on much smaller regional scales, to study very small fine grained climatic effects. These microscale climate simulations pose similar, yet also different, challenges for the visualization and the analysis of the simulation data. Modern interactive visualization and data analysis techniques are very powerful tools to assist the researcher in answering and communicating complex research questions. This presentation discusses comparative visualization for several different wind simulations, which were created using the microscale climate model MITRAS. The simulations differ in wind direction and speed, but are all centered on the same simulation domain: An area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg that hosted the IGA/IBA exhibition in 2013. The experiments contain a scenario case to analyze the effects of single buildings, as well as examine the impact of the Coriolis force within the simulation. The scenario case is additionally compared with real measurements from a wind tunnel experiment to ascertain the accuracy of the simulation and the model itself. We also compare different approaches for tree modeling and evaluate the stability of the model. In this presentation, we describe not only our workflow to efficiently and effectively visualize microscale climate simulation data using common 3D visualization and data analysis techniques, but also discuss how to compare variations of a simulation and how to highlight the subtle differences in between them. For the visualizations we use a range of different 3D tools that feature techniques for statistical data analysis, data selection, as well as linking and brushing.

  20. Initial Implementation of a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  1. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  2. JED: a Java Essential Dynamics Program for comparative analysis of protein trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Charles C; Singam, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya; Jacobs, Donald J

    2017-05-25

    statistics methods to perform comparative studies of essential dynamics over multiple proteins. For each protein, Cartesian coordinates or internal distance pairs can be employed over the entire structure or user-selected parts to quantify similarity/differences in mobility and correlations in dynamics to develop insight into protein structure/function relationships.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Asad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret the results. Our findings show that there is no significant difference between celebrity and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchasing intentions, and advertising attributes. The limitations and recommendations of this research are also given.

  4. MUNICIPAL INDICATORS SYSTEM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Saccol Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators of sustainable development in the municipalities of Chapeco , Joaçaba , Port Union and Mafra, which developed the urban and territorial expansion of the West and North of the Santa Catarina region during the twentieth century . Thus, the objective of the analysis is to identify the similarities and differences of municipal sustainable development of each municipality , proposing alternative ways to improve these indexes, through the concepts Sachs (1997. The work is guided by a comparative analysis of data considering the indicators in 2012 and 2014 , through a survey of documentary approach . From this analysis , identified and demonstrated the points with disabilities, but at the same time essential to raise the indices of sustainability of municipalities in socio-cultural terms, economic, environmental and political

  5. Comparing methods for analysis of biomedical hyperspectral image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J.; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter F.; Annamdevula, Naga S.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, hyperspectral imaging technologies have been adapted to address the need for molecule-specific identification in the biomedical imaging field. Applications have ranged from single-cell microscopy to whole-animal in vivo imaging and from basic research to clinical systems. Enabling this growth has been the availability of faster, more effective hyperspectral filtering technologies and more sensitive detectors. Hence, the potential for growth of biomedical hyperspectral imaging is high, and many hyperspectral imaging options are already commercially available. However, despite the growth in hyperspectral technologies for biomedical imaging, little work has been done to aid users of hyperspectral imaging instruments in selecting appropriate analysis algorithms. Here, we present an approach for comparing the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms by combining experimental image data with a theoretical "what if" scenario. This approach allows us to quantify several key outcomes that characterize a hyperspectral imaging study: linearity of sensitivity, positive detection cut-off slope, dynamic range, and false positive events. We present results of using this approach for comparing the effectiveness of several common spectral analysis algorithms for detecting weak fluorescent protein emission in the midst of strong tissue autofluorescence. Results indicate that this approach should be applicable to a very wide range of applications, allowing a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the combined biology, hardware, and computational analysis for detecting a specific molecular signature.

  6. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.

  7. GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix David A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several problems exist with current methods used to align DNA sequences for comparative sequence analysis. Most dynamic programming algorithms assume that conserved sequence elements are collinear. This assumption appears valid when comparing orthologous protein coding sequences. Functional constraints on proteins provide strong selective pressure against sequence inversions, and minimize sequence duplications and feature shuffling. For non-coding sequences this collinearity assumption is often invalid. For example, enhancers contain clusters of transcription factor binding sites that change in number, orientation, and spacing during evolution yet the enhancer retains its activity. Dot plot analysis is often used to estimate non-coding sequence relatedness. Yet dot plots do not actually align sequences and thus cannot account well for base insertions or deletions. Moreover, they lack an adequate statistical framework for comparing sequence relatedness and are limited to pairwise comparisons. Lastly, dot plots and dynamic programming text outputs fail to provide an intuitive means for visualizing DNA alignments. Results To address some of these issues, we created a stand alone, platform independent, graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis (GATA http://gata.sourceforge.net/. GATA uses the NCBI-BLASTN program and extensive post-processing to identify all small sub-alignments above a low cut-off score. These are graphed as two shaded boxes, one for each sequence, connected by a line using the coordinate system of their parent sequence. Shading and colour are used to indicate score and orientation. A variety of options exist for querying, modifying and retrieving conserved sequence elements. Extensive gene annotation can be added to both sequences using a standardized General Feature Format (GFF file. Conclusions GATA uses the NCBI-BLASTN program in conjunction with post-processing to exhaustively align two DNA

  8. Canine Mammary Carcinomas: A Comparative Analysis of Altered Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk M. Lutful Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer represents the second most frequent neoplasm in humans and sexually intact female dogs after lung and skin cancers, respectively. Many similar features in human and dog cancers including, spontaneous development, clinical presentation, tumor heterogeneity, disease progression and response to conventional therapies have supported development of this comparative model as an alternative to mice. The highly conserved similarities between canine and human genomes are also key to this comparative analysis, especially when compared to the murine genome. Studies with canine mammary tumor (CMT models have shown a strong genetic correlation with their human counterparts, particularly in terms of altered expression profiles of cell cycle regulatory genes, tumor suppressor and oncogenes and also a large group of non-coding RNAs or microRNAs (miRNAs. Because CMTs are considered predictive intermediate models for human breast cancer, similarities in genetic alterations and cancer predisposition between humans and dogs have raised further interest. Many cancer-associated genetic defects critical to mammary tumor development and oncogenic determinants of metastasis have been reported and appear to be similar in both species. Comparative analysis of deregulated gene sets or cancer signaling pathways has shown that a significant proportion of orthologous genes are comparably up- or down-regulated in both human and dog breast tumors. Particularly, a group of cell cycle regulators called cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs acting as potent tumor suppressors are frequently defective in CMTs. Interestingly, comparative analysis of coding sequences has also shown that these genes are highly conserved in mammals in terms of their evolutionary divergence from a common ancestor. Moreover, co-deletion and/or homozygous loss of the INK4A/ARF/INK4B (CDKN2A/B locus, encoding three members of the CKI tumor suppressor gene families (p16/INK4A, p14ARF and p15

  9. Intercepts of the non-singlet structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2001-01-01

    Infrared evolution equations for small-$x$ behaviour of the non-singlet structure functions $f_1^{NS}$ and $g_1^{NS}$ are obtained and solved in the next-to-leading approximation, to all orders in $\\alpha_s$, and including running $\\alpha_s$ effects. The intercepts of these structure functions, i.e. the exponents of the power-like small-$x$ behaviour, are calculated. A detailed comparison with the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) and DGLAP is made. We explain why the LLA predictions for the small-$x$ dependence of the structure functions may be more reliable than the prediction for the $Q^2$ dependence in the range of $Q^2$ explored at HERA.

  10. Three Kinds of Velocity Structure Function in Turbulent Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; JIANG Nan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the local multi-scale eddy structures in turbulent flows, we elucidate the essential difference between the real turbulent field with a finite Reynolds number and the Kolmogorov fully developed random field. The motion of fluid particles in the real turbulent field is not fully random. There exist multi-scale structures due to the effect of viscosity. Actually the movements of fluid particles in the turbulent field are restricted by such eddy structures. Furthermore, concept of the locally averaged velocity structure function is put forward to describe the relative strain distortion of two adjacent turbulent eddy structures at a certain scale. The time sequence of the longitudinal velocity component at different vertical locations in turbulent boundary layer has been elaborately measured by the constant temperature anemometry of model IFA-300 in a wind tunnel. The experiment proves that the locally averaged velocity structure function is in agreement with the wavelet-coefficient structure function.

  11. Deuteron Spin Structure Functions at Small Bjorken-x

    CERN Document Server

    Edelmann, J; Weise, W

    1998-01-01

    We investigate polarized deuteron structure functions at small values of the Bjorken variable, x < 0.1. In this region contributions from the coherent interaction of diffractively excited hadronic states with both nucleons become important. A proper treatment of this process requires an extension of the Glauber-Gribov multiple scattering theory to include spin degrees of freedom. In the kinematic domain of current fixed target experiments we observe that shadowing effects in g_1^d are approximately a factor 2-3 larger than for the unpolarized structure function F_2^d. Furthermore the tensor structure function b_1 is found to be surprisingly large at x < 0.1 due to coherent double scattering contributions.

  12. Structure-function analysis of multidrug transporters in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Putman, M; Margolles, A; Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    1999-01-01

    The active extrusion of cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters is one of the major causes of failure of chemotherapeutic treatment of tumor cells and of infections by pathogenic microorganisms. A multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis, LmrA, is a member of the ATP-binding c

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of the v-Myc Oncoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    transcription activation domain (TAD) and a carboxy-terminal basic helix-loop-helix/ leucine zipper (bHLH/LZ) motif (Henriksson and Luscher , 1996). Work by...U. (1996). Active repression mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription repressors. Trends in Genetics 12: 229-234. Henriksson, M. and Luscher , B. (1996

  14. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  15. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  16. Systems design and comparative analysis of large antenna concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. B.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual designs are evaluated and comparative analyses conducted for several large antenna spacecraft for Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) communications missions. Structural configurations include trusses, hoop and column and radial rib. The study was conducted using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system. The current capabilities, development status, and near-term plans for the IDEAS system are reviewed. Overall capabilities are highlighted. IDEAS is an integrated system of computer-aided design and analysis software used to rapidly evaluate system concepts and technology needs for future advanced spacecraft such as large antennas, platforms, and space stations. The system was developed at Langley to meet a need for rapid, cost-effective, labor-saving approaches to the design and analysis of numerous missions and total spacecraft system options under consideration. IDEAS consists of about 40 technical modules efficient executive, data-base and file management software, and interactive graphics display capabilities.

  17. A comparative analysis of Media Lengua and Quichua vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of F1 and F2 vowel frequencies from Pijal Media Lengua (PML) and Imbabura Quichua. Mixed-effects models are used to test Spanish-derived high and low vowels against their Quichua-derived counterparts for statistical significance. Spanish-derived and Quichua-derived high vowels are also tested against Spanish-derived mid vowels. This analysis suggests that PML may be manipulating as many as eight vowels where Spanishderived high and low vowels coexist as near-mergers with their Quichua-derived counterparts, while high and mid vowels coexist with partial overlap. Quichua, traditionally viewed as a three-vowel system, shows similar results and may be manipulating as many as six vowels. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  19. Comparative analysis of minor histocompatibility antigens genotyping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vdovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of techniques could be employed to find mismatches in minor histocompatibility antigens between transplant recipients and their donors. In the current study we compared three genotyping methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR for four minor antigens. Three of the tested methods: allele-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR with TaqMan probes demonstrated 100% reliability when compared to Sanger sequencing for all of the studied polymorphisms. High resolution melting analysis was unsuitable for genotyping of one of the tested minor antigens (HA-1 as it has linked synonymous polymorphism. Obtained data could be used to select the strategy for large-scale clinical genotyping.

  20. Sequence and comparative analysis of Leuconostoc dairy bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars H; Neve, Horst; Hammer, Karin; Jacobsen, Susanne; Pedersen, Per D; Sørensen, Søren J; Heller, Knut J; Vogensen, Finn K

    2014-04-17

    Bacteriophages attacking Leuconostoc species may significantly influence the quality of the final product. There is however limited knowledge of this group of phages in the literature. We have determined the complete genome sequences of nine Leuconostoc bacteriophages virulent to either Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains. The phages have dsDNA genomes with sizes ranging from 25.7 to 28.4 kb. Comparative genomics analysis helped classify the 9 phages into two classes, which correlates with the host species. High percentage of similarity within the classes on both nucleotide and protein levels was observed. Genome comparison also revealed very high conservation of the overall genomic organization between the classes. The genes were organized in functional modules responsible for replication, packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, cell lysis and regulation and modification, respectively. No lysogeny modules were detected. To our knowledge this report provides the first comparative genomic work done on Leuconostoc dairy phages.

  1. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  2. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Topological Routing Protocols in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAVITA KHATKAR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc Network has drawn the attention of various researchers all around the world in the recent years. The reason can be attributed towards its capability in solving real world problems like traffic congestion. Although quite useful, the development of such systems is inherited with some challenges. The development of efficient communication protocols is one of the major problems which need to be addressed. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three such algorithms namely; AODV, DSDV and ZRP. The algorithms are implemented using Network Simulator and their performance is compared in terms of throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and End-to-End delay. The result shows that none of the algorithms performs best in terms of all parameters while AODV and ZRP’s performance are quite encouraging in terms of throughput and PDR.

  3. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  4. Revisiting Stochastic Variability of AGNs with Structure Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-08-01

    Discrepancies between reported structure function (SF) slopes and their overall flatness as compared to the expectations from the damped random walk (DRW) model, which generally well describes the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), have triggered us to study this problem in detail. We review common AGN variability observables and identify their most common problems. Equipped with this knowledge, we study ˜9000 r-band AGN light curves from Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, using SFs described by stochastic processes with the power exponential covariance matrix of the signal. We model the “subensemble” SFs in the redshift-absolute magnitude bins with the full SF equation (including the turnover and the noise part) and a single power law (SPL; in the “red noise regime” after subtracting the noise term). The distribution of full-equation SF (SPL) slopes peaks at γ =0.55+/- 0.08 (0.52 ± 0.06) and is consistent with the DRW model. There is a hint of a weak correlation of γ with the luminosity and a lack of correlation with the black hole mass. The typical decorrelation timescale in the optical is τ =0.97+/- 0.46 year. The SF amplitude at one year obtained from the SPL fitting is {{SF}}0=0.22+/- 0.06 mag and is overestimated because the SF is already at the turnover part, so the true value is {{SF}}0=0.20+/- 0.06 mag. The asymptotic variability is {{SF}}∞ =0.25+/- 0.06 mag. It is strongly anticorrelated with both the luminosity and the Eddington ratio and is correlated with the black hole mass. The reliability of these results is fortified with Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Uncertainties in Urban Surface Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper a comparison between three different surface runoff models, in the numerical urban drainage tool MOUSE, is conducted. Analysing parameter uncertainty, it is shown that the models are very sensitive with regards to the choice of hydrological parameters, when combined overflow...... analysis, further research in improved parameter assessment for surface runoff models is needed....... volumes are compared - especially when the models are uncalibrated. The occurrences of flooding and surcharge are highly dependent on both hydrological and hydrodynamic parameters. Thus, the conclusion of the paper is that if the use of model simulations is to be a reliable tool for drainage system...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Measured and Predicted Shrinkage Strain in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossakowski P. G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to concrete shrinkage. The basic information on the phenomenon is presented as well as the factors that determine the contraction are pointed out and the stages of the process are described. The guidance for estimating the shrinkage strain is given according to Eurocode standard PN-EN 1992-1-1:2008. The results of studies of the samples shrinkage strain of concrete C25/30 are presented with a comparative analysis of the results estimated by the guidelines of the standard according to PN-EN 1992-1- 1:2008

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Value Added Tax Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Anca Postole

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of indirect taxes is analysed in the study of evolution, especially the VAT for the economic activity of the company studied. During the reporting period, namely January 2009 – December 2011 the supporting documents were checked which records on VAT deductible and collected were based on, in compliance with legal norms and principles of financial accounting. Also the data processed were the basis for an analysis to compare the evolution of VAT. VAT shall be paid for the entire activity of the company.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN SOME EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Raluca Goldbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of organizational structures highlights similarities and differences between different factors influencing a company in its way of operation with the internal and/or external environment. The paper analyzes the organizational structures of some top companies from England, France and Romania that influence/determine the cultural organizational values and the norms elaborated and implemented, which, in time, become moral values and norms that acquire a social meaning, which means that they have been accepted by all the members of the organization.

  10. Quantitative and comparative analysis of hyperspectral data fusion performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 张晔; 李硕; 沈毅

    2002-01-01

    Hyperspectral data fusion technique is the key to hyperspectral data processing in recent years. Manyfusion methods have been proposed, but little research has been done to evaluate the performances of differentdata fusion methods. In order to meet the urgent need, quantitative correlation analysis (QCA) is proposed toanalyse and compare the performances of different fusion methods directly from data before and after fusion. Ex-periment results show that the new method is effective and the results of comparison are in agreement with theresults of application.

  11. INNOVATION IN SMES, A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN JAPAN AND SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    ALEGRE DEL BARRIO, SANDRA

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo denominado “Innovation in SMEs, a comparative analysis between Japan and Spain.” se estudia la innovación en las PYMEs del sector auxiliar de la automoción teniendo en cuenta uno los factores que ejercen una mayor presión a las empresas para mejorar su eficacia y efectividad, la innovación. Con ella se han conseguido diferentes puntos de vista y formas de actuar y son estas diferencias las que nos brindan la oportunidad de pensar más allá de los está...

  12. Comparative analysis of model assessment in community detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian cluster inference with a flexible generative model allows us to detect various types of structures. However, it has problems stemming from computational complexity and difficulties in model assessment. We consider the stochastic block model with restricted hyperparameter space, which is known to correspond to modularity maximization. We show that it not only reduces computational complexity, but is also beneficial for model assessment. Using various criteria, we conduct a comparative analysis of the model assessments, and analyze whether each criterion tends to overfit or underfit. We also show that the learning of hyperparameters leads to qualitative differences in Bethe free energy and cross-validation errors.

  13. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  14. Peace Negotiations in the Third World: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Benítez Manaut

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the negotiations and peace processes in the Third World are analized from a comparative viewpoint in order to focus in on the case of Centroamerica. Reference is made to the special features and common elements of those peace processes in otherregions of the Third World and they are compared to those which have taken place in Centroamerica. It is a retrospective and comparative analysis. For this reason, the author has decided to carry out a brief typology of those conflicts offered by Centroamerica: inNicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. Later, the author goes on to analyse the most relevant peace and negotiation processes involving the Third World including one or two from Latin America: the cases of Panama, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq, Colombia, southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Angola and Cambodia. Later, the author goes overthe peace process periods in Centroamerica and the temporary contradictions which are presented by internal conflict, regional conflict and geopolitical conflict. Finally, a comparative methodological exercise is carried out which allows to focus on modes of implementation of the peace processes.

  15. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eHalimaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In high-throughput analyses such as microarray, N. caerulescens has been compared to non-tolerant, non-accumulator plants like Arabidopsis thaliana or Thlaspi arvense rather than to the related hypertolerant or hyperaccumulator plants. An underutilized source is N. caerulescens populations with considerable variation in their capacity to accumulate and tolerate metals. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq is revealing interesting variation in their gene expression profiles. Combining physiological characteristics of N. caerulescens accessions with their RNA-Seq has a great potential to provide detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms, including entirely new gene products. In this review we will critically consider comparative transcriptome analyses carried out to explore metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance of N. caerulescens, and demonstrate the potential of RNA-Seq analysis as a tool in evolutionary genomics.

  17. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  18. Nuclear Structure Functions at Low-$x$ in a Holographic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Agozzino, L; Colangelo, P

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear effects in deep inelastic scattering at low$-x$ are phenomenologically described changing the typical dynamical and/or kinematical scales characterizing the free nucleon case. In a holographic approach, this rescaling is an analytical property of the computed structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$. This function is given by the sum of a conformal term and of a contribution due to quark confinement, depending on IR hard-wall parameter $z_0$ and on the mean square distances, related to a parameter $Q^\\prime$, among quarks and gluons in the target. The holographic structure function per nucleon in a nucleus $A$ is evaluated showing that a rescaling of the typical nucleon size, $z_0$ and $Q^\\prime$, due to nuclear binding, can be reabsorbed in a $Q^2$-rescaling scheme. The difference between neutron and proton structure functions and the effects of the longitudinal structure functions can also be taken into account. The obtained theoretical results favourably compare with the experimental data.

  19. Genome-wide comparative analysis of metacaspases in unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Song

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photoautotrophic prokaryotes with wide variations in genome size and ecological habitat. Metacaspases (MCAs are cysteine proteinases that have sequence homology to caspases and play essential roles in programmed cell death (PCD. MCAs have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants; however, knowledge about cyanobacterial metacaspases still remains obscure. With the availability of sequenced genomes of 33 cyanobacteria, we perform a comparative analysis of metacaspases and explore their distribution, domain structure and evolution. Results A total of 58 putative MCAs were identified, which are abundant in filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria and Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017 and absent in all Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus strains, except Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. The Cys-His dyad of caspase superfamily is conserved, while mutations (Tyr in place of His and Ser/Asn/Gln/Gly instead of Cys are also detected in some cyanobacteria. MCAs can be classified into two major families (α and β based on the additional domain structure. Ten types and a total of 276 additional domains were identified, most of which involves in signal transduction. Apoptotic related NACHT domain was also found in two cyanobacterial MCAs. Phylogenetic tree of MCA catalytic P20 domains coincides well with the domain structure and the phylogenies based on 16s rRNA. Conclusions The existence and quantity of MCA genes in unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria are a function of the genome size and ecological habitat. MCAs of family α and β seem to evolve separately and the recruitment of WD40 additional domain occurs later than the divergence of the two families. In this study, a general framework of sequence-structure-function connections for the metacaspases has been revealed, which may provide new targets for function investigation.

  20. Single and Multiple Hand Gesture Recognition Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Rautaray

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution of higher computing speed, efficient communication technologies, and advanced display techniques the legacy HCI techniques become obsolete and are no more helpful in accurate and fast flow of information in present day computing devices. Hence the need of user friendly human machine interfaces for real time interfaces for human computer interaction have to be designed and developed to make the man machine interaction more intuitive and user friendly. The vision based hand gesture recognition affords users with the ability to interact with computers in more natural and intuitive ways. These gesture recognition systems generally consist of three main modules like hand segmentation, hand tracking and gesture recognition from hand features, designed using different image processing techniques which are further integrated with different applications. An increase use of new interfaces based on hand gesture recognition designed to cope up with the computing devices for interaction. This paper is an effort to provide a comparative analysis between such real time vision based hand gesture recognition systems which are based on interaction using single and multiple hand gestures. Single hand gesture based recognition systems (SHGRS have fewer complexes to implement, with a constraint to the count of different gestures which is large enough with various permutations and combinations of gesture, which is possible with multiple hands in multiple hand gesture recognition systems (MHGRS. The thorough comparative analysis has been done on various other vital parameters for the recognition systems.

  1. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  2. Comparative Analysis of Results of Online and Offline Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Milorad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The logic that customer satisfaction is the starting point of marketing and business activities is based on the assumption that customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty, keeping in mind all of the positive effects that customer loyalty has on business success of an organization. Because of this, marketing and management theory and practice dedicate particular attention to the concepts of customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this paper we will use the surveys of customers of banking services not only to show the levels of their satisfaction and loyalty, but also to make a comparative analysis of data obtained through online and offline research. This approach was made possible because the research was carried out on a sample which was divided in two groups. All of the participants answered the questions from a unique questionnaire, however, one group took the survey via the Internet (online while data from the other group of participants was collected in the field by using printed questionnaires (offline. The findings of the comparative analysis of online and offline survey results are presented in the final part of the paper.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Patel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay. Stabilized RED (SRED is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM. We also included the comparative analysis of loss rate having different bandwidth for these algorithms.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  5. The Comparative Analysis of Aversive and Ordinary Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C. Marion, Jr.

    There is a vast amount of literature concerning the psychological and physiological effects of ordinary noise on the individual. However, few publications have addressed the analysis of aversive noise. This research analyzes three noises which produce the familiar goose flesh or chilling effect responsivity. These aversive sounds which are made by chalk squeaking on the chalkboard, fingernails on the chalkboard and rubbing styrofoam against a smooth surface are digitally compared to ordinary noise to show how these aversive sounds differ from sounds which are only annoying. This work, which uses Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is a combination with cross correlation analysis and other innovative methods to produce comparative data on noises, illustrates subtle differences between ordinary and aversive noise which may be useful for future work in acoustics or experimental psychology. The literature review shows disagreement among the numerous works on the effects of ordinary noise on human subjects. One explanation for this difference is the failure to adequately measure and define the dynamic nature of the noise used. The existing literature also establishes that a mixture of tones plus random noise is more annoying (but not aversive) than either the random noise or the tones alone. This investigation shows that one property of aversive noises is the combination of randomness plus tones which vary rapidly with time. This paper utilizes a new digital technique which improves the FFT analyzer resolution by a factor of 25. The resulting +/-2 Hz accuracy facilitated the presentation of frequency variation as a function of time data. Other computer generated graphical data includes the percent harmonic deviation as a function of time, the rate of change of fundamental frequency, and the rate of change in harmonic deviation. From these dynamic data, average values are calculated which show the aversive noise to be consistently greater in mean frequency deviation

  6. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  7. Texture analysis of multiple sclerosis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tong, Longzheng; Wang, Lei; Li, Ning

    2008-10-01

    The difficulty of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) stems from the subtle pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, texture analysis was performed on MR images of MS patients and normal controls and a combined set of texture features were explored in order to better discriminate tissues between MS lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal white matter (NWM). Features were extracted from gradient matrix, run-length (RL) matrix, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet analysis, and were selected based on greatest difference between different tissue types. The results of the combined set of texture features were compared with our previous results of GLCM-based features alone. The results of this study demonstrated that (1) with the combined set of texture features, classification was perfect (100%) between MS lesions and NAWM (or NWM), less successful (88.89%) among the three tissue types and worst (58.33%) between NAWM and NWM; (2) compared with GLCM-based features, the combined set of texture features were better at discriminating MS lesions and NWM, equally good at discriminating MS lesions and NAWM and at all three tissue types, but less effective in classification between NAWM and NWM. This study suggested that texture analysis with the combined set of texture features may be equally good or more advantageous than the commonly used GLCM-based features alone in discriminating MS lesions and NWM/NAWM and in supporting early diagnosis of MS.

  8. In silico comparative genomic analysis of GABAA receptor transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Christopher J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtypes of the GABAA receptor subunit exhibit diverse temporal and spatial expression patterns. In silico comparative analysis was used to predict transcriptional regulatory features in individual mammalian GABAA receptor subunit genes, and to identify potential transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of the GABAA receptor gene clusters. Results Previously unreported putative promoters were identified for the β2, γ1, γ3, ε, θ and π subunit genes. Putative core elements and proximal transcriptional factors were identified within these predicted promoters, and within the experimentally determined promoters of other subunit genes. Conserved intergenic regions of sequence in the mammalian GABAA receptor gene cluster comprising the α1, β2, γ2 and α6 subunits were identified as potential long range transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of these genes. A region of predicted DNase I hypersensitive sites within the cluster may contain transcriptional regulatory features coordinating gene expression. A novel model is proposed for the coordinate control of the gene cluster and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunits, based upon the selective action of putative Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions (S/MARs. Conclusion The putative regulatory features identified by genomic analysis of GABAA receptor genes were substantiated by cross-species comparative analysis and now require experimental verification. The proposed model for the coordinate regulation of genes in the cluster accounts for the head-to-head orientation and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunit genes, and for the disruption of transcription caused by insertion of a neomycin gene in the close vicinity of the α6 gene, which is proximal to a putative critical S/MAR.

  9. Comparability of mixed IC₅₀ data - a statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Kramer, Christian; Vulpetti, Anna; Gedeck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry manually and it is very tempting to mix all available IC50 values from public database even if assay information is not reported. As previously reported for Ki database analysis, we first analyzed the types of errors, the redundancy and the variability that can be found in ChEMBL IC50 database. For assessing the variability of IC50 data independently measured in two different labs at least ten IC50 data for identical protein-ligand systems against the same target were searched in ChEMBL. As a not sufficient number of cases of this type are available, the variability of IC50 data was assessed by comparing all pairs of independent IC50 measurements on identical protein-ligand systems. The standard deviation of IC50 data is only 25% larger than the standard deviation of Ki data, suggesting that mixing IC50 data from different assays, even not knowing assay conditions details, only adds a moderate amount of noise to the overall data. The standard deviation of public ChEMBL IC50 data, as expected, resulted greater than the standard deviation of in-house intra-laboratory/inter-day IC50 data. Augmenting mixed public IC50 data by public Ki data does not deteriorate the quality of the mixed IC50 data, if the Ki is corrected by an offset. For a broad dataset such as ChEMBL database a Ki- IC50 conversion factor of 2 was found to be the most reasonable.

  10. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Y.; Bardet, L.; Duluc, C.-M.; Rebour, V.

    2014-08-01

    In France, nuclear facilities were designed around very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, some extreme climatic events have given rise to exceptional observed surges (outliers) much larger than other observations, and have clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches to extreme value analysis, including the annual maxima (AM), the peaks-over-threshold (POT) and the r-largest order statistics (r-LOS). These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameter stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on (i) the uncertainty degrees, (ii) the adequacy criteria and tests, and (iii) the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distribution parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500-year return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fit at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativeness of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance, not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  11. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  12. Twist decomposition of Drell-Yan structure functions: phenomenological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzemiński, Dawid; Motyka, Leszek; Sadzikowski, Mariusz; Stebel, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The forward Drell-Yan process in pp scattering at the LHC at √{S} = 14 TeV is considered. We analyze the Drell-Yan structure functions assuming the dominance of a Compton-like emission of a virtual photon from a fast quark scattering off the small x gluons. The color dipole framework is applied to perform quantitatively the twist decomposition of all the Drell-Yan structure functions. Two models of the color dipole scattering are applied: the Golec-Biernat-Wüsthoff model and the dipole cross section obtained from the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov evolution equation. The two models have essentially different higher twist content and the gluon transverse momentum distribution and lead to different significant effects beyond the collinear leading twist description. It is found that the gluon transverse momentum effects are significant in the Drell-Yan structure functions for all Drell-Yan pair masses M, and the higher twist effects become important for M ≲ 10GeV. It is found that the structure function W TT related to the A 2 angular coefficient and the Lam-Tung observable A 0 - A 2 are particularly sensitive to the gluon k T effects and to the higher twist effects. A procedure is suggested how to disentangle the higher twist effects from the gluon transverse momentum effects.

  13. The Polarized Structure Function $g_{2} A Lattice Study Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Göckeler, M; Kürzinger, W; Oelrich, H; Rakow, P; Schierholz, G

    1999-01-01

    A recent lattice calculation of the spin-dependent structure function g_2 is revisited. It has been recognized that the twist-three operator, which gives rise to d_2, mixes non-perturbatively with operators of lower dimensions under renormalization. This changes the results substantially.

  14. Glucoamylase: structure/function relationships, and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, J; Sigurskjold, B W; Christensen, U;

    2000-01-01

    fundamental structure/function relationships in the binding and catalytic mechanisms. In parallel, issues of relevance for application have been pursued using protein engineering to improve the industrial properties. The present review focuses on recent findings on the catalytic site, mechanism of action...

  15. Two-level convolution formula for nuclear structure function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Boqiang

    1990-05-01

    A two-level convolution formula for the nuclear structure function is derived in considering the nucleus as a composite system of baryon-mesons which are also composite systems of quark-gluons again. The results show that the European Muon Colaboration effect can not be explained by the nuclear effects as nucleon Fermi motion and nuclear binding contributions.

  16. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  17. Regarding Chilcott's "Structural Functionalism as a Heuristic Device" Heuristically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Richard K.

    1998-01-01

    The heuristic value of Chilcott's essay lies less in its support for structural functionalism and more in its concern to reexamine theory in the work of earlier educational anthropologists for what earlier theories and practices can add to current research. (SLD)

  18. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik; Scott W. Ducharme; Avelino C. Amado; Joseph Hamill

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new states, and (3) are governed by short-and long-term (fractal) correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent) can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  19. White matter degeneration in schizophrenia: a comparative diffusion tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Kim, Jinsuh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

    2010-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling mental disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed on schizophrenia have demonstrated white matter degeneration either due to loss of myelination or deterioration of fiber tracts although the areas where the changes occur are variable across studies. Most of the population based studies analyze the changes in schizophrenia using scalar indices computed from the diffusion tensor such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative anisotropy (RA). The scalar measures may not capture the complete information from the diffusion tensor. In this paper we have applied the RADTI method on a group of 9 controls and 9 patients with schizophrenia. The RADTI method converts the tensors to log-Euclidean space where a linear regression model is applied and hypothesis testing is performed between the control and patient groups. Results show that there is a significant difference in the anisotropy between patients and controls especially in the parts of forceps minor, superior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule and genu of corpus callosum. To check if the tensor analysis gives a better idea of the changes in anisotropy, we compared the results with voxelwise FA analysis as well as voxelwise geodesic anisotropy (GA) analysis.

  20. Multivariate Comparative Analysis of Stock Exchanges: The European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralun-Bereźnicka, Julia

    The aim of the research is to perform a multivariate comparative analysis of 20 European stock exchanges in order to identify the main similarities between the objects. Due to the convergence process of capital markets in Europe the similarities between stock exchanges could be expected to increase over time. The research is meant to show whether and how these similarities change. Consequently, the distances between clusters of similar stock exchanges should become less significant, which the analysis also aims at verifying. The basis of comparison is a set of 48 monthly variables from the period January, 2003 to December, 2006. The variables are classified into three categories: size of the market, equity trading and bonds. The paper aims at identifying the clusters of alike stock exchanges and at finding the characteristic features of each of the distinguished groups. The obtained categorization to some extent corresponds with the division of the European Union into “new” and “old” member countries. Clustering method, performed for each quarter separately, also reveals that the classification is fairly stable in time. The factor analysis, which was carried out to reduce the number of variables, reveals three major factors behind the data, which are related with the earlier mentioned categories of variables.

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

  2. Rice fortification: a comparative analysis in mandated settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Carmen; Milani, Peiman; Schondebare, Jill A; Matthias, Dipika; Guyondet, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Legal mandates can play an important role in the success of rice fortification programs that involve the private sector. However, merely enacting mandatory legislation does not guarantee success; it requires a coordinated, multidimensional cross-sector effort that addresses stewardship, develops an appropriate rice fortification technology, enables sustainable production and distribution channels through a range of private-sector players, ensures quality, generates consumer demand, and monitors progress. Furthermore, economic sustainability must be built into the supply chain and distribution network to enable the program to outlast government administrations and/or time-limited funding. Hence, mandates can serve as valuable long-term enablers of cross-sector mobilization and collaboration and as catalysts of civil society engagement in and ownership of fortification programs. This paper compares the rice fortification experiences of Costa Rica and the Philippines--two countries with mandates, yet distinctly different industry landscapes. Costa Rica has achieved national success through strong government stewardship and active market development--key elements of success regardless of industry structure. With a comparatively more diffuse rice industry structure, the Philippines has also had success in limited geographies where key stakeholders have played an active role in market development. A comparative analysis provides lessons that may be relevant to other rice fortification programs.

  3. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  4. Extraction of Structure Function and Gluon Distribution Function at Low-x from Cross Section Derivative by Regge Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.R. Boroun

    2005-01-01

    An approximation method based on Regge behavior is presented. This new method relates the reduced cross section derivative and the structure function Regge behavior at Iow x. With the use of this approximation method,the C and λ parameters are calculated from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low-x. Also, we calculate the structure functions F2(x, Q2) even for low-x values, which have not been investigated. To test the validity of calculated structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the Leading order approximation based on Regge behaviour of structure function and compare to the NLO QCD fit to H1 data and NLO parton distribution function.

  5. An example of qualitative comparative analysis in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Frank; Wiechula, Richard

    2013-07-01

    To describe an example of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in a study about the role of clinical placement, nursing education and patient outcomes. Clinical placement is often considered an essential aspect of nursing education and an invaluable way to prepare students for the reality of nursing. However, many questions about the role of clinical placement remain unanswered, such as duration, style and learning outcomes. QCA is a novel approach to data analysis, which has been used for some time in social science research, and may be useful in tackling such questions. Participants (n= 16) involved in a case study using questionnaire, in-depth interview and document analysis. Few examples of QCA exist in nursing-related research. Examination of approaches to social sciences and educational research, and the conditions that influence nursing education and clinical placement were conducted via a number of online database searches. The paper presents an example of how QCA was used to consider whether there is any causal relationship between certain features of clinical placement, such as duration, level of preparation, level of benefit, and the capacity of recently graduated registered nurses to provide a range of nursing interventions for pneumonia, falls and pressure-area care. Effective and contemporary curriculum design requires examination of the components of clinical placement that influence graduates and their learning, particularly important at a time when access to the clinical placement setting is becoming increasingly difficult. This paper should stimulate nurse researchers to consider the potential for QCA and case study in addressing many of the complex questions that lend themselves to research designs with small numbers of participants. This paper will be of interest to nurse researchers looking for innovative approaches to data analysis and educators responsible for curriculum design and the delivery of clinical placement experience. A greater

  6. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomic Analysis of Mycobacterium Kansasii

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahid, Yara

    2014-04-01

    The group of Mycobacteria is one of the most intensively studied bacterial taxa, as they cause the two historical and worldwide known diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Mycobacteria not identified as tuberculosis or leprosy complex, have been referred to by ‘environmental mycobacteria’ or ‘Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is one of the most frequent NTM pathogens, as it causes pulmonary disease in immuno-competent patients and pulmonary, and disseminated disease in patients with various immuno-deficiencies. There have been five documented subtypes of this bacterium, by different molecular typing methods, showing that type I causes tuberculosis-like disease in healthy individuals, and type II in immune-compromised individuals. The remaining types are said to be environmental, thereby, not causing any diseases. The aim of this project was to conduct a comparative genomic study of M. kansasii types I-V and investigating the gene expression level of those types. From various comparative genomics analysis, provided genomics evidence on why M. kansasii type I is considered pathogenic, by focusing on three key elements that are involved in virulence of Mycobacteria: ESX secretion system, Phospholipase c (plcb) and Mammalian cell entry (Mce) operons. The results showed the lack of the espA operon in types II-V, which renders the ESX- 1 operon dysfunctional, as espA is one of the key factors that control this secretion system. However, gene expression analysis showed this operon to be deleted in types II, III and IV. Furthermore, plcB was found to be truncated in types III and IV. Analysis of Mce operons (1-4) show that mce-1 operon is duplicated, mce-2 is absent and mce-3 and mce-4 is present in one copy in M. kansasii types I-V. Gene expression profiles of type I-IV, showed that the secreted proteins of ESX-1 were slightly upregulated in types II-IV when compared to type I and the secreted forms of ESX-5 were highly down

  7. Comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Anireddy SN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinesins, a superfamily of molecular motors, use microtubules as tracks and transport diverse cellular cargoes. All kinesins contain a highly conserved ~350 amino acid motor domain. Previous analysis of the completed genome sequence of one flowering plant (Arabidopsis has resulted in identification of 61 kinesins. The recent completion of genome sequencing of several photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes that belong to divergent lineages offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in plant and non-plant systems and infer their evolutionary relationships. Results We used the kinesin motor domain to identify kinesins in the completed genome sequences of 19 species, including 13 newly sequenced genomes. Among the newly analyzed genomes, six represent photosynthetic eukaryotes. A total of 529 kinesins was used to perform comprehensive analysis of kinesins and to construct gene trees using the Bayesian and parsimony approaches. The previously recognized 14 families of kinesins are resolved as distinct lineages in our inferred gene tree. At least three of the 14 kinesin families are not represented in flowering plants. Chlamydomonas, a green alga that is part of the lineage that includes land plants, has at least nine of the 14 known kinesin families. Seven of ten families present in flowering plants are represented in Chlamydomonas, indicating that these families were retained in both the flowering-plant and green algae lineages. Conclusion The increase in the number of kinesins in flowering plants is due to vast expansion of the Kinesin-14 and Kinesin-7 families. The Kinesin-14 family, which typically contains a C-terminal motor, has many plant kinesins that have the motor domain at the N terminus, in the middle, or the C terminus. Several domains in kinesins are present exclusively either in plant or animal lineages. Addition of novel domains to kinesins in lineage

  8. The Spin Structure Function of the Proton from SLAC Experiment E155

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, P

    2004-02-17

    Experiment E155 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measured the longitudinal and transverse deep inelastic structure functions of the proton and deuteron using a polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam and solid polarized targets of ammonia ({sup 15}NH{sub 3}) for proton measurements and lithium deuteride ({sup 6}Li{sup 2}H) for deuteron measurements. Three electromagnetic spectrometers at angles of 2.75{sup o}, 5.5{sup o}, and 10.5{sup o} measured the scattered electrons. This work presents an analysis of the longitudinal structure function of the proton, g{sub 1}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}). Included is a re-analysis of the proton target polarization data that for the first time corrects a problem encountered which altered those measurements.

  9. Pion structure function from leading neutron electroproduction and SU(2) flavor asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenney, Joshua R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sato Gonzalez, Nobuo; Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ji, Chueng-Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We examine the efficacy of pion exchange models to simultaneously describe leading neutron electroproduction at HERA and the $\\bar{d}-\\bar{u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton. A detailed $\\chi^2$ analysis of the ZEUS and H1 cross sections, when combined with constraints on the pion flux from Drell-Yan data, allows regions of applicability of one-pion exchange to be delineated. The analysis disfavors several models of the pion flux used in the literature, and yields an improved extraction of the pion structure function and its uncertainties at parton momentum fractions in the pion of $4 \\times 10^{-4} \\lesssim x_\\pi \\lesssim 0.05$ at a scale of $Q^2$=10 GeV$^2$. Based on the fit results, we provide estimates for leading proton structure functions in upcoming tagged deep-inelastic scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab on the deuteron with forward protons.

  10. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  11. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION DYNAMICS IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Voronin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s rise to prominence in the international community following the end of the Cold War, the growth in economic power and population numbers project that China will become the leading world power within several decades, regardless of the course its government takes. The article aimes to contribute to answering the question whether this rise will be peaceful through a comparative analysis of resolved and unresolved territorial disputes between China and groups of neighbouring states between 1986 and 2013. While previous studies have focused rather exclusively on Chinese behaviour, this text will examine both sides of the dispute and the behavior of the parties in light of regional dynamics. 

  12. Comparative dynamic analysis of the full Grossman model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, W

    1998-08-01

    The paper applies the method of comparative dynamic analysis to the full Grossman model. For a particular class of solutions, it derives the equations implicitly defining the complete trajectories of the endogenous variables. Relying on the concept of Frisch decision functions, the impact of any parametric change on an endogenous variable can be decomposed into a direct and an indirect effect. The focus of the paper is on marginal changes in the rate of health capital depreciation. It also analyses the impact of either initial financial wealth or the initial stock of health capital. While the direction of most effects remains ambiguous in the full model, the assumption of a zero consumption benefit of health is sufficient to obtain a definite for any direct or indirect effect.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis from DNA by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Aboura, A; Lapierre, J M; Viguié, F

    2000-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in situ hybridization technique which allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. In CGH analysis, two differentially labelled genomic DNA (study and reference) are co-hybridized to normal metaphase spreads. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Since its development, CGH has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. CGH may also have a role in clinical cytogenetics for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities.

  14. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea STROE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Visco-elastic Models with Variable Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Nastac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical comparative study for computational behaviour analysis of vibration isolation elements based on viscous and elastic models with variable parameters. The changing of elastic and viscous parameters can be produced by natural timed evolution demo-tion or by heating developed into the elements during their working cycle. It was supposed both linear and non-linear numerical viscous and elastic models, and their combinations. The results show the impor-tance of numerical model tuning with the real behaviour, as such the characteristics linearity, and the essential parameters for damping and rigidity. Multiple comparisons between linear and non-linear simulation cases dignify the basis of numerical model optimization regarding mathematical complexity vs. results reliability.

  18. A comparative analysis between fuzzy topsis and simplified fuzzy topsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sharifah Aniza Sayed; Mohamad, Daud

    2017-08-01

    Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making plays an important role in solving problems in decision making under fuzzy environment. Among the popular methods used is the fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) where the solution is based on the shortest distance from its positive ideal solution and the farthest distance from its negative ideal solution. The fuzzy TOPSIS method was first introduced by Chen (2000). At present, there are several variants of fuzzy TOPSIS methods and each of them claimed to have its own advantages. In this paper, a comparative analysis is made between the classical fuzzy TOPSIS method proposed by Chen in 2000 and the simplified fuzzy TOPSIS proposed by Sodhi in 2012. The purpose of this study is to show the similarities and the differences between these two methods and also elaborate on their strengths and limitations as well. A comparison is also made by providing numerical examples of both methods.

  19. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks -- a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. U...

  20. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

    2012-01-01

    In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Systems for Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati R. Chaudhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world there is exponential increase in the use of air conditioning devices. The enhancement in utilization of such devices makes it essential for them to work with their full capability and efficiency. The fuzzy inference systems are best suited for the applications requiring easy interpretation, human reasoning, accurate decision making and control. The fuzzy inference systems resemble human decision making and generate precise solutions from approximate information. A comprehensive review of fuzzy inference systems with weighted average and defuzzification is covered in this paper. The objective of the paper is to provide the comparative analysis of fuzzy inference systems. This paper is a quick reference for the researchers in studying the characteristics of fuzzy inference system in air conditioner.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Splice Site Regions by Information Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Shashi Rekha; Chanchal K. Mitra

    2006-01-01

    We have applied concepts from information theory for a comparative analysis of donor (gt) and acceptor (ag) splice site regions in the genes of five different organisms by calculating their mutual information content (relative entropy) over a selected block of nucleotides. A similar pattern that the information content decreases as the block size increases was observed for both regions in all the organisms studied. This result suggests that the information required for splicing might be contained in the consensus of ~6-8 nt at both regions. We assume from our study that even though the nucleotides are showing some degrees of conservation in the flanking regions of the splice sites, certain level of variability is still tolerated,which leads the splicing process to occur normally even if the extent of base pairing is not fully satisfied. We also suggest that this variability can be compensated by recognizing different splice sites with different spliceosomal factors.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF JET VORTEX TYPE SUPERCHAGES

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    A. Rogovyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of mathematical modeling there was carried out a comparative analysis of characteristics of jet vortex type superchargers. Dependences of the energy performance of vortex ejector on the geometry parameters and the largest values in terms of efficiency as well as the coefficient of ejection are analyzed. There were built combined characteristics of vortex chamber pumps and vortex ejectors. Vortex chamber pump has advantage pressure in an exit channel over the vortex ejector, consequently there is a more effective power transmission from a working medium, besides the withdrawal of pumping medium in a tangential channel allows to avoid energy losses owing to rotation of a stream in an exit channel.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad Hoc Network

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    Bipul Syam Purkayastha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile ad hoc networks the major role is played by the routing protocols in order to route the data from one mobile node to another mobile node. But in such mobile networks, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of security attacks such as blackhole node attacks. The routing protocols of MANET are unprotected and hence resulted into the network with the malicious mobile nodes in the network. These malicious nodes in the network are basically acts as attacks in the network. In this paper, we modify the existing DSR protocol with the functionality of attacks detection without affecting overall performance of the network. Also, we are considering the various attacks on mobile ad hoc network called blackhole attack, flooding attack and show the comparative analysis of these attacks using network simulator ns-2.

  6. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Hvam, Michael L; Primdahl-Bengtson, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete...... ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. METHODS: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder...... of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration...

  7. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  8. Comparative Traffic Performance Analysis of Urban Transportation Network Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, Behnam; Mojarradi, Morteza; Derrible, Sybil

    2015-01-01

    The network structure of an urban transportation system has a significant impact on its traffic performance. This study uses network indicators along with several traffic performance measures including speed, trip length, travel time, and traffic volume, to compare a selection of seven transportation networks with a variety of structures and under different travel demand conditions. The selected network structures are: modified linear, branch, grid, 3-directional grid, 1-ring web, 2-ring web, and radial. For the analysis, a base origin-destination matrix is chosen, to which different growth factors are applied in order to simulate various travel demand conditions. Results show that overall the 2-ring web network offers the most efficient traffic performance, followed by the grid and the 1-ring networks. A policy application of this study is that the branch, 3-directional grid, and radial networks are mostly suited for small cities with uncongested traffic conditions. In contrast, the 2-ring web, grid, and 1-r...

  9. A comparative analysis of academic dissertation management systems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Min; JIN; Yuling; WANG; Zhengjun; DAI; Yumei; WANG; Ruiyun

    2010-01-01

    The paper is to do a comparative evaluation on the four major digital theses and dissertations management systems used in the mainland China,which are TRS,TPI,TASi and IDL-ETD.The evaluation analysis is primarily based on the systematic tests on these systems conducted by DUT(Dalian University of Technology)Library.Special focuses are on the distinctive features of each system such as their performance in terms of stability,reliability,openness,capacity of backdating,copyright protection,service monitoring,document conversion and release automation,log management,statistical tabulations,vendor’s technical support and so on.In addition,authors provide a statistics on the choice of academic dissertation system of most 985a)colleges and universities in China.

  10. Comparative analysis of the biochemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Granjeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil during the recent decades has contributed to the installation of several new undergraduate and graduate study programs, as is the case of the undergraduate biochemistry programs at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The new biochemical professionals are being prepared to work mainly in Industries, research Institutes, government agencies and Universities in all fields that involve Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the courses in Biochemistry in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative analysis of the course units of the UFV, UFSJ and UEM programs, centered on the curricula contents and organization and on the profiles of the students in terms of parameters such as the number of admissions and the graduation completion rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The UFV and UEM programs present a very similar distribution of workload over the biological, exact sciences, humanities, biochemical specialties and technological applications. The UFSJ program presents higher workloads in the areas of biological sciences and technological applications. No significant differences in the distribution of the workloads of mandatory and optional disciplines, complementary activities and supervised activities were detected. Over the past five years there was a decrease in the number of students that abandoned the programs, despite the increased retention time in the three courses. Most graduated students at both UFV and UFSJ continue their academic career toward the Master or Doctor degrees. CONCLUSION: Little difference between the study programs analyzed. This is somewhat surprising if one considers the fact that individual conception of each program was based on different local conditions and needs, which indeed justify small differences. The similarity of the programs, on the other hand, reflects the universality of the biochemical sciences and their broad

  11. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

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    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  12. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In France, nuclear facilities were designed to very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, exceptional climatic events have given rise to surges much larger than observations (outliers and had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches including the Annual Maxima (AM, the Peaks-Over Threshold (POT and the r-Largest Order Statistics (r-LOS. These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All the data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameters stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on: (i the uncertainty degrees, (ii the adequacy criteria and tests and (iii the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distributions parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500 yr return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fitting at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativity of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  13. Perturbative power Q^2-corrections to the structure function g(1)

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2006-01-01

    We show that regulating infrared divergencies generates power (\\sim 1/(Q^2)^k) corrections to the spin structure function g_1 at small x. We present the explicit series of such terms as well as the formulae for their resummation. These contributions are not included in the standard analysis of the experimental data. We argue that accounting for such terms can sizably change the impact of the other power corrections conventionally attributed to the higher twists.

  14. Small x nonlinear evolution with impact parameter and the structure function data

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution at small values of Bjorken x is evaluated numerically using the dipole framework with impact parameter dependence. Confinement effects are modeled by including masses into the evolution. Sensitivity of the predictions due to different prescriptions of the cuts on large dipole sizes is investigated. Running coupling effects are taken into account in this analysis. Finally, a comparison with the inclusive data from HERA on the structure functions F2 and FL is performed.

  15. A comparative analysis of Chikungunya and Zika transmission

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    Julien Riou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global dissemination of Chikungunya and Zika has fostered public health concern worldwide. To better understand the drivers of transmission of these two arboviral diseases, we propose a joint analysis of Chikungunya and Zika epidemics in the same territories, taking into account the common epidemiological features of the epidemics: transmitted by the same vector, in the same environments, and observed by the same surveillance systems. We analyse eighteen outbreaks in French Polynesia and the French West Indies using a hierarchical time-dependent SIR model accounting for the effect of virus, location and weather on transmission, and based on a disease specific serial interval. We show that Chikungunya and Zika have similar transmission potential in the same territories (transmissibility ratio between Zika and Chikungunya of 1.04 [95% credible interval: 0.97; 1.13], but that detection and reporting rates were different (around 19% for Zika and 40% for Chikungunya. Temperature variations between 22 °C and 29 °C did not alter transmission, but increased precipitation showed a dual effect, first reducing transmission after a two-week delay, then increasing it around five weeks later. The present study provides valuable information for risk assessment and introduces a modelling framework for the comparative analysis of arboviral infections that can be extended to other viruses and territories.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF RICE VARIETY BY GROUPS

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    Bruyako V. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High growth-rate of plantlet is the integral index of intensity of physiological processes at rice and other cultures. 20 typical plantlets from each of two variants were studded (in the distilled water in thermostat at a temperature 29° C by: length of embryonic root and coleoptile. Comparative analysis of trait characterizing the growth rates of rice varieties showed reliable advantage of Russian ones above the Italian and Chinese. Local varieties, regionalized until the year 2000, exceed new ones on this trait. Highest growth rates were characterized by medium grain samples. The white grain and red grain varieties are excelled other groups on the height of plantlet. Analysis rates of height of plantlets in the distinguished groups showed the necessity of prosecution of improvement of the above enumerated signs at the varieties of late term of ripening, long grain, with Waxy gene, colored grain. We recommend to sow this type of varieties on fields with good leveling, because of low speed of growth

  17. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  19. Comparative sequence-structure analysis of Aves insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mirazul; Aktaruzzaman, M; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Normal blood glucose level depends on the availability of insulin and its ability to bind insulin receptor (IR) that regulates the downstream signaling pathway. Insulin sequence and blood glucose level usually vary among animals due to species specificity. The study of genetic variation of insulin, blood glucose level and diabetics symptoms development in Aves is interesting because of its optimal high blood glucose level than mammals. Therefore, it is of interest to study its evolutionary relationship with other mammals using sequence data. Hence, we compiled 32 Aves insulin from GenBank to compare its sequence-structure features with phylogeny for evolutionary inference. The analysis shows long conserved motifs (about 14 residues) for functional inference. These sequences show high leucine content (20%) with high instability index (>40). Amino acid position 11, 14, 16 and 20 are variable that may have contribution to binding to IR. We identified functionally critical variable residues in the dataset for possible genetic implication. Structural models of these sequences were developed for surface analysis towards functional representation. These data find application in the understanding of insulin function across species.

  20. The contribution of off-shell gluons to the longitudinal structure function F{sub L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotikov, A.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-03-01

    We present the results for the structure function F{sub L} for a gluon target having a non-zero transverse momentum square at order {alpha}{sub s}. The results of a double convolution (with respect to the Bjorken variable x and the transverse momentum) of the perturbative part and the unintegrated gluon densities are compared with recent experimental data for F{sub L} at low x values and with the predictions of other approaches. (orig.)

  1. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese and Shona Vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mushangwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative analysis between Chinese and Shona vowel system. The research is biased towards helping Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona however it is expected to benefit other researchers interested in comparative researches. The main focus of this research is on the major differences that exist between these two languages, with an aim to predict and combat the possible pronunciation errors that may result from native language transfer. The research findings show that Chinese language’s vowel system is more complex than the Shona vowel system. It is therefore assumed that though Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona language may find it challenging to acquire the Chinese vowel system, however if students are advised in advanced the differences between the Chinese and Shona vowels represented by same letters in the writing systems of these two languages, students are likely to have less pronunciation errors in Chinese since they will not borrow the Shona pronunciation strategies.

  3. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  4. Immigration and Muslim Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis of European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T. Duncan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Immigration policies serve a number of functions for states. Governments may use policies as instruments of foreign policy, economic growth, population growth, and/ or national security. In this post-September 11, 2001 global environment, integration policies have become more assimilationist and immigration restrictions toward nationals from Muslim countries of origin have increased in the name of national security. While this trend is common among many Western states, Britain’s immigration stance toward Muslim migrants remains unchanged. This study examines changes in policies toward immigrants—changes that make these policies de facto immigration policies though they may not have been conceived as such—in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the absence of this change in the UK. It seeks to answer the question: what explains reforms in the Netherlands, Germany, and France while British immigration policy remained unchanged? In this effort, the article emphasizes the impact of these changes on potential migrants from predominantly Muslim countries of origin. Based on a comparative case study analysis using process tracing, findings indicate that Dutch immigration/integration policy choices influence government policy changes in other West European countries. Through a learning process, governments experiencing similar socio-political challenges observe overlapping societal responses to them and optimize in creating policy alternatives by using short-cuts and adopting policies implemented in comparable states and situations.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course Platforms

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    Maria CONACHE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MOOC platforms have known a considerable development in recent years due to the enlargement of online space and the shifting between traditional to virtual activities. These plat-forms made it possible for people almost everywhere to take online academic courses offered by top universities via open access to web and with unlimited participation. Thus, it came naturally to us to address the question what makes them so successful? The purpose of this paper is to report comparatively MOOC platforms in terms of features, based on the user’s implication and demands. First, we chose four relevant lifelong learning platforms and then we structured three main categories for the platforms' qualification, depending on which we built our theory regarding the comparison between them. Our analysis consists of three sets of criteria: business model, course design and popularity among online users. Starting from this perspective, we built a range of representative factors for which we highlighted the major aspects for each plat-form in our comparative research

  6. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappmeyer Lowell S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission of arthropod-borne apicomplexan parasites that cause disease and result in death or persistent infection represents a major challenge to global human and animal health. First described in 1901 as Piroplasma equi, this re-emergent apicomplexan parasite was renamed Babesia equi and subsequently Theileria equi, reflecting an uncertain taxonomy. Understanding mechanisms by which apicomplexan parasites evade immune or chemotherapeutic elimination is required for development of effective vaccines or chemotherapeutics. The continued risk of transmission of T. equi from clinically silent, persistently infected equids impedes the goal of returning the U. S. to non-endemic status. Therefore comparative genomic analysis of T. equi was undertaken to: 1 identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2 identify genes involved in PBMC infection biology and 3 define the phylogenetic position of T. equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. Results The known immunodominant proteins, EMA1, 2 and 3 were discovered to belong to a ten member gene family with a mean amino acid identity, in pairwise comparisons, of 39%. Importantly, the amino acid diversity of EMAs is distributed throughout the length of the proteins. Eight of the EMA genes were simultaneously transcribed. As the agents that cause bovine theileriosis infect and transform host cell PBMCs, we confirmed that T. equi infects equine PBMCs, however, there is no evidence of host cell transformation. Indeed, a number of genes identified as potential manipulators of the host cell phenotype are absent from the T. equi genome. Comparative genomic analysis of T. equi revealed the phylogenetic positioning relative to seven apicomplexan parasites using deduced amino acid sequences from 150 genes placed it as a sister taxon to Theileria spp. Conclusions The EMA family does not fit the paradigm for classical antigenic variation, and we propose a

  8. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Hjernø, Karin; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies of pathogenic bacteria and their non-pathogenic counterparts has led to the discovery of important virulence factors thereby generating insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Protein-based antigens for vaccine development are primarily selected among unique virulence-related factors produced by the pathogen of interest. However, recent work indicates that proteins that are not unique to the pathogen but instead selectively expressed compared to its non-pathogenic counterpart could also be vaccine candidates or targets for drug development. Modern methods in quantitative proteome analysis have the potential to discover both classes of proteins and hence form an important tool for discovering therapeutic targets. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC is associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract whereas ETEC is the major cause of human diarrhea which affects hundreds of millions annually. In spite of the disease burden associated with these pathogens, effective vaccines conferring long-term protection are still needed. In order to identify proteins with therapeutic potential, we have used mass spectrometry-based Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics method which allows us to compare the proteomes of pathogenic strains to commensal E. coli. In this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating our experimental approach. In addition we find proteins that are not unique to the pathogenic strains but expressed at levels different from the commensal strain, including the

  9. Analytic derivation of the next-to-leading order proton structure function F2p(x ,Q2) based on the Laplace transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh; Mirjalili, Abolfazl; Tehrani, S. Atashbar

    2017-03-01

    An analytical solution based on the Laplace transformation technique for the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations is presented at next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative QCD. This technique is also applied to extract the analytical solution for the proton structure function, F2p(x ,Q2) , in the Laplace s space. We present the results for the separate parton distributions of all parton species, including valence quark densities, the antiquark and strange sea parton distribution functions (PDFs), and the gluon distribution. We successfully compare the obtained parton distribution functions and the proton structure function with the results from GJR08 [Gluck, Jimenez-Delgado, and Reya, Eur. Phys. J. C 53, 355 (2008)], 10.1140/epjc/s10052-007-0462-9 and KKT12 [Khanpour, Khorramian, and Tehrani, J. Phys. G 40, 045002 (2013)], 10.1088/0954-3899/40/4/045002 parametrization models as well as the x -space results using QCDnum code. Our calculations show a very good agreement with the available theoretical models as well as the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experimental data throughout the small and large values of x . The use of our analytical solution to extract the parton densities and the proton structure function is discussed in detail to justify the analysis method, considering the accuracy and speed of calculations. Overall, the accuracy we obtain from the analytical solution using the inverse Laplace transform technique is found to be better than 1 part in 104 to 105. We also present a detailed QCD analysis of nonsinglet structure functions using all available DIS data to perform global QCD fits. In this regard we employ the Jacobi polynomial approach to convert the results from Laplace s space to Bjorken x space. The extracted valence quark densities are also presented and compared to the JR14, MMHT14, NNPDF, and CJ15 PDFs sets. We evaluate the numerical effects of target mass corrections (TMCs) and higher twist (HT) terms

  10. Nucleon spin structure functions at NNLO in the presence of target mass corrections and higher twist effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh; Taheri Monfared, S.; Atashbar Tehrani, S.

    2017-04-01

    We extract polarized parton distribution functions (PPDFs), referred to as "KTA17," together with the highly correlated strong coupling αs from recent and up-to-date g1 and g2 polarized structure functions world data at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The stability and reliability of the results are ensured by including nonperturbative target mass corrections as well as higher-twist terms which are particularly important at the large-x region at low Q2 . Their role in extracting the PPDFs in the nucleon is studied. Sum rules are discussed and compared with other results from the literature. This analysis is made by means of the Jacobi polynomials expansion technique to the DGLAP evolution. The uncertainties on the observables and on the PPDFs throughout this paper are computed using standard Hessian error propagation which served to provide a more realistic estimate of the PPDFs uncertainties.

  11. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-11-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

  12. Structure functions for the three-nucleon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissey, F.; Thomas, A. W.; Afnan, I. R.

    2001-08-01

    The spectral functions and light-cone momentum distributions of protons and neutrons in 3He and 3H are given in terms of the three-nucleon wave function for realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. To reduce computational complexity, separable expansions are employed for the nucleon-nucleon potentials. The results for the light-cone momentum distributions suggest that they are not very sensitive to the details of the two-body interaction, as long as it has reasonable short-range repulsion. The unpolarized and polarized structure functions are examined for both 3He and 3H in order to test the usefulness of 3He as a neutron target. It is found that the measurement of the spin structure function of polarized 3H would provide a very clear test of the predicted change in the polarized parton distributions of a bound proton.

  13. Nuclear structure functions in carbon near x=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuti, A.C.; Bollini, D.; Camporesi, T.; Monari, L.; Navarria, F.L. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Bologna (Italy) INFN, Sezione di Bologna (Italy)); Argento, A.; Cvach, J.; Lohmann, W.; Piemontese, L. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Genchev, V.I.; Hladky, J.; Golutvin, I.A.; Kiryushin, Yu.T.; Kiselev, V.S.; Krivokhizhin, V.G.; Kukhtin, V.V.; Nemecek, S.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Reimer, P.; Savin, I.A.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sultanov, S.; Volodko, A.G.; Zacek, J. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)); Jamnik, D.; Kopp, R.; Meyer-Berkhout, U.; Staude, A.; Teichert, K.M.; Tirler, R.; Voss, R.; Zupancic, C. (Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen (Germany)); Feltesse, J.; Misztajn, A.; Ouraou, A.; Rich-Hennion, P.; Sacquin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Verrecchia, P.; Virchaux, M. (DAPNIA-SPP, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); BCDMS Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    Data from deep inelastic scattering of 200 GeV muons on a carbon target with squared four-momentum transfer 52 GeV[sup 2][<=]Q[sup 2][<=]200 GeV[sup 2] were analysed in the region of the Bjorken variable close to x=1, which is the kinematic limit for scattering on a free nucleon. At this value of x, the carbon structure function is found to be F[sub 2][sup C][approx]1.2.10[sup -4]. The x dependence of the structure function for x>0.8 is well described by an exponential F[sub 2][sup C][proportional to]exp(-sx) with s=16.5[+-]0.6. (orig.)

  14. A-dependence of weak nuclear structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli studi di Trento Via Sommarive 14, Povo (Trento) I-38123 (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Effect of nuclear medium on the weak structure functions F{sub 2}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) have been studied using charged current (anti)neutrino deep inelastic scattering on various nuclear targets. Relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations are used for the calculations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. Using these structure functions, F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup proton} and F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup deuteron}(i=2,3, A={sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, CH and H{sub 2}O) are obtained.

  15. R-ratios and moments of nuclear structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rinat, A S

    2000-01-01

    We study implications of a model, which links nuclear and nucleon structure functions. Computed Callen-Gross functions $\\kappa^A(x,Q^2)= 2xF_1^A(x,Q^2)/F_2^A(x,Q^2)$ appear for finite $Q^2$ to be close to their asymptotic value 1. Using those $\\kappa$, we compure $R$ ratios for $Q^2\\ge 5 GeV^2$. We review approximate methods in use for the extraction of $R$ from inclusive scattering and ENC data. Further we calcuate ratios of the moments of $F_k$ and find these to describe the data, in particular their $Q^2$ dependence. The above observables, as well as inclusive cross sections, are sensitive tests for the underlying relation between nucleonic and nuclear structure functions. In view of the overall agreement, we speculate that the above relation effectively circumvents a QCD calculation.

  16. Structure Function Sum rules for Systems with Large Scattering Lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberger, Walter D

    2010-01-01

    We use a dispersion relation in conjunction with the operator product expansion (OPE) to derive model independent sum rules for the dynamic structure functions of systems with large scattering lengths. We present an explicit sum rule for the structure functions that control the density and spin response of the many-body ground state. Our methods are general, and apply to either fermions or bosons which interact through two-body contact interactions with large scattering lengths. By employing a Borel transform of the OPE, the relevant integrals are weighted towards infrared frequencies, thus allowing for greater overlap low energy data. Similar sum rules can be derived for other response functions. The sum rules can be used to extract the contact parameter introduced by Tan, including universality violating corrections at finite scattering lengths.

  17. Structure-function relations of carbohydrates by neoglycolipid arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang-Liang; Huang, Hua-Liang; Zhang, Hou-Cheng; Wang, Peng-George

    2006-06-01

    The work presented herein is a new noncovalent glycoarray assembly method for microplates created by simply mixing together a carbohydrate and a tetradecylamine. alpha-D-Mannopyranoside, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and alpha-D-galactopyranoside were utilized in model studies and product formations were detected by lectin binding. The method can be extended to study the steric hindrance effect of carbohydrate-protein interactions, namely the structure-function relations of carbohydrates.

  18. Determination of the pion and kaon structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; LaVopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Meunier, R.; Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.S.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Massimo, J.T.

    1980-07-21

    Quark structure functions have been extracted from low-p/sub T/ inclusive hadron production data for the pion and kaon with use of the recombination model. n/sup ..pi../=1.0 +- 0.1 and n/sup K/=2.5 +- 0.6 is obtained, where n is the leading (1-x) power of the nonstrange--valence-quark distribution. Both the pion and kaon nonstrange--sea-quark functions have napprox. =3.5.

  19. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01

    The major body of this work investigates how the chemical structure of conjugated polymers relates to the fundamental operating mechanism of organic photovoltaic devices. New conjugated polymers were characterized and their optical and electronic properties tested and correlated with their power conversion efficiencies as the active layer in polymer solar cells. From these experiments general structure/function relationships are drawn with an eye toward developing universal guidelines for con...

  20. EM vs Weak Structure Functions in DIS processes

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Simo, I Ruiz; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We obatin the ratio $F_i^A/F_i^{D}$(i=2,3, A=Be, C, Fe, Pb; D=Deuteron) in the case of weak and electromagnetic nuclear structure functions. For this, relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate the effects of Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations is used. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions and shadowing and antishadowing effects.

  1. In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Gilad, S; Wood, S A

    2014-01-01

    A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.

  2. Neutron structure function and /A=3 mirror nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Bissey, F.; Gomez, J.; Katramatou, A. T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Petratos, G. G.; Thomas, A. W.

    2000-11-01

    We investigate deep inelastic scattering from 3He and 3H within a conventional convolution treatment of binding and Fermi motion effects. Using realistic Faddeev wave functions together with a nucleon spectral function, we demonstrate that the free neutron structure function can be extracted in deep-inelastic scattering from /A=3 mirror nuclei, with nuclear effects canceling to within 2% for /x<~0.85.

  3. A no extensive statistical model for the nucleon structure function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon.

  4. Proton Spin Structure Functions and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Quark-hadron duality of three proton spin structure functions g1, g2 and gT are discussed simultaneously. It is found that the onsets of the quark-hadron dualities of g1p, g2p and g3p are similar and they are expected to be at about Q2 ~ 2 GeV2. In addition, our results show that the elastic peak remarkably breaks local quark-hadron duality.

  5. Spin Structure Functions in a Covariant Spectator Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, Franz Gross and M. T. Peña

    2010-12-01

    We apply the covariant spectator quark–diquark model, already probed in the description of the nucleon elastic form factors, to the calculation of the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) spin-independent and spin-dependent structure functions of the nucleon. The nucleon wave function is given by a combination of quark–diquark orbital states, corresponding to S, D and P-waves. A simple form for the quark distribution function associated to the P and D waves is tested.

  6. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Human Lung Squamous Carcinoma Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui; TANG Can'e; DUAN Chaojun; YI Hong; XIAO Zhiqiang; CHEN Zhuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles with high resolution and reproducibility from human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue, and to identify differential expression tumor-associated proteins by using proteome analysis. Methods: Comparative proteome analysis with 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and the paired normal bronchial epithelial tissues adjacent to tumors was carried out. The total proteins of human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue were separated by means of immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining. The differential expression proteins were analyzed and then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results: (1) Well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE patterns of human lung squamous carcinoma and adjacent normal bronchial epithelial tissues were obtained. For tumor tissue, average spots of 3 gels were 1567±46, and 1436±54 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.6%. For control, average spots of 3 gels were 1349±58, and 1228±35 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.03%. The average position deviation of matched spots was 0.924±0.128 mm in IEF direction, and 1.022±0.205 mm in SDS-PAGE direction; (2)A total of 1178±56 spots were matched between the electrophoretic maps of 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissues. Seventy-six differentially expressed proteins were screened; (3) Sixty-eight differential proteins were identified by PMF, some proteins were the products of oncogenes, and others involved in the regulation of cell cycle and signal transduction;(4) In order to validate the reliability of the identified results, the expression of 3 proteins mdm2, c-jun and EGFR, which was correlated with lung

  7. Comparative kinetic analysis of two fungal β-glucosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanave Dominique

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is still considered as one of the main limiting steps of the biological production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a complex multistep process, and various kinetic models have been proposed. The cellulase enzymatic cocktail secreted by Trichoderma reesei has been intensively investigated. β-glucosidases are one of a number of cellulolytic enzymes, and catalyze the last step releasing glucose from the inhibitory cellobiose. β-glucosidase (BGL1 is very poorly secreted by Trichoderma reesei strains, and complete hydrolysis of cellulose often requires supplementation with a commercial β-glucosidase preparation such as that from Aspergillus niger (Novozymes SP188. Surprisingly, kinetic modeling of β-glucosidases lacks reliable data, and the possible differences between native T. reesei and supplemented β-glucosidases are not taken into consideration, possibly because of the difficulty of purifying BGL1. Results A comparative kinetic analysis of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger and BGL1 from Trichoderma reesei, purified using a new and efficient fast protein liquid chromatography protocol, was performed. This purification is characterized by two major steps, including the adsorption of the major cellulases onto crystalline cellulose, and a final purification factor of 53. Quantitative analysis of the resulting β-glucosidase fraction from T. reesei showed it to be 95% pure. Kinetic parameters were determined using cellobiose and a chromogenic artificial substrate. A new method allowing easy and rapid determination of the kinetic parameters was also developed. β-Glucosidase SP188 (Km = 0.57 mM; Kp = 2.70 mM has a lower specific activity than BGL1 (Km = 0.38 mM; Kp = 3.25 mM and is also more sensitive to glucose inhibition. A Michaelis-Menten model integrating competitive inhibition by the product (glucose has been validated and is able to predict the

  8. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE EU AND ROMANIA: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor PLATON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as purpose the comparative analysis of the way in which sustainable development is approached within EU and Romania. By this analysis it is aimed to identify ways and solutions for improving the future strategy of sustainable development in Romania. Most quoted definition of sustainable development is found in the Bruntland report, where sustainable development is described as „development meeting the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations to meet their own needs”. In order to make this concept operational, the greatest challenges for sustainability within EU and Member States were taken into consideration. Several of the evolutions contrary to sustainable development have as starting point the choices made in the past regarding technology and infrastructure, use of land, etc. Many of these issues have common roots. Companies and individuals often face motivations triggering production and consumption in a way contrary to sustainable development. They may be insufficiently informed about chain effects generated by their actions, or about the available alternatives. Institutional hindrances make difficult the remedy to these inadvertencies. The most acute menaces facing sustainable development originate, as a rule, from some areas of sectoral policies. For instance, the attempt to face challenges facing population health might require enforcement of active actions in industry, agriculture, fiscal policy. When the policies are enforced sector by sector, disregarding effects on other sectors, the discrepancy between sectoral policies inevitably shows. The Strategy for Sustainable Development (SSD allows for the identification of actions to be undertaken in order to remedy the situation.

  9. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K. Jeppesen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. Methods: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder carcinoma FL3 cells. The fractions were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, total protein quantification and immunoblotting for CD81, TSG101, syntenin, VDAC1 and calreticulin. Results: NTA revealed the lowest background particle count in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium media devoid of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration and composition of the obtained fractions. In addition, HEK293 and FL3 vesicles displayed marked differences in sedimentation characteristics. Exosomes were pelleted already at 33,000×g, a g-force which also removed most contaminating microsomes. Optimal vesicle-to-protein yield was obtained at 67,000×g for HEK293 cells but 100,000×g for FL3 cells. Relative expression of exosomal markers (TSG101, CD81, syntenin suggested presence of exosome subpopulations with variable sedimentation characteristics. Conclusions: Specific g-force/k factor usage during differential centrifugation greatly influences the purity and yield of exosomes. The vesicle sedimentation profile differed between the 2 cell lines.

  10. Comparative analysis of different methods for graphene nanoribbon synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are thin strips of graphene that have captured the interest of scientists due to their unique structure and promising applications in electronics. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of morphological properties of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by different methods. Various methods have been reported for graphene nanoribons synthesis. Lithography methods usually include electron-beam (e-beam lithography, atomic force microscopy (AFM lithography, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM lithography. Sonochemical and chemical methods exist as well, namely chemical vapour deposition (CVD and anisotropic etching. Graphene nanoribbons can also be fabricated from unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs. We propose a new highly efficient method for graphene nanoribbons production by gamma irradiation of graphene dispersed in cyclopentanone (CPO. Surface morphology of graphene nanoribbons was visualized with atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that dimensions of graphene nanoribbons are inversely proportional to applied gamma irradiation dose. It was established that the narrowest nanoribbons were 10-20 nm wide and 1 nm high with regular and smooth edges. In comparison to other synthesis methods, dimensions of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by gamma irradiation are slightly larger, but the yield of nanoribbons is much higher. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for structural analysis of graphene nanoribbons. Results of photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed for the first time that synthesized nanoribbons showed photoluminescence in the blue region of visible light in contrast to graphene nanoribbons synthesized by other methods. Based on disclosed facts, we believe that our synthesis method has good prospects for potential future mass production of graphene nanoribbons with uniform size, as well as for future investigations of carbon nanomaterials for

  11. A Comparative Study of Kernel and Robust Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashad M. Alam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of measures of canonical correlation coefficient are now used in multimedia related fields like object recognition, image segmentation facial expression recognition and pattern recognition in the different literature. Some robust forms of classical canonical correlation coefficient are introduced recently to address the robustness issue of the canonical coefficient in the presence of outliers and departure from normality. Also a few number of kernels are used in canonical analysis to capture nonlinear relationship in data space, which is linear in some higher dimensional feature space. But not much work has been done to investigate their relative performances through i simulation from the view point of sensitivity, breakdown analysis as well as ii using real data sets. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare performances of kernel canonical correlation coefficients (Gaussian function, Laplacian function and Polynomial function with that of robust and classical canonical correlation coefficient measures using simulation with five sample sizes (50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000, influence function, breakdown point along with several real data and a multi-modal data sets, focusing on the specific case of segmented images with associated text. We investigate the bias, mean square error(MISE, qualitative robustness index (RI, sensitivity curve of each estimator under a variety of situations and also employ box plots and scatter plots of canonical variates to judge their performances. We have observed that the class of kernel estimators perform better than the class of classical and robust estimators in general and the kernel estimator with Laplacian function has shown the best performance for large sample size and break down is high in case of nonlinear data.

  12. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2013-05-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algorithms. Surveys and comparisons exist in the literature, but because of the large number and variety of biclustering algorithms, they are quickly outdated. In this article we partially address this problem of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing biclustering methods. We used the BiBench package to compare 12 algorithms, many of which were recently published or have not been extensively studied. The algorithms were tested on a suite of synthetic data sets to measure their performance on data with varying conditions, such as different bicluster models, varying noise, varying numbers of biclusters and overlapping biclusters. The algorithms were also tested on eight large gene expression data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed on the resulting biclusters, and the best enrichment terms are reported. Our analyses show that the biclustering method and its parameters should be selected based on the desired model, whether that model allows overlapping biclusters, and its robustness to noise. In addition, we observe that the biclustering algorithms capable of finding more than one model are more successful at capturing biologically relevant clusters.

  13. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks—a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. Using simple illustrative examples, test systems, and real power-grid datasets, we study the inherent frequencies of the oscillators as well as their coupling structure, comparing across the different models. We demonstrate, in particular, that if the network structure is not homogeneous, generators with identical parameters need to be modeled as non-identical oscillators in general. We also discuss an approach to estimate the required (dynamical) system parameters that are unavailable in typical power-grid datasets, their use for computing the constants of each of the three models, and an open-source MATLAB toolbox that we provide for these computations.

  14. Comparative analysis of slot dimension in lingual bracket systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmer Marc P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances requires - among others - the correct clinical expression of torque, which depends on the precise fitting of archwire and slot. Especially in the lingual technique torque problems become clinically more evident than in labial appliances also with respect to the vertical alignment of teeth due to different distances from the center of resistance. The purpose of the present study was to compare the preciseness of slot dimensions of different lingual bracket systems. Methods Three lingual bracket systems were included in the study (7th Generation and STb, Ormco, Glendora, CA, USA; Incognito, TOP-Service/3 M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA. Non destructive analysis of vertical slot dimensions was performed using precision pin gauges (Azurea, Belprahon, Switzerland that were tapered in increments of 0.002 mm (0.00008 inch. The sizes of 240 incisor and canine brackets were measured per system (total: 720. Data were compared using one-way ANOVA. A p-value Results Average slot dimensions were 0.467 mm ± 0.007 mm (0.0184 inch ± 0.0003 inch for the 7th Generation bracket system, 0.466 mm ± 0.004 mm (0.0183 inch ± 0.0001 inch for the STb bracket system and 0.459 mm ± 0.004 mm (0.0181 inch ± 0.0001 inch for the Incognito bracket system. Differences between systems were statistically significant (p Conclusions The analyzed bracket systems for lingual treatment exhibited significant differences in slot dimension that will clinically result in torque play. These aspects must be considered in lingual orthodontic treatment.

  15. Comparative analysis of Acinetobacters: three genomes for three lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vallenet

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is the source of numerous nosocomial infections in humans and therefore deserves close attention as multidrug or even pandrug resistant strains are increasingly being identified worldwide. Here we report the comparison of two newly sequenced genomes of A. baumannii. The human isolate A. baumannii AYE is multidrug resistant whereas strain SDF, which was isolated from body lice, is antibiotic susceptible. As reference for comparison in this analysis, the genome of the soil-living bacterium A. baylyi strain ADP1 was used. The most interesting dissimilarities we observed were that i whereas strain AYE and A. baylyi genomes harbored very few Insertion Sequence elements which could promote expression of downstream genes, strain SDF sequence contains several hundred of them that have played a crucial role in its genome reduction (gene disruptions and simple DNA loss; ii strain SDF has low catabolic capacities compared to strain AYE. Interestingly, the latter has even higher catabolic capacities than A. baylyi which has already been reported as a very nutritionally versatile organism. This metabolic performance could explain the persistence of A. baumannii nosocomial strains in environments where nutrients are scarce; iii several processes known to play a key role during host infection (biofilm formation, iron uptake, quorum sensing, virulence factors were either different or absent, the best example of which is iron uptake. Indeed, strain AYE and A. baylyi use siderophore-based systems to scavenge iron from the environment whereas strain SDF uses an alternate system similar to the Haem Acquisition System (HAS. Taken together, all these observations suggest that the genome contents of the 3 Acinetobacters compared are partly shaped by life in distinct ecological niches: human (and more largely hospital environment, louse, soil.

  16. Twist decomposition of Drell-Yan structure functions: phenomenological implications

    CERN Document Server

    Brzeminski, Dawid; Sadzikowski, Mariusz; Stebel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The forward Drell--Yan process in $pp$ scattering at the LHC at $\\sqrt{S}=14$ TeV is considered. We analyze the Drell--Yan structure functions assuming the dominance of a Compton-like emission of a virtual photon from a fast quark scattering off the small $x$ gluons. The color dipole framework is applied to perform quantitatively the twist decomposition of all the Drell--Yan structure functions. Two models of the color dipole scattering are applied: the Golec-Biernat--W\\"{u}sthoff model and the dipole cross section obtained from the Balitsky--Fadin--Kuraev--Lipatov evolution equation. The two models have essentially different higher twist content and the gluon transverse momentum distribution and lead to different significant effects beyond the collinear leading twist description. It is found that the gluon transverse momentum effects are significant in the Drell--Yan structure functions for all Drell--Yan pair masses $M$, and the higher twist effects become important for $M \\lesssim 10$ GeV. It is found that...

  17. Detailed Measurements of Structure Functions from Nucleons and Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment will study deep inelastic muon nucleon scattering in a wide range of Q|2~(1-200 (GeV/c)|2) and x~(0.005-0.75). The main aims of the experiment are: \\item a)~~~~Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of the structure function F^2|A, of R~=~@s^L/@s^T and of the cross-section for J/@y production. They will provide a basis for the understanding of the EMC effect: the modification of quark and gluon distributions due to the nuclear environment. \\item b)~~~~A simultaneous high luminosity measurement of the structure function F^2 on hydrogen and deuterium. This will provide substantially improved accuracy in the knowledge of the neutron structure function F^2|n, of F^2|p-F^2|n and F^2|n/F^2|p and their Q|2 dependence. Furthermore, the data will allow a determination of the strong coupling constant @a^s(Q|2) with reduced experimental and theoretical uncertainties as well as of the ratio of the down to up quark distributions in the valence region. Due to the large x range covered by the experim...

  18. Structure-function clustering in multiplex brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, J. J.; Forrester, M.; O'Dea, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    A key question in neuroscience is to understand how a rich functional repertoire of brain activity arises within relatively static networks of structurally connected neural populations: elucidating the subtle interactions between evoked “functional connectivity” and the underlying “structural connectivity” has the potential to address this. These structural-functional networks (and neural networks more generally) are more naturally described using a multilayer or multiplex network approach, in favour of standard single-layer network analyses that are more typically applied to such systems. In this letter, we address such issues by exploring important structure-function relations in the Macaque cortical network by modelling it as a duplex network that comprises an anatomical layer, describing the known (macro-scale) network topology of the Macaque monkey, and a functional layer derived from simulated neural activity. We investigate and characterize correlations between structural and functional layers, as system parameters controlling simulated neural activity are varied, by employing recently described multiplex network measures. Moreover, we propose a novel measure of multiplex structure-function clustering which allows us to investigate the emergence of functional connections that are distinct from the underlying cortical structure, and to highlight the dependence of multiplex structure on the neural dynamical regime.

  19. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking are treated as the dependent variables. The results showed that two-month lagged of non-performing financing (NPF, total asset (ASSET, the amount of thirdparty-funds (TPF, one-month lagged of total financing (DFIN, and growthof gross-domestic product (GDPG variables have significant impact to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking. Meanwhile, the three-month lagged of non-performing loan (DDDNPL, total asset (CASSET, three-month as well as two-month period lagged of total loan (DDDCRED and DDCRED, inter-bank money market (PUAB, and growth of gross-domestic (GDPG are significant to influence the ratio of non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking. The result also implied that the general election in 2004 had a significant influence to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking.Even tough from the outset, it seems Islamic banking has a better performance than conventional banking by having a relatively low NPF, this study, however, has found the opposite. Albeit, Islamic banking showing a good long-runas well as short-run dynamics among all variables in the beginning, after modifying the model into autoregressive in the main analysis, results showed that conventional banking has a better performance than Islamic banking with higher correlation of determination. In this regard, we cannot assume thatIslamic banking is performing poorly in managing credit default problems. This is because the result

  20. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  1. New COMPASS results on the spin structure function $g_1^p$, and QCD fit

    CERN Document Server

    Wilfert, Malte

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN SPS has taken data with a polarised muon beam scattering off a polarised NH 3 target in 2011. The beam energy has been increased to 200 GeV compared to 160 GeV in 2007 and thus, higher values of Q 2 and lower values of x are reached. From these data the longitudinal double spin asymmetry A p 1 and the spin-dependent structure function g p 1 are extracted. The results are used in a NLO QCD fit to the world data to obtain the polarised parton distributions and also to test the Bjorken sum rule, connecting the integral of the non-singlet structure function with the ratio of the weak coupling constants

  2. Nuclear medium effects in structure functions of nucleon at moderate $Q^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments performed on inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets have measured the nucleon electromagnetic structure functions $F_1(x,Q^2)$, $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_L(x,Q^2)$ in $^{12}C$, $^{27}Al$, $^{56}Fe$ and $^{64}Cu$ nuclei. The measurements have been done in the energy region of $1 GeV^2 < W^2 < 4 GeV^2$ and $Q^2$ region of $0.5 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 4.5 GeV^2$. We have calculated nuclear medium effects in these structure functions arising due to the Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using relativistic nucleon spectral function which include nucleon correlations. The numerical results are compared with the recent experimental data from JLab and also with some earlier experiments.

  3. Environmental management in sugar-energy sector: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the environmental variable in the business environment, companies started to give greater attention to strategies and practices focused on the rational use of natural resources and minimize the environmental impacts of their business operations. Many productive sectors stood out in the reflections on production and the environment, as is the case of the sugar energy industry, which constitutes a sector with a highly demanding industrial activity of natural resources, whether as sources of inputs as depositories of waste production. Thus, the aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of environmental practices of two sugar energy plants, both from the point of view of their operational strategy and regarding the suitability of the disposal of waste generated by the industrial area. It was concluded that, although many practices adopted by businesses are analogous, one of the studied plants have distinctive environmental performance, because of the increased attention given to the implementation of environmental practices and especially the inclusion of the environmental variable in their strategies.

  4. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  5. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  6. Comparative analysis of the core inflation for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sapova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer price index is a measure of inflation and it consists of two parts: persistent component (trend inflation and short-term shocks. Inflation targeting requires index of core inflation, that independent from shortterm shocks and demonstrates the changes of the trend inflation. Reserve Banks pay attention on the changes in the trend inflation, when they take decisions about monetary policy, because it’s more informative than consumer price index for estimation of medium-term inflation risks. The objective of this article is detecting the index of core inflation that could be appropriate for monetary policy. There are some different measures of core inflation based on practice of Reserve Banks from different countries and economic articles. The comparative analysis presented in this article is based on several types of tests. The result of the research is that core consumer price index that is used today has got both advantages and weaknesses. Moreover, there is index of core inflation based on new methodology that is better than core consumer price index of Federal Sate Statistics Service. It is concluded that the Central Bank should focus precisely on this indicator when it takes decisions about monetary policy.

  7. Comparative analysis of known miRNAs across platyhelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoliang; Lu, Lixia; Su, Hailong; Lou, Zhongzi; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yadong; Xu, Guo-Tong

    2013-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a subtype of small regulatory RNAs that are involved in numerous biological processes through small RNA-induced silencing networks. In an attempt to explore the phylogeny of miRNAs across five platyhelminths, we integrated annotated miRNAs and their full genomes. We identified conserved miRNA clusters and, in particular, miR-71/2 was conserved from planarian to parasitic flatworms and was expanded in free-living Schmidtea mediterranea. Analysis of 22 miRNA loci provided compelling evidence that most known miRNAs are conserved across platyhelminths. Meanwhile, we also observed alterations of known protein-coding genes flanking miRNA(s), such as transcriptional direction conversion and locus relocation, in around ~ 41% of 22 known miRNA loci. Compared with Echinococcus multilocularis, the majority of these events occurred in evolution-distant Hymenolepis microstoma, Schistosoma japonicum or/and S. mediterranea. These results imply rearrangement events occurred near the known miRNA loci.

  8. Geomorphometric comparative analysis of Latin-American volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiz, Sergio; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Roverato, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    The geomorphometric classifications of three groups of volcanoes situated in the Andes Cordillera, Central America, and Mexico are performed and compared. Input data are eight local topographic gradients (i.e. elevation differences) obtained by processing each volcano raster ASTER-GDEM data. The pixels of each volcano DEM have been classified into 17 classes through a K-means clustering procedure following principal component analysis of the gradients. The spatial distribution of the classes, representing homogeneous terrain units, is shown on thematic colour maps, where colours are assigned according to mean slope and aspect class values. The interpretation of the geomorphometric classification of the volcanoes is based on the statistics of both gradients and morphometric parameters (slope, aspect and elevation). The latter were used for a comparison of the volcanoes, performed through classes' slope/aspect scatterplots and multidimensional methods. In this paper, we apply the mentioned methodology on 21 volcanoes, randomly chosen from Mexico to Patagonia, to show how it may contribute to detect geomorphological similarities and differences among them. As such, both its descriptive and graphical abilities may be a useful complement to future volcanological studies.

  9. The Knowledge Competitiveness of Macedonian Economy – Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftimoski Dimitar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When a firm or economy realizes a competitive advantage, actually it possesses something which others lack, and does something which others cannot do, or do not know how to do it. Firms’ competitiveness, mostly, stems from knowledge and competency. Basically, it is the accumulation of capital in the form of knowledge, in most of the firms’ constitutive systems. Competitivenessdetermines the productivity level of an economy, whereas the productivity level determines the sustainable prosperity level of an economy. The knowledge economy offers virtually unlimited resources, as human capacity to create is boundless. Taking into consideration the abovementioned facts, the aim of this paper is to provide responses to the following questions: Why should contemporary firms and economies invest in new knowledge? What is the knowledge competitiveness level of the Macedonian firms and economy? What is the knowledge competitiveness of the Macedonian economy in comparisonwith the knowledge competitiveness of innovation-driven economies and the remaining efficiency-driven economies? In order to obtain the answers to these questions, we will make use of some theoretical experiences, supported by a comparative empirical analysis which, in essence, is based on the composite indicators - Knowledge Index and Global Competitiveness Index.

  10. Statistical analysis of unlabeled point sets: comparing molecules in chemoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Ian L; Hirst, Jonathan D; Melville, James L

    2007-03-01

    We consider Bayesian methodology for comparing two or more unlabeled point sets. Application of the technique to a set of steroid molecules illustrates its potential utility involving the comparison of molecules in chemoinformatics and bioinformatics. We initially match a pair of molecules, where one molecule is regarded as random and the other fixed. A type of mixture model is proposed for the point set coordinates, and the parameters of the distribution are a labeling matrix (indicating which pairs of points match) and a concentration parameter. An important property of the likelihood is that it is invariant under rotations and translations of the data. Bayesian inference for the parameters is carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, and it is demonstrated that the procedure works well on the steroid data. The posterior distribution is difficult to simulate from, due to multiple local modes, and we also use additional data (partial charges on atoms) to help with this task. An approximation is considered for speeding up the simulation algorithm, and the approximating fast algorithm leads to essentially identical inference to that under the exact method for our data. Extensions to multiple molecule alignment are also introduced, and an algorithm is described which also works well on the steroid data set. After all the steroid molecules have been matched, exploratory data analysis is carried out to examine which molecules are similar. Also, further Bayesian inference for the multiple alignment problem is considered.

  11. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong

    2017-05-01

    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  12. A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrivens James H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep and goats. Results An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93 of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. Conclusions Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far.

  13. A comparative analysis of viral matrix proteins using disorder predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunker A Keith

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study (Goh G.K.-M., Dunker A.K., Uversky V.N. (2008 Protein intrinsic disorder toolbox for comparative analysis of viral proteins. BMC Genomics. 9 (Suppl. 2, S4 revealed that HIV matrix protein p17 possesses especially high levels of predicted intrinsic disorder (PID. In this study, we analyzed the PID patterns in matrix proteins of viruses related and unrelated to HIV-1. Results Both SIVmac and HIV-1 p17 proteins were predicted by PONDR VLXT to be highly disordered with subtle differences containing 50% and 60% disordered residues, respectively. SIVmac is very closely related to HIV-2. A specific region that is predicted to be disordered in HIV-1 is missing in SIVmac. The distributions of PID patterns seem to differ in SIVmac and HIV-1 p17 proteins. A high level of PID for the matrix does not seem to be mandatory for retroviruses, since Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV, an HIV cousin, has been predicted to have low PID level for the matrix; i.e. its matrix protein p15 contains only 21% PID residues. Surprisingly, the PID percentage and the pattern of predicted disorder distribution for p15 resemble those of the influenza matrix protein M1 (25%. Conclusion Our data might have important implications in the search for HIV vaccines since disorder in the matrix protein might provide a mechanism for immune evasion.

  14. Comparative Analysis of PSO Algorithms for PID Controller Tuning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ŠTIMAC Goranka; BRAUT Sanjin; ŽIGULIĆRoberto

    2014-01-01

    The active magnetic bearing(AMB) suspends the rotating shaft and maintains it in levitated position by applying controlled electromagnetic forces on the rotor in radial and axial directions. Although the development of various control methods is rapid, PID control strategy is still the most widely used control strategy in many applications, including AMBs. In order to tune PID controller, a particle swarm optimization(PSO) method is applied. Therefore, a comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithms is carried out, where two PSO algorithms, namely (1) PSO with linearly decreasing inertia weight(LDW-PSO), and (2) PSO algorithm with constriction factor approach(CFA-PSO), are independently tested for different PID structures. The computer simulations are carried out with the aim of minimizing the objective function defined as the integral of time multiplied by the absolute value of error(ITAE). In order to validate the performance of the analyzed PSO algorithms, one-axis and two-axis radial rotor/active magnetic bearing systems are examined. The results show that PSO algorithms are effective and easily implemented methods, providing stable convergence and good computational efficiency of different PID structures for the rotor/AMB systems. Moreover, the PSO algorithms prove to be easily used for controller tuning in case of both SISO and MIMO system, which consider the system delay and the interference among the horizontal and vertical rotor axes.

  15. Comparative analysis of PSO algorithms for PID controller tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štimac, Goranka; Braut, Sanjin; Žigulić, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The active magnetic bearing(AMB) suspends the rotating shaft and maintains it in levitated position by applying controlled electromagnetic forces on the rotor in radial and axial directions. Although the development of various control methods is rapid, PID control strategy is still the most widely used control strategy in many applications, including AMBs. In order to tune PID controller, a particle swarm optimization(PSO) method is applied. Therefore, a comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithms is carried out, where two PSO algorithms, namely (1) PSO with linearly decreasing inertia weight(LDW-PSO), and (2) PSO algorithm with constriction factor approach(CFA-PSO), are independently tested for different PID structures. The computer simulations are carried out with the aim of minimizing the objective function defined as the integral of time multiplied by the absolute value of error(ITAE). In order to validate the performance of the analyzed PSO algorithms, one-axis and two-axis radial rotor/active magnetic bearing systems are examined. The results show that PSO algorithms are effective and easily implemented methods, providing stable convergence and good computational efficiency of different PID structures for the rotor/AMB systems. Moreover, the PSO algorithms prove to be easily used for controller tuning in case of both SISO and MIMO system, which consider the system delay and the interference among the horizontal and vertical rotor axes.

  16. Comparative analysis of hazardous household waste in two Mexican regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Otoniel Buenrostro; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara; Márquez-Benavides, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) generation in two Mexican regions was examined, a northern region (bordering with the USA) and a central region. The aim of this work was to determine the dynamics of solid waste generation and to be able to compare the results of both regions, regarding consumption patterns and solid waste generation rates. In the northern region, household solid waste was analysed quantitatively. In order to perform this analysis, the population was categorized into three socioeconomic strata (lower, middle, upper). Waste characterization revealed the presence of products that give origin to household hazardous waste. In the northern region (Mexicali city), household hazardous waste comprised 3.7% of municipal solid waste, the largest categories in this fraction were home care products (29.2%), cleaning products (19.5%) and batteries and electronic equipment (15.7%). In the central region, HHW comprised 1.03% of municipal solid waste; the main categories in this fraction were represented by cleaning products (39%), self care products (27.3%), and insecticides (14.4%). In Mexicali, the socioeconomic study demonstrated that the production of HHW is independent of the income level. Furthermore, the composition of the solid waste stream in both regions suggested the influence of another set of variables such as local climate, migration patterns and marketing coverage. Further research is needed in order to establish the effect of low quantities of HHW upon the environment and public health.

  17. A comparative quadrant analysis of turbulence in a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wusi; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.; Zhu, Weihong; van Hout, René; Katz, Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence in plant canopies has traditionally been validated using bulk statistical quantities such as mean velocity and variance profiles. However, turbulent exchanges between a plant canopy and the atmosphere are dominated by large-scale coherent structures, and therefore LES must also be validated using statistical tools that are sensitive to details of coherent structures. In this study, LES and measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) are compared near the top of the canopy by means of a quadrant-hole analysis of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity, and dissipation rate. The LES resolves coarse features of individual corn plants and uses the Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic subgrid model. At the measurement location, there is good agreement between the LES predictions and the field data in terms of most conditionally sampled quantities, confirming the applicability of LES for fundamental studies of vegetation-air interactions and coherent structures. The simulation results confirm that sweeps (the fourth-quadrant events) contribute the largest fraction of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity, and dissipation rate inside the plant canopy. The magnitudes of the vorticity and dissipation rate at the top of the canopy are highest in the first quadrant (rare events of outward interactions).

  18. Comparing Administration of Hospital Wastes Using Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management requires interaction between different players. It is important to map theses interactions to identify key players. This study utilizes social network analysis to compare the organization of waste management activities at two different hospitals. One of these hospitals was a large public hospital whereas the other one was a small private hospital. The structure and characteristics of the waste management network varied at both hospitals. On the whole the network at the larger hospital was institutional and the one at the smaller hospital was social in nature. At the larger hospital communication between any two members on average required three degrees of freedom. Moreover, its waste management network was characterized by the presence of three brokers whose absence could split the network into smaller disparate components. At the smaller hospital the waste management activities suffered from a lack of involvement from the paramedic staff. Thus its waste management network was more compact and communication between most of the network members did not require an intermediary. In both hospitals, a feedback mechanism between the municipal sanitary staff and hospital management was conspicuous by its absence. Hence issues such as an incidence of hazardous items mixed in the general waste could not be communicated to the hospital directly. The key positions identified in this study can be used for behavioral changes related to waste management among the concerned hospital staff.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  20. Comparative Analysis of German and Anglo-Saxon Business Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two premises built the starting point for following study: that cultural background, cultural conditioning have a considerable influence upon business area at one hand and at the other hand that nations having common origins are likely to present similar cultural conditioning. The first hypothesis found proving in the works of theoreticians and practitioners like E.T. Hall, Geert Hofstede, Richard Gesteland and others dealing with the problem of people’s “mental programming” called culture and with cultural differences around the world. For the second premise we wanted to analyze three cultures having common Germanic roots namely the German, British (focusing on the English component of it and American cultures through the prism of their concept of time, relation to business, working and communicational style, structure of management, attitude towards hierarchy and interpersonal distance including physical contact. As the results of our comparative analysis showed above mentioned business cultures had very much in common regarding attitude to time, business and interpersonal distance but in the other segments they presented considerable differences as well. Taking all aspects into consideration the similarities deriving from their common Germanic origin offer the three cultures in question some advantages in business relations but the essential differences they present should be minded, too to avoid failure in deal making.

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  2. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the gorilla MHC genomic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilming, Laurens G; Hart, Elizabeth A; Coggill, Penny C; Horton, Roger; Gilbert, James G R; Clee, Chris; Jones, Matt; Lloyd, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Sims, Sarah; Whitehead, Siobhan; Wiley, David; Beck, Stephan; Harrow, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in vertebrate immune response and because the MHC is linked to a significant number of auto-immune and other diseases it is of great medical interest. Here we describe the clone-based sequencing and subsequent annotation of the MHC region of the gorilla genome. Because the MHC is subject to extensive variation, both structural and sequence-wise, it is not readily amenable to study in whole genome shotgun sequence such as the recently published gorilla genome. The variation of the MHC also makes it of evolutionary interest and therefore we analyse the sequence in the context of human and chimpanzee. In our comparisons with human and re-annotated chimpanzee MHC sequence we find that gorilla has a trimodular RCCX cluster, versus the reference human bimodular cluster, and additional copies of Class I (pseudo)genes between Gogo-K and Gogo-A (the orthologues of HLA-K and -A). We also find that Gogo-H (and Patr-H) is coding versus the HLA-H pseudogene and, conversely, there is a Gogo-DQB2 pseudogene versus the HLA-DQB2 coding gene. Our analysis, which is freely available through the VEGA genome browser, provides the research community with a comprehensive dataset for comparative and evolutionary research of the MHC.

  3. Comparative analysis of marine ecosystems: international production modelling workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason S; Megrey, Bernard A; Miller, Thomas J; Essington, Tim; Boldt, Jennifer; Bundy, Alida; Moksness, Erlend; Drinkwater, Ken F; Perry, R Ian

    2010-12-23

    Understanding the drivers that dictate the productivity of marine ecosystems continues to be a globally important issue. A vast literature identifies three main processes that regulate the production dynamics of such ecosystems: biophysical, exploitative and trophodynamic. Exploring the prominence among this 'triad' of drivers, through a synthetic analysis, is critical for understanding how marine ecosystems function and subsequently produce fisheries resources of interest to humans. To explore this topic further, an international workshop was held on 10-14 May 2010, at the National Academy of Science's Jonsson Center in Woods Hole, MA, USA. The workshop compiled the data required to develop production models at different hierarchical levels (e.g. species, guild, ecosystem) for many of the major Northern Hemisphere marine ecosystems that have supported notable fisheries. Analyses focused on comparable total system biomass production, functionally equivalent species production, or simulation studies for 11 different marine fishery ecosystems. Workshop activities also led to new analytical tools. Preliminary results suggested common patterns driving overall fisheries production in these ecosystems, but also highlighted variation in the relative importance of each among ecosystems.

  4. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. RESULTS: A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  5. Measurement of the deuteron elastic structure functions at large momentum transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kathleen Rae [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering has been measured using the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Laboratory. Scattered electrons and recoiling deuterons were detected in coincidence in the two 4 GeV/c High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) of Hall A. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q2) and B(Q2) have been extracted from these data. Results for the measurement of A(Q2) in the range of 0.7 ≤ Q2 ≤ 6.0 (GeV/c)2 are reported. Results for the magnetic structure function, B(Q2), are presented in the range of 0.7 ≤ Q2≤ 1.35 (GeV/c)2. The results for both structure functions are compared to predictions of meson-nucleon based models, both with and without the inclusion of meson-exchange currents. The A(Q2) results are compared to predictions of the dimensional scaling quark model and perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The results can provide insights into the transition from meson-nucleon to quark-gluon descriptions of the nuclear two-body system.

  6. A comparative analysis on two solar proton events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE GuiMing; HAN YanBen; ZHANG YiJun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis on the two Solar Proton Events (SPE), which occurred on 14 July 2000 (Bastille Day) and 28 October 2003 (28OCT03) respectively. It is found that although the peak flux of the latter seemed to be greater than that of the former based on geostationary observations, the maximum intensities of the energetic protons (>10 MeV and 30 MeV) during the Bastille Day event were all higher than those of the 28OCT03 event according to the interplanetary observations. Further analysis indicated that the quantity of the seed particles, which could be accelerated to the energies exceeding 10 and 30 MeV by the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-driven shock on 14 July 2000, was far larger than that of the 28OCT03 event. In the Bastille Day case, when the CME approached to the height around 14 R⊙, the CME-driven shock would reach its maximum capacity in accelerating the solar energetic protons (>100 MeV). In contrast, on 28 October 2003, when CME approached to the height about 58R⊙, the CME-driven shock reached its highest potential in accelerating the solar energetic protons of the same category. At this moment, the peak flux (>100 MeV) was about 155 pfu, which was much lower than 355 pfu measured on 14 July 2000. This demonstrated that in the Bastille Day event, the quantity of the seed particles, which could be accelerated to the energy beyond 100 MeV, was significantly larger than its counterpart in the 28OCT03 case. Therefore, the peak flux of an SPE event depends not only on the interplanetary intensity of the solar energetic particles, but also on the velocity of the associated CME-driven shock, and the quantity of the seed particles as well as on the interplanetary magnetic environment. This paper also reveals that the magnetic sheath associated with ICME on 28 October 2003 captured a large number of solar energetic protons, including those having energy greater than 100 MeV.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L Klima

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1 and 6 (S6 isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2 found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design

  9. A comparative study of RNA-seq analysis strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Jürgen; Hu, Fengyuan; Lewin, Alexandra; Turro, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Three principal approaches have been proposed for inferring the set of transcripts expressed in RNA samples using RNA-seq. The simplest approach uses curated annotations, which assumes the transcripts in a sample are a subset of the transcripts listed in a curated database. A more ambitious method involves aligning reads to a reference genome and using the alignments to infer the transcript structures, possibly with the aid of a curated transcript database. The most challenging approach is to assemble reads into putative transcripts de novo without the aid of reference data. We have systematically assessed the properties of these three approaches through a simulation study. We have found that the sensitivity of computational transcript set estimation is severely limited. Computational approaches (both genome-guided and de novo assembly) produce a large number of artefacts, which are assigned large expression estimates and absorb a substantial proportion of the signal when performing expression analysis. The approach using curated annotations shows good expression correlation even when the annotations are incomplete. Furthermore, any incorrect transcripts present in a curated set do not absorb much signal, so it is preferable to have a curation set with high sensitivity than high precision. Software to simulate transcript sets, expression values and sequence reads under a wider range of parameter values and to compare sensitivity, precision and signal-to-noise ratios of different methods is freely available online (https://github.com/boboppie/RSSS) and can be expanded by interested parties to include methods other than the exemplars presented in this article. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Altered fibrin clot structure/function in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: association with thrombotic manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celińska-Lowenhoff, M; Iwaniec, T; Padjas, A; Musiał, J; Undas, A

    2014-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that plasma fibrin clot structure/function is unfavourably altered in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Ex vivo plasma clot permeability, turbidity and susceptibility to lysis were determined in 126 consecutive patients with APS enrolled five months or more since thrombotic event vs 105 controls. Patients with both primary and secondary APS were characterised by 11% lower clot permeability (p<0.001), 4.8% shorter lag phase (p<0.001), 10% longer clot lysis time (p<0.001), and 4.7% higher maximum level of D-dimer released from clots (p=0.02) as compared to the controls. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser fibrin networks composed of thinner fibres in APS. Clots from patients with "triple-antibody positivity" were formed after shorter lag phase (p=0.019) and were lysed at a slower rate (p=0.004) than in the remainder. Clots from APS patients who experienced stroke and/or myocardial infarction were 8% less permeable (p=0.01) and susceptible to lysis (10.4% longer clot lysis time [p=0.006] and 4.5% slower release of D-dimer from clots [p=0.01]) compared with those following venous thromboembolism alone. Multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed that in APS patients, lupus anticoagulant and "triple-positivity" were the independent predictors of clot permeability, while "triple-positivity" predicted lysis time. We conclude that APS is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, with more pronounced abnormalities in arterial thrombosis. Molecular background for this novel prothrombotic mechanism in APS remains to be established.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugemangango Cyprien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing the given data.

  12. Tests of perturbative QCD using CCFR data for measurements of nucleon structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; De Barbaro, P.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Leung, W.C.; Quintas, P.Z.; Sciulli, F.; Arroyo, C.; Bachmann, K.T.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States) Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-04-01

    We present measurements of nucleon structure functions, F[sub 2](x, Q[sup 2]) and xF[sub 3](x, Q[sup 2]), from the high-statistics, high-energy neutrino-iron scattering experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The existing high-statistics xF[sub 3] determination by the CDHSW collaboration is compared to our data. The data presented here constitute the first corroboration of the QCD prediction of xF[sub 3] evolution at low-x, and yields [Lambda][anti M][anti S] = 210 [+-] 28 [+-] 41 MeV, and a determination of the GLS sum rule at Q[sup 2] = 3 GeV[sup 2], S[sub GLS] = [integral][sup 1][sub x] xF[sub 3]/x dx = 2.50 [+-] 0.018(stat.) [+-]0.078 (syst.). Our value of [Lambda][anti M][anti S] yields [alpha][sub s](M[sub z]) = .111 [+-] .002 [+-] .003 [+-] .003 (scale). Comparison of the neutrino determination of F[sub 2](x, Q[sup 2]) with that obtained from the charged-lepton (e or [mu]) scattering leads to a precise test of the mean-square charge prediction by the Quark Parton Model. The SLAC-CCFR and BCDMS structure function provide a consistent and precise set of structure functions over a large range of Q[sup 2]. (orig.)

  13. A Determination of the Neutron Spin Structure Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Emlyn W

    2003-08-18

    The authors report the results of the experiment E142 which measured the spin dependent structure function of the neutron, g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, Q{sup 2}). The experiment was carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center by measuring an asymmetry in the deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized {sup 3}He target, at electron energies from 19 to 26 GeV. The structure function was determined over the kinematic range 0.03 < BJorken x < 0.6 and 1.0 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}. An evaluation of the integral {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} g{sub 1}{sup n}(x,Q{sup 2})dx at fixed Q{sup 2} = 2 (GeV/c){sup 2} yields the final result {Lambda}{sub 1}{sup n} = -0.032 {+-} 0.006 (stat.) {+-} 0.009 (syst.). This result, when combined with the integral of the proton spin structure function measured in other experiments, confirms the fundamental Bjorken sum rule with O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}) corrections to within one standard deviation. This is a major success for perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. Some ancillary results include the findings that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule for the neutron is violated at the 2 {sigma} level, and that the total contribution of the quarks to the helicity of the nucleon is 0.36 {+-} 0.10. The strange sea polarization is estimated to be small and negative, {Delta}s = -0.07 {+-} 0.04.

  14. Nucleon effective mass and the A dependence of structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Santangelo, E.M.; Vucetich, H.

    1984-10-08

    The nucleon effective mass was successfully used, as the only free parameter, to adjust the ratio R(A) of structure functions measured in a nucleus of mass number A and in the deuteron, for each A value in the SLAC set of experimental data. The resulting A dependence of the effective mass, being linear in A/sup -1/3/, is consistent with the behavior expected from nuclear structure considerations. The extrapolated value of the effective mass for nuclear matter agrees with previous estimations.

  15. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Mathematically Structured Functional Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, James; 10.4204/EPTCS.76

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Mathematically Structured Functional Programming (MSFP 2012), taking place on 25 March, 2012 in Tallinn, Estonia, as a satellite event of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2012. MSFP is devoted to the derivation of functionality from structure. It highlights concepts from algebra, semantics and type theory as they are increasingly reflected in programming practice, especially functional programming. The workshop consists of two invited presentations and eight contributed papers on a range of topics at that interface.

  16. Experimental investigation of Lagrangian structure functions in turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Ott, Søren; Mann, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Lagrangian properties obtained from a particle tracking velocimetry experiment in a turbulent flow at intermediate Reynolds number are presented. Accurate sampling of particle trajectories is essential in order to obtain the Lagrangian structure functions and to measure intermittency at small...... temporal scales. The finiteness of the measurement volume can bias the results significantly. We present a robust way to overcome this obstacle. Despite no fully developed inertial range, we observe strong intermittency at the scale of dissipation. The multifractal model is only partially able to reproduce...

  17. Structure-Function-Property-Design Interplay in Biopolymers: Spider Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena; Jacobsen, Matthew; Buehler, Markus; Wong, Joyce; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Spider silks have been a focus of research for almost two decades due to their outstanding mechanical and biophysical properties. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of recombinant spider silks, thus helping to unravel a fundamental understanding of structure-function-property relationships. The relationships between molecular composition, secondary structures, and mechanical properties found in different types of spider silks are described, along with a discussion of artificial spinning of these proteins and their bioapplications, including the role of silks in biomineralization and fabrication of biomaterials with controlled properties. PMID:23962644

  18. Advances on statistical/thermodynamical models for unpolarized structure functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro

    2013-03-01

    During the eights and nineties many statistical/thermodynamical models were proposed to describe the nucleons' structure functions and distribution of the quarks in the hadrons. Most of these models describe the compound quarks and gluons inside the nucleon as a Fermi / Bose gas respectively, confined in a MIT bag[1] with continuous energy levels. Another models considers discrete spectrum. Some interesting features of the nucleons are obtained by these models, like the sea asymmetries ¯d/¯u and ¯d-¯u.

  19. Measurement of the longitudinal proton structure function at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    The reduced cross sections for ep deep inelastic scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different centre-of-mass energies, 318, 251 and 225 GeV. From the cross sections, measured double differentially in Bjorken x and the virtuality, Q{sup 2}, the proton structure functions F{sub L} and F{sub 2} have been extracted in the region 5 x 10{sup -4}

  20. Structure-function-property-design interplay in biopolymers: spider silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena; Jacobsen, Matthew; Buehler, Markus; Wong, Joyce; Kaplan, David L

    2014-04-01

    Spider silks have been a focus of research for almost two decades due to their outstanding mechanical and biophysical properties. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of recombinant spider silks, thus helping to unravel a fundamental understanding of structure-function-property relationships. The relationships between molecular composition, secondary structures and mechanical properties found in different types of spider silks are described, along with a discussion of artificial spinning of these proteins and their bioapplications, including the role of silks in biomineralization and fabrication of biomaterials with controlled properties. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The QCD gluon ladders and HERA structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, A I

    2002-01-01

    We report on the extension of the data fitting considering the QCD inspired model based on the summation of gluon ladders applied to the $ep$ scattering. In lines of a two Pomeron approach, the structure function $F_2$ has a hard piece given by the model and the remaining soft contribution: a soft Pomeron and non-singlet content. In this contribution, we carefully estimate the relative role of the hard and the soft pieces from a global fit in a large span of $x$ and $Q^2$.

  2. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Clostridium cellulovorans Cellulosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Roy H

    2008-06-01

    Our major goal for this project (2004-2008) was to obtain an understanding ofthe structure, function, and regulation of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosomes. Our specific goals were to select genes for cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal enzymes and characterize their products, to study the synergistic action between cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal enzymes, to study the composition of cellulosomes when cells were grown with different carbon sources, continue our studies on the scaffolding protein and examine heterologous expression of cellulosomal genes in Bacillus subtilis. We fulfilled the specific goals of our proposal.

  3. Comparative analysis of aerosols elemental distribution in some Romanian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Susumu; Masuda, Toshio; Popa-Simil, Liviu; Mateescu, Liviu

    1996-04-01

    The study's main aim is obtaining aerosols particulate elemental distribution and mapping it for some Romanian regions, in order to obtain preliminary information regarding the concentrations of aerosol particles and networking strategy versus local conditions. For this we used the mobile sampling strategy, but taking care on all local specific conditions and weather. In the summer of 1993, in July we took about 8 samples on a rather large territory of SE Romania which were analysed and mapped. The regions which showed an interesting behaviour or doubts such as Bucharest and Dobrogea were zoomed in near the same period of 1994, for comparing the new details with the global aspect previously obtained. An attempt was made to infer the minimum necessary number of stations in a future monitoring network. A mobile sampler was used, having tow polycarbonate filter posts of 8 and 0.4 μm. PIXE elemental analysis was performed on a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, by using a proton beam. More than 15 elements were measured. Suggestive 2D and 3D representations were drawn, as well as histogram charts for the concentrations' distribution in the specific regions at the specified times. In spite of the poor samples from the qualitative point of view the experiment surprised us by the good coincidence (good agreement) with realities in terrain known by other means long time ago, and highlighted the power of PIXE methods in terms of money and time. Conclusions over the link between industry, traffic, vegetation, wether, surface waters, soil composition, power plant exhaust and so on, on the one hand, and surface concentration distribution, on the other, were drawn. But the method's weak points were also highlighted; these are weather dependencies (especially air masses movement and precipitation), local relief, microclimate and vegetation, and of course localisation of the sampling point versus the pollution sources and their regime. The paper contains a synthesis of the whole

  4. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  5. A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2010-01-01

    In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

  6. A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2010-01-01

    In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

  7. A Comparative Study of Science, Systems Analysis and Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Hector

    1975-01-01

    The proper framework for studying different methods of problem-solving is to recognize that there are different approaches to the analysis of reality. Three approaches--science, systems analysis, and futurism--are considered within the framework of the "theory of knowledge." (Author/IRT)

  8. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Blande, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Tuomainen, M.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In

  10. A compilation of structure functions in deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, T; Whalley, M R

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of all the available data on the unpolarized structure functions F/sub 2/ and xF/sub 3/, R=( sigma /sub L// sigma /sub T/), the virtual photon asymmetries A/sub 1/ and A/sub 2/ and the polarized structure functions g/sub 1/ and g/sub 2/, from deep inelastic lepton scattering off protons, deuterium and nuclei is presented. The relevant experiments at CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC from 1991, the date of our earlier review, to the present day are covered. A brief general theoretical introduction is given followed by the data presented both in tabular and graphical form and, for the F/sub 2/ and XF/sub 3/ data, the predictions based on the MRST98 and CTEQ4 parton distribution functions are also displayed. All the data in this review, together with data on a wide variety of other reactions, can be found in and retrieved from the Durham-RAL HEP Databases on the World-Wide-Web (http://durpdg.dur.ac.uk/HEPDATA). (76 refs).

  11. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  12. Emergent structure-function relations in emphysema and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tilo; Suki, Béla

    2011-01-01

    Structure-function relationships in the respiratory system are often a result of the emergence of self-organized patterns or behaviors that are characteristic of certain respiratory diseases. Proper description of such self-organized behavior requires network models that include nonlinear interactions among different parts of the system. This review focuses on 2 models that exhibit self-organized behavior: a network model of the lung parenchyma during the progression of emphysema that is driven by mechanical force-induced breakdown, and an integrative model of bronchoconstriction in asthma that describes interactions among airways within the bronchial tree. Both models suggest that the transition from normal to pathologic states is a nonlinear process that includes a tipping point beyond which interactions among the system components are reinforced by positive feedback, further promoting the progression of pathologic changes. In emphysema, the progressive destruction of tissue is irreversible, while in asthma, it is possible to recover from a severe bronchoconstriction. These concepts may have implications for pulmonary medicine. Specifically, we suggest that structure-function relationships emerging from network behavior across multiple scales should be taken into account when the efficacy of novel treatments or drug therapy is evaluated. Multiscale, computational, network models will play a major role in this endeavor.

  13. Process-Structure-Function Relations of Pectin in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Houben, Ken; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Moelants, Katlijn R N; Ngouémazong, Eugénie D; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E G

    2016-01-01

    Pectin, a complex polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid, has been identified as a critical structural component of plant cell walls. The functionality of this intricate macromolecule in fruit- and vegetable-based-derived products and ingredients is strongly determined by the nanostructure of its most abundant polymer, homogalacturonan. During food processing, pectic homogalacturonan is susceptible to various enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic conversion reactions modifying its structural and, hence, its functional properties. Consequently, a profound understanding of the various process-structure-function relations of pectin aids food scientists to tailor the functional properties of plant-based derived products and ingredients. This review describes the current knowledge on process-structure-function relations of pectin in foods with special focus on pectin's functionality with regard to textural attributes of solid plant-based foods and rheological properties of particulated fruit- and vegetable-derived products. In this context, both pectin research performed via traditional, ex situ physicochemical analyses of fractionated walls and isolated polymers and pectin investigation through in situ pectin localization are considered.

  14. Functional materials discovery using energy-structure-function maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Angeles; Chen, Linjiang; Kaczorowski, Tomasz; Holden, Daniel; Little, Marc A.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Slater, Benjamin J.; McMahon, David P.; Bonillo, Baltasar; Stackhouse, Chloe J.; Stephenson, Andrew; Kane, Christopher M.; Clowes, Rob; Hasell, Tom; Cooper, Andrew I.; Day, Graeme M.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular crystals cannot be designed in the same manner as macroscopic objects, because they do not assemble according to simple, intuitive rules. Their structures result from the balance of many weak interactions, rather than from the strong and predictable bonding patterns found in metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks. Hence, design strategies that assume a topology or other structural blueprint will often fail. Here we combine computational crystal structure prediction and property prediction to build energy-structure-function maps that describe the possible structures and properties that are available to a candidate molecule. Using these maps, we identify a highly porous solid, which has the lowest density reported for a molecular crystal so far. Both the structure of the crystal and its physical properties, such as methane storage capacity and guest-molecule selectivity, are predicted using the molecular structure as the only input. More generally, energy-structure-function maps could be used to guide the experimental discovery of materials with any target function that can be calculated from predicted crystal structures, such as electronic structure or mechanical properties.

  15. Comparative analysis of beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Descriptive statistics and regression analysis was used in analyzing the data. ... geared towards the production of more fish such as establishment of more fish ponds be put in place by the government.

  16. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... to be used for the analysis were gotten from published research works. A database that contains ... The complexity and diversity of medical images, uniform gray-scale ..... Canny J. A computational approach to edge detection.

  17. comparative analysis of the growth performance and haemolymph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 4 No.2 2011 ... AND HAEMOLYMPH. BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NORMAL AND ALBINO GIANT LAND .... Haemolymph Chemical Analysis. Ten snails (5 each from ...

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Engines in Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    automatic control, data classification, decision analysis, expert engines, time series prediction, robotics ... inference engines, max-product, max-min and root sum in fuzzy controllers using profitability ...... Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1991. [4].

  19. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Keywords: Biology textbooks; Life Sciences textbooks; nature of science; school ... reform, this article reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology .... molecular studies; structures and control processes; ..... References.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Selected Aspects of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    REGULATING TRADITIONAL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA: A. COMPARATIVE ... See the Traditional Leadership and Governance Framework Act 41 of 2003 and the Traditional .... must therefore not be in conflict with the Constitution. When it ...

  1. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    contain uncertainties, which must be quantified and included in the error budget. This is a prerequisite for combining and comparing data. The purpose of this study is to compare, taking into account uncertainties, forest area estimates for year 2000 derived from four different harmonized satellite...... the best accordance with official statistics due to its focus on land use. The other maps overestimated the forest area in mountainous countries and showed underestimation in countries with large forest area or open forest formations....

  2. Comparative experimental analysis of composite pulses in 14N NQR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaltsevitch, V T; Rudakov, T N; Flexman, J H; Hayes, P A; Chisholm, W P

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of comparing composite pulses in nitrogen-14 NQR, that are analogous to common 90 degrees RF pulses in powder, are presented. All tested pulses have been taken from publications in journals. Comparative diagrams of the measurement results for induction signals and echo signals are presented. The results of the measurements demonstrate that the best outcomes are achieved when the composite pulse (45)0(95)180(164)0 is used.

  3. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  4. Structure-function relationships using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: comparison with scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Sayous, Romain; Fortoul, Vincent; Beccat, Sylvain; Denis, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the regional relationships between visual field sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry. Prospective cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty eyes of 120 patients (40 with healthy eyes, 40 with suspected glaucoma, and 40 with glaucoma) were tested on Cirrus-OCT, GDx VCC, and standard automated perimetry. Raw data on RNFL thickness were extracted for 256 peripapillary sectors of 1.40625 degrees each for the OCT measurement ellipse and 64 peripapillary sectors of 5.625 degrees each for the GDx VCC measurement ellipse. Correlations between peripapillary RNFL thickness in 6 sectors and visual field sensitivity in the 6 corresponding areas were evaluated using linear and logarithmic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve areas were calculated for each instrument. With spectral-domain OCT, the correlations (r(2)) between RNFL thickness and visual field sensitivity ranged from 0.082 (nasal RNFL and corresponding visual field area, linear regression) to 0.726 (supratemporal RNFL and corresponding visual field area, logarithmic regression). By comparison, with GDx-VCC, the correlations ranged from 0.062 (temporal RNFL and corresponding visual field area, linear regression) to 0.362 (supratemporal RNFL and corresponding visual field area, logarithmic regression). In pairwise comparisons, these structure-function correlations were generally stronger with spectral-domain OCT than with GDx VCC and with logarithmic regression than with linear regression. The largest areas under the receiver operating curve were seen for OCT superior thickness (0.963 ± 0.022; P polarimetry, and was better expressed logarithmically than linearly. Measurements with these 2 instruments should not be considered to be interchangeable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bjorken unpolarized and polarized sum rules comparative analysis of large-N_F expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    2002-01-01

    Analytical all-orders results are presented for the one-renormalon-chain contributions to the Bjorken unpolarized sum rule for the F_1 structure function of nu N deep-inelastic scattering in the large-N_F limit. The feasibility of estimating higher order perturbative QCD corrections, by the process of naive nonabelianization (NNA), is studied, in anticipation of measurement of this sum rule at a Neutrino Factory. A comparison is made with similar estimates obtained for the Bjorken polarized sum rule. Application of the NNA procedure to correlators of quark vector and scalar currents, in the euclidean region, is compared with recent analytical results for the O(alpha_s^4 N_F^2) terms.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Two Models of the Strouma River Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Petrov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A modified method of regression analysis for modelling of the water quality of river ecosystems is offered. The method is distinguished from the conventional regression analysis of that the factors included in the regression dependence are time functions. Two type functions are tested: polynomial and periodical. The investigations show better results the periodical functions give. In addition, a model for analysis of river quality has been developed, which is a modified method of the time series analysis. The model has been applied for an assessment of water pollution of the Strouma river. An assessment for adequately of the obtained model of the statistical criteria - correlation coefficient, Fisher function and relative error is developed and it shows that the models are adequate and they can be used for modelling of the water pollution on these indexes of the Strouma river. The analysis of the river pollution shows that there is not a materially increase of the anthropogenic impact of the Strouma river in the Bulgarian part for the period from 2001 to 2004.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Vehicle Make and Model Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Ayub Syed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle Make and Model Recognition (VMMR has emerged as a significant element of vision based systems because of its application in access control systems, traffic control and monitoring systems, security systems and surveillance systems, etc. So far a number of techniques have been developed for vehicle recognition. Each technique follows different methodology and classification approaches. The evaluation results highlight the recognition technique with highest accuracy level. In this paper we have pointed out the working of various vehicle make and model recognition techniques and compare these techniques on the basis of methodology, principles, classification approach, classifier and level of recognition After comparing these factors we concluded that Locally Normalized Harris Corner Strengths (LHNS performs best as compared to other techniques. LHNS uses Bayes and K-NN classification approaches for vehicle classification. It extracts information from frontal view of vehicles for vehicle make and model recognition.

  8. Higher moments of nucleon spin structure functions in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and in a resonance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Kao; D. Drechsel; S. Kamalov; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2003-11-01

    The third moment d{sub 2} of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g{sub 2} is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d{sub 2} as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f{sub 2} which appears in the 1/Q{sup 2} suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g{sub 1} for proton and neutron.

  9. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.

  11. Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabir, Parag Deepak; Ottosen, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2013-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma......Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma...

  12. Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabir, Parag Deepak; Ottosen, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma......Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma...

  13. Comparative analysis of actigraphy performance in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina J. Bellone

    2016-10-01

    Although data accessibility and ease of use was very different for the diverse devices, there were no significant differences for sleep onset, total sleep time and sleep efficiency recordings, where applicable. In conclusion, depending on the type of study and analysis desired (as well as cost and compliance of use, we propose some relative advantages for the different actigraphy/temperature recording devices.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood

  15. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murukarthick Jayakodi

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study will provide a comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of ginseng adventitious roots, and a way for successful transcriptome analysis and profiling of resource plants with less genomic information. The transcriptome profiling data generated in this study are available in our newly created adventitious root transcriptome database (http://im-crop.snu.ac.kr/transdb/index.php for public use.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  19. Comparative analysis of African swine fever virus genotypes and serogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malogolovkin, Alexander; Burmakina, Galina; Titov, Ilya; Sereda, Alexey; Gogin, Andrey; Baryshnikova, Elena; Kolbasov, Denis

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes highly lethal hemorrhagic disease among pigs, and ASFV's extreme antigenic diversity hinders vaccine development. We show that p72 ASFV phylogenetic analysis does not accurately define ASFV hemadsorption inhibition assay serogroups. Thus, conventional ASFV genotyping cannot discriminate between viruses of different virulence or predict efficacy of a specific ASFV vaccine.

  20. Comparative analysis of Medicare spending for medical imaging: sustained dramatic slowdown compared with other services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David W; Duszak, Richard; Hughes, Danny R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess trends in Medicare spending growth for medical imaging relative to other services and the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA). We calculated per-beneficiary Part B Medicare medical imaging expenditures for three-digit Berenson-Eggers Type of Service (BETOS) categories using Physician Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files for 32 million beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. We adjusted BETOS categories to address changes in coding and payment policy and excluded categories with 2011 aggregate spending less than $500 million. We computed and ranked compound annual growth rates over three periods: pre-DRA (2000-2005), DRA transition period (2005-2007), and post-DRA (2007-2011). Forty-four modified BETOS categories fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Between 2000 and 2006, Medicare outlays for nonimaging services grew by 6.8% versus 12.0% for imaging services. In the ensuing 5 years, annual growth in spending for nonimaging continued at 3.6% versus a decline of 3.5% for imaging. Spending growth for all services during the pre-DRA, DRA, and post-DRA periods were 7.8%, 3.8%, and 2.9 compared with 15.0%, -3.4%, and -2.2% for advanced imaging services. Advanced imaging was among the fastest growing categories of Medicare services in the early 2000s but was in the bottom 2% of spending categories in 2011. Between 2007 and 2011, the fastest growing service categories were evaluation and management services with other specialists (29.1%), nursing home visits (11.2%), anesthesia (9.1%), and other ambulatory procedures (9.0%). Slowing volume growth and massive Medicare payment cuts have left medical imaging near the bottom of all service categories contributing to growth in Medicare spending.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  2. Comparative analysis of salivary zinc level in recurrent herpes labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Khozeimeh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, zinc level is significantly lower in acute phase than in convalescent phase and significantly lower in both phases compared to healthy individuals,so determination of serum zinc level and prescribing zinc complement in low serum status has both treatmental and preventive effects in RHL patients.

  3. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  4. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  5. High resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis using spotted oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, B; Ouwerkerk, E; Meijer, G.A.; Ylstra, B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, comparative genomic hybridisation array (array CGH) is the method of choice for studying genome wide DNA copy number changes. To date, either amplified representations of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)/phage artificial chromosomes (PACs) or cDNAs have been spotted as

  6. Reference Management Software: A Comparative Analysis of Four Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Ron; Cobus-Kuo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Reference management (RM) software is widely used by researchers in the health and natural sciences. Librarians are often called upon to provide support for these products. The present study compares four prominent RMs: CiteULike, RefWorks, Mendeley, and Zotero, in terms of features offered and the accuracy of the bibliographies that they…

  7. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France.…

  8. Aborted and refractory status epilepticus in children : A comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechtsen, Florise A. C. P.; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    Purpose: The aims of this retrospective study were: (1) to compare the demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, and EEG findings of status epilepticus aborted with medication (ASE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), (2) to describe the treatment response of status epilepticus (SE),

  9. Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Kozlov, Alexander; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    be applied to find the appropriate equalization algorithm to be used in the Uplink channel of the LTE – the famous standard in 4G telecommunications. Simulation results in the end in this paper show bit error ratio (BER) and modulation error ratio (MER) for compared schemes....

  10. Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of

  11. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Entrepreneur and College Business Student Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, George T.; Fernald, Jr., Lloyd W.

    1990-01-01

    The study compared values of 123 senior-level college business students and 400 Florida entrepreneurs. Findings indicated value differences between entrepreneurs and students, as well as between female entrepreneurs and female students, but few differences between male entrepreneurs and male students. (DB)

  13. Analysis and compare of location technologies supporting LBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hai-bing; XIA Ying; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    Location technology is the key part of location based service. Different technologies have different accuracy, modifying to network and cost of operating. Also these technologies have limitation to network. This paper compares existing popular location technologies and gives some suggestions about choosing of location technologies in GSM and CDMA systems.

  14. Environment Reporters and U.S. Journalists: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsman, David B.; Simon, James; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    2008-01-01

    This study provides baseline data regarding environment reporters in the twenty-first century, and then compares this baseline information about a specialized journalism beat to existing studies of U.S. journalists in general. This comparison between 652 environmental journalists working at daily newspapers and television stations and more than…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  16. Comparative analysis of utilizability curves for different aggregation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, M.; Caridad, J.M. [Dept. Estadistica, Univ. de Cordoba (Spain); Ruiz, V. [Dept. Termodinamica, Univ. de Sevilla (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    Long term utilizability functions corresponding to different aggregation periods are compared for radiation data measured at Seville, Spain. The aggregation intervals are daily, hourly and each five minutes, and the utilizability is estimated using the distribution function of the clearness index observed over short time intervals. (orig.)

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Teenagers Who Smoke Different Cigarette Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Carl E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)

  18. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating our...

  19. Reference Management Software: A Comparative Analysis of Four Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Ron; Cobus-Kuo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Reference management (RM) software is widely used by researchers in the health and natural sciences. Librarians are often called upon to provide support for these products. The present study compares four prominent RMs: CiteULike, RefWorks, Mendeley, and Zotero, in terms of features offered and the accuracy of the bibliographies that they…

  20. Sociological analysis and comparative education: A brief bibliographical background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Leslie

    1981-12-01

    The bibliography cites English language material at the intersection of two fields of study: sociology of education and comparative education. The collection of material is biased (a) toward the general reader rather than the specialist already working in the area, and (b) toward the identification of overlap between the two fields of study.