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Sample records for comparative structural analysis

  1. Comparing structural decomposition analysis and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, Rutger; Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze and understand historical changes in economic, environmental, employment or other socio-economic indicators, it is useful to assess the driving forces or determinants that underlie these changes. Two techniques for decomposing indicator changes at the sector level are structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and index decomposition analysis (IDA). For example, SDA and IDA have been used to analyze changes in indicators such as energy use, CO 2 -emissions, labor demand and value added. The changes in these variables are decomposed into determinants such as technological, demand, and structural effects. SDA uses information from input-output tables while IDA uses aggregate data at the sector-level. The two methods have developed quite independently, which has resulted in each method being characterized by specific, unique techniques and approaches. This paper has three aims. First, the similarities and differences between the two approaches are summarized. Second, the possibility of transferring specific techniques and indices is explored. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate differences between the two approaches

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN SOME EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Raluca Goldbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of organizational structures highlights similarities and differences between different factors influencing a company in its way of operation with the internal and/or external environment. The paper analyzes the organizational structures of some top companies from England, France and Romania that influence/determine the cultural organizational values and the norms elaborated and implemented, which, in time, become moral values and norms that acquire a social meaning, which means that they have been accepted by all the members of the organization.

  3. Comparative analysis of steel structures stationary conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of computation of metal structures LLC «Сonveyor» with the subsequent analysis of its main struc-tural units. The analysis results of the metal structures, LLC «Сonveyor» with a similar metal structure obtained in the optimal design process.

  4. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schütz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  5. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-09-30

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Structured and Object-Oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concepts of structured and object-oriented programming methods are not relatively new but these approaches are still very much useful and relevant in today's programming paradigm. In this paper, we distinguish the features of structured programs from that of object oriented programs. Structured programming is a ...

  7. Comparative structural analysis of lipid binding START domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Gerd Thorsell

    Full Text Available Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein related lipid transfer (START domains are small globular modules that form a cavity where lipids and lipid hormones bind. These domains can transport ligands to facilitate lipid exchange between biological membranes, and they have been postulated to modulate the activity of other domains of the protein in response to ligand binding. More than a dozen human genes encode START domains, and several of them are implicated in a disease.We report crystal structures of the human STARD1, STARD5, STARD13 and STARD14 lipid transfer domains. These represent four of the six functional classes of START domains.Sequence alignments based on these and previously reported crystal structures define the structural determinants of human START domains, both those related to structural framework and those involved in ligand specificity.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  8. Hospital profitability and capital structure: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvona, J; Sloan, F A

    1988-08-01

    This article compares the financial performance of hospitals by ownership type and of five publicly traded hospital companies with other industries, using such indicators as profit margins, return on equity (ROE) and total capitalization, and debt-to-equity ratios. We also examine stock returns to investors for the five hospital companies versus other industries, as well as the relative roles of debt and equity in new financing. Investor-owned hospitals had substantially greater margins and ROE than did other hospital types. In 1982, investor-owned chain hospitals had a ROE of 26 percent, 18 points above the average for all hospitals. Stock returns on the five selected hospital companies were more than twice as large as returns on other industries between 1972 and 1983. However, after 1983, returns for these companies fell dramatically in absolute terms and relative to other industries. We also found investor-owned hospitals to be much more highly levered than their government and voluntary counterparts, and more highly levered than other industries as well.

  9. A comparative analysis of Piezoelectric and Magnetostrictive actuators in Smart Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Rovira, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    [EN] This paper introduces a comparative analysis of Piezoelectric (PZ) and Magnetostrictive (MS) actuators as components in smart structures. There is an increasing interest in functional structures which are able to adapt to external or internal perturbations, i.e. changes in loading conditions or ageing. Actuator technologies must perform concomitantly as sensors and actuators to be applicable in smart structures. In this paper we will comparatively analyze the possibility of usin...

  10. Comparative Embodied Energy Analysis of a Steel and Concrete Structural System in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaye, Adolf; Duffy, Aidan; Basu, Biswajit

    2007-01-01

    Engineering building design focuses on optimising operational energy use and ignores the energy required to procure and construct a building. This energy, termed ‘embodied energy’, can be very significant when compared to operational energy. Therefore, it is important to minimise the embodied in buildings; this must be done at the design stage. This paper presents a comparative embodied energy analysis of two structural design solutions for a modern office building: one in concrete and one in...

  11. Comparing direct and iterative equation solvers in a large structural analysis software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    Two direct Choleski equation solvers and two iterative preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) equation solvers used in a large structural analysis software system are described. The two direct solvers are implementations of the Choleski method for variable-band matrix storage and sparse matrix storage. The two iterative PCG solvers include the Jacobi conjugate gradient method and an incomplete Choleski conjugate gradient method. The performance of the direct and iterative solvers is compared by solving several representative structural analysis problems. Some key factors affecting the performance of the iterative solvers relative to the direct solvers are identified.

  12. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  13. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  14. A comparative analysis of Piezoelectric and Magnetostrictive actuators in Smart Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, J. L.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a comparative analysis of Piezoelectric (PZ and Magnetostrictive (MS actuators as components in smart structures. There is an increasing interest in functional structures which are able to adapt to external or internal perturbations, i.e. changes in loading conditions or ageing. Actuator technologies must perform concomitantly as sensors and actuators to be applicable in smart structures. In this paper we will comparatively analyze the possibility of using PZ and MS actuators in smart structures and in so doing their capability to act concomitantly as sensors and of modifying their material characteristics. We will also focus on the analysis of how them can be integrated in structures and on the analysis of the most appropriate structures for each actuator. The operational performance of PZ (Stacks and MS actuators will be compared and eventually some conclusions will be drawn.

    Este artículo presenta un estudio comparativo de actuadores Piezoeléctricos (PZ y Magnetoestrictivos (MS como elementos integrantes de estructuras inteligentes. Existe un interés creciente en estructuras activas que puedan adaptarse a perturbaciones tanto internas como externas, por ejemplo, ante cambios en carga estructural o ante su envejecimiento. Para que un actuador forme parte de una estructura inteligente, debe poder actuar también como sensor. Este artículo presenta un estudio comparativo del uso de actuadores PZ y MS en estructuras inteligentes y, como consecuencia, de su habilidad para actuar y medir simultáneamente así cómo para modificar sus características mecánicas. Nos centraremos también en el análisis de como pueden integrase en estructuras y cuales son las más indicadas para cada actuador. Se compararán las características operacionales de los actuadors PZ multicapa y los MS.

  15. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brian J; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN β lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3'-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs.

  16. Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Papaver rhoeas and Papaver orientale: Molecular Structures, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Analysis

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    Jianguo Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Papaver rhoeas L. and P. orientale L., which belong to the family Papaveraceae, are used as ornamental and medicinal plants. The chloroplast genome has been used for molecular markers, evolutionary biology, and barcoding identification. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of P. rhoeas and P. orientale are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genomes of P. rhoeas and P. orientale have typical quadripartite structures, which are comprised of circular 152,905 and 152,799-bp-long molecules, respectively. A total of 130 genes were identified in each genome, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence divergence analysis of four species from Papaveraceae indicated that the most divergent regions are found in the non-coding spacers with minimal differences among three Papaver species. These differences include the ycf1 gene and intergenic regions, such as rpoB-trnC, trnD-trnT, petA-psbJ, psbE-petL, and ccsA-ndhD. These regions are hypervariable regions, which can be used as specific DNA barcodes. This finding suggested that the chloroplast genome could be used as a powerful tool to resolve the phylogenetic positions and relationships of Papaveraceae. These results offer valuable information for future research in the identification of Papaver species and will benefit further investigations of these species.

  17. European TBM for ITER: Structural material assessment and breeding capability - Comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreras, Y.; Perlado, J.M.; Ibarra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The ITER European Party is currently developing for DEMO reactor specifications two breeding blanket concepts: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead blanket (HCLL), using a liquid breeder; and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed blanket (HCPB), using a lithiated solid breeder. These two research lines are expected to be tested in ITER as Test Blanket Modules (TBM), in order to demonstrate their safety, economical and environmental suitability. In this sense, structural material activation and breeding blanket capability represent two major challenges. This paper presents new calculations regarding neutronic irradiation inside the ITER Vacuum Vessel. In particular, results are focused on the irradiation affecting the equatorial ports, where the TBM will be located for testing. The methodology employed mainly consists in calculating the neutronic irradiation levels at the required locations with the transport code MCNP, where the input geometry has been previously designed with the program CATIA V5. The main structural materials proposed for the European Test blanket Modules are selected in order to carry out a comparative analysis in safety terms: material activation and basic parameters for damage analysis are evaluated with the code ACAB, based on the neutronic irradiation results mentioned above. Finally, the breeding blanket capability is assessed for both breeding blanket concepts; the results are compared considering the choice of the structural material. (authors)

  18. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

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    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  19. Comparative analysis of chemical similarity methods for modular natural products with a hypothetical structure enumeration algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Franczak, Brian C; McNicholas, Paul D; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2017-08-16

    Natural products represent a prominent source of pharmaceutically and industrially important agents. Calculating the chemical similarity of two molecules is a central task in cheminformatics, with applications at multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Quantifying the similarity of natural products is a particularly important problem, as the biological activities of these molecules have been extensively optimized by natural selection. The large and structurally complex scaffolds of natural products distinguish their physical and chemical properties from those of synthetic compounds. However, no analysis of the performance of existing methods for molecular similarity calculation specific to natural products has been reported to date. Here, we present LEMONS, an algorithm for the enumeration of hypothetical modular natural product structures. We leverage this algorithm to conduct a comparative analysis of molecular similarity methods within the unique chemical space occupied by modular natural products using controlled synthetic data, and comprehensively investigate the impact of diverse biosynthetic parameters on similarity search. We additionally investigate a recently described algorithm for natural product retrobiosynthesis and alignment, and find that when rule-based retrobiosynthesis can be applied, this approach outperforms conventional two-dimensional fingerprints, suggesting it may represent a valuable approach for the targeted exploration of natural product chemical space and microbial genome mining. Our open-source algorithm is an extensible method of enumerating hypothetical natural product structures with diverse potential applications in bioinformatics.

  20. Comparative analysis of different weight matrices in subspace system identification for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokravi, H.; Bakhary, NH

    2017-11-01

    Subspace System Identification (SSI) is considered as one of the most reliable tools for identification of system parameters. Performance of a SSI scheme is considerably affected by the structure of the associated identification algorithm. Weight matrix is a variable in SSI that is used to reduce the dimensionality of the state-space equation. Generally one of the weight matrices of Principle Component (PC), Unweighted Principle Component (UPC) and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) are used in the structure of a SSI algorithm. An increasing number of studies in the field of structural health monitoring are using SSI for damage identification. However, studies that evaluate the performance of the weight matrices particularly in association with accuracy, noise resistance, and time complexity properties are very limited. In this study, the accuracy, noise-robustness, and time-efficiency of the weight matrices are compared using different qualitative and quantitative metrics. Three evaluation metrics of pole analysis, fit values and elapsed time are used in the assessment process. A numerical model of a mass-spring-dashpot and operational data is used in this research paper. It is observed that the principal components obtained using PC algorithms are more robust against noise uncertainty and give more stable results for the pole distribution. Furthermore, higher estimation accuracy is achieved using UPC algorithm. CVA had the worst performance for pole analysis and time efficiency analysis. The superior performance of the UPC algorithm in the elapsed time is attributed to using unit weight matrices. The obtained results demonstrated that the process of reducing dimensionality in CVA and PC has not enhanced the time efficiency but yield an improved modal identification in PC.

  1. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  2. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.; Sicat, R.; Baum, D.; Wodo, O.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  3. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Brian John; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam

    2011-01-01

    a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein...

  4. Chloroplast genomes of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea: Structures and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea using Illumina paired-end sequencing to understand their genetic organization and structure. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between 154.4~154.5 kbp, with a large single-copy region (84,197~84,158 bp), a small single-copy region (17,738~17,813 bp) and pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 26,264~26,259 bp). Both cp genomes encode 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes. Whole cp genome comparison of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, along with ten other Arabidopsis species, showed an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with divergence among some intergenic spacers. The location and distribution of repeat sequences were determined, and sequence divergences of shared genes were calculated among related species. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the entire genomic data set and 70 shared genes between both cp genomes confirmed the previous phylogeny and generated phylogenetic trees with the same topologies. The sister species of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera is A. umezawana, whereas the closest relative of A. lyrata spp. petraea is A. arenicola.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONVERTER STRUCTURES OF THE TRACTION DRIVE PROSPECTIVE MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES WITH DC TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structured schemes of steady-state converter are offered for traction drive of promising multisystem electric locomotives with traction engines of direct current and their comparative analysis is conducted.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

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    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  7. Development, characteristics and comparative structural analysis of tensegrity type cable domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadović Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensegrity type cable domes are three-dimensional structural configurations, prestressed inside the perimeter compression ring, in which the continuous tension throughout the roof structure is made by continuous tension cables and discontinuous compression struts. These kinds of structures can be formed like spatially triangulated networks or like networks nontriangulated in space. This paper examines some effects of network geometry on the behaviour and structural efficiency of tensegrity type cable domes. In this paper the roof cover is considered non-interactive with the supporting structure, unlike rigidly clad tensegrity type cable domes. Since the main bearing elements of tensegrity type cable domes are prestressed cables, they show non-linear load deformation and rely upon geometric stiffness. A geometrically non-linear analysis of non-triangulated and triangulated structures for different load conditions was conducted employing a computer program based on the perturbation theory. The incrementally-iterative procedure, with an approximation of the stiffness matrix by combining the elastic and geometric stiffness matrix, allows detection of structural instabilities.

  8. Highly comparative time-series analysis: the empirical structure of time series and their methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ben D; Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2013-06-06

    The process of collecting and organizing sets of observations represents a common theme throughout the history of science. However, despite the ubiquity of scientists measuring, recording and analysing the dynamics of different processes, an extensive organization of scientific time-series data and analysis methods has never been performed. Addressing this, annotated collections of over 35 000 real-world and model-generated time series, and over 9000 time-series analysis algorithms are analysed in this work. We introduce reduced representations of both time series, in terms of their properties measured by diverse scientific methods, and of time-series analysis methods, in terms of their behaviour on empirical time series, and use them to organize these interdisciplinary resources. This new approach to comparing across diverse scientific data and methods allows us to organize time-series datasets automatically according to their properties, retrieve alternatives to particular analysis methods developed in other scientific disciplines and automate the selection of useful methods for time-series classification and regression tasks. The broad scientific utility of these tools is demonstrated on datasets of electroencephalograms, self-affine time series, heartbeat intervals, speech signals and others, in each case contributing novel analysis techniques to the existing literature. Highly comparative techniques that compare across an interdisciplinary literature can thus be used to guide more focused research in time-series analysis for applications across the scientific disciplines.

  9. Spectral methods for the detection of network community structure: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2010-01-01

    Spectral analysis has been successfully applied to the detection of community structure of networks, respectively being based on the adjacency matrix, the standard Laplacian matrix, the normalized Laplacian matrix, the modularity matrix, the correlation matrix and several other variants of these matrices. However, the comparison between these spectral methods is less reported. More importantly, it is still unclear which matrix is more appropriate for the detection of community structure. This paper answers the question by evaluating the effectiveness of these five matrices against benchmark networks with heterogeneous distributions of node degree and community size. Test results demonstrate that the normalized Laplacian matrix and the correlation matrix significantly outperform the other three matrices at identifying the community structure of networks. This indicates that it is crucial to take into account the heterogeneous distribution of node degree when using spectral analysis for the detection of community structure. In addition, to our surprise, the modularity matrix exhibits very similar performance to the adjacency matrix, which indicates that the modularity matrix does not gain benefits from using the configuration model as a reference network with the consideration of the node degree heterogeneity

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA STRUCTURES FOR STORING MASSIVE TINS IN A DBMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data are an important source for 3D geoinformation. Modern day 3D data acquisition and processing techniques such as airborne laser scanning and multi-beam echosounding generate billions of 3D points for simply an area of few square kilometers. With the size of the point clouds exceeding the billion mark for even a small area, there is a need for their efficient storage and management. These point clouds are sometimes associated with attributes and constraints as well. Storing billions of 3D points is currently possible which is confirmed by the initial implementations in Oracle Spatial SDO PC and the PostgreSQL Point Cloud extension. But to be able to analyse and extract useful information from point clouds, we need more than just points i.e. we require the surface defined by these points in space. There are different ways to represent surfaces in GIS including grids, TINs, boundary representations, etc. In this study, we investigate the database solutions for the storage and management of massive TINs. The classical (face and edge based and compact (star based data structures are discussed at length with reference to their structure, advantages and limitations in handling massive triangulations and are compared with the current solution of PostGIS Simple Feature. The main test dataset is the TIN generated from third national elevation model of the Netherlands (AHN3 with a point density of over 10 points/m2. PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS is used for storing the generated TIN. The data structures are tested with the generated TIN models to account for their geometry, topology, storage, indexing, and loading time in a database. Our study is useful in identifying what are the limitations of the existing data structures for storing massive TINs and what is required to optimise these structures for managing massive triangulations in a database.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Data Structures for Storing Massive Tins in a Dbms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.

    2016-06-01

    Point cloud data are an important source for 3D geoinformation. Modern day 3D data acquisition and processing techniques such as airborne laser scanning and multi-beam echosounding generate billions of 3D points for simply an area of few square kilometers. With the size of the point clouds exceeding the billion mark for even a small area, there is a need for their efficient storage and management. These point clouds are sometimes associated with attributes and constraints as well. Storing billions of 3D points is currently possible which is confirmed by the initial implementations in Oracle Spatial SDO PC and the PostgreSQL Point Cloud extension. But to be able to analyse and extract useful information from point clouds, we need more than just points i.e. we require the surface defined by these points in space. There are different ways to represent surfaces in GIS including grids, TINs, boundary representations, etc. In this study, we investigate the database solutions for the storage and management of massive TINs. The classical (face and edge based) and compact (star based) data structures are discussed at length with reference to their structure, advantages and limitations in handling massive triangulations and are compared with the current solution of PostGIS Simple Feature. The main test dataset is the TIN generated from third national elevation model of the Netherlands (AHN3) with a point density of over 10 points/m2. PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS is used for storing the generated TIN. The data structures are tested with the generated TIN models to account for their geometry, topology, storage, indexing, and loading time in a database. Our study is useful in identifying what are the limitations of the existing data structures for storing massive TINs and what is required to optimise these structures for managing massive triangulations in a database.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models for Liver Toxicity Using ToxCast Assays and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (MCBIOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models for Liver Toxicity Using ToxCast Assays and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Jie Liu1,2, Richard Judson1, Matthew T. Martin1, Huixiao Hong3, Imran Shah1 1National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), US EPA, RTP, NC...

  13. Quantitative analysis of the chromatin of lymphocytes: an assay on comparative structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F

    1980-01-01

    With 26 letters we can form all the words we use, and with a few words it is possible to form an infinite number of different meaningful sentences. In our case, the letters will be a few simple neighborhood image transformations and area measurements. The paper shows how, by iterating these transformations, it is possible to obtain a good quantitative description of the nuclear structure of Feulgen-stained lymphocytes (CLL and normal). The fact that we restricted ourselves to a small number of image transformations made it possible to construct an image analysis system (TAS) able to do these transformations very quickly. We will see, successively, how to segment the nucleus itself, the chromatin, and the interchromatinic channels, how openings and closings lead to size and spatial distribution curves, and how skeletons may be used for measuring the lengths of interchromatinic channels.

  14. Comparative structural and functional analysis of genes encoding pectin methylesterases in Phytophthora spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingora, Christina; Ewer, Jason; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel

    2014-03-15

    We have scanned the Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum, and P. sojae genomes for the presence of putative pectin methylesterase genes and conducted a sequence analysis of all gene models found. We also searched for potential regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the proposed P. infestans models, and investigated the gene expression levels throughout the course of P. infestans infection on potato plants, using in planta and detached leaf assays. We found that genes located on contiguous chromosomal regions contain similar motifs in the promoter region, indicating the possibility of a shared regulatory mechanism. Results of our investigations also suggest that, during the pathogenicity process, the expression levels of some of the analyzed genes vary considerably when compared to basal expression observed in in vitro cultures of non-sporulating mycelium. These results were observed both in planta and in detached leaf assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of comparative vibrational spectroscopic and mechanistic studies in analysis of fisetin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Marković, Zoran S; Milenković, Dejan; Jeremić, Svetlana

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses experimental and theoretical research in fisetin (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroxychromen-4-one) structure by means of experimental IR and Raman spectroscopies and mechanistic calculations. Density Functional Theory calculations, with M05-2X functional and the 6-311+G (2df, p) basis set implemented in the Gaussian 09 package, are performed with the aim to support molecular structure, vibrational bands' positions and their intensities. Potential energy distribution (PED) values and the description of the largest vibrational contributions to the normal modes are calculated. The most intense bands appear in the 1650-1500 cm(-1) wavenumber region. This region involves a combination of the CO, C2C3 and C-C stretching vibrational modes. Most of the bands in the 1500-1000 cm(-1) range involve C-C stretching, O-C stretching and in-plane C-C-H, C-O-H, C-C-O and C-C-C bending vibrations of the rings. The region below 1000 cm(-1) is characteristic to the combination of in plane C-C-C-H, H-C-C-H, C-C-C-C, C-C-O-C and out of plane O-C-C-C, C-C-O-C, C-C-C-C torsional modes. The Raman spectra of baicalein and quercetin were used for qualitative comparison with fisetin spectrum and verification of band assignments. The applied detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, proposed on the basis of fundamentals, reproduced the experimental results with high degree of accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of comparative vibrational spectroscopic and mechanistic studies in analysis of fisetin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M.; Marković, Zoran S.; Milenković, Dejan; Jeremić, Svetlana

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses experimental and theoretical research in fisetin (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroxychromen-4-one) structure by means of experimental IR and Raman spectroscopies and mechanistic calculations. Density Functional Theory calculations, with M05-2X functional and the 6-311+G (2df, p) basis set implemented in the Gaussian 09 package, are performed with the aim to support molecular structure, vibrational bands' positions and their intensities. Potential energy distribution (PED) values and the description of the largest vibrational contributions to the normal modes are calculated. The most intense bands appear in the 1650-1500 cm -1 wavenumber region. This region involves a combination of the C dbnd O, C2 dbnd C3 and C-C stretching vibrational modes. Most of the bands in the 1500-1000 cm -1 range involve C-C stretching, O-C stretching and in-plane C-C-H, C-O-H, C-C-O and C-C-C bending vibrations of the rings. The region below 1000 cm -1 is characteristic to the combination of in plane C-C-C-H, H-C-C-H, C-C-C-C, C-C-O-C and out of plane O-C-C-C, C-C-O-C, C-C-C-C torsional modes. The Raman spectra of baicalein and quercetin were used for qualitative comparison with fisetin spectrum and verification of band assignments. The applied detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, proposed on the basis of fundamentals, reproduced the experimental results with high degree of accuracy.

  17. Key Process Uncertainties in Soil Carbon Dynamics: Comparing Multiple Model Structures and Observational Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Moore, J.; Averill, C.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Bradford, M.; Classen, A. T.; Hartman, M. D.; Kivlin, S. N.; Luo, Y.; Mayes, M. A.; Morrison, E. W.; Riley, W. J.; Salazar, A.; Schimel, J.; Sridhar, B.; Tang, J.; Wang, G.; Wieder, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) dynamics are crucial to understanding and predicting C cycle responses to global change and soil C modeling is a key tool for understanding these dynamics. While first order model structures have historically dominated this area, a recent proliferation of alternative model structures representing different assumptions about microbial activity and mineral protection is providing new opportunities to explore process uncertainties related to soil C dynamics. We conducted idealized simulations of soil C responses to warming and litter addition using models from five research groups that incorporated different sets of assumptions about processes governing soil C decomposition and stabilization. We conducted a meta-analysis of published warming and C addition experiments for comparison with simulations. Assumptions related to mineral protection and microbial dynamics drove strong differences among models. In response to C additions, some models predicted long-term C accumulation while others predicted transient increases that were counteracted by accelerating decomposition. In experimental manipulations, doubling litter addition did not change soil C stocks in studies spanning as long as two decades. This result agreed with simulations from models with strong microbial growth responses and limited mineral sorption capacity. In observations, warming initially drove soil C loss via increased CO2 production, but in some studies soil C rebounded and increased over decadal time scales. In contrast, all models predicted sustained C losses under warming. The disagreement with experimental results could be explained by physiological or community-level acclimation, or by warming-related changes in plant growth. In addition to the role of microbial activity, assumptions related to mineral sorption and protected C played a key role in driving long-term model responses. In general, simulations were similar in their initial responses to perturbations but diverged over

  18. Comparative analysis of MR sequences to detect structural brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Gama, Hugo Pereira; Campos Meirelles, Rogerio Goncalves de; Mendonca do Rego, Jose Iram; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Silva, Carlos Jorge da; Braga, Flavio Tulio; Martins Maia, Antonio Carlos; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2006-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a neurocutaneous genetically inherited disease with variable penetrance characterized by dysplasias and hamartomas affecting multiple organs. MR is the imaging method of choice to demonstrate structural brain lesions in TS. To compare MR sequences and determine which is most useful for the demonstration of each type of brain lesion in TS patients. We reviewed MR scans of 18 TS patients for the presence of cortical tubers, white matter lesions (radial bands), subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) on the following sequences: (1) T1-weighted spin-echo (T1 SE) images before and after gadolinium (Gd) injection; (2) nonenhanced T1 SE sequence with an additional magnetization transfer contrast medium pulse on resonance (T1 SE/MTC); and (3) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Cortical tubers were found in significantly (P<0.05) larger numbers and more conspicuously in FLAIR and T1 SE/MTC sequences. The T1 SE/MTC sequence was far superior to other methods in detecting white matter lesions (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the T1 SE/MTC and T1 SE (before and after Gd injection) sequences in the detection of subependymal nodules; FLAIR sequence showed less sensitivity than the others in identifying the nodules. T1 SE sequences after Gd injection demonstrated better the limits of the SGCA. We demonstrated the importance of appropriate MRI sequences for diagnosis of the most frequent brain lesions in TS. Our study reinforces the fact that each sequence has a particular application according to the type of TS lesion. Gd injection might be useful in detecting SGCA; however, the parameters of size and location are also important for a presumptive diagnosis of these tumors. (orig.)

  19. Comparative Structural Analysis of ERa and ERb Bound to Selective Estrogen Agonists and Antagonists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    ...) complexed with receptor-selective estrogens and antiestrogens (SERMs) The crystallographic structures of ERalpha and ERbeta ligand binding domains complexed with cis-R,R-diethyl-tetrahydrochrysene-2,8-diol (R,R-THC...

  20. Comparative Structural Analysis of ERa and ERb Bound to Selective Estrogen Agonists and Antagonists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Geoggrey

    2000-01-01

    ...) complexed with receptor-selective estrogens and antiestrogens (SERMs). The crystallographic structures of ERalpha and ERbeta ligand binding domains complexed with cis- R,R-diethyl-tetrahydrochrysene-2, 8 -diol (R,R-THC...

  1. Comparative analysis of structure of sporting preparation in a boat-racing, rowing on kayaks and canoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirnov A.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article information of expert estimation of different types of preparation is presented in boating. On the basis of analysis of literary sources the structure of the sporting training is certain. Principles of application of quantitative methods of estimation of quality are considered in sport. The most priority types of sporting preparation are exposed in different disciplines of rowing. On the basis of opinions of experts the comparative analysis of influence on the sporting result of different types of preparation is conducted in a boat-racing and rowing on kayaks and canoe.

  2. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, Jaap; Cody, A J; de Boer, A G; Sarker, S K; Jacobs, B C; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  3. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z.; Belkum, van A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Cody, A.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Sarker, S.K.; Jacobs, B.C.; Talukder, K.A.; Endtz, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barr, syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  4. Structural characterization and comparative analysis of human and piscine cartilage acidic protein (CRTAC1/CRTAC2)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Marta Lúcia Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2014 CRTAC (Cartilage Acidic Protein) firstly identified as a chondrocyte marker in humans and implicated in a number of diseases. This ancient protein is present from prokaryotes to vertebrates and the teleost are the only group that contain duplicates (CRTAC1/CRTAC2). The structure of CRTACs is poorly characterized and was the starting point of the present study. To establi...

  5. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  6. Comparative analysis of riverscape genetic structure in rare, threatened and common freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Zanatta, David T.; Wilson, Chris C.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) are highly imperiled with many species on the verge of local extirpation or global extinction. This study investigates patterns of genetic structure and diversity in six species of freshwater mussels in the central Great Lakes region of Ontario, Canada. These species vary in their conservation status (endangered to not considered at risk), life history strategy, and dispersal capabilities. Evidence of historical genetic connectivity within rivers was ubiquitous across species and may reflect dispersal abilities of host fish. There was little to no signature of recent disturbance events or bottlenecks, even in endangered species, likely as a function of mussel longevity and historical population sizes (i.e., insufficient time for genetic drift to be detectable). Genetic structure was largely at the watershed scale suggesting that population augmentation via translocation within rivers may be a useful conservation tool if needed, while minimizing genetic risks to recipient sites. Recent interest in population augmentation via translocation and propagation may rely on these results to inform management of unionids in the Great Lakes region.

  7. [Comparative analysis of structural changes in thrombocytes during Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonidze, V; Samushia, O

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of the changes in the formed elements of blood during the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While studying the structure of thrombocytes, a number of identical structural changes were identified in case of both diseases. The study has revealed various shapes of thrombocytes, the production of pseudopodia on their surface, high level of body outline, specific distribution of glycogen granules and their concentration on the periphery, glycogen eruption, dissociation of Alpha-granules towards the edge, and effective outline and density of the granules. There are frequent cases of the granule eruption from the body (exocytosis), the existence of vacuoles on the matrix, the rise in the number of gigantic thrombocytes and, consequently, considerable enhancement of the ability of absorption. Besides, there is a rise in the number of degenerated cells. The shape of thrombocytes is often changed and stretched on one side. The produced pseudopodia make the impression of participation in phagocytosis. As for the difference between changes, during Parkinson disease the amount of thrombocytes is low, more gigantic and distorted shape, less invagination of plasma membrane, low amount of granules and less intensity of alpha-granule eruption from the body. The changes revealed by the research show the activity of thrombocytes, which should be connected to their participation in protective functions of the body towards existing agent. And the diseases - although with similar but with different pathogenic mechanisms - are being developed with participation of non-specific agents.

  8. Comparative analysis of nine structural codes used in the second WIPP benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1981-11-01

    In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Benchmark II study, various computer codes were compared on the basis of their capabilities for calculating the response of hypothetical drift configurations for nuclear waste experiments and storage demonstration. The codes used by participants in the study were ANSALT, DAPROK, JAC, REM, SANCHO, SPECTROM, STEALTH, and two different implementations of MARC. Errors were found in the preliminary results, and several calculations were revised. Revised solutions were in reasonable agreement except for the REM solution. The Benchmark II study allowed significant advances in understanding the relative behavior of computer codes available for WIPP calculations. The study also pointed out the possible need for performing critical design calculations with more than one code. Lastly, it indicated the magnitude of the code-to-code spread in results which is to be expected even when a model has been explicitly defined

  9. Comparative analysis of structural concrete quality assurance practices on nine nuclear power plant construction projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.L. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    The basic objective of this research effort was to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. This analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which can be considered managerial in nature (i.e., organizational relationships, types of Quality Assurance programs, corrective action procedures, etc.) an attempt has been made to present the alternative approaches that were identified. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which are technical in nature (i.e., the frequency of testing for slump, compressive strength, etc.) an attempt has been made to present a comparative analysis between projects and in relation to the recommended or mandated practices presented in the appropriate industry codes and standards.

  10. Comparative analysis of structural concrete quality assurance practices on nine nuclear power plant construction projects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.L. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    The basic objective of this research effort was to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. This analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which can be considered managerial in nature (i.e., organizational relationships, types of Quality Assurance programs, corrective action procedures, etc.) an attempt has been made to present the alternative approaches that were identified. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which are technical in nature (i.e., the frequency of testing for slump, compressive strength, etc.) an attempt has been made to present a comparative analysis between projects and in relation to the recommended or mandated practices presented in the appropriate industry codes and standards

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE AMERICAN AND MACEDONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra KAROVSKA RISTOVSKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska, M.A. in special education and rehabilitation sciences, defended her doctoral thesis on 9 of March 2014 at the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”- Skopje in front of the commission composed of: Prof. Zora Jachova, PhD; Prof. Jasmina Kovachevikj, PhD; Prof. Ljudmil Spasov, PhD; Prof. Goran Ajdinski, PhD; Prof. Daniela Dimitrova Radojicikj, PhD. The Macedonian Sign Language is a natural language, used by the community of Deaf in the Republic of Macedonia. This doctoral paper aimed towards the analyses of the characteristics of the Macedonian Sign Language: its phonology, morphology and syntax as well as towards the comparison of the Macedonian and the American Sign Language. William Stokoe was the first one who in the 1960’s started the research of the American Sign Language. He set the base of the linguistic research in sign languages. The analysis of the signs in the Macedonian Sign Language was made according Stokoe’s parameters: location, hand shape and movement. Lexicostatistics showed that MSL and ASL belong to a different language family. Beside this fact, they share some iconic signs, whose presence can be attributed to the phenomena of lexical borrowings. Phonologically, in ASL and MSL, if we make a change of one of Stokoe’s categories, the meaning of the word changes as well. Non-manual signs which are grammatical markers in sign languages are identical in ASL and MSL. The production of compounds and the production of plural forms are identical in both sign languages. The inflection of verbs is also identical. The research showed that the most common order of words in ASL and MSL is the SVO order (subject-verb-object, while the SOV and OVS order can seldom be met. Questions and negative sentences are produced identically in ASL and MSL.

  12. A comparative analysis of business structures suitable for farmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus 'cooperative' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located

  13. Finding Structure in Diversity: A Stepwise Small-N/Medium-N Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach for Water Resources Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing particularly on recent debates on, and development of, comparative methods in the field of comparative politics, the paper argues that stepwise small-N/medium-N qualitative comparative analysis (QCA is a particularly suitable methodological approach for water resources studies because it can make use of the rich but fragmented water resources studies literature for accumulation of knowledge and development of theory. It is suggested that taking an explicit critical realist ontological and epistemological stance allows expansion of the scope of stepwise small-N/medium-N QCA beyond what is claimed for it in Ragin’s 'configurational comparative methods (CCM' perspective for analysing the complexity of causality as 'multiple conjunctural causation'. In addition to explanation of certain sets of 'outcomes' as in CCM’s combinatorial, set-theoretic approach, embedding stepwise small-N/medium-N QCA in a critical realist ontology allows the method to contribute to development of theory on (qualitative differences between the structures in society that shape water resources use, management and governance.

  14. A comparative analysis of bleached and sound enamel structure through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Kaleem, M.; Anwar, R.

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of bleaching agent on enamel structure and to characterize the morphological and chemical changes in enamel due to bleaching. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: School of Chemical and Material Engineering (SCME), NUST Islamabad from Feb to May 2013. Materials and Methods: Ten recently extracted pre molars between the 12-22 years age group were randomly assigned into two groups. Group one was a non-bleached control group with sound enamel. Group two was bleached with Everbrite In office tooth whitening system after specimen preparation, surface morphology was observed under SEM (scanned electron microscope) and AFM (Atomic force microscope). Results: The detrimental effects of hydrogen per-oxide on enamel were evident in bleached specimens under SEM, and AFM analysis. Conclusion: There were significant surface alterations found in the bleached specimens as compared to control group. However salivary buffering potentials could overcome the demineralizing effect of bleaching gel. (author)

  15. Comparative power law analysis of structured breast phantom and patient images in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockmartin, L; Bosmans, H; Marshall, N W

    2013-08-01

    This work characterizes three candidate mammography phantoms with structured background in terms of power law analysis in the low frequency region of the power spectrum for 2D (planar) mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The study was performed using three phantoms (spheres in water, Voxmam, and BR3D CIRS phantoms) on two DBT systems from two different vendors (Siemens Inspiration and Hologic Selenia Dimensions). Power spectra (PS) were calculated for planar projection, DBT projection, and reconstructed images and curve fitted in the low frequency region from 0.2 to 0.7 mm(-1) with a power law function characterized by an exponent β and magnitude κ. The influence of acquisition dose and tube voltage on the power law parameters was first explored. Then power law parameters were calculated from images acquired with the same anode∕filter combination and tube voltage for the three test objects, and compared with each other. Finally, PS curves for automatic exposure controlled acquisitions (anode∕filter combination and tube voltages selected by the systems based on the breast equivalent thickness of the test objects) were compared against PS analysis performed on patient data (for Siemens 80 and for Hologic 48 mammograms and DBT series). Dosimetric aspects of the three test objects were also examined. The power law exponent (β) was found to be independent of acquisition dose for planar mammography but varied more for DBT projections of the sphere-phantom. Systematic increase of tube voltage did not affect β but decreased κ, both in planar and DBT projection phantom images. Power spectra of the BR3D phantom were closer to those of the patients than these of the Voxmam phantom; the Voxmam phantom gave high values of κ compared to the other phantoms and the patient series. The magnitude of the PS curves of the BR3D phantom was within the patient range but β was lower than the average patient value. Finally, PS magnitude for the sphere

  16. Comparative risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the risks of various energy systems are discussed considering severe accidents analysis, particularly the probabilistic safety analysis, and probabilistic safety criteria, and the applications of these criteria and analysis. The comparative risk analysis has demonstrated that the largest source of risk in every society is from daily small accidents. Nevertheless, we have to be more concerned about severe accidents. The comparative risk analysis of five different energy systems (coal, oil, gas, LWR and STEC (Solar)) for the public has shown that the main sources of risks are coal and oil. The latest comparative risk study of various energy has been conducted in the USA and has revealed that the number of victims from coal is 42 as many than victims from nuclear. A study for severe accidents from hydro-dams in United States has estimated the probability of dam failures at 1 in 10,000 years and the number of victims between 11,000 and 260,000. The average occupational risk from coal is one fatal accident in 1,000 workers/year. The probabilistic safety analysis is a method that can be used to assess nuclear energy risks, and to analyze the severe accidents, and to model all possible accident sequences and consequences. The 'Fault tree' analysis is used to know the probability of failure of the different systems at each point of accident sequences and to calculate the probability of risks. After calculating the probability of failure, the criteria for judging the numerical results have to be developed, that is the quantitative and qualitative goals. To achieve these goals, several systems have been devised by various countries members of AIEA. The probabilistic safety ana-lysis method has been developed by establishing a computer program permit-ting to know different categories of safety related information. 19 tabs. (author)

  17. Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, M.J.; O'Sullivan, O.; Wang, Q.; Nikkilä, J.; Marchesi, J.R.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Ross, R.P.; O'Toole, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variations in the composition of the human intestinal microbiota are linked to diverse health conditions. High-throughput molecular technologies have recently elucidated microbial community structure at much higher resolution than was previously possible. Here we compare two such

  18. Conformational, structural, vibrational and quantum chemical analysis on 4-aminobenzohydrazide and 4-hydroxybenzohydrazide--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Jayaprakash, A; Carthigayan, K; Periandy, S; Mohan, S

    2013-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical quantum chemical studies were carried out on 4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (4HBH) and 4-aminobenzohydrazide (4ABH) using FTIR and FT-Raman spectral data. The structural characteristics and vibrational spectroscopic analysis were carried performed by quantum chemical methods with the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3LYP using 6-31G(**), 6-311++G(**) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. The most stable conformer of the title compounds have been determined from the analysis of potential energy surface. The stable molecular geometries, electronic and thermodynamic parameters, IR intensities, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarisation ratio and Raman intensities have been computed. Molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbitals were constructed to understand the electronic properties. The potential energy distributions (PEDs) were calculated to explain the mixing of fundamental modes. The theoretical geometrical parameters and the fundamental frequencies were compared with the experimental. The interactions of hydroxy and amino group substitutions on the characteristic vibrations of the ring and hydrazide group have been analysed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Magnetic Field Signals over Impact Structures on the Earth, Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isac, Anca; Mandea, Mioara; Purucker, Michael; Langlais, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    An improved description of magnetic fields of terrestrial bodies has been obtained from recent space missions, leading to a better characterization of the internal fields including those of crustal origin. One of the striking differences in their crustal magnetic field is the signature of large impact craters. A comparative analysis of the magnetic characteristics of these structures can shed light on the history of their respective planetary-scale magnetic dynamos. This has motivated us to identify impact craters and basins, first by their quasi-circular features from the most recent and detailed topographic maps and then from available global magnetic field maps. We have examined the magnetic field observed above 27 complex craters on the Earth, 34 impact basins on Mars and 37 impact basins on the Moon. For the first time, systematic trends in the amplitude and frequency of the magnetic patterns, inside and outside of these structures are observed for all three bodies. The demagnetization effects due to the impact shock wave and excavation processes have been evaluated applying the Equivalent Source Dipole forward modeling approach. The main characteristics of the selected impact craters are shown. The trends in their magnetic signatures are indicated, which are related to the presence or absence of a planetary-scale dynamo at the time of their formation and to impact processes. The low magnetic field intensity at center can be accepted as the prime characteristic of a hypervelocity impact and strongly associated with the mechanics of impact crater formation. In the presence of an active internal field, the process of demagnetization due to the shock impact is associated with post-impact remagnetization processes, generating a more complex magnetic signature.

  20. The Use of Carcasses for the Analysis of Cetacean Population Genetic Structure: A Comparative Study in Two Dolphin Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgmann, Kerstin; Möller, Luciana M.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Kemper, Catherine M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques have enabled the study of genetic diversity and population structure in many different contexts. Studies that assess the genetic structure of cetacean populations often use biopsy samples from free-ranging individuals and tissue samples from stranded animals or individuals that became entangled in fishery or aquaculture equipment. This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure. Here we use tissue samples from carcasses of dolphins that stranded or died as a result of bycatch in South Australia to investigate spatial population structure in two species: coastal bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). We compare these results with those previously obtained from biopsy sampled free-ranging dolphins in the same area to test whether carcass samples yield similar patterns of genetic variability and population structure. Data from dolphin carcasses were gathered using seven microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region. However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area. We propose that in the absence of corroborating data, and when population structure is assessed over relatively small spatial scales, the sole use of carcasses may lead to an underestimate of genetic differentiation. This can lead to a failure in identifying management units for conservation. Therefore, this risk should be carefully

  1. "Hot cores" in proteins: Comparative analysis of the apolar contact area in structures from hyper/thermophilic and mesophilic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossa Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of stabilizing factors have been invoked so far to elucidate the structural basis of protein thermostability. These include, amongst the others, a higher number of ion-pairs interactions and hydrogen bonds, together with a better packing of hydrophobic residues. It has been frequently observed that packing of hydrophobic side chains is improved in hyperthermophilic proteins, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. In this work, protein crystal structures from hyper/thermophilic organisms and their mesophilic homologs have been compared, in order to quantify the difference of apolar contact area and to assess the role played by the hydrophobic contacts in the stabilization of the protein core, at high temperatures. Results The construction of two datasets was carried out so as to satisfy several restrictive criteria, such as minimum redundancy, resolution and R-value thresholds and lack of any structural defect in the collected structures. This approach allowed to quantify with relatively high precision the apolar contact area between interacting residues, reducing the uncertainty due to the position of atoms in the crystal structures, the redundancy of data and the size of the dataset. To identify the common core regions of these proteins, the study was focused on segments that conserve a similar main chain conformation in the structures analyzed, excluding the intervening regions whose structure differs markedly. The results indicated that hyperthermophilic proteins underwent a significant increase of the hydrophobic contact area contributed by those residues composing the alpha-helices of the structurally conserved regions. Conclusion This study indicates the decreased flexibility of alpha-helices in proteins core as a major factor contributing to the enhanced termostability of a number of hyperthermophilic proteins. This effect, in turn, may be due to an increased number of buried methyl groups in

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae: structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Gichira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp, with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696. H. abyssinica’s chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae): structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichira, Andrew W; Li, Zhizhong; Saina, Josphat K; Long, Zhicheng; Hu, Guangwan; Gituru, Robert W; Wang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp), with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR) 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp) and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696). H. abyssinica 's chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene ( infA ) which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica . A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  4. Oceanographer transform fault structure compared to that of surrounding oceanic crust: Results from seismic refraction data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambos, E. L.; Hussong, D. M.

    1986-02-01

    A high quality seismic refraction data set was collected near the intersection of the tranform portion of the Oceanographer Fracture Zone (OFZ) with the adjacent northern limb of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading center (MAR). One seismic line was shot down the axis of the transform valley. Another was shot parallel to the spreading center, crossing from normal oceanic crust into the transform valley, and out again. This latter line was recorded by four Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) spaced along its length, providing complete reversed coverage over the crucial transform valley zone. Findings indicate that whereas the crust of the transform valley is only slightly thinner (4.5 km) compared to normal oceanic crust (5-8 km), the structure is different. Velocities in the range of 6.9 to 7.7. km/sec, which are characteristics of seismic layer 3B, are absent, although a substantial thickness (approximately 3 km) of 6.1-6.8 km/sec material does appear to be present. The upper crust, some 2 km in thickness, is characterized by a high velocity gradient (1.5 sec -1) in which veloxity increases from 2.7 km/sec at the seafloor to 5.8 km/sec at the base of the section. A centrally-located deep of the transform valley has thinner crust (1-2 km), whereas the crust gradually thickens past the transform valley-spreading center intersection. Analysis of the seismic line crossing sub-perpendicular to the transform valley demonstrates abrupt thinning of the upper crustal section, and thickening of the lower crust outside of the trasform valley. In addition, high-velocity material seems to occur under the valley flanks, particularly the southern flanking ridge. This ridge, which is on the side of the transform opposite to the intersection of spreading ridge and transform, may be an expression of uplifted, partially serpentinized upper mantle rocks.

  5. MNE SPECIFIC FACTORS OF CORPORATE CAPITAL STRUCTURE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN TERMS OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES DEMAND AND SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Tsyganov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates corporate capital structure of multinational enterprises. Its core subject is focused on corporate capital structure defining factors that are specific for MNE rather than for domestic corporations. Substantial part of scientific literature concentrates on country specific and firm specific factors of corporate capital structure with most research devoted to domestic corporations. The main goal of our paper is to discover among plenty of corporate capital structure factors those that are specific for MNE and to develop a new approach for analyzing these factors in terms of financial resources demand and supply. There are some corporate capital structure factors that influence directly and some that have indirect influence while there is also another set of factors having both direct and indirect influence on indebtedness. Different theoretical and empirical research confirm different directions. Methodology of our study is based on analysis of two fundamental market driving forces that are demand and supply. Their influence on corporate capital structure is of a primary origin and that is why the suggested approach is to our mind theoretically significant and practically important. Demand factors imply that a corporation creates demand for financial resources and its capital structure is defined internally. Supply factors imply an external capital structure since it is created by external investors’ supply of financial resources. On empirical level, we use the primary data of corporate financial statements to analyze the leverage of MNE based in different countries and representing different industries. The key results of our study show that the main MNE specific factors of capital structure include such demand factors as multinationality level, assets tangibility and political risk. The first two are firm specific factors that can influence corporate capital structure either directly or indirectly according to

  6. How often do they have sex? A comparative analysis of the population structure of seven eukaryotic microbial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Tomasini

    Full Text Available The model of predominant clonal evolution (PCE proposed for micropathogens does not state that genetic exchange is totally absent, but rather, that it is too rare to break the prevalent PCE pattern. However, the actual impact of this "residual" genetic exchange should be evaluated. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST is an excellent tool to explore the problem. Here, we compared online available MLST datasets for seven eukaryotic microbial pathogens: Trypanosoma cruzi, the Fusarium solani complex, Aspergillus fumigatus, Blastocystis subtype 3, the Leishmania donovani complex, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. We first analyzed phylogenetic relationships among genotypes within each dataset. Then, we examined different measures of branch support and incongruence among loci as signs of genetic structure and levels of past recombination. The analyses allow us to identify three types of genetic structure. The first was characterized by trees with well-supported branches and low levels of incongruence suggesting well-structured populations and PCE. This was the case for the T. cruzi and F. solani datasets. The second genetic structure, represented by Blastocystis spp., A. fumigatus and the L. donovani complex datasets, showed trees with weakly-supported branches but low levels of incongruence among loci, whereby genetic structuration was not clearly defined by MLST. Finally, trees showing weakly-supported branches and high levels of incongruence among loci were observed for Candida species, suggesting that genetic exchange has a higher evolutionary impact in these mainly clonal yeast species. Furthermore, simulations showed that MLST may fail to show right clustering in population datasets even in the absence of genetic exchange. In conclusion, these results make it possible to infer variable impacts of genetic exchange in populations of predominantly clonal micro-pathogens. Moreover, our results reveal different problems of MLST to determine the

  7. A Comparative Analysis between Commercial Banks and Insurance Companies in Bangladesh on the basis of Capital Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moniruzzaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the capital structure of Bangladeshi commercial banks and insurance companies. This research tries to identify how debt-equity mix influences firm performance in banks and insurance companies in Bangladesh. The annual financial statements of 10 commercial banks and 10 insurance Companies were used for this study which covers a period of five (5 years from 2011-2015. The study assesses the capital structure of the commercial banks and insurance companies measured by total debt to equity ratio (DER, total debt to total funds ratio and performance by ROE, ROA, and EPS. Descriptive statistics, t-test have been used to show the differences between commercial banks and insurance companies capital structure and performance. However this study concludes that there is no significant difference between Bank and insurance companies EPS& ROE but there is a significant difference between Bank and insurance company’s D/A ratio, D/E ratio and ROA. We have tried to find out the significances of capital structure on depository and non-depository financial institutions from this study.

  8. Comparative analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) having different nanocrystalline TiO2 layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcade, Fresnel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Vigil, Elena; Jennings, James R.; Duna, Halina; Wang, Hongxia; Peter, Laurence M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are very prospective because of their low cost and comparatively not so low efficiency. This represents an advantage together with the innocuous character of the constituent materials. We study different types of DSSC. The procedure for making them has been the same except for the TiO 2 layer structure. This layer must be porous and nanocrystalline in order to increase light absorption by the sensitizer. On the other hand, this condition causes that the electrolyte contacts the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) underneath the TiO 2 originating undesired recombinations. Also the electrical contact of the Tio to the TCO depends on the technology used to deposit the TiO 2 . In order to avoid possible leakage currents caused by recombinations from the TCO to the electrolyte and improve TiO 2 -TCO electrical contact, a thin TiO 2 film is placed in between the porous TiO 2 layer and the TCO. Different structures are obtained using different technologies to obtain the thin TiO 2 film. These structures are analyzed from their volt-amperic characteristic, external quantum efficiency spectra and voltage decay observed when light is suppressed. Results obtained allow making recommendations regarding nanocrystalline TiO 2 structure to be used in DSSC. (author)

  9. Comparative analysis of the vibrational structure of the absorption spectra of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Tyulin, V. I.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    The assignments of absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum are compared with the assignments of bands obtained by the CRDS method in a supersonic jet from the time of laser radiation damping for the trans isomer of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state. The ν00 trans = 25861 cm-1 values and fundamental frequencies, including torsional vibration frequency, obtained by the two methods were found to coincide in the excited electronic state ( S 1) for this isomer. The assignments of several absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the spectrum obtained by the CRDS method were changed. Changes in the assignment of (0-v') transition bands of the torsional vibration of the trans isomer in the Deslandres table from the ν00 trans trans origin allowed the table to be extended to high quantum numbers v'. The torsional vibration frequencies up to v' = 5 were found to be close to the frequencies found by analyzing the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum and calculated quantum-mechanically. The coincidence of the barrier to internal rotation (the cis-trans transition) in the one-dimensional model with that calculated quantum-mechanically using the two-dimensional model corresponds to a planar structure of the acrolein molecule in the excited ( S 1) electronic state.

  10. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P.; Koller, K.; Weinberg, V.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    2008-01-01

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff λ cut . The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV cut <600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  11. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  12. Human cytosolic glutathione-S-transferases: quantitative analysis of expression, comparative analysis of structures and inhibition strategies of isozymes involved in drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Krishnamoorthy; Achary, Anant

    2017-08-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibition is a strategy to overcome drug resistance. Several isoforms of human GSTs are present and they are expressed in almost all the organs. Specific expression levels of GSTs in various organs are collected from the human transcriptome data and analysis of the organ-specific expression of GST isoforms is carried out. The variations in the level of expressions of GST isoforms are statistically significant. The GST expression differs in diseased conditions as reported by many investigators and some of the isoforms of GSTs are disease markers or drug targets. Structure analysis of various isoforms is carried out and literature mining has been performed to identify the differences in the active sites of the GSTs. The xenobiotic binding H site is classified into H1, H2, and H3 and the differences in the amino acid composition, the hydrophobicity and other structural features of H site of GSTs are discussed. The existing inhibition strategies are compared. The advent of rational drug design, mechanism-based inhibition strategies, availability of high-throughput screening, target specific, and selective inhibition of GST isoforms involved in drug resistance could be achieved for the reversal of drug resistance and aid in the treatment of diseases.

  13. Comparative structural analysis of a novel glutathioneS-transferase (ATU5508) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 2.0 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, Mickey; Han, Gye Won; Krishna, S Sri; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Fasnacht, Marc; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Ambing, Eileen; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Canaves, Jaume M; Carlton, Dennis; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; DiDonato, Michael; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grittini, Carina; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Hale, Joanna; Hampton, Eric; Haugen, Justin; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Johnson, Hope; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Koesema, Eric; Kreusch, Andreas; Kuhn, Peter; Levin, Inna; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D; Morse, Andrew T; Moy, Kin; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Page, Rebecca; Paulsen, Jessica; Quijano, Kevin; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L; Sims, Eric; Spraggon, Glen; Sridhar, Vandana; Stevens, Raymond C; van den Bedem, Henry; Velasquez, Jeff; White, Aprilfawn; Wolf, Guenter; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2006-11-15

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a diverse superfamily of enzymes found in organisms from all kingdoms of life. GSTs are involved in diverse processes, notably small-molecule biosynthesis or detoxification, and are frequently also used in protein engineering studies or as biotechnology tools. Here, we report the high-resolution X-ray structure of Atu5508 from the pathogenic soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens (atGST1). Through use of comparative sequence and structural analysis of the GST superfamily, we identified local sequence and structural signatures, which allowed us to distinguish between different GST classes. This approach enables GST classification based on structure, without requiring additional biochemical or immunological data. Consequently, analysis of the atGST1 crystal structure suggests a new GST class, distinct from previously characterized GSTs, which would make it an attractive target for further biochemical studies. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Claesson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations in the composition of the human intestinal microbiota are linked to diverse health conditions. High-throughput molecular technologies have recently elucidated microbial community structure at much higher resolution than was previously possible. Here we compare two such methods, pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic array, and evaluate classifications based on two variable 16S rRNA gene regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Over 1.75 million amplicon sequences were generated from the V4 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA genes in bacterial DNA extracted from four fecal samples of elderly individuals. The phylotype richness, for individual samples, was 1,400-1,800 for V4 reads and 12,500 for V6 reads, and 5,200 unique phylotypes when combining V4 reads from all samples. The RDP-classifier was more efficient for the V4 than for the far less conserved and shorter V6 region, but differences in community structure also affected efficiency. Even when analyzing only 20% of the reads, the majority of the microbial diversity was captured in two samples tested. DNA from the four samples was hybridized against the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray for community profiling. Comparison of clustering of genus counts from pyrosequencing and HITChip data revealed highly similar profiles. Furthermore, correlations of sequence abundance and hybridization signal intensities were very high for lower-order ranks, but lower at family-level, which was probably due to ambiguous taxonomic groupings. CONCLUSIONS: The RDP-classifier consistently assigned most V4 sequences from human intestinal samples down to genus-level with good accuracy and speed. This is the deepest sequencing of single gastrointestinal samples reported to date, but microbial richness levels have still not leveled out. A majority of these diversities can also be captured with five times lower sampling-depth. HITChip hybridizations and resulting community profiles correlate

  15. Compare and contrast structures worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.

    1998-01-01

    An corporate overview of Cooper and Lybrand was provided. The company has some 70,000 professional employees deployed in some 100 countries. The Canadian branch of the company alone has 26 office, 275 partners and some 2,500 employees. The Canadian firm specializes in the following services to the electric utility sector: (1) business assurance, (2) market design, (3) financial advisory, (4) project management, and (5) information technology. A detailed review of power pools and market structures in Australia, Brazil, the United States (California), and the United Kingdom were also presented, emphasizing the special circumstances, constraints and opportunities in each individual case

  16. New Comparative Analysis Based on the Secondary Structure of SSU-rRNA Gene Reveals the Evolutionary Trend and the Family-Genus Characters of Mobilida (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Qin; Tang, Fa-Hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the structural evolutionary trend of Mobilida ciliates, twenty-six SSU-rRNA sequences of mobilid species, including seven ones newly sequenced in the present work, were used for comparative phylogenic analysis based on the RNA secondary structure. The research results indicate that all the secondary structures except domains Helix 10, Helix 12, and Helix 37 could be regarded as the criterions in classification between the family Trichodinidae and Urceolariida, and four regions including Helix E10-1, Helix 29, Helix 43, and Helix 45-Helix 46 could be as criterions in classification between the genus Trichodinella and Trichodina in family Trichodinidae. After the analysis of common structural feature within the Mobilida, it was found that the secondary structure of V6 could prove the family Urceolariidae primitive status. This research has further suggested that the genus Trichodina could be divergent earlier than Trichodinella in the family Trichodinidae. In addition, the relationship between the secondary structure and topology of phylogenic tree that the branching order of most clades corresponds with the secondary structure of species within each clade of phylogenetic tree was first uncovered and discussed in the present study.

  17. Comparative analysis of structural concrete Quality Assurance practices on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.J. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    A summary of two reports, COO/4120-1 and COO/4120-2, is given. A comparative analysis was made of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. For the nuclear projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. For the fossil projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which were applicable in the nuclear situation. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects

  18. A Comparative Structural Analysis of the Oral Language Materials and the Basic Readers Used in Philippine Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maminta, Rosario E.

    1968-01-01

    Outlines a study to determine similarities between language structures in English reading materials and oral language patterns familiar to Filipino children and mentions needs for readability studies of second-language materials. Bibliography. (MD)

  19. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  20. Comparative analysis of a large panel of non-starch polysaccharides reveals structures with selective regulatory properties in dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, René; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    -regulate LPS-induced IL-12p70 production. The most potent NSP induced up-regulation of CD86 on DC independently of LPS stimulation. Cereal-based β-glucans showed less potency than β-glucans of microbial origin, but proper molecular weight composition and preparation may improve effectiveness......Scope: Structural-based recognition of foreign molecules is essential for activation of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a key role in regulation of gut mucosal immunity. Orally ingested non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are ascribed many health-promoting properties, but currently we lack insight...... into the impact of structure and size for their capacity to affect immune responses.Methods and results: This study addresses the importance of chemical structure, size, origin and presence of contaminants for the capacity of both dietary and non-food NSP to modulate DC. Of 28 NSP products, β-glucans of microbial...

  1. LoopX: A Graphical User Interface-Based Database for Comprehensive Analysis and Comparative Evaluation of Loops from Protein Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadumuri, Rajashekar Varma; Vadrevu, Ramakrishna

    2017-10-01

    Due to their crucial role in function, folding, and stability, protein loops are being targeted for grafting/designing to create novel or alter existing functionality and improve stability and foldability. With a view to facilitate a thorough analysis and effectual search options for extracting and comparing loops for sequence and structural compatibility, we developed, LoopX a comprehensively compiled library of sequence and conformational features of ∼700,000 loops from protein structures. The database equipped with a graphical user interface is empowered with diverse query tools and search algorithms, with various rendering options to visualize the sequence- and structural-level information along with hydrogen bonding patterns, backbone φ, ψ dihedral angles of both the target and candidate loops. Two new features (i) conservation of the polar/nonpolar environment and (ii) conservation of sequence and conformation of specific residues within the loops have also been incorporated in the search and retrieval of compatible loops for a chosen target loop. Thus, the LoopX server not only serves as a database and visualization tool for sequence and structural analysis of protein loops but also aids in extracting and comparing candidate loops for a given target loop based on user-defined search options.

  2. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  3. A comparative analysis of two Early Palaeozoic marine impact structures in Estonia, Baltic Sea: Neugrund and Kärdla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Suuroja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kärdla and Neugrund are two Early Palaeozoic offshore impact structures located some 50 km apart along the Estonian coast of the Baltic Sea. They share many similarities but differing features are also found. The Kärdla impact structure is located at the NE coastof Hiiumaa Island (58°58’N, 22°46’E. The inner crater has a 4 km rim-to-rim diameter and a c. 130 m high central uplift, surrounded by a ring fault, c. 12 km in diameter. The well-preserved buried inner crater is outlined in the landscape by a circular ridge of upliftedbedrock. The perimeter of the outer crater is outlined on the seafloor by a semicircular ridge of narrow shoals. The variable height of the rim wall (50–240 m above the crystalline basement level and the asymmetric location of the inner crater is obviously a result of an oblique impact in a layered target and partial collapse of the rim wall. Shortly after the impact in a shallow epicontinental sea during Late Ordovician time (c. 455 My, calcareous biodetritic muds were deposited and the crater was buried. The Neugrund impact structure is located in the seabed at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland (59°20’N, 23°31’E. The inner crater has a 7 km rim-to-rim diameter and the outer limit of the structure passes through the Osmussaar Island to the southwest of the impact centre. The crater wasburied in a shallow epicontinental sea with siliciclastic deposition shortly after the impact at Early Cambrian time, c. 535 My. It was partially re-exposed by erosion during Pliocene. The target had a three-layered composition: Precambrian metamorphic rocks covered byEdiacaran and Early Cambrian siliciclastic rocks (c. 150 m and water (c. 100 m. The structure has been studied with seismoacoustic and sidescan sonar profiling, and by diving and sampling of submarine outcrops. Several hundred samples of impact breccias have been collected and investigated from erratic boulders distributed by glacial action in the west

  4. The First population structure and comparative genomics analysis of Mycobacterium africanum strains from Ghana reveals higher diversity of Lineage 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac D Otchere

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This work emphasizes on the possibility that the mpt64-based rapid diagnostic kit would not be effective in MAF endemic settings. More mutations in ESAT-6 secretory system of MAF compared to MTB sensu stricto can affect efficacy of ESAT-6-based vaccines in the future.

  5. Comparative analysis of three-dimensional structures of homodimers of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the unligated state and in a complex with potassium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial organization of the homodimer of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium (St UPh) was determined with high accuracy. The structure was refined at 1.80 A resolution to R work = 16.1% and R free = 20.0%. The rms deviations for the bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.006 A, 1.042 o , and 0.071 o , respectively. The coordinate error estimated by the Luzzati plot is 0.166 A. The coordinate error based on the maximum likelihood is 0.199 A. A comparative analysis of the spatial organization of the homodimer in two independently refined structures and the structure of the homodimer St UPh in the complex with a K + ion was performed. The substrate-binding sites in the homodimers StUPhs in the unligated state were found to act asynchronously. In the presence of a potassium ion, the three-dimensional structures of the subunits in the homodimer are virtually identical, which is apparently of importance for the synchronous action of both substrate-binding sites. The atomic coordinates of the refined structure of the homodimer and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID code 3DPS).

  6. Comparative analysis of three-dimensional structures of homodimers of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the unligated state and in a complex with potassium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    The spatial organization of the homodimer of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium (St UPh) was determined with high accuracy. The structure was refined at 1.80 A resolution to R{sub work} = 16.1% and R{sub free} = 20.0%. The rms deviations for the bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.006 A, 1.042{sup o}, and 0.071{sup o}, respectively. The coordinate error estimated by the Luzzati plot is 0.166 A. The coordinate error based on the maximum likelihood is 0.199 A. A comparative analysis of the spatial organization of the homodimer in two independently refined structures and the structure of the homodimer St UPh in the complex with a K{sup +} ion was performed. The substrate-binding sites in the homodimers StUPhs in the unligated state were found to act asynchronously. In the presence of a potassium ion, the three-dimensional structures of the subunits in the homodimer are virtually identical, which is apparently of importance for the synchronous action of both substrate-binding sites. The atomic coordinates of the refined structure of the homodimer and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID code 3DPS).

  7. Structural modelling and comparative analysis of homologous, analogous and specific proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens: putative drug targets for chagas' disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Guimarães, Ana C R; Otto, Thomas D; Miranda, Antonio B; Dardenne, Laurent E; Degrave, Wim M

    2010-10-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, an endemic infection that causes thousands of deaths every year in Latin America. Therapeutic options remain inefficient, demanding the search for new drugs and/or new molecular targets. Such efforts can focus on proteins that are specific to the parasite, but analogous enzymes and enzymes with a three-dimensional (3D) structure sufficiently different from the corresponding host proteins may represent equally interesting targets. In order to find these targets we used the workflows MHOLline and AnEnΠ obtaining 3D models from homologous, analogous and specific proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens. We applied genome wide comparative modelling techniques to obtain 3D models for 3,286 predicted proteins of T. cruzi. In combination with comparative genome analysis to Homo sapiens, we were able to identify a subset of 397 enzyme sequences, of which 356 are homologous, 3 analogous and 38 specific to the parasite. In this work, we present a set of 397 enzyme models of T. cruzi that can constitute potential structure-based drug targets to be investigated for the development of new strategies to fight Chagas' disease. The strategies presented here support the concept of structural analysis in conjunction with protein functional analysis as an interesting computational methodology to detect potential targets for structure-based rational drug design. For example, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC 1.3.1.34) and triacylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), classified as analogous proteins in relation to H. sapiens enzymes, were identified as new potential molecular targets.

  8. Cigarette purchasing behaviour in Thailand and Malaysia: comparative analysis of a semi-monopolistic and a free-market structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H; Driezen, P; Sirirassamee, B; Kin, F

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cigarette prices can undermine the impact of tobacco tax policy when smokers switch to cheaper cigarettes instead of quitting. In order to better understand this behaviour, we study socio-economic determinants of price/brand choices in two different markets: a semi-monopolistic market in Thailand and a competitive market in Malaysia. The hypothesis that the factors affecting the price/brand choice are different in these two markets is analysed by employing a 2005 survey among smokers. This survey provides a unique perspective on market characteristics usually described only in business reports by the tobacco industry. We found that smokers in Thailand have fewer opportunities to trade down to save money on cigarettes, but pay lower prices than smokers in Malaysia, despite Thailand's higher tax rate. The Malaysian market, on the other hand, offers many possibilities to shop around for cheaper cigarettes. Higher income and education increase the price paid per cigarette in both countries, but the impact of these factors is larger in Malaysia. This has implications for sensitivity to cigarette prices. Using tax policy alone should be a more effective tobacco control measure in Thailand as compared to Malaysia. The effectiveness of a tax increase in Malaysia can be improved by adding programmes focusing on smoking cessation among low-income/low-educated smokers.

  9. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    , by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index......Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE...... analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves...

  10. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Bone Structural Parameters Reveals Subchondral Cortical Plate Resorption and Increased Trabecular Bone Remodeling in Human Facet Joint Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Netzer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments. To this end, we conducted comparative micro computed tomography analysis in healthy (n = 15 and osteoarthritic (n = 22 lumbar facet joints. In osteoarthritic joints, subchondral cortical plate thickness and porosity were significantly reduced. The trabecular compartment displayed a 42 percent increase in bone volume fraction due to an increase in trabecular number, but not trabecular thickness. Bone structural alterations were associated with radiological osteoarthritis severity, mildly age-dependent but not gender-dependent. There was a lack of association between structural parameters of cortical and trabecular compartments in healthy and osteoarthritic specimens. The specific structural alterations suggest elevated subchondral bone resorption and turnover as a potential treatment target in facet joint osteoarthritis.

  12. Large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis unveils general rules that fine-tune evolution of mRNA primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Codon usage and codon-pair context are important gene primary structure features that influence mRNA decoding fidelity. In order to identify general rules that shape codon-pair context and minimize mRNA decoding error, we have carried out a large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis of 119 fully sequenced genomes. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed mathematical and software tools for large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis. These methodologies unveiled general and species specific codon-pair context rules that govern evolution of mRNAs in the 3 domains of life. We show that evolution of bacterial and archeal mRNA primary structure is mainly dependent on constraints imposed by the translational machinery, while in eukaryotes DNA methylation and tri-nucleotide repeats impose strong biases on codon-pair context. CONCLUSIONS: The data highlight fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decoding rules, which are partially independent of codon usage.

  13. Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding structure-function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450 km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235 m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130 m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions.

  14. Comparative pharmacodynamic analysis of imidazoline compounds using rat model of ocular mydriasis with a test of quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Nasal, Antoni; Frąckowiak, Teresa; Kornicka, Anita; Sączewski, Franciszek; Wawrzyniak, Renata; Kubik, Łukasz; Kaliszan, Roman

    2017-09-10

    Imidazol(in)e derivatives, having the chemical structure similar to clonidine, exert diverse pharmacological activities connected with their interactions with alpha2-adrenergic receptors, e.g. hypotension, bradycardia, sedation as well as antinociceptive, anxiolytic, antiarrhythmic, muscle relaxant and mydriatic effects. The mechanism of pupillary dilation observed after systemic administration of imidazol(in)es to rats, mice and cats depends on the stimulation of postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors within the brain. It was proved that the central nervous system (CNS)-localized I1-imidazoline receptors are not engaged in those effects. It appeared interesting to analyze the CNS-mediated pharmacodynamics of imidazole(in)e agents in terms of their chromatographic and calculation chemistry-derived parameters. In the present study a systematic determination and comparative pharmacometric analysis of mydriatic effects in rats were performed on a series of 20 imidazol(in)e agents, composed of the well-known drugs and of the substances used in experimental pharmacology. The eye pupil dilatory activities of the compounds were assessed in anesthetized Wistar rats according to the established Koss method. Among twenty imidazol(in)e derivatives studied, 18 produced diverse dose-dependent mydriatic effects. In the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis, the pharmacological data (half maximum mydriatic effect - ED 50 in μmol/kg) were considered along with the structural parameters of the agents from molecular modeling. The theoretically calculated lipophilicity parameters, CLOGP, of imidazol(in)es, as well as their lipophilicity parameters from HPLC, logk w , were also considered. The attempts to derive statistically significant QSAR equations for a full series of the agents under study were unsuccessful. However, for a subgroup of eight apparently structurally related imidazol(in)es a significant relationship between log(1/ED 50 ) and logk w values was

  15. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.

  16. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.

  17. Comparative design of structures concepts and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shaopei

    2016-01-01

    This book presents comparative design as an approach to the conceptual design of structures. Primarily focusing on reasonable structural performance, sustainable development and architectural aesthetics, it features detailed studies of structural performance through the composition and de-composition of these elements for a variety of structures, such as high-rise buildings, long-span crossings and spatial structures. The latter part of the book addresses the theoretical basis and practical implementation of knowledge engineering in structural design, and a case-based fuzzy reasoning method is introduced to illustrate the concept and method of intelligent design. The book is intended for civil engineers, structural designers and architects, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students in civil engineering and architecture. Shaopei Lin and Zhen Huang are both Professors at the Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.

  18. Insights into bacterioplankton community structure from Sundarbans mangrove ecoregion using Sanger and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwesha Ghosh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing using platforms such as Illumina MiSeq provides a deeper insight into the structure and function of bacterioplankton communities in coastal ecosystems compared to traditional molecular techniques such as clone library approach which incorporates Sanger sequencing. In this study, structure of bacterioplankton communities was investigated from two stations of Sundarbans mangrove ecoregion using both Sanger and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches. The Illumina MiSeq data is available under the BioProject ID PRJNA35180 and Sanger sequencing data under accession numbers KX014101-KX014140 (Stn1 and KX014372-KX014410 (Stn3. Proteobacteria-, Firmicutes- and Bacteroidetes-like sequences retrieved from both approaches appeared to be abundant in the studied ecosystem. The Illumina MiSeq data (2.1 GB provided a deeper insight into the structure of bacterioplankton communities and revealed the presence of bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Verrucomicrobia which were not recovered based on Sanger sequencing. A comparative analysis of bacterioplankton communities from both stations highlighted the presence of genera that appear in both stations and genera that occur exclusively in either station. However, both the Sanger sequencing and Illumina MiSeq data were coherent at broader taxonomic levels. Pseudomonas, Devosia, Hyphomonas and Erythrobacter-like sequences were the abundant bacterial genera found in the studied ecosystem. Both the sequencing methods showed broad coherence although as expected the Illumina MiSeq data helped identify rarer bacterioplankton groups and also showed the presence of unassigned OTUs indicating possible presence of novel bacterioplankton from the studied mangrove ecosystem.

  19. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  20. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  1. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  2. The analysis of cracked structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, I.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review of the general problem of stable crack systems in many classes of structures, notably reinforced concrete structures, is made. Very simple methods of analysis are derived and some elaboration is described, as well as methods of optimising the calculations. Analytical methods are compared with experiments

  3. A comprehensive comparison of comparative RNA structure prediction approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, P. P.; Giegerich, R.

    2004-01-01

    -finding and multiple-sequence-alignment algorithms. Results Here we evaluate a number of RNA folding algorithms using reliable RNA data-sets and compare their relative performance. Conclusions We conclude that comparative data can enhance structure prediction but structure-prediction-algorithms vary widely in terms......Background An increasing number of researchers have released novel RNA structure analysis and prediction algorithms for comparative approaches to structure prediction. Yet, independent benchmarking of these algorithms is rarely performed as is now common practice for protein-folding, gene...

  4. Spectroscopic investigation on structure (monomer and dimer), molecular characteristics and comparative study on vibrational analysis of picolinic and isonicotinic acids using experimental and theoretical (DFT & IVP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gaddam; Reddy, Byru Venkatram

    2018-05-01

    ) analysis. The 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecules are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectra of the compounds are also recorded in the region 200-400 nm. Thermodynamic parameters and rotational constants are also determined and found that they are comparable with experimental literature values for these molecules.

  5. Comparative study of the physiochemical and structural properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of some physiochemical and structural parameters of brown (mature) and green (immature) coconut fibre as adsorbents was studied. The physiochemical and structural properties evaluated were surface area, moisture content, pH, bulk density, pore volume, porosity, ash content, tortuocity and metal ...

  6. Structural modeling and docking studies of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Leishmania major and Homo sapiens: a comparative analysis for Leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Baptista, Luiz Phillippe R; Guedes, Isabella A; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Custódio, Fabio L; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and are considered the second-highest cause of death worldwide by parasitic infection. The drugs available for treatment in humans are becoming ineffective mainly due to parasite resistance; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a new chemotherapy against these parasites. A crucial aspect of drug design development is the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets. In this work, through an in silico comparative analysis between the genomes of Leishmania major and Homo sapiens, the enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (R5PI) was indicated as a promising molecular target. R5PI is an important enzyme that acts in the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion of d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and d-ribulose-5-phosphate (5RP). R5PI activity is found in two analogous groups of enzymes called RpiA (found in H. sapiens) and RpiB (found in L. major). Here, we present the first report of the three-dimensional (3D) structures and active sites of RpiB from L. major (LmRpiB) and RpiA from H. sapiens (HsRpiA). Three-dimensional models were constructed by applying a hybrid methodology that combines comparative and ab initio modeling techniques, and the active site was characterized based on docking studies of the substrates R5P (furanose and ring-opened forms) and 5RP. Our comparative analyses show that these proteins are structural analogs and that distinct residues participate in the interconversion of R5P and 5RP. We propose two distinct reaction mechanisms for the reversible isomerization of R5P to 5RP, which is catalyzed by LmRpiB and HsRpiA. We expect that the present results will be important in guiding future molecular modeling studies to develop new drugs that are specially designed to inhibit the parasitic form of the enzyme without significant effects on the human analog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analysis of oxide phase formation and its effects on electrical properties of SiO{sub 2}/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaeyel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sehun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungsub; Yang, Changjae; Kim, Sujin; Seok, Chulkyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinsub [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    We report on the changes in the interfacial phases between SiO{sub 2} and InSb caused by various deposition temperatures and heat treatments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to evaluate the relative amount of each phase present at the interface. The effect of interfacial phases on the electrical properties of SiO{sub 2}/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures was investigated by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The amount of both In and Sb oxides increased with the deposition temperature. The amount of interfacial In oxide was larger for all samples, regardless of the deposition and annealing temperatures and times. In particular, the annealed samples contained less than half the amount of Sb oxide compared with the as-deposited samples, indicating a strong interfacial reaction between Sb oxide and the InSb substrate during annealing. The interface trap density sharply increased for deposition temperatures above 240 Degree-Sign C. The C-V measurements and Raman spectroscopy indicated that elemental Sb accumulation due to the interfacial reaction of Sb oxide with InSb substrate was responsible for the increased interfacial trap densities in these SiO{sub 2}/InSb MOS structures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the quantitative analysis of interfacial oxides at the SiO{sub 2}/InSb interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial oxides were measured quantitatively by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-grown and annealed samples showed different compositions of oxide phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable reduction of antimony oxide phases was observed during annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface trap densities at the SiO{sub 2}/InSb interface were calculated.

  8. Comparative study on the welded structure fatigue strength assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Due to the welding structure is widely applied in various industries, especially the pressure container, motorcycle, automobile, aviation, ship industry, such as large crane steel structure, so for welded structure fatigue strength evaluation is particularly important. For welded structure fatigue strength evaluation method mainly has four kinds of, the more from the use of two kinds of welded structure fatigue strength evaluation method, namely the nominal stress method and the hot spot stress evaluation method, comparing from its principle, calculation method for the process analysis and research, compare the similarities and the advantages and disadvantages, the analysis of practical engineering problems to provide the reference for every profession and trade, as well as the future welded structure fatigue strength and life evaluation method put forward outlook.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Terrorists’ Communication Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alexandrovich Zhuravliev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide-spread approach in a research literature to regard terrorism as a communicative process. From this point of view, the author offers a comparative analysis of the three most common communication strategies of terrorist groups, including transforming the role of the mass media, the Internet and a combined approach. The author also argues that a particular communication strategy determines a structure of a terrorist organization.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Clinical Significance of Oscillatory Components in the Rhythmic Structure of Pulse Signal in the Diagnostics of Psychosomatic Disorders in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desova, A A; Dorofeyuk, A A; Anokhin, A M

    2017-01-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of the types of spectral density typical of various parameters of pulse signal. The experimental material was obtained during the examination of school age children with various psychosomatic disorders. We also performed a typological analysis of the spectral density functions corresponding to the time series of different parameters of a single oscillation of pulse signals; the results of their comparative analysis are presented. We determined the most significant spectral components for two disordersin children: arterial hypertension and mitral valve prolapse.

  11. Formal and relational contracts between organizations: proposal of a model for analysis of the transactional and governance structure characteristics of comparative cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Siqueira Ambrozini

    Full Text Available Abstract The literature indicates that the use of formal and relational governance structures have a fundamental role in the conduct and maintenance of inter-organizational relationships. Nevertheless, there are possibilities for discussions about the composition and function of these structures in the presence of different transactional characteristics. Thus, a model based on the literatures of formal contracts, inter-organizational relationships, Relational Contract Theory, and Transaction Cost Economics is proposed. Since this is a qualitative exploratory research, six structured interviews were carried out and interpreted by means of Content Analysis for case comparison and discussion of theoretical propositions. It was observed that some transactional characteristics, when present with greater intensity in the context of a transaction, tend to corroborate the theoretical propositions of formal contractual function, demonstrating that the intensity of these characteristics is a relevant factor for analyzing the adequacy of governance structures. Likewise, the use of different relational norms presents variations within each characteristic analyzed. Other aspects explored in the Content Analysis are suggested in the composition of the analysis model. The propositions explored regarding the composition of the transaction context and the complementarity of governance structure of inter-organizational relationships are also discussed.

  12. Comparative analysis of spatial genetic structure in an ant-plant symbiosis reveals a tension zone and highlights speciation processes in tropical Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Peccoud, Jean; Born, Céline; Piatscheck, Finn; Benoit, Laure; Sauve, Mathieu; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Atteke, Christiane; Wieringa, Jan J.; Harris, David J.; Mckey, Doyle

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Pleistocene climatic oscillations induced range fluctuations in African rain forest organisms and may have shaped species diversification through allopatric speciation events. We compared the spatial genetic structure of two forest species that live in obligate symbiosis and thus must have

  13. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.

  14. Comparison of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship methods: Analysis of the in vitro antimalarial activity of 154 artemisinin analogues by hypothetical active-site lattice and comparative molecular field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfrey, John R.; Avery, Mitchell A.; Doweyko, Arthur M.

    1998-03-01

    Two three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and hypothetical active site lattice (HASL), were compared with respect to the analysis of a training set of 154 artemisinin analogues. Five models were created, including a complete HASL and two trimmed versions, as well as two CoMFA models (leave-one-out standard CoMFA and the guided-region selection protocol). Similar r2 and q2 values were obtained by each method, although some striking differences existed between CoMFA contour maps and the HASL output. Each of the four predictive models exhibited a similar ability to predict the activity of a test set of 23 artemisinin analogues, although some differences were noted as to which compounds were described well by either model.

  15. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold

  16. Structural and microstructural comparative analysis on metallic alloys of composition Cu{sub y%}-Ni{sub x%}-Me (Me = Sn, Cr, Al, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, I.M.; Okazaki, A.K.; Silveira, C.R. da; Carvalhal, M.A.; Monteiro, W.A.; Carrio, J.A.G. [Physics Department, CCH, Presbyterian Mackenzie University, Materials Science and Technology Centre, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study of microstructural and electrical properties of polycrystalline material Cu-Ni alloys synthesized by conventional and powder metallurgy. A sample of Cu{sub 99,33%} Ni{sub 0,23%} Pt{sub 0,43%} was produced in electric furnace with voltaic arc and various samples containing Al, Sn and Cr as third element were produced by powder metallurgy. The microstructure of the samples was studied by optical microscopy, Vickers micro hardness and x rays powder diffraction. Their electrical conductivity was measured with a milliohmeter Agilent (HP) 4338B. Refinements of the crystalline structure of the samples were performed by the Rietveld method, using the refinement program GSAS. The refinement results and Fourier differences calculations indicate that the copper matrix structure presents not significant distortions by the used amounts of the other metal atoms. The refinement of non structural parameters allowed the micro-structural characterization. The dependence of the micro-structure with thermal and mechanical treatments is studied. (author)

  17. «M. M. Kovalevsky’s historical and comparative method in the context of structural and functional analysis»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Анатолійович Шигаль

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions of the research: Estimating the M. M. Kovalevsky’s efforts in the methodology of historical and legal comparative study it should be noted that the attitude to his method in the scientific community is controversial. While agreeing, in general, with a positive appreciation of the M. M. Kovalevsky’s scientific heritage it should be pointed that the scientist first qualitatively tried to develop theoretical and methodological basis for the historical and comparative method in the domestic comparative study. Despite the fact that while theoretically reasoning his own method, M. M. Kovalevsky lacked modern structural and functional approach, but in most cases he was able to aptly describe the individual elements of the theory, methods and technique of the new means of special and scientific knowledge.

  18. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The

  19. Compared effects of missense mutations in Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency: Combined analysis by structural, functional and pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin-Limballe, Stéphanie; McAndrew, Ryan P; Djouadi, Fatima; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bastin, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder considered as one of the more common ss-oxidation defects, possibly associated with neonatal cardiomyopathy, infantile hepatic coma, or adult-onset myopathy. Numerous gene missense mutations have been described in these VLCADD phenotypes, but only few of them have been structurally and functionally analyzed, and the molecular basis of disease variability is still poorly understood. To address this question, we first analyzed fourteen disease-causing amino acid changes using the recently described crystal structure of VLCAD. The predicted effects varied from the replacement of amino acid residues lining the substrate binding cavity, involved in holoenzyme-FAD interactions or in enzyme dimerisation, predicted to have severe functional consequences, up to amino acid substitutions outside key enzyme domains or lying on near enzyme surface, with predicted milder consequences. These data were combined with functional analysis of residual fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and VLCAD protein levels in patient cells harboring these mutations, before and after pharmacological stimulation by bezafibrate. Mutations identified as detrimental to the protein structure in the 3-D model were generally associated to profound FAO and VLCAD protein deficiencies in the patient cells, however, some mutations affecting FAD binding or monomer-monomer interactions allowed a partial response to bezafibrate. On the other hand, bezafibrate restored near-normal FAO rates in some mutations predicted to have milder consequences on enzyme structure. Overall, combination of structural, biochemical, and pharmacological analysis allowed assessment of the relative severity of individual mutations, with possible applications for disease management and therapeutic approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective Laser Melting Technique of Co-Cr Dental Alloys: A Review of Structure and Properties and Comparative Analysis with Other Available Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukis, Theodoros; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George; Al-Wazzan, Khalid; Rifaiy, Mohammed Al; Al Jabbari, Youssef S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of selective laser melting (SLM) procedure on the properties of dental structures made of Co-Cr alloys and to evaluate its quality and compare it to those produced by conventional casting and milling fabrication techniques. A computerized database search using PubMed and Scopus was conducted for peer-reviewed scientific research studies regarding the use of SLM in Co-Cr dental alloys with no restrictions for publication years. The search engines provided hundreds of results, and only 48 scientific research papers, case studies, or literature reviews were considered relevant for this review. The innovative manufacturing concept of SLM offers many advantages compared with casting and milling fabrication techniques. SLM provides different microstructure from casting and milling with minimal internal porosity and internal fitting, marginal adaptation, and comparable bond strength to porcelain. Mechanical and electrochemical properties of SLM structures are enhanced compared to cast, while clinical longevity of single-metal ceramic crowns is comparable to Au-Pt dental alloy. The SLM technique provides dental prosthetic restorations more quickly and less expensively without compromising their quality compared with restorations prepared by casting and milling techniques. The current SLM devices provide metallic restorations made of Co-Cr alloys for removable and fixed partial dentures without compromising the alloy or restoration properties at a fraction of the time and cost, showing great potential to replace the aforementioned fabrication techniques in the long term; however, further clinical studies are essential to increase the acceptance of this technology by the worldwide dental community. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Comparative analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Metal wastes were analysed to establish its origin with respect to a set of pieces. The elemental analysis was realized using the PIXE technique (Proton induced X-ray emission). Results are presented. (Author)

  2. Comparative Geometrical Analysis of Leucine-Rich Repeat Structures in the Nod-Like and Toll-Like Receptors in Vertebrate Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Matsushima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The NOD-like receptors (NLRs and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that are involved in the innate, pathogen pattern recognition system. The TLR and NLR receptors contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs that are responsible for ligand interactions. In LRRs short β-strands stack parallel and then the LRRs form a super helical arrangement of repeating structural units (called a coil of solenoids. The structures of the LRR domains of NLRC4, NLRP1, and NLRX1 in NLRs and of TLR1-5, TLR6, TLR8, TLR9 in TLRs have been determined. Here we report nine geometrical parameters that characterize the LRR domains; these include four helical parameters from HELFIT analysis. These nine parameters characterize well the LRR structures in NLRs and TLRs; the LRRs of NLR adopts a right-handed helix. In contrast, the TLR LRRs adopt either a left-handed helix or are nearly flat; RP105 and CD14 also adopt a left-handed helix. This geometrical analysis subdivides TLRs into four groups consisting of TLR3/TLR8/TLR9, TLR1/TLR2/TRR6, TLR4, and TLR5; these correspond to the phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences. In the TLRs an ascending lateral surface that consists of loops connecting the β-strand at the C-terminal side is involved in protein, protein/ligand interactions, but not the descending lateral surface on the opposite side.

  3. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  4. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  5. Comparative Chromatographic Analysis and Pharmacodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory analysis of the Garcinia Kolanuts extracts showed receptors inhibition of Beta adrenergic sites, adenosine, melatonin, opiate, purine, calcium channel L-type and 5HT5A. Conclusion: Garcinia kolanut extract exhibits a combined effects of all the known antiglaucoma drugs used in comparison. NQJHM Vol.

  6. Osteochondral Biopsy Analysis Demonstrates That BST-CarGel Treatment Improves Structural and Cellular Characteristics of Cartilage Repair Tissue Compared With Microfracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Stéphane; Changoor, Adele; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Stanish, William D.; Restrepo, Alberto; Shive, Matthew S.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The efficacy and safety of BST-CarGel, a chitosan-based medical device for cartilage repair, was compared with microfracture alone at 1 year during a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the knee. The quality of repair tissue of osteochondral biopsies collected from a subset of patients was compared using blinded histological assessments. Methods The international RCT evaluated repair tissue quantity and quality by 3-dimensional quantitative magnetic resonance imaging as co-primary endpoints at 12 months. At an average of 13 months posttreatment, 21/41 BST-CarGel and 17/39 microfracture patients underwent elective second look arthroscopies as a tertiary endpoint, during which ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) macroscopic scoring was carried out, and osteochondral biopsies were collected. Stained histological sections were evaluated by blinded readers using ICRS I and II histological scoring systems. Collagen organization was evaluated using a polarized light microscopy score. Results BST-CarGel treatment resulted in significantly better ICRS macroscopic scores (P = 0.0002) compared with microfracture alone, indicating better filling, integration, and tissue appearance. Histologically, BST-CarGel resulted in a significant improvement of structural parameters—Surface Architecture (P = 0.007) and Surface/Superficial Assessment (P = 0.042)—as well as cellular parameters—Cell Viability (P = 0.006) and Cell Distribution (P = 0.032). No histological parameters were significantly better for the microfracture group. BST-CarGel treatment also resulted in a more organized repair tissue with collagen stratification more similar to native hyaline cartilage, as measured by polarized light microscopy scoring (P = 0.0003). Conclusion Multiple and independent analyses in this biopsy substudy demonstrated that BST-CarGel treatment results in improved structural and cellular characteristics of repair tissue at 1 year posttreatment compared with

  7. Embedded Hyperchaotic Generators: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, Said; Tanougast, Camel; Azzaz, Mohamad Salah; Dandache, Abbas

    In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of FPGA implementation performances, in terms of throughput and resources cost, of five well known autonomous continuous hyperchaotic systems. The goal of this analysis is to identify the embedded hyperchaotic generator which leads to designs with small logic area cost, satisfactory throughput rates, low power consumption and low latency required for embedded applications such as secure digital communications between embedded systems. To implement the four-dimensional (4D) chaotic systems, we use a new structural hardware architecture based on direct VHDL description of the forth order Runge-Kutta method (RK-4). The comparative analysis shows that the hyperchaotic Lorenz generator provides attractive performances compared to that of others. In fact, its hardware implementation requires only 2067 CLB-slices, 36 multipliers and no block RAMs, and achieves a throughput rate of 101.6 Mbps, at the output of the FPGA circuit, at a clock frequency of 25.315 MHz with a low latency time of 316 ns. Consequently, these good implementation performances offer to the embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generator the advantage of being the best candidate for embedded communications applications.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps compared with multiple daily injections both provided with structured education for adults with type 1 diabetes: a health economic analysis of the Relative Effectiveness of Pumps over Structured Education (REPOSE) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Daniel John; Brennan, Alan; Dixon, Simon; Waugh, Norman; Elliott, Jackie; Heller, Simon; Lee, Ellen; Campbell, Michael; Basarir, Hasan; White, David

    2018-04-07

    To assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps and Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (pumps+DAFNE) compared with multiple daily insulin injections and DAFNE (MDI+DAFNE) for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the UK. We undertook a cost-utility analysis using the Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model and data from the Relative Effectiveness of Pumps over Structured Education (REPOSE) trial to estimate the lifetime incidence of diabetic complications, intervention-based resource use and associated effects on costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All economic analyses took a National Health Service and personal social services perspective and discounted costs and QALYs at 3.5% per annum. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed on the base case. Further uncertainties in the cost of pumps and the evidence used to inform the model were explored using scenario analyses. Eight diabetes centres in England and Scotland. Adults with T1DM who were eligible to receive a structured education course and did not have a strong clinical indication or a preference for a pump. Pumps+DAFNE. MDI+DAFNE. Incremental costs, incremental QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Compared with MDI+DAFNE, pumps+DAFNE was associated with an incremental discounted lifetime cost of +£18 853 (95% CI £6175 to £31 645) and a gain in discounted lifetime QALYs of +0.13 (95% CI -0.70 to +0.96). The base case mean ICER was £142 195 per QALY gained. The probability of pump+DAFNE being cost-effective using a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained was 14.0%. All scenario and subgroup analyses examined indicated that the ICER was unlikely to fall below £30 000 per QALY gained. Our analysis of the REPOSE data suggests that routine use of pumps in adults without an immediate clinical need for a pump, as identified by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, would not be cost-effective. ISRCTN61215213

  9. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH)2[ZnCl4] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radanović, Mirjana M.; Jelić, Miodrag G.; Romčević, Nebojša Ž.; Boukos, Nikos; Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M.; Hadžić, Branka B.; Bajac, Branimir M.; Nađ, Laslo F.; Chandrinou, Chrysoula; Baloš, Sebastian S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results

  10. Structured Analysis - IDEF0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces the IDEF0 modelling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard for IDEF0 permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities...... that require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard...... for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0). I.e. the Draft Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 183, 1993, December 21, Announcing the Standard for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0)....

  11. Structure/Function Analysis of Cotton-Based Peptide-Cellulose Conjugates: Spatiotemporal/Kinetic Assessment of Protease Aerogels Compared to Nanocrystalline and Paper Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose has high specific surface area, hydration properties, and ease of derivatization to prepare protease sensors. A Human Neutrophil Elastase sensor designed with a nanocellulose aerogel transducer surface derived from cotton is compared with cotton filter paper, and nanocrystalline cellulose versions of the sensor. X-ray crystallography was employed along with Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics, and circular dichroism to contrast the structure/function relations of the peptide-cellulose conjugate conformation to enzyme/substrate binding and turnover rates. The nanocellulosic aerogel was found to have a cellulose II structure. The spatiotemporal relation of crystallite surface to peptide-cellulose conformation is discussed in light of observed enzyme kinetics. A higher substrate binding affinity (Km of elastase was observed with the nanocellulose aerogel and nanocrystalline peptide-cellulose conjugates than with the solution-based elastase substrate. An increased Km observed for the nanocellulosic aerogel sensor yields a higher enzyme efficiency (kcat/Km, attributable to binding of the serine protease to the negatively charged cellulose surface. The effect of crystallite size and β-turn peptide conformation are related to the peptide-cellulose kinetics. Models demonstrating the orientation of cellulose to peptide O6-hydroxymethyl rotamers of the conjugates at the surface of the cellulose crystal suggest the relative accessibility of the peptide-cellulose conjugates for enzyme active site binding.

  12. Structure/Function Analysis of Cotton-Based Peptide-Cellulose Conjugates: Spatiotemporal/Kinetic Assessment of Protease Aerogels Compared to Nanocrystalline and Paper Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal; Liebner, Falk; Pircher, Nicole Doyle nee; French, Alfred D.; Condon, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    Nanocellulose has high specific surface area, hydration properties, and ease of derivatization to prepare protease sensors. A Human Neutrophil Elastase sensor designed with a nanocellulose aerogel transducer surface derived from cotton is compared with cotton filter paper, and nanocrystalline cellulose versions of the sensor. X-ray crystallography was employed along with Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics, and circular dichroism to contrast the structure/function relations of the peptide-cellulose conjugate conformation to enzyme/substrate binding and turnover rates. The nanocellulosic aerogel was found to have a cellulose II structure. The spatiotemporal relation of crystallite surface to peptide-cellulose conformation is discussed in light of observed enzyme kinetics. A higher substrate binding affinity (Km) of elastase was observed with the nanocellulose aerogel and nanocrystalline peptide-cellulose conjugates than with the solution-based elastase substrate. An increased Km observed for the nanocellulosic aerogel sensor yields a higher enzyme efficiency (kcat/Km), attributable to binding of the serine protease to the negatively charged cellulose surface. The effect of crystallite size and β-turn peptide conformation are related to the peptide-cellulose kinetics. Models demonstrating the orientation of cellulose to peptide O6-hydroxymethyl rotamers of the conjugates at the surface of the cellulose crystal suggest the relative accessibility of the peptide-cellulose conjugates for enzyme active site binding. PMID:29534033

  13. Comparative efficacy and safety of antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: Results of a network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F Guest

    Full Text Available This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age with ABSSSI.Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The NMA was performed using both a fixed-effect and random-effect model. Efficacy-related endpoints were (1 clinical treatment success and (2 microbiological success at TOC visit. Safety-related endpoints were (1 number of discontinuations due to AEs/SAEs, (2 patients experiencing AEs, (3 patients experiencing SAEs and (4 all-cause mortality.Study interventions included daptomycin, dalbavancin, linezolid and tigecycline. Vancomycin was the comparator in all studies, except in two where it was linezolid and teicoplanin. The NMA showed that irrespective of patient subgroup, the likelihood of clinical and microbiological success with dalbavancin was statistically similar to the comparators studied. No statistically significant differences were observed between dalbavancin and any of the comparators in the discontinuation rate due to AEs/SAEs. In contrast, dalbavancin was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing an AE than linezolid, a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing a SAE than vancomycin and daptomycin, and a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality than vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline.Dalbavancin affords a promising, new alternative IV antimicrobial agent which is as effective as traditional therapies, but with the added benefit of enabling clinicians to treat patients with ABSSSI in different organisational settings

  14. Comparative efficacy and safety of antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: Results of a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Jaime; Manganelli, Anton G.; Novelli, Andrea; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Serra, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Objective This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age) with ABSSSI. Methods Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The NMA was performed using both a fixed-effect and random-effect model. Efficacy-related endpoints were (1) clinical treatment success and (2) microbiological success at TOC visit. Safety-related endpoints were (1) number of discontinuations due to AEs/SAEs, (2) patients experiencing AEs, (3) patients experiencing SAEs and (4) all-cause mortality. Results Study interventions included daptomycin, dalbavancin, linezolid and tigecycline. Vancomycin was the comparator in all studies, except in two where it was linezolid and teicoplanin. The NMA showed that irrespective of patient subgroup, the likelihood of clinical and microbiological success with dalbavancin was statistically similar to the comparators studied. No statistically significant differences were observed between dalbavancin and any of the comparators in the discontinuation rate due to AEs/SAEs. In contrast, dalbavancin was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing an AE than linezolid, a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing a SAE than vancomycin and daptomycin, and a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality than vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Conclusion Dalbavancin affords a promising, new alternative IV antimicrobial agent which is as effective as traditional therapies, but with the added benefit of enabling clinicians to treat patients with ABSSSI in different

  15. Comparative efficacy and safety of antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: Results of a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Esteban, Jaime; Manganelli, Anton G; Novelli, Andrea; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Serra, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age) with ABSSSI. Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The NMA was performed using both a fixed-effect and random-effect model. Efficacy-related endpoints were (1) clinical treatment success and (2) microbiological success at TOC visit. Safety-related endpoints were (1) number of discontinuations due to AEs/SAEs, (2) patients experiencing AEs, (3) patients experiencing SAEs and (4) all-cause mortality. Study interventions included daptomycin, dalbavancin, linezolid and tigecycline. Vancomycin was the comparator in all studies, except in two where it was linezolid and teicoplanin. The NMA showed that irrespective of patient subgroup, the likelihood of clinical and microbiological success with dalbavancin was statistically similar to the comparators studied. No statistically significant differences were observed between dalbavancin and any of the comparators in the discontinuation rate due to AEs/SAEs. In contrast, dalbavancin was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing an AE than linezolid, a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing a SAE than vancomycin and daptomycin, and a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality than vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Dalbavancin affords a promising, new alternative IV antimicrobial agent which is as effective as traditional therapies, but with the added benefit of enabling clinicians to treat patients with ABSSSI in different organisational settings

  16. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus. PMID:26158395

  17. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus.

  18. Revisiting Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Causative Agent of Tularemia in Germany With Bioinformatics: New Insights in Genome Structure, DNA Methylation and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Busch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella (F. tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain. The high quality genome was used to establish and evaluate a diagnostic whole genome sequencing pipeline. A genotyping strategy for F. tularensis was developed using various bioinformatics tools for genotyping. Additionally, whole genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates isolated in the years 2008–2015 in Germany were generated. A phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and confirmed the highly conserved nature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.

  19. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  20. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  1. Reactance, Restoration, and Cognitive Structure: Comparative Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessarabova, Elena; Fink, Edward L.; Turner, Monique

    2013-01-01

    This study (N = 143) examined the effects of freedom threat on cognitive structures, using recycling as its topic. The results of a 2(Freedom Threat: low vs. high) x 2(Postscript: restoration vs. filler) plus 1(Control) experiment indicated that, relative to the control condition, high freedom threat created a boomerang effect for the targeted…

  2. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  3. A Comparative Study on Optimal Structural Dynamics Using Wavelet Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Mahdavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet solution techniques have become the focus of interest among researchers in different disciplines of science and technology. In this paper, implementation of two different wavelet basis functions has been comparatively considered for dynamic analysis of structures. For this aim, computational technique is developed by using free scale of simple Haar wavelet, initially. Later, complex and continuous Chebyshev wavelet basis functions are presented to improve the time history analysis of structures. Free-scaled Chebyshev coefficient matrix and operation of integration are derived to directly approximate displacements of the corresponding system. In addition, stability of responses has been investigated for the proposed algorithm of discrete Haar wavelet compared against continuous Chebyshev wavelet. To demonstrate the validity of the wavelet-based algorithms, aforesaid schemes have been extended to the linear and nonlinear structural dynamics. The effectiveness of free-scaled Chebyshev wavelet has been compared with simple Haar wavelet and two common integration methods. It is deduced that either indirect method proposed for discrete Haar wavelet or direct approach for continuous Chebyshev wavelet is unconditionally stable. Finally, it is concluded that numerical solution is highly benefited by the least computation time involved and high accuracy of response, particularly using low scale of complex Chebyshev wavelet.

  4. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board of India ... A great variety of topics was covered, including themes such as nonlinear finite ... or shell structures, and three are on the composite form of construction, ...

  5. New tips for structure prediction by comparative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Anwar

    2009-01-01

    Comparative modelling is utilized to predict the 3-dimensional conformation of a given protein (target) based on its sequence alignment to experimentally determined protein structure (template). The use of such technique is already rewarding and increasingly widespread in biological research and drug development. The accuracy of the predictions as commonly accepted depends on the score of sequence identity of the target protein to the template. To assess the relationship between sequence identity and model quality, we carried out an analysis of a set of 4753 sequence and structure alignments. Throughout this research, the model accuracy was measured by root mean square deviations of Cα atoms of the target-template structures. Surprisingly, the results show that sequence identity of the target protein to the template is not a good descriptor to predict the accuracy of the 3-D structure model. However, in a large number of cases, comparative modelling with lower sequence identity of target to template proteins led to more accurate 3-D structure model. As a consequence of this study, we suggest new tips for improving the quality of omparative models, particularly for models whose target-template sequence identity is below 50%. PMID:19255646

  6. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G J; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

    2012-10-07

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology.

  7. Microstructure of a tribosphenic molar - comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ŠPOUTIL, František

    2010-01-01

    The proposed thesis concerns in the study of tribosphenic molar, the key apomorphy of mammalian clade, mainly in structure and development of its enamel coat. As the main model species served us European vespertilionid bat Myotis myotis. The aims of this thesis are: (1) to describe structure and microstructure of enamel in tribosphenic molars in detail; (2) to compare it with unicuspid teeth of the same dentition; (3) to describe mineralization process and enamel maturation in insectivorous d...

  8. Structures and their analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  9. Extending the Compositional Range of Nanocasting in the Oxozirconium Cluster-Based Metal–Organic Framework NU-1000—A Comparative Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wenyang [Department; Wang, Zhao [Department; Malonzo, Camille D. [Department; Webber, Thomas E. [Department; Platero-Prats, Ana E. [X-ray; Sotomayor, Francisco [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A. [Department; Wang, Timothy C. [Department; Hupp, Joseph T. [Department; Farha, Omar K. [Department; Department; Penn, R. Lee [Department; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray; Thommes, Matthias [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate; Stein, Andreas [Department

    2018-02-08

    The process of nanocasting in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a versatile approach to modify these porous materials by introducing supporting scaffolds. The nanocast scaffolds can stabilize metal-oxo clusters in MOFs at high temperatures and modulate their chemical environments. Here we demonstrate a range of nanocasting approaches in the MOF NU-1000, which contains hexanuclear oxozirconium clusters (denoted as Zr6 clusters) that are suitable for modification with other metals. We developed methods for introducing SiO2, TiO2, polymeric, and carbon scaffolds into the NU-1000 structure. The responses of NU-1000 towards different scaffold precursors were studied, including the effects on morphology, precursor distribution, and porosity after nanocasting. Upon removal of organic linkers in the MOF by calcination/pyrolysis at 500 °C or above, the Zr6 clusters remained accessible and maintained their Lewis acidity in SiO2 nanocast samples, whereas additional treatment was necessary for Zr6 clusters to become accessible in carbon nanocast samples. Aggregation of Zr6 clusters was largely prevented with SiO2 or carbon scaffolds even after thermal treatment at 500 °C or above. In the case of titania nanocasting, NU- 1000 crystals underwent a pseudomorphic transformation, in which Zr6 clusters reacted with titania to form small oxaggregates of a Zr/Ti mixed oxide with a local structure resembling that of ZrTi2O6. The ability to maintain high densities of discrete Lewis acidic Zr6 clusters on SiO2 or carbon supports at high temperatures provides a starting point for designing new thermally stable catalysts.

  10. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...

  11. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Comparative analysis of QSAR models for predicting pK(a) of organic oxygen acids and nitrogen bases from molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Kühne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2010-11-22

    For 1143 organic compounds comprising 580 oxygen acids and 563 nitrogen bases that cover more than 17 orders of experimental pK(a) (from -5.00 to 12.23), the pK(a) prediction performances of ACD, SPARC, and two calibrations of a semiempirical quantum chemical (QC) AM1 approach have been analyzed. The overall root-mean-square errors (rms) for the acids are 0.41, 0.58 (0.42 without ortho-substituted phenols with intramolecular H-bonding), and 0.55 and for the bases are 0.65, 0.70, 1.17, and 1.27 for ACD, SPARC, and both QC methods, respectively. Method-specific performances are discussed in detail for six acid subsets (phenols and aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with different substitution patterns) and nine base subsets (anilines, primary, secondary and tertiary amines, meta/para-substituted and ortho-substituted pyridines, pyrimidines, imidazoles, and quinolines). The results demonstrate an overall better performance for acids than for bases but also a substantial variation across subsets. For the overall best-performing ACD, rms ranges from 0.12 to 1.11 and 0.40 to 1.21 pK(a) units for the acid and base subsets, respectively. With regard to the squared correlation coefficient r², the results are 0.86 to 0.96 (acids) and 0.79 to 0.95 (bases) for ACD, 0.77 to 0.95 (acids) and 0.85 to 0.97 (bases) for SPARC, and 0.64 to 0.87 (acids) and 0.43 to 0.83 (bases) for the QC methods, respectively. Attention is paid to structural and method-specific causes for observed pitfalls. The significant subset dependence of the prediction performances suggests a consensus modeling approach.

  13. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  14. Comparative analysis of Carnaval II Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Bastos, W. dos

    1981-01-01

    The Carnaval II cross sections library from the french fast reactor calculation system is evaluated in two ways: 1 0 ) a comparative analysis of the calculations system for fast reactors at IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) using a 'benchmark' model is done; 2 0 ) a comparative analysis in relation to the french system itself is also done, using calculations realized with two versions of the french library: the SETR-II and the CARNAVAL IV, the first one being anterior and the second one posterior to the Carnaval II version, the one used by IEN. (Author) [pt

  15. Neutron activation analysis-comparative (NAAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A software system for the reduction of comparative neutron activation analysis data is presented. Libraries are constructed to contain the elemental composition and isotopic nuclear data of an unlimited number of standards. Ratios to unknown sample data are performed by standard calibrations. Interfering peak corrections, second-order activation-product corrections, and deconvolution of multiplets are applied automatically. Passive gamma-energy analysis can be performed with the same software. 3 figures

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Viscoelastic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.G. de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of control of sound and vibration of mechanical systems, the use of viscoelastic materials has been regarded as a convenient strategy in many types of industrial applications. Numerical models based on finite element discretization have been frequently used in the analysis and design of complex structural systems incorporating viscoelastic materials. Such models must account for the typical dependence of the viscoelastic characteristics on operational and environmental parameters, such as frequency and temperature. In many applications, including optimal design and model updating, sensitivity analysis based on numerical models is a very usefull tool. In this paper, the formulation of first-order sensitivity analysis of complex frequency response functions is developed for plates treated with passive constraining damping layers, considering geometrical characteristics, such as the thicknesses of the multi-layer components, as design variables. Also, the sensitivity of the frequency response functions with respect to temperature is introduced. As an example, response derivatives are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate and the results obtained are compared with first-order finite-difference approximations.

  17. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  18. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  19. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  20. Using an alignment of fragment strings for comparing protein structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Iddo; Harder, Tim; Kolodny, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    . RESULTS: Here we describe the use of a particular structure fragment library, denoted here as KL-strings, for the 1D representation of protein structure. Using KL-strings, we develop an infrastructure for comparing protein structures with a 1D representation. This study focuses on the added value gained...

  1. Diagnosing MOV problems using comparative trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of comparative trace analysis and shows it to be very effective in diagnosing motor operated valve (MOV) problems. Comparative trace analysis is simply the process of interpreting simultaneously gathered traces, each presenting a different perspective on the same series of events. The opening and closing of a motor operated valve is such a series of events. The simultaneous traces are obtained using Liberty Technologies' Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES)reg-sign. The traces include stem thrust, motor current, motor power factor, motor power, switch actuations, vibration in three different frequency bands, spring pack displacement, and spring pack force. Spare and auxiliary channels enable additional key parameters to be measured, such as differential pressure and stem displacement. Though not specifically illustrated in this paper, the VOTES system also provides for FFT analysis on all traces except switches

  2. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  3. Structural analysis of NPP components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.; Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.

    1998-01-01

    Capabilities for effective structural integrity assessment have been created and extended in several important cases. In the paper presented applications deal with pressurised thermal shock loading, PTS, and severe dynamic loading cases of containment, reinforced concrete structures and piping components. Hydrogen combustion within the containment is considered in some severe accident scenarios. Can a steel containment withstand the postulated hydrogen detonation loads and still maintain its integrity? This is the topic of Chapter 2. The following Chapter 3 deals with a reinforced concrete floor subjected to jet impingement caused by a postulated rupture of a near-by high-energy pipe and Chapter 4 deals with dynamic loading resistance of the pipe lines under postulated pressure transients due to water hammer. The reliability of the structural integrity analysing methods and capabilities which have been developed for application in NPP component assessment, shall be evaluated and verified. The resources available within the RATU2 programme alone cannot allow performing of the large scale experiments needed for that purpose. Thus, the verification of the PTS analysis capabilities has been conducted by participation in international co-operative programmes. Participation to the European Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC) is the topic of a parallel paper in this symposium. The results obtained in two other international programmes are summarised in Chapters 5 and 6 of this paper, where PTS tests with a model vessel and benchmark assessment of a RPV nozzle integrity are described. (author)

  4. Object-Oriented Analysis, Structured Analysis, and Jackson System Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Assche, F.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Moulin, B.; Rolland, C

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual modeling is the activity of producing a conceptual model of an actual or desired version of a universe of discourse (UoD). In this paper, two methods of conceptual modeling are compared, structured analysis (SA) and object-oriented analysis (OOA). This is done by transforming a model

  5. Comparative research of finite element methods for perforated structures of nuclear power plant primary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun; Jin Ting

    2013-01-01

    Many perforated structures are used for nuclear power plant primary equipment, and they are complex, and have various forms. In order to explore the analysis and evaluation method, this paper used finite element method and equivalent analytic method to do the comparative analysis of perforated structures. The paper considered the main influence factors (including perforated forms, arrangements, and etc.), obtaining the systematic analysis methods of perforated structures. (authors)

  6. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Theory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project is to develop analysis techniques and computer programs for predicting the probabilistic response of critical structural components for current and future space propulsion systems. This technology will play a central role in establishing system performance and durability. The first year's technical activity is concentrating on probabilistic finite element formulation strategy and code development. Work is also in progress to survey critical materials and space shuttle mian engine components. The probabilistic finite element computer program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) is being developed. The final probabilistic code will have, in the general case, the capability of performing nonlinear dynamic of stochastic structures. It is the goal of the approximate methods effort to increase problem solving efficiency relative to finite element methods by using energy methods to generate trial solutions which satisfy the structural boundary conditions. These approximate methods will be less computer intensive relative to the finite element approach.

  7. 1991 comparative analysis of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1992-06-01

    For environmental monitoring of radioactive materials, the competent authorities of the States and Federal Government of Germany continuously perform measurements and make their results accessible to the public in an appropriate way. In order to guarantee the comparability of measured values and a high degree of reliability of the applied methods, the authorities in charge of carrying out such tasks are obliged to take part in the comparative analyses (ring tests) organized by the central offices of the Federal Government. Therefore, the aim of this comparative analysis performed by order of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety consists mainly in providing the measuring offices in charge of monitoring waters, with samples with known tritium contents in order to get an overview of the accuracy of currently used processes; check the accuracy of the determinations performed, and, if necessary, detect and eliminate systematic errors; check, in particular by means of the samples T2 and T3, the calibration of the measuring devices and, if necessary, make corrections. To this effect, the comparative analysis fulfills the function of quality control of the processes used in environmental monitoring. (orig./BBR) [de

  8. p-adic analysis compared with real

    CERN Document Server

    Katok, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to p-adic numbers from the point of view of number theory, topology, and analysis. Compared to other books on the subject, its novelty is both a particularly balanced approach to these three points of view and an emphasis on topics accessible to undergraduates. In addition, several topics from real analysis and elementary topology which are not usually covered in undergraduate courses (totally disconnected spaces and Cantor sets, points of discontinuity of maps and the Baire Category Theorem, surjectivity of isometries of compact metric spaces) are also included in the book. They will enhance the reader's understanding of real analysis and intertwine the real and p-adic contexts of the book. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate course given by the author. The choice of the topic was motivated by the internal beauty of the subject of p-adic analysis, an unusual one in the undergraduate curriculum, and abundant opportunities to compare it with its much more familiar real...

  9. Integrated piping structural analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoi, Toshio; Yamadera, Masao; Horino, Satoshi; Idehata, Takamasa

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysis of the piping system for nuclear power plants has become larger in scale and in quantity. In addition, higher quality analysis is regarded as of major importance nowadays from the point of view of nuclear plant safety. In order to fulfill to the above requirements, an integrated piping structural analysis system (ISAP-II) has been developed. Basic philosophy of this system is as follows: 1. To apply the date base system. All information is concentrated. 2. To minimize the manual process in analysis, evaluation and documentation. Especially to apply the graphic system as much as possible. On the basis of the above philosophy four subsystems were made. 1. Data control subsystem. 2. Analysis subsystem. 3. Plotting subsystem. 4. Report subsystem. Function of the data control subsystem is to control all information of the data base. Piping structural analysis can be performed by using the analysis subsystem. Isometric piping drawing and mode shape, etc. can be plotted by using the plotting subsystem. Total analysis report can be made without the manual process through the reporting subsystem. (author)

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wing-Yee; Wong, Chi-Fat; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. PMID:24069314

  11. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  12. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Arias, R.; Prades, A.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  13. Comparative modeling of InP solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The comparative modeling of p(+)n and n(+)p indium phosphide solar cell structures is studied using a numerical program PC-1D. The optimal design study has predicted that the p(+)n structure offers improved cell efficiencies as compared to n(+)p structure, due to higher open-circuit voltage. The various cell material and process parameters to achieve the maximum cell efficiencies are reported. The effect of some of the cell parameters on InP cell I-V characteristics was studied. The available radiation resistance data on n(+)p and p(+)p InP solar cells are also critically discussed.

  14. Greenfields and acquisitions: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARINESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares greenfields and acquisitions as foreign direct investment (FDI alternatives used by transnational corporations (TNCs. First, the determinants leading to the choice of companies between the two modes of entry into a foreign market are laid out. Then, specific features of each alternative are highlighted, by contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of both types of FDI. Based on this analysis, some conclusions are drawn in the end concerning the most important factors that influence the decision of a company whether to choose a greenfield investment or an acquisition.

  15. Comparative analysis of proliferation resistance assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko; Osabe, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the methodologies was performed based on the discussions in the international workshop on 'Assessment Methodology of Proliferation Resistance for Future Nuclear Energy Systems' held in Tokyo, on March 2005. Through the workshop and succeeding considerations, it is clarified that the proliferation resistance assessment methodologies are affected by the broader nuclear options being pursued and also by the political situations of the state. Even the definition of proliferation resistance, despite the commonality of fundamental issues, derives from perceived threat and implementation circumstances inherent to the larger programs. Deep recognitions of the 'difference' among communities would help us to make further essential and progressed discussion with harmonization. (author)

  16. Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dann Turner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter are ubiquitous in the environment and the multiple-drug resistant species A. baumannii is of significant clinical concern. This clinical relevance is currently driving research on bacterial viruses infecting A. baumannii, in an effort to implement phage therapy and phage-derived antimicrobials. Initially, a total of 42 Acinetobacter phage genome sequences were available in the international nucleotide sequence databases, corresponding to a total of 2.87 Mbp of sequence information and representing all three families of the order Caudovirales and a single member of the Leviviridae. A comparative bioinformatics analysis of 37 Acinetobacter phages revealed that they form six discrete clusters and two singletons based on genomic organisation and nucleotide sequence identity. The assignment of these phages to clusters was further supported by proteomic relationships established using OrthoMCL. The 4067 proteins encoded by the 37 phage genomes formed 737 groups and 974 orphans. Notably, over half of the proteins encoded by the Acinetobacter phages are of unknown function. The comparative analysis and clustering presented enables an updated taxonomic framing of these clades.

  17. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  18. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  19. Theoretical analysis of polarized structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; ); Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.

    1998-01-01

    We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD and NLO We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involving in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature. (author)

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G

    1998-01-01

    We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order. We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involved in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature.

  1. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  2. Shakedown analysis of elastoplastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Classical shakedown analysis rests on the assumptions of perfectly plastic, associative temperature-independent constitutive laws, negligible inertia and damping forces and negligible geometric effects. This paper provides a survey of the recent literature on the structural behaviour under variable repeated loads, with emphasis on the developments which relaxed some of the above assumptions, but preserved the character of generalization of limit analysis typical of the 'classical' shakedown theory and methods of analysis and design (in contrast to evolutive, step-by-step approaches of incremental plasticity). (orig.)

  3. A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  4. A code for structural analysis of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each tubular structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equilavent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  6. Structural analysis of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Masahiro

    1988-09-01

    Since the stereostructure of a high-molecular compound includes three types of isotactic, atactic and sydiotactic structures, a high-molecular compound with excellent properties can be produced by controlling the stereogularity of the compound with the identical composition. The stereoregularity of a stereogular polystyrene, or syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), which had been successfully synthesized recently was quantitatively determined and the open chain structure by polymerization was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two SPSs were synthesized from cis-beta-d/sub/1-styrene and trans-beta-d/sub/1-styrene with alpha, beta, beta-d/sub/3-styrene. The results of spectral analysis of these two SPSs indicate that the former is of trans-conformation and the latter is of gauche conformation and that accordingly the open chain structure by polymerization of SPS is of cis-open chain and SPS has a planar zigzag structure even in the solution. (5 figs, 9 refs)

  7. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  8. Construction QA/QC systems: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Shepard, S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis which compares the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) systems adopted in the highway, nuclear power plant, and U.S. Navy construction areas with the traditional quality control approach used in building construction is presented. Full participation and support by the owner as well as the contractor and AE firm are required if a QA/QC system is to succeed. Process quality control, acceptance testing and quality assurance responsibilities must be clearly defined in the contract documents. The owner must audit these responsibilities. A contractor quality control plan, indicating the tasks which will be performed and the fact that QA/QC personnel are independent of project time/cost pressures should be submitted for approval. The architect must develop realistic specifications which consider the natural variability of material. Acceptance criteria based on the random sampling technique should be used. 27 refs

  9. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  10. Comparing Entrepreneurship Intention: A Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many countries face nowadays. One strategic way to overcome this problem is by fostering entrepreneurship spirit especially for unem ployment graduates. Entrepreneurship is becoming an alternative Job for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship of-fers major benefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the pos-sibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Entrepreneurship is then offered by many universities. This research applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB by incorporating attitude toward success as an antecedent variable of the attitude to examine students’ intention to become an entrepreneur. The objective of this research is to compare entrepreneurship intention between business students and non-business students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by applying the drop-off/pick-up method. A number of 294 by questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Two out of four hypotheses were confirmed. These hypotheses are the relationship between the attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur and the intention to try becoming an entrepreneur, and the relationship perceived behavioral control and intention to try becoming an entrepreneur. This paper also provides a discussion and offers directions for future research.

  11. Comparing Entrepreneurship Intention: A Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many countries face nowadays. One strategic way to overcome this problem is by fostering entrepreneurship spirit especially for unem-ployment graduates. Entrepreneurship is becoming an alternative Job for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship of fers major benefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the pos sibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Entrepreneurship is then offered by many universities. This research applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB by incorporating attitude toward success as an antecedent variable of the attitude to examine students’ intention to become an entrepreneur. The objective of this research is to compare entrepreneurship intention between business students and non-business students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by applying the drop-off/pick-up method. A number of 294 by questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Two out of four hypotheses were confirmed. These hypotheses are the relationship between the attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur and the intention to try becoming an entrepreneur, and the relationship perceived behavioral control and intention to try becoming an entrepreneur. This paper also provides a discussion and offers directions for future research.

  12. Foliar Sprays of Citric Acid and Malic Acid Modify Growth, Flowering, and Root to Shoot Ratio of Gazania (Gazania rigens L.: A Comparative Analysis by ANOVA and Structural Equations Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar application of two levels of citric acid and malic acid (100 or 300 mg L−1 was investigated on flower stem height, plant height, flower performance and yield indices (fresh yield, dry yield and root to shoot ratio of Gazania. Distilled water was applied as control treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that while the experimental treatments had no significant effect on fresh weight and the flower count, the plant dry weight was significantly increased by 300 mg L−1 malic acid. Citric acid at 100 and 300 mg L−1 and 300 mg L−1 malic acid increased the root fresh weight significantly. Both the plant height and peduncle length were significantly increased in all applied levels of citric acid and malic acid. The display time of flowers on the plant increased in all treatments compared to control treatment. The root to shoot ratio was increased significantly in 300 mg L−1 citric acid compared to all other treatments. These findings confirm earlier reports that citric acid and malic acid as environmentally sound chemicals are effective on various aspects of growth and development of crops. Structural equations modeling is used in parallel to ANOVA to conclude the factor effects and the possible path of effects.

  13. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  14. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  15. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  16. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  17. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaze, M.K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components is discussed. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to be checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47 are used for high temperature design. The problems faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's shakedown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields

  18. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  19. Cluster analysis of track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, V.

    1991-01-01

    One of the possibilities of classifying track structures is application of conventional partition techniques of analysis of multidimensional data to the track structure. Using these cluster algorithms this paper attempts to find characteristics of radiation reflecting the spatial distribution of ionizations in the primary particle track. An absolute frequency distribution of clusters of ionizations giving the mean number of clusters produced by radiation per unit of deposited energy can serve as this characteristic. General computation techniques used as well as methods of calculations of distributions of clusters for different radiations are discussed. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  1. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star......-shaped three-dimensional objects using the radial function. It appears that the model is highly fleksiblel in the sense that it can be used to describe an object with arbitrary irregular surface. Results on the distribution of well-known local stereological volume estimators are provided....

  2. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...

  3. Level structures of Mo – A comparative study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A negative parity band built on 1437 keV (112. -. ) excited state has been extended to 5.5 MeV. The structure seems to show a coexistence of single particle and collective modes of excitation. Properties of both the nuclei have been compared with shell model calculations using OXBASH. Keywords. Nuclear reactions. ¾.

  4. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  5. Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures loaded in the short-term up until failure. A profound discussion of constitutive modelling on concrete is performed; a model, applicable for general stress states, is described and its predictions are compared with experimental data. This model is implemented in the AXIPLANE-program applicable for axisymmetrick and plane structures. The theoretical basis for this program is given. Using the AXIPLANE-program various concrete structures are analysed up until failure and compared with experimental evidence. These analyses include panels pressure vessel, beams failing in shear and finally a specific pull-out test, the Lok-Test, is considered. In these analyses, the influence of different failure criteria, aggregate interlock, dowel action, secondary cracking, magnitude of compressive strenght, magnitude of tensile strenght and of different post-failure behaviours of the concrete are evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that a suitable analysis of the theoretical data results in a clear insight into the physical behaviour of the considered structures. Finally, it is demonstrated that the AXISPLANE-program for widely different structures exhibiting very delicate structural aspects gives predictions that are in close agreement with experimental evidence. (author)

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Outstanding Claim Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Djuric

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The key processes in the business of insurance companies which define the financial viability of their business activities, as the most important element, are the adequate amount of technical reserves. A qualitative assessment of the technical reserves level is the basic support to the management of the key business processes and proper strategic and financial decision-making in order to maximize the viability, profitability, competitiveness, and further development of the company. Based on the data on the operations of an insurance company, within a single line of insurance, different, in practice, most frequently used methods were applied in order to determine the deviation amplitude of the projected amounts from the actual claims. Another direction of research focuses on actuarial practice in non-life insurance companies operating in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The comparative analysis of the obtained projection points to the fact that the chosen methods, commonly used in actuarial practice in the Republic of Serbia, should be monitored and reviewed. The results of the multidirectional research and detection of the existing problems provide a useful framework and a stimulating mechanism, as well as the guidelines to improve the operations and better positioning of insurance in the commercial and economic environment of the Republic of Serbia.

  7. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  8. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  9. Comparative analysis of franchising in international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of franchising at the global level requires its further improvement. This business model has great business potential, especially in the Serbian market, given the current underdevelopment and inaccessibility of information. At the core of our research, we outlined the characteristics of this business model, its impact on business development and at the same time we tried to draw the attention of domestic business entities to the benefits of franchising as a modern way of doing business. We start our research with a focus on the comparative analysis of Serbia, as a very poorly developed market. We then discuss the concept of franchising in Europe, with a special focus on Poland as a country that is ready to export franchising systems, and we continue by providing comparisons with the world's largest markets, namely, the USA and Canada. In this paper, we tried to elaborate on the economic viability of this project, as well as the increasing expansion and importance franchising has been experiencing in the last few years. Emphasis is placed on the use of franchise in many areas of business where there is the possibility of implementing both business models.

  10. Comparative sequence and structural analyses of G-protein-coupled receptor crystal structures and implications for molecular models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Worth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up until recently the only available experimental (high resolution structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR was that of bovine rhodopsin. In the past few years the determination of GPCR structures has accelerated with three new receptors, as well as squid rhodopsin, being successfully crystallized. All share a common molecular architecture of seven transmembrane helices and can therefore serve as templates for building molecular models of homologous GPCRs. However, despite the common general architecture of these structures key differences do exist between them. The choice of which experimental GPCR structure(s to use for building a comparative model of a particular GPCR is unclear and without detailed structural and sequence analyses, could be arbitrary. The aim of this study is therefore to perform a systematic and detailed analysis of sequence-structure relationships of known GPCR structures. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed in detail conserved and unique sequence motifs and structural features in experimentally-determined GPCR structures. Deeper insight into specific and important structural features of GPCRs as well as valuable information for template selection has been gained. Using key features a workflow has been formulated for identifying the most appropriate template(s for building homology models of GPCRs of unknown structure. This workflow was applied to a set of 14 human family A GPCRs suggesting for each the most appropriate template(s for building a comparative molecular model. CONCLUSIONS: The available crystal structures represent only a subset of all possible structural variation in family A GPCRs. Some GPCRs have structural features that are distributed over different crystal structures or which are not present in the templates suggesting that homology models should be built using multiple templates. This study provides a systematic analysis of GPCR crystal structures and a consistent method for identifying

  11. Comparative sequence and structural analyses of G-protein-coupled receptor crystal structures and implications for molecular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Catherine L; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd

    2009-09-16

    Up until recently the only available experimental (high resolution) structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) was that of bovine rhodopsin. In the past few years the determination of GPCR structures has accelerated with three new receptors, as well as squid rhodopsin, being successfully crystallized. All share a common molecular architecture of seven transmembrane helices and can therefore serve as templates for building molecular models of homologous GPCRs. However, despite the common general architecture of these structures key differences do exist between them. The choice of which experimental GPCR structure(s) to use for building a comparative model of a particular GPCR is unclear and without detailed structural and sequence analyses, could be arbitrary. The aim of this study is therefore to perform a systematic and detailed analysis of sequence-structure relationships of known GPCR structures. We analyzed in detail conserved and unique sequence motifs and structural features in experimentally-determined GPCR structures. Deeper insight into specific and important structural features of GPCRs as well as valuable information for template selection has been gained. Using key features a workflow has been formulated for identifying the most appropriate template(s) for building homology models of GPCRs of unknown structure. This workflow was applied to a set of 14 human family A GPCRs suggesting for each the most appropriate template(s) for building a comparative molecular model. The available crystal structures represent only a subset of all possible structural variation in family A GPCRs. Some GPCRs have structural features that are distributed over different crystal structures or which are not present in the templates suggesting that homology models should be built using multiple templates. This study provides a systematic analysis of GPCR crystal structures and a consistent method for identifying suitable templates for GPCR homology modelling that will

  12. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed in two information categories as personal information and institutes and their virtual education applications. The English web design of the online questionnaire and the database has been prepared by Microsoft ASP codes which is the script language of Microsoft Front Page editor and has been tested on personal web site. The questionnaire has been pre applied in institutions providing virtual education in Australia. The English text of the questionnaire and web site design have been sent to educational technology and virtual education specialists in the countries of the study group. With the feedback received, the spelling mistakes have been corrected and concept and language validity have been completed. The application of the questionnaire has taken 40 weeks during March-November 2004. Only 135 institutes have replied. Two of the questionnaires have been discharged because they included mistaken coding, names of the institutions and countries. Valid 133 questionnaires cover approximately 44% of the study group. Questionnaires saved in the online database have been transferred to Microsoft Excel and then to SPSS by external database connection. In regards of the research objectives, the data collected has been analyzed on computer and by using SPSS statistics package program. In data analysis frequency (f, percentage (% and arithmetic mean ( have been used. In comparisons of country, institute, year, and other variables, che-square test, independent t

  13. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  14. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  15. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  16. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.; Hyppoenen, P.; Mikkola, T.; Noro, H.; Raiko, H.; Salminen, P.; Talja, H.

    1983-05-01

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  17. New tips for structure prediction by comparative modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Rayan, Anwar

    2009-01-01

    Comparative modelling is utilized to predict the 3-dimensional conformation of a given protein (target) based on its sequence alignment to experimentally determined protein structure (template). The use of such technique is already rewarding and increasingly widespread in biological research and drug development. The accuracy of the predictions as commonly accepted depends on the score of sequence identity of the target protein to the template. To assess the relationship between sequence iden...

  18. Functional Generalized Structured Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun

    2016-12-01

    An extension of Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA), called Functional GSCA, is proposed to analyze functional data that are considered to arise from an underlying smooth curve varying over time or other continua. GSCA has been geared for the analysis of multivariate data. Accordingly, it cannot deal with functional data that often involve different measurement occasions across participants and a large number of measurement occasions that exceed the number of participants. Functional GSCA addresses these issues by integrating GSCA with spline basis function expansions that represent infinite-dimensional curves onto a finite-dimensional space. For parameter estimation, functional GSCA minimizes a penalized least squares criterion by using an alternating penalized least squares estimation algorithm. The usefulness of functional GSCA is illustrated with gait data.

  19. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeng-Hoi

    2002-01-01

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  20. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  1. Structure soil structure interaction effects: Seismic analysis of safety related collocated concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Process, Purification and Stack Buildings are collocated safety related concrete shear wall structures with plan dimensions in excess of 100 feet. An important aspect of their seismic analysis was the determination of structure soil structure interaction (SSSI) effects, if any. The SSSI analysis of the Process Building, with one other building at a time, was performed with the SASSI computer code for up to 50 frequencies. Each combined model had about 1500 interaction nodes. Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, done with ABAQUS and SASSI codes, for three parameters: peak accelerations, seismic forces and the in-structure floor response spectra (FRS). The results may be of wider interest due to the model size and the potential applicability to other deep soil layered sites. Results obtained from the ABAQUS analysis were consistently higher, as expected, than those from the SSI and SSSI analyses using the SASSI. The SSSI effect between the Process and Purification Buildings was not significant. The Process and Stack Building results demonstrated that under certain conditions a massive structure can have an observable effect on the seismic response of a smaller and less stiff structure

  2. Dynamic analysis of embedded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausel, E.; Whitman, R.V.; Morray, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents simplified rules to account for embeddment and soil layering in the soil-structure interaction problem, to be used in dynamic analysis. The relationship between the spring method, and a direct solution (in which both soil and structure are modeled with finite elements and linear members) is first presented. It is shown that for consistency of the results with the two solution methods the spring method should be performed in the following three steps: 1. Determination of the motion of the massless foundation (having the same shape as the actual one) when subjected to the same input motion as the direct solution. 2. Determination of the frequency dependent subgrade stiffness for the relevant degrees of freedom. 3. Computations of the response of the real structure supported on frequency dependent soil springs and subjected at the base of these springs to the motion computed in step 1. The first two steps require, in general, finite element methods, which would make the procedure not attractive. It is shown in the paper, however, that excellent approximations can be obtained, on the basis of 1-dimensional wave propagation theory for the solution of step 1, and correction factors modifying for embeddment the corresponding springs of a surface footing on a layered stratum, for the solution of step 2. (Auth.)

  3. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  4. MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

    2010-05-17

    The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME TECHNIQUES IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    25, No. 1, March 2006. Ayotamuno, Kogbara and Agunwamba 15. COMPARATIVE .... Option 0, was the Control (no treatment employed) ..... induce an enormous proliferation of microbial ... oxygen and nutrients imposed the greatest limitation ...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maina A. S. Waweru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage. The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved. Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 companies...

  7. Analysis of Pumphouse RCC Frame Structure for Soil Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mr A.S. Thombare; Prof. V.P. Kumbhar; Prof. A.H. Kumbhar

    2016-01-01

    When structure is built on ground some elements of structure are direct contact with soil. When loads are applied on structure internal forces are developed in both the structure as well as in soil. It results in deformation of both the components which are independent to each other. This are called soil structure interaction. The analysis is done by using (Bentley STAAD.Pro V8i Version 2007) software. The analysis carried out been pump house structure R.C.C. frame structure find ...

  8. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  9. Soil Retaining Structures : Development of models for structural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these

  10. Comparative population structure of cavity-nesting sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Eadie, John M.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Christensen, Thomas K.; Berdeen, James; Taylor, Eric J.; Boyd, Sean; Einarsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger-bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in population structure is reduced dispersal tendency of larger-bodied cavity-nesting species due to limited abundance of large cavities. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined population structure of three cavity-nesting waterfowl species distributed across much of North America: Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), Common Goldeneye (B. clangula), and Bufflehead (B. albeola). We compared patterns of population structure using both variation in mtDNA control-region sequences and band-recovery data for the same species and geographic regions. Results were highly congruent between data types, showing structured population patterns for Barrow's and Common Goldeneye but not for Bufflehead. Consistent with our prediction, the smallest cavity-nesting species, the Bufflehead, exhibited the lowest level of population differentiation due to increased dispersal and gene flow. Results provide evidence for discrete Old and New World populations of Common Goldeneye and for differentiation of regional groups of both goldeneye species in Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern coast of North America. Results presented here will aid management objectives that require an understanding of population delineation and migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas. Comparative studies such as this one highlight factors that may drive patterns of genetic diversity and population trends.

  11. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  12. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  13. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L.; Raposo, C.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kaur*

    2017-01-01

    No geek is unfamiliar with the concept of software development life cycle (SDLC). This research deals with the various SDLC models covering waterfall, spiral, and iterative, agile, V-shaped, prototype model. In the modern era, all the software systems are fallible as they can’t stand with certainty. So, it is tried to compare all aspects of the various models, their pros and cons so that it could be easy to choose a particular model at the time of need

  15. Comparative Analysis of Investment Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Kekytė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of financial markets resulted new challenges for both investors and investment issues. This increased demand for innovative, modern investment and portfolio management decisions adequate for market conditions. Financial market receives special attention, creating new models, includes financial risk management and investment decision support systems.Researchers recognize the need to deal with financial problems using models consistent with the reality and based on sophisticated quantitative analysis technique. Thus, role mathematical modeling in finance becomes important. This article deals with various investments decision-making models, which include forecasting, optimization, stochatic processes, artificial intelligence, etc., and become useful tools for investment decisions.

  16. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education system occupies a special place in the policy of each nation. Regardless of geographical location, socio-economic or cultural differences, the need to improve the education offered for population by facilitating access to higher education becomes more and more important. Providing a suitable framework for the personal development of each student is expensive and involves high amounts of money. From the analyses carried out we couldn\\'t identify the substantial differences between the way it is structured and organized education system worldwide. However, we were able to identify a number of common elements that create a global University System. The need to invest in human resources through structural reforms in each country is present, and therefore a higher indention to pay greater attention to the development of the higher education system. In our work we decided to analyze education systems in countries like United States of America (USA, United Kingdom (GB, China (CHN, Germany (DE, France (FR, Russian Federation (RU, Japan (JPN average values recorded for EU-27 and last but not least Romania (RO. Although the investment in the University system is hard to quantify, it is unanimously acknowledged that a country can achieve a competitive advantage in international relations through a very well prepared and trained personnel. The countries reviewed in this paper have different policies when it comes to financial support of the University System. If Germany and France have decided to get involved directly in supporting the system by allocating the necessary funds from the State budget, another European country, the United Kingdom, decided to apply a policy diametrically opposite, similar to that existing in the USA and cover in a lesser degree the needs of universities in Government funds. Regardless of the policy adopted the results are intended to be the same: facilitating access to university education, a high quality of

  18. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  19. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  20. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

  1. Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Crime Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Collins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information is limited on how firearms move from legal possession to illegal possession and use in criminal activities, largely because of data collection capacity and a lack of recent, exhaustive recovery data across jurisdictions. This article includes both an analysis of firearms trace data and prisoner interviews across multiple jurisdictions: New Orleans, Louisiana, Prince George’s County, Maryland, and Chicago, Illinois. Findings indicate that recoveries and trace successes vary across jurisdictions and by type of crime. Jurisdiction regulations were associated with the proportion of guns purchased in state and time to recovery but not with purchaser characteristics. Interviews from imprisoned offenders in two jurisdictions revealed the most common method of obtaining a crime gun was to steal it or buy it off the street.

  4. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  5. Comparative performances analysis of neonatal ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Tognarelli, Selene; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Ghirri, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio; Menciassi, Arianna; Laschi, Cecilia; Cuttano, Armando

    2015-02-08

    Mechanical ventilation is a therapeutic action for newborns with respiratory diseases but may have side effects. Correct equipment knowledge and training may limit human errors. We aimed to test different neonatal mechanical ventilators' performances by an acquisition module (a commercial pressure sensor plus an isolated chamber and a dedicated software). The differences (ΔP) between peak pressure values and end-expiration pressure were investigated for each ventilator. We focused on discrepancies among measured and imposed pressure data. A statistical analysis was performed. We investigated the measured/imposed ΔP relation. The ΔP do not reveal univocal trends related to ventilation setting parameters and the data distributions were non-Gaussian. Measured ΔP represent a significant parameter in newborns' ventilation, due to the typical small volumes. The investigated ventilators showed different tendencies. Therefore, a deep specific knowledge of the intensive care devices is mandatory for caregivers to correctly exploit their operating principles.

  6. Contingency Contracting within the Department of Defense: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillion, Chester

    2000-01-01

    .... The thesis compares and contrasts the regulations governing the contingency contracting operations, the organization structure, contingency contracting support plans, and the training requirements...

  7. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the following: 1. The relationship of analysis to design. 2. New methods of analysis. 3. Improved finite elements. 4. Effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods. 5. The use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis. 6. The role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. The discussion focusses on the impact of new inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods. (Auth.)

  8. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations

  9. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  10. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  11. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

    2008-01-01

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO 2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO 2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO 2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  12. Comparative Analysis of Official Tourist Destination Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Tapia León

    2017-07-01

    take relevance as communication strategies to improve the promotion of a tourist destination. Among the functions performed by the municipal decentralized autonomous governments (GAD are regulate, control and promote the development of cantonal tourism. Most municipalities have their website where they display tourism information, but very few have an exclusive website to publish tourism information. In addition, as shown in this paper, the tourist information provided is very low. The method that was used in this research was the content analysis through a systematic, objective and quantitative analysis. The study was carried out through a direct observation of the municipal websites in Ecuador and their counterparts in Colombia and Spain. The results showed that the vast majority of municipal GADs own websites but very few are the websites that are making appropriate use of the services that an exclusive web destined to the tourism could offer.  Ecuador should work harder to improve its tourism promotion on the Web if it really wants to become a tourist power as posed by the Ecuadorian government.

  13. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic low rectal resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Chernikovsky

    2015-01-01

    to 9.3 versus 6.2 in Group1. ULAR required consumables costing an average of 45 000 rubles more than did ISR. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures are comparable in the duration of a surgical intervention, the volume of intraoperative blood loss, and the quality of TME. ULAR with a reservoir is functionally more preferential.  

  14. Allograft materials in phalloplasty: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mark P; Komlo, Caroline; Defrain, Molly

    2013-09-01

    Allograft use has increased recently with the rising use of allograft materials in breast surgery. There are few data that compare the performance of the various allograft materials in this application, despite marketing efforts by the manufacturers to present one allograft material as superior to another. Phalloplasty is a procedure that uses allografts for penis girth augmentation. Preparation of these grafts differs with each manufacturer. We report our experience with 3 different types of allografts for this procedure. This allows for the comparison of these materials in their performance with a single model. Forty-seven patients who underwent penis girth enhancement with allograft material were reviewed. All patients underwent circumferential grafting to the shaft of the penis at the level of Buck's fascia. Graft materials included AlloDerm (n = 9), Belladerm (n = 20), and Repriza (n = 21). Charts were reviewed for material type, presence and type of infection, wound exposure, and graft loss with attention to the type of allograft material that was used. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 120 months with an average of 11.25 months. Infection, defined as an open wound with graft exposure, occurred in 20 (42%) of 47 patients. Of these, graft exposure only occurred in 17 (36%) patients, whereas 3 (6%) patients sustained total graft loss. Graft exposure or loss occurred in 3 patients who had AlloDerm, 9 patients with Belladerm, and 8 patients with Repriza. No patients with AlloDerm sustained graft loss, whereas 2 patients with Belladerm and 1 patient with Repriza sustained graft loss. There were no statistical differences among these graft types with regard to infection or graft loss. Three different brands of allograft material were used in 1 surgical procedure and followed up for their performance with regard to exposure and infection. In this model, there is no difference in the rate of infection in these materials despite their different methods of preparation

  15. Probabilistic analysis of a materially nonlinear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, H. R.; Wu, Y.-T.; Fossum, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    A probabilistic finite element program is used to perform probabilistic analysis of a materially nonlinear structure. The program used in this study is NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress), under development at Southwest Research Institute. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the radial stress of a thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure is computed and compared with the analytical solution. In addition, sensitivity factors showing the relative importance of the input random variables are calculated. Significant plasticity is present in this problem and has a pronounced effect on the probabilistic results. The random input variables are the material yield stress and internal pressure with Weibull and normal distributions, respectively. The results verify the ability of NESSUS to compute the CDF and sensitivity factors of a materially nonlinear structure. In addition, the ability of the Advanced Mean Value (AMV) procedure to assess the probabilistic behavior of structures which exhibit a highly nonlinear response is shown. Thus, the AMV procedure can be applied with confidence to other structures which exhibit nonlinear behavior.

  16. Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthman, Briana L.

    2013-01-01

    This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash

  17. Comparative Study on Cushion Performance Between 3D Printed Kelvin Structure and 3D Printed Lattice Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Lakshmi

    Frequently transported packaging goods are more prone to damage due to impact, jolting or vibration in transit. Fragile goods, for example, glass, ceramics, porcelain are susceptible to mechanical stresses. Hence ancillary materials like cushions play an important role when utilized within package. In this work, an analytical model of a 3D cellular structure is established based on Kelvin model and lattice structure. The research will provide a comparative study between the 3D printed Kelvin unit structure and 3D printed lattice structure. The comparative investigation is based on parameters defining cushion performance such as cushion creep, indentation, and cushion curve analysis. The applications of 3D printing is in rapid prototyping where the study will provide information of which model delivers better form of energy absorption. 3D printed foam will be shown as a cost-effective approach as prototype. The research also investigates about the selection of material for 3D printing process. As cushion development demands flexible material, three-dimensional printing with material having elastomeric properties is required. Further, the concept of cushion design is based on Kelvin model structure and lattice structure. The analytical solution provides the cushion curve analysis with respect to the results observed when load is applied over the cushion. The results are reported on basis of attenuation and amplification curves.

  18. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, Dimitri V.; Stewart, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  19. Generalized structured component analysis a component-based approach to structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2014-01-01

    Winner of the 2015 Sugiyama Meiko Award (Publication Award) of the Behaviormetric Society of Japan Developed by the authors, generalized structured component analysis is an alternative to two longstanding approaches to structural equation modeling: covariance structure analysis and partial least squares path modeling. Generalized structured component analysis allows researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a model as a whole, compare a model to alternative specifications, and conduct complex analyses in a straightforward manner. Generalized Structured Component Analysis: A Component-Based Approach to Structural Equation Modeling provides a detailed account of this novel statistical methodology and its various extensions. The authors present the theoretical underpinnings of generalized structured component analysis and demonstrate how it can be applied to various empirical examples. The book enables quantitative methodologists, applied researchers, and practitioners to grasp the basic concepts behind this new a...

  20. Interactions of cisplatin analogues with lysozyme: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Giarita; De Benedictis, Ilaria; Malfitano, Annamaria; Morelli, Giancarlo; Novellino, Ettore; Marasco, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    The biophysical characterization of drug binding to proteins plays a key role in structural biology and in the discovery and optimization of drug discovery processes. The search for optimal combinations of biophysical techniques that can correctly and efficiently identify and quantify binding of metal-based drugs to their final target is challenging, due to the physicochemical properties of these agents. Different cisplatin derivatives have shown different citotoxicities in most common cancer lines, suggesting that they exert their biological activity via different mechanisms of action. Here we carried out a comparative analysis, by studying the behaviours of three Pt-compounds under the same experimental conditions and binding assays to properly deepen the determinants of the different MAOs. Indeed we compared the results obtained using surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal shift assays based on circular dichroism experiments in the characterization of the formation of adducts obtained upon reaction of cisplatin, carboplatin and iodinated analogue of cisplatin, cis-Pt (NH 3 ) 2 I 2 , with the model protein hen egg white lysozyme, both at neutral and acid pHs. Further we reasoned on the applicability of employed techniques for the study the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction of a metallodrug with a protein and to reveal which information can be obtained using a combination of these analyses. Data were discussed on the light of the existing structural data collected on the platinated protein.

  1. Linking advanced fracture models to structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, Matteo

    2001-07-01

    proposed. Such specimen is designed in order to have the same geometrical constraint of the real structure which has to be assessed. Paper III presents an alternative yield surfaces of plane strain single-cracked (SEC) specimens valid for both shallow and deep cracks. The performance of the backward-Euler return algorithm is addressed in order to evaluate the implementability of the proposed yield surface. In Paper IV a SENT specimen is designed in order to give a constraint level comparable to the one calculated for a pipe by means of the modified line spring element. Paper V presents a methodology to link micro-mechanically based crack growth simulations with line spring analysis by suggesting an alternative way to calculate the J - integral from the line spring framework. Paper VI presents an application of the new line spring for pipelines subjected to e.g. large curvatures. (author)

  2. Structural dynamic analysis of turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, A. Daniel; Gopalsamy, M.; Viswanadh, Chaparala B. V.; Krishnaraj, R.

    2017-10-01

    In any gas turbine design cycle, blade design is a crucial element which needs maximum attention to meet the aerodynamic performance, structural safety margins, manufacturing feasibility, material availability etc. In present day gas turbine engines, most of the failures occur during engine development test and in-service, in rotor and stator blades due to fatigue and resonance failures. To address this issue, an extensive structural dynamic analysis is carried out to predict the natural frequencies and mode shapes using FE methods. Using the dynamics characteristics, the Campbell diagram is constructed to study the possibility of resonance at various operating speeds. In this work, the feasibility of using composite material in place of titanium alloy from the structural dynamics point of view. This is being attempted in a Low-pressure compressor where the temperatures are relatively low and fixed with the casings. The analysis will be carried out using FE method for different composite material with different lamina orientations chosen through the survey. This study will focus on the sensitivity of blade mode shapes to different laminae orientations, which will be used to alter the natural frequency and tailor the mode shapes. Campbell diagrams of existing titanium alloy are compared with the composite materials with different laminae at all critical operating conditions. The existing manufacturing methods and the proven techniques for blade profiles will also be discussed in this report.

  3. Finite element analysis of ARPS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent

  4. Description of textures by a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, F; Shirai, Y; Tsuji, S

    1982-02-01

    A structural analysis system for describing natural textures is introduced. The analyzer automatically extracts the texture elements in an input image, measures their properties, classifies them into some distinctive classes (one ``ground'' class and some ``figure'' classes), and computes the distributions of the gray level, the shape, and the placement of the texture elements in each class. These descriptions are used for classification of texture images. An analysis-by-synthesis method for evaluating texture analyzers is also presented. We propose a synthesizer which generates a texture image based on the descriptions. By comparing the reconstructed image with the original one, we can see what information is preserved and what is lost in the descriptions.

  5. PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rogac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the plastic analysis of steel frame structure loaded by gravity loads. By applying the cinematic theorem of ultimate analysis, the ultimate load for the case of elastic - ideally plastic material is calculated. The identical structure was treated in the computer program SAP2000 where the zone of material reinforcement in the plastic area was covered. Keywords: Steel frame structure, plastic analysis, ultimate gravity load, material reinforcement.

  6. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...

  7. Comparative chemoreactome analysis of dexketoprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Torshin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is the main targeted protein of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID; nevertheless, the latter substantially differ in pharmacological properties.Objective: to establish the spectrum of pharmacological actions of dexketoprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac, by using a chemoreactome analysis.Material and methods. A chemoinformation analysis was used to determine a list of the chemical structures closest to dexketoprofen. For each molecule, the investigators extracted the results of experimental measurements of the rheological properties of this molecule from databases and a chemoreactome analysis was carried out. The comparative chemoreactome analysis of the molecule of dexketoprofen and control molecules (ketoprofen, diclofenac could assess the biological activity of the studied molecule.Results and discussion. Unlike the molecules of comparison, dexketoprofen was found to be able to accumulate mainly in muscles, adipose tissue, and adrenal glands. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of dexketoprofen can be carried out via modulation not only of the metabolism of prostaglandins, but also that of leukotrienes and encephalins, as well as via inhibition of metalloproteinases and glutamate receptors. In addition, the analysis showed a considerable difference in the interaction profiles of dexketoprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Dexketoprofen can enhance the efficacy of anti-arrhythmic and antiadrenergic agents, whereas ketoprofen and diclofenac are able to negatively affect the metabolism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D.Conclusion. The chemoreactome analysis could identify the promising vasodilatory, antiplatelet, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects of dexketoprofen in addition to its main action. 

  8. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Classification Algorithms on Diverse Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alghobiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining involves the computational process to find patterns from large data sets. Classification, one of the main domains of data mining, involves known structure generalizing to apply to a new dataset and predict its class. There are various classification algorithms being used to classify various data sets. They are based on different methods such as probability, decision tree, neural network, nearest neighbor, boolean and fuzzy logic, kernel-based etc. In this paper, we apply three diverse classification algorithms on ten datasets. The datasets have been selected based on their size and/or number and nature of attributes. Results have been discussed using some performance evaluation measures like precision, accuracy, F-measure, Kappa statistics, mean absolute error, relative absolute error, ROC Area etc. Comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance evaluation measures of accuracy, precision, and F-measure. We specify features and limitations of the classification algorithms for the diverse nature datasets.

  10. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  11. Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.

  12. Modal analysis application for dynamic characterization of simple structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, A.J.; Belinco, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of a structure helps to foresee the vibrating behaviour under operating conditions. The modal analysis techniques offer a method to perform the dynamic characterization of a studied structure from the vibration modes of such structure. A hammer provided with a loaded cell to excite a wide frequency band and accelerometer and, on the basis of a measurement of the transfer function at different points, various simple structures were given with a dynamic structures analysis (of the type of Fourier's rapidly transformation) and the results were compared with those obtained by other methods. Different fields where these techniques are applied, are also enumerated. (Author)

  13. Development of the tube bundle structure for fluid-structure interaction analysis model - Intermediate Report -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Kang Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2009-07-01

    Tube bundle structures within a Boiler or heat exchanger are laid the fluid-structure, thermal-structure and fluid-thermal-structure coupled boundary condition. In these complicated boundary conditions, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurs when fluid flow causes deformation of the structure. This deformation, in turn, changes the boundary conditions for the fluid flow. The structural analysis have been executed as follows. First of all, divide the fluid and structural analysis discipline, and then independently analyzed each other. However, the fluid dynamic force effect the behavior of the structure, and the vibration amplitude of the structure to fluid. FSI analysis model was separately created fluid and structure model, and then defined the fsi boundary condition, and simultaneously analyzed in one domain. The analysis results were compared with those of the experimental method for validating the analysis model. Flow-induced vibration test was executed with single rod configuration. The vibration amplitudes of a fuel rod were measured by the laser vibro-meter system in x and y-direction. The analyses results were not closely with the test data, but the trend was very similar with the test result. In fsi coupled analysis case, the turbulent model was very important with the reliability of the accuracy of the analysis model. Therefore, the analysis model will be needed to further study

  14. Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keng-Po; Chung, Yan-Tung; Li, Rong; Wan, Hin-Ting; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Mounting evidence has shown that an alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with diet, and plays an important role in animal health and metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the influence of environmental contaminants on the gut microbial community. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing plastic products, has recently been classified as an environmental obesogen. Although many studies have demonstrated the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA on liver and pancreatic functions, the possible effects of this synthetic compound on the metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota is unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on caecum samples of CD-1 mice, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary BPA intake may influence the gut microbiota composition and functions, an important attributing factor to development of the metabolic syndrome. A high-fat diet (HFD) and high-sucrose diet (HSD) were included as the positive controls for comparing the changes in the intestinal microbial profiles. Our results demonstrated a significant reduction of species diversity in the gut microbiota of BPA-fed mice. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed that dietary BPA intake led to a similar gut microbial community structure as that induced by HFD and HSD in mice. In addition, comparative analysis of the microbial communities revealed that both BPA and a HFD favored the growth of Proteobacteria, a microbial marker of dysbiosis. Consistently, growth induction of the family Helicobacteraceae and reduction of the Firmicutes and Clostridia populations were observed in the mice fed BPA or a HFD. Collectively, our study highlighted that the effects of dietary BPA intake on the shift of microbial community structure were similar to those of a HFD and HSD, and revealed microbial markers for the development of diseases associated with an unstable microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative analysis of prophages in Streptococcus mutans genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tiwei; Fan, Xiangyu; Long, Quanxin; Deng, Wanyan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    Prophages have been considered genetic units that have an intimate association with novel phenotypic properties of bacterial hosts, such as pathogenicity and genomic variation. Little is known about the genetic information of prophages in the genome of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of human dental caries. In this study, we identified 35 prophage-like elements in S. mutans genomes and performed a comparative genomic analysis. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of prophage sequences revealed that the prophages could be classified into three main large clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. The S. mutans prophages in each cluster were compared. The genomic sequences of phismuN66-1, phismuNLML9-1, and phismu24-1 all shared similarities with the previously reported S. mutans phages M102, M102AD, and ϕAPCM01. The genomes were organized into seven major gene clusters according to the putative functions of the predicted open reading frames: packaging and structural modules, integrase, host lysis modules, DNA replication/recombination modules, transcriptional regulatory modules, other protein modules, and hypothetical protein modules. Moreover, an integrase gene was only identified in phismuNLML9-1 prophages. PMID:29158986

  16. A Comparative Study of Theoretical Graph Models for Characterizing Structural Networks of Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD, that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.

  17. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH){sub 2}[ZnCl{sub 4}] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radanović, Mirjana M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Jelić, Miodrag G., E-mail: jelicmgm@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Romčević, Nebojša Ž. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Boukos, Nikos [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Materials Science, Athens (Greece); Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Hadžić, Branka B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Bajac, Branimir M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia); Nađ, Laslo F. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Chandrinou, Chrysoula [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Materials Science, Athens (Greece); Baloš, Sebastian S. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results.

  18. Comparative analysis of the heme iron electronic structure and stereochemistry in tetrameric rabbit hemoglobin and monomeric soybean leghemoglobin a using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenkina, I. V.; Kumar, A.; Berkovsky, A. L.; Oshtrakh, M. I.

    2018-02-01

    A comparative study of tetrameric rabbit hemoglobin and monomeric soybean leghemoglobin a in the oxy- and deoxy-forms was carried out using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution in order to analyze the heme iron electronic structure and stereochemistry in relation to the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters. The Mössbauer spectra of tetrameric rabbit hemoglobin in both forms were fitted using two quadrupole doublets related to the 57Fe in ɑ- and β-subunits. In contrast, the Mössbauer spectra of monomeric soybean leghemoglobin a were fitted using: (i) two quadrupole doublets for the oxy-form related to two conformational states of the distal His E7 imidazole ring and different hydrogen bonding of oxygen molecule in the oxy-form and (ii) using three quadrupole doublets for deoxy-form related to three conformational states of the proximal His F8 imidazole ring. Small variations of Mössbauer hyperfine parameters related to small differences in the heme iron electronic structure and stereochemistry in tetrameric rabbit hemoglobin and monomeric soybean leghemoglobin a are discussed.

  19. Alinhamento entre estrutura organizacional de projetos e estratégia de manufatura: uma análise comparativa de múltiplos casos Alignment between project management organizational structure and manufacture strategy: a comparative analysis of multiple cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alves Patah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho é estabelecer uma relação entre a estrutura de gerenciamento de projetos de uma organização e sua estratégia de manufatura. Pretende-se verificar também se existe um alinhamento entre a configuração da estrutura organizacional e o tipo de estratégia de manufatura de uma organização. A abordagem metodológica utilizada foi o estudo de múltiplos casos, realizado em três empresas dos setores de cosméticos, eletro-eletrônico e aeroespacial. Os principais resultados apontam para estruturas mais complexas de gerenciamento de projetos à medida que se caminha no continuum entre volume e variedade.The main goal of this paper is to establish a relation between the project management organization for a company and its manufacture strategy. Another objective is also to verify whether there is an alignment between the configuration of the organizational structure and the model of the manufacture strategy for a company. The methodological approach used was the multiple cases analysis conducted in three companies of the cosmetics, electronic, and airspace sectors. The main results point to more complex project management structures in the process along the continuum between volume and variety.

  20. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 - Essentials is an excellent introduction to the essential features, functions, and workflows of Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional. Master the tools you will need to make Robot work for you: Go from zero to proficiency with this thorough and detailed introduction to the essential concepts and workflows of Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016. - Demystify the interface - Manipulate and manage Robot tables like a pro - Learn how to use Robot's modeling tools - Master loading techniques - Harness Robot automated load combinations - Decipher simplified seismic loading - Discover workflows for steel and concrete design - Gain insights to help troubleshoot issues Guided exercises are provided to help cement fundamental concepts in Robot Structural Analysis and drive home key functions. Get up to speed quickly with this essential text and add Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 to your analysis and design toolbox. New in 2016: AWC-NDS ...

  1. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The present application of optimum design appears to be restricted to components of the structure rather than to the total structural system. Since design normally involved many analysis of the system any improvement in the efficiency of the basic methods of analysis will allow more complicated systems to be designed by optimum methods. The evaluation of the risk and reliability of a structural system can be extremely important. Reliability studies have been made of many non-structural systems for which the individual components have been extensively tested and the service environment is known. For such systems the reliability studies are valid. For most structural systems, however, the properties of the components can only be estimated and statistical data associated with the potential loads is often minimum. Also, a potentially critical loading condition may be completely neglected in the study. For these reasons and the previous problems associated with the reliability of both linear and nonlinear analysis computer programs it appears to be premature to place a significant value on such studies for complex structures. With these comments as background the purpose of this paper is to discuss the following: the relationship of analysis to design; new methods of analysis; new of improved finite elements; effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods; the use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis; the role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. This discussion will focus on the impact of new, inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods

  2. Structure of polysaccharide and structural analysis by x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides occur in plants and the living body in the solid, gel, or liquid. They have a highly structural diversity and possess the potential to be used for development of new materials and energy sources. So it is very important to understand their molecular structure under various conditions. This review introduces the structural characteristics of polysaccharides and the examples of their analysis by the X-ray scattering method. (author)

  3. Molecular insights on analogs of HIV PR inhibitors toward HTLV-1 PR through QM/MM interactions and molecular dynamics studies: comparative structure analysis of wild and mutant HTLV-1 PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Singh, Poonam; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Retroviruses HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are the primary causative agents of fatal adult T-cell leukemia and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease. Both retroviruses are similar in characteristics mechanism, and it encodes for protease that mainly involved in the viral replication process. On the basis of the therapeutic success of HIV-1 PR inhibitors, the protease of HTLV-1 is mainly considered as a potential target for chemotherapy. At the same time, structural similarities in both enzymes that originate HIV PR inhibitors can also be an HTLV-1 PR inhibitor. But the expectations failed because of rejection of HIV PR inhibitors from the HTLV-1 PR binding pocket. In this present study, the reason for the HIV PR inhibitor rejection from the HTLV-1 binding site was identified through sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation method. Functional analysis of M37A mutation in HTLV PR clearly shows that the MET37 specificity and screening of potential inhibitors targeting MET37 is performed by using approved 90% similar HIV PR inhibitor compounds. From this approach, we report few compounds with a tendency to accept/donate electron specifically to an important site residue MET37 in HTLV-1 PR binding pocket. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Olkiluoto Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellae, P.; Vaittinen, T.; Saksa, P.; Nummela, J.

    2004-11-01

    Posiva Oy is carrying out investigations for the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in SW Finland. The investigations have focused on the central part of the island. The layout design of the entire repository requires characterization of notably larger areas and must rely at least at the current stage on borehole information from a rather sparse network and on the geophysical soundings providing information outside and between the holes. In this work, the structural data according to the current version of the Olkiluoto bedrock model is analyzed. The bedrock model relies much on the borehole data although results of the seismic surveys and, for example, pumping tests are used in determining the orientation and continuation of the structures. Especially in the analysis, questions related to the frequency of structures and size of the structures are discussed. The structures observed in the boreholes are mainly dipping gently to the southeast. About 9 % of the sample length belongs to structures. The proportion is higher in the upper parts of the rock. The number of fracture and crushed zones seems not to depend greatly on the depth, whereas the hydraulic features concentrate on the depth range above -100 m. Below level -300 m, the hydraulic conductivity occurs in connection of fractured zones. Especially the hydraulic features, but also fracture and crushed zones often occur in groups. The frequency of the structure (area of structures per total volume) is estimated to be of the order of 1/100m. The size of the local structures was estimated by calculating the intersection of the zone to the nearest borehole where the zone has not been detected. Stochastic models using the Fracman software by Golder Associates were generated based on the bedrock model data complemented with the magnetic ground survey data. The seismic surveys (from boreholes KR5, KR13, KR14, and KR19) were used as alternative input data. The generated models were tested by

  5. Dynamic analysis program for frame structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kozo; Chiba, Toshio

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose computer program named ISTRAN/FD (Isub(HI) STRucture ANalysis/Frame structure, Dynamic analysis) has been developed for dynamic analysis of three-dimensional frame structures. This program has functions of free vibration analysis, seismic response analysis, graphic display by plotter and CRT, etc. This paper introduces ISTRAN/FD; examples of its application are shown with various problems : idealization of the cantilever, dynamic analysis of the main tower of the suspension bridge, three-dimensional vibration in the plate girder bridge, seismic response in the boiler steel structure, and dynamic properties of the underground LNG tank. In this last example, solid elements, in addition to beam elements, are especially used for the analysis. (auth.)

  6. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  7. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  8. rCAD: A Novel Database Schema for the Comparative Analysis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Stuart; Doshi, Kishore J; Xu, Weijia; Gutell, Robin R

    2011-12-31

    Beyond its direct involvement in protein synthesis with mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNA is now being appreciated for its significance in the overall metabolism and regulation of the cell. Comparative analysis has been very effective in the identification and characterization of RNA molecules, including the accurate prediction of their secondary structure. We are developing an integrative scalable data management and analysis system, the RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD), implemented with SQL Server to support RNA comparative analysis. The platformagnostic database schema of rCAD captures the essential relationships between the different dimensions of information for RNA comparative analysis datasets. The rCAD implementation enables a variety of comparative analysis manipulations with multiple integrated data dimensions for advanced RNA comparative analysis workflows. In this paper, we describe details of the rCAD schema design and illustrate its usefulness with two usage scenarios.

  9. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    work a two degrees of freedom nonlinear system with zero memory was ... FRF is the most widely used method in structural dynamics which gives information about the ..... 3.6, which is the waterfall diagram of the same response, as well.

  10. Accuracy of Dynamic and Acoustic Analysis of Lightweight Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    in such buildings is important. In the lowfrequency range, prediction of sound and vibration in building structures may be achieved by finite-element analysis (FEA). The aim of this paper is to compare the two commercial codes ABAQUS and ANSYS for FEA of an acoustic-structural coupling in a timber lightweight panel...

  11. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  12. Comparative analysis of graphite oxidation behaviour based on microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badenhorst, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.badenhorst@up.ac.za; Focke, Walter

    2013-11-15

    Two unidentified powdered graphite samples, from a natural and a synthetic origin respectively, were examined. These materials are intended for use in nuclear applications, but have an unknown treatment history since they are considered proprietary. In order to establish a baseline for comparison, the samples were compared to two commercial flake natural graphite samples with varying impurity levels. The samples were characterized by conventional techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. The results indicated that all four samples were very similar, with low impurity levels and good crystallinity, yet they exhibit remarkably different oxidation behaviours. The oxidized microstructures of the materials were examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy at low acceleration voltages. The relative influence of each factor affecting the oxidation was established, enabling a structured comparison of the different oxidative behaviours. Based on this analysis, it was possible to account for the measured differences in oxidative reactivity. The material with the lowest reactivity was a flake natural graphite which was characterized as having highly visible crystalline perfection, large particles with a high aspect ratio and no traces of catalytic activity. The second sample, which had an identical inherent microstructure, was found to have an increased reactivity due to the presence of small catalytic impurities. This material also exhibited a more gradual reduction in the oxidation rate at higher conversion, caused by the accumulation of particles which impede the oxidation. The sample with the highest reactivity was found to be a milled, natural graphite material, despite its evident crystallinity. The increased reactivity was attributable to a smaller particle size, the presence of catalytic impurities and extensive damage to the particle structure caused by jet milling. Despite displaying the lowest levels of

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE FUNDAMENTAL AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrusheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of investing and trading, in order to have a definite advantage and constantly create profit, you need to have a strategic approach. Generally speaking, the two main schools of thought and strategies in financial markets are fundamental and technical analysis. Fundamental and technical analysis differ in several aspects, such as the way of functioning and execution, the time horizon used, the tools used and their objective. These differences lead to certain advantages and disadvantages of each of the analyses. Fundamental and technical analysis are also a subject of critical reviews by the academic and scientific community and many of these reviews concern the methods of their application, i.e. the possibility of combining the two analyses and using them complementarily to fully utilize their strengths and advantages.

  14. Structural analysis in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellepiane, S.; Serpico, S.B.; Venzano, L.; Vernazza, G.

    1987-01-01

    The conventional techniques in Pattern Recognition (PR) have been greatly improved by the introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches, in particular for knowledge representation, inference mechanism and control structure. The purpose of this paper is to describe an image understanding system, based on the integrated approach (AI - PR), developed in the author's Department to interpret Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) images. The system is characterized by a heterarchical control structure and a blackboard model for the global data-base. The major aspects of the system are pointed out, with particular reference to segmentation, knowledge representation and error recovery (backtracking). The eye slices obtained in the case of two patients have been analyzed and the related results are discussed

  15. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks—a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. Using simple illustrative examples, test systems, and real power-grid datasets, we study the inherent frequencies of the oscillators as well as their coupling structure, comparing across the different models. We demonstrate, in particular, that if the network structure is not homogeneous, generators with identical parameters need to be modeled as non-identical oscillators in general. We also discuss an approach to estimate the required (dynamical) system parameters that are unavailable in typical power-grid datasets, their use for computing the constants of each of the three models, and an open-source MATLAB toolbox that we provide for these computations. (paper)

  16. A Comparative Analysis of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CONACHE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MOOC platforms have known a considerable development in recent years due to the enlargement of online space and the shifting between traditional to virtual activities. These plat-forms made it possible for people almost everywhere to take online academic courses offered by top universities via open access to web and with unlimited participation. Thus, it came naturally to us to address the question what makes them so successful? The purpose of this paper is to report comparatively MOOC platforms in terms of features, based on the user’s implication and demands. First, we chose four relevant lifelong learning platforms and then we structured three main categories for the platforms' qualification, depending on which we built our theory regarding the comparison between them. Our analysis consists of three sets of criteria: business model, course design and popularity among online users. Starting from this perspective, we built a range of representative factors for which we highlighted the major aspects for each plat-form in our comparative research

  17. Comparative analysis of nuclear reactor control system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are vital to the safe operation of nuclear reactors. Their seismic design requirements are some of the most important criteria governing reactor system design evaluation. Consequently, the seismic analysis for nuclear reactors is directed to include not only the mechanical and structural seismic capabilities of a reactor, but the control system functional requirements as well. In the study described an alternate conceptual design of a safety rod system was compared with a prototypic system design to assess their relative functional reliabilities under design seismic conditions. The comparative methods utilized standard success tree and decision tree techniques to determine the relative figures of merit. The study showed: (1) The methodology utilized can provide both qualitative and quantitative bases for design decisions regarding seismic functional capabilities of two systems under comparison, (2) the process emphasizes the visibility of particular design features that are subject to common mode failure while under seismic loading, and (3) minimal improvement was shown to be available in overall system seismic performance of an independent conceptual design, however, it also showed the system would be subject to a new set of operational uncertainties which would have to be resolved by extensive development programs

  18. Eulerian fluid-structure analysis of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.

    1979-05-01

    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm is developed for the analysis of the dynamic response of a BWR pressure-suppression pool and containment structure. The method is incorporated into a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics code, PELE-IC, for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of solved problems from the literature and by comparison with air and steam blowdown experiments

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Liang; Ren, Huadong; Li, Sheng; Gao, Ming; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Wei, Yuan; Yao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  20. Structural Analysis of Natural Products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přichystal, Jakub; Schug, K. A.; Lemr, Karel; Novák, Jiří; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 21 (2016), s. 10338-10346 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14064; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20229S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IONIZATION-MASS-SPECTROMETRY * BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTERS * STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  1. Development of the tube bundle structure for fluid-structure interaction analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong

    2010-02-01

    Tube bundle structures within a Boiler or heat exchanger are laid the fluid-structure, thermal-structure and fluid-thermal-structure coupled boundary condition. In these complicated boundary conditions, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurs when fluid flow causes deformation of the structure. This deformation, in turn, changes the boundary conditions for the fluid flow. The structural analysis discipline, and then independently analyzed each other. However, the fluid dynamic force effect the behavior of the structure, and the vibration amplitude of the structure to fluid. FSI analysis model was separately created fluid and structure model, and then defined the fsi boundary condition, and simultaneously analyzed in one domain. The analysis results were compared with those of the experimental method for validating the analysis model. Flow-induced vibration test was executed with single rod configuration. The vibration amplitudes of a fuel rod were measured by the laser vibro-meter system in x and y-direction. The analyses results were not closely with the test data, but the trend was very similar with the test result. In fsi coupled analysis case, the turbulent model was very important with the reliability of the accuracy of the analysis model. Therefore, the analysis model will be needed to further study

  2. Structural realism versus deployment realism: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I challenge and adjudicate between the two positions that have come to prominence in the scientific realism debate: deployment realism and structural realism. I discuss a set of cases from the history of celestial mechanics, including some of the most important successes in the history of science. To the surprise of the deployment realist, these are novel predictive successes toward which theoretical constituents that are now seen to be patently false were genuinely deployed. Exploring the implications for structural realism, I show that the need to accommodate these cases forces our notion of "structure" toward a dramatic depletion of logical content, threatening to render it explanatorily vacuous: the better structuralism fares against these historical examples, in terms of retention, the worse it fares in content and explanatory strength. I conclude by considering recent restrictions that serve to make "structure" more specific. I show however that these refinements will not suffice: the better structuralism fares in specificity and explanatory strength, the worse it fares against history. In light of these case studies, both deployment realism and structural realism are significantly threatened by the very historical challenge they were introduced to answer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability analysis and assessment of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.T.P.; Anderson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The study of structural reliability deals with the probability of having satisfactory performance of the structure under consideration within any specific time period. To pursue this study, it is necessary to apply available knowledge and methodology in structural analysis (including dynamics) and design, behavior of materials and structures, experimental mechanics, and the theory of probability and statistics. In addition, various severe loading phenomena such as strong motion earthquakes and wind storms are important considerations. For three decades now, much work has been done on reliability analysis of structures, and during this past decade, certain so-called 'Level I' reliability-based design codes have been proposed and are in various stages of implementation. These contributions will be critically reviewed and summarized in this paper. Because of the undesirable consequences resulting from the failure of nuclear structures, it is important and desirable to consider the structural reliability in the analysis and design of these structures. Moreover, after these nuclear structures are constructed, it is desirable for engineers to be able to assess the structural reliability periodically as well as immediately following the occurrence of severe loading conditions such as a strong-motion earthquake. During this past decade, increasing use has been made of techniques of system identification in structural engineering. On the basis of non-destructive test results, various methods have been developed to obtain an adequate mathematical model (such as the equations of motion with more realistic parameters) to represent the structural system

  4. Measuring populism: comparing two methods of content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Pauwels, T.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of populism - particularly over time and space - has received only scarce attention. In this research note two different ways to measure populism are compared: a classical content analysis and a computer-based content analysis. An analysis of political parties in the United Kingdom,

  5. EU cash in climate clash. How the EU funding plans are shaping up to fuel climate change. Comparative analysis of the 2007-2013 structural funding allocations for energy and transport in the new member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koneeny, M.

    2007-04-01

    Between 2007 and 2013 the European Union will invest 177 billion euros in the ten central and eastern European member states via its Structural and Cohesion Funds. CEE Bankwatch Network and Friends of the Earth Europe have analysed the draft plans for the use of the funds which are the subject of current negotiations between the European Commission and the member states. Our analysis shows that there is only little funding for energy efficiency and renewable energy despite the enormous potentials in the CEE countries. In the transport sector, the majority of the funds is to be spent on roads and motorways. Public transport, which emits three times less carbon dioxide than cars but has suffered from chronic under-investment, is to receive only weak and inconsistent support. Unless these funding plans are significantly changed in the current negotiations, EU funding is on course to deliver increased greenhouse gas emissions. CEE Bankwatch Network and Friends of the Earth Europe call on decision-makers to prevent seven more years and billions of euros being lost to energy-intensive development. EU action on climate change now and in the future must not be undermined

  6. Structure analysis - chiromancy of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, A.; Huber, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reader may initially be surprised by a comparison between structure analysis and palmistry which is, in effect, a comparison between a scientific research method on the one hand and art which is equated with magical powers on the other. In the figurative sense, however, these two fields have some points in common which should help us to obtain a first impression of the nature of geological structure analysis. Chiromancy uses the lines and the form of the hand to predict the character and the future of the person in question. In the same way, geologists use rocks and rock forms to obtain information on structure and behaviour of different formations. Structure analysis is a specialised field of geological investigation in which traces of deformation are interpreted as expressions of rockforming forces. This article discusses how and why the character of a rock formation as well as its past, present and even future behaviour can be determined using structure analysis. (author) 11 figs

  7. Comparative performance study of smart structure for thermal microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Zulkarnain; Johar, Muhammad Akmal

    2017-04-01

    Thermal microactuator is one of earliest types of microactuators. Typical thermal actuators are in the form of Bimorph and Chevron structures. A bimorph thermal actuator has a complex movement direction, in arc motion and thus it is not feasible in the most MEMS designs. While Chevron actuator has a tendency to produce an off-plane movement which lead to low precision in lateral movement. A new thermal actuator design in the form of serpentine structures shows promising feature to have better performances in terms of more predictive lateral movement with smaller off-plane displacement. In MEMS chip design, areas play a critical role as it will impact with the cost of the final product. In this study, four different structures of thermal actuator were simulated using ANSYS v15. Three different set of area sizes which are 240 µm x 1000 µm, 240 µm x 1500 µm and 240 µm x 2000 µm have been analyzed. All four structures were named as Serpentine01, Serpentine02, Bimorph and Chevron. The data with regards to temperature produced by the structure and z-axis directional deformation were collected and analyzed. This paper reported the investigation result of comparison between these three types of thermal actuator structures design with a given area. From all of the result obtained, it is shown that the area 240 µm x 1500 µm showed a well balance performance in term of huge deformations and low power consumption. The Serpentine01 structure produced 16.7 µm deformation at 4mA of current. The results shows the potential of Serpentine01 structure as a new candidate for thermal microactuator for MEMS applications.

  8. Structural analysis consultation using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, R. J.; Marcal, P. V.; Berke, L.

    1978-01-01

    The primary goal of consultation is definition of the best strategy to deal with a structural engineering analysis objective. The knowledge base to meet the need is designed to identify the type of numerical analysis, the needed modeling detail, and specific analysis data required. Decisions are constructed on the basis of the data in the knowledge base - material behavior, relations between geometry and structural behavior, measures of the importance of time and temperature changes - and user supplied specifics characteristics of the spectrum of analysis types, the relation between accuracy and model detail on the structure, its mechanical loadings, and its temperature states. Existing software demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, encompassing the 36 analysis classes spanning nonlinear, temperature affected, incremental analyses which track the behavior of structural systems.

  9. CloVR-Comparative: automated, cloud-enabled comparative microbial genome sequence analysis pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sonia; Arze, Cesar; Adkins, Ricky S.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Riley, David; Vangala, Mahesh; Galens, Kevin; Fraser, Claire M.; Tettelin, Herv?; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Mahurkar, Anup; Fricke, W. Florian

    2017-01-01

    Background The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. Results CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI. ...

  10. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  11. Structural Analysis Algorithms for Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler

    the existing factorial-time bound. This method is subsequently extended to two-dimensional monolayers. A method is presented for the identication of ordered crystalline phases in molecular dynamics simulations. A robust classication is obtained by the use of template matching, also formulated as a bipartite......-strain interfaces. The stable, low-energy interfaces which are found as a result are intended for use in the design and construction of topological superconductors, which have important applications in quantum computing. Cluster expansion models are used to nd ground-state structures in gold-silver nanoparticles......, which are used in a variety of catalysis processes. In addition to this concrete application, theoretical methods are developed for the optimal construction of cluster expansion models, the exact determination of ground states in a large model, and the exhaustive determination of all possible ground...

  12. Structural analysis of fuel handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L S.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper has three aspects: (i) to review `why` and `what` types of structural analysis, testing and report are required for the fuel handling systems according to the codes, or needed for design of a product, (ii) to review the input requirements for analysis and the analysis procedures, and (iii) to improve the communication between the analysis and other elements of the product cycle. The required or needed types of analysis and report may be categorized into three major groups: (i) Certified Stress Reports for design by analysis, (ii) Design Reports not required for certification and registration, but are still required by codes, and (iii) Design Calculations required by codes or needed for design. Input requirements for structural analysis include: design, code classification, loadings, and jurisdictionary boundary. Examples of structural analysis for the fueling machine head and support structure are given. For improving communication between the structural analysis and the other elements of the product cycle, some areas in the specification of design requirements and load rating are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. Structural analysis of fuel handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper has three aspects: (i) to review 'why' and 'what' types of structural analysis, testing and report are required for the fuel handling systems according to the codes, or needed for design of a product, (ii) to review the input requirements for analysis and the analysis procedures, and (iii) to improve the communication between the analysis and other elements of the product cycle. The required or needed types of analysis and report may be categorized into three major groups: (i) Certified Stress Reports for design by analysis, (ii) Design Reports not required for certification and registration, but are still required by codes, and (iii) Design Calculations required by codes or needed for design. Input requirements for structural analysis include: design, code classification, loadings, and jurisdictionary boundary. Examples of structural analysis for the fueling machine head and support structure are given. For improving communication between the structural analysis and the other elements of the product cycle, some areas in the specification of design requirements and load rating are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. NAPS: Network Analysis of Protein Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue–residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein–protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201

  15. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  16. Comparative genomics of the relationship between gene structure and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the structure of genes and their expression is a relatively new aspect of genome organization and regulation. With more genome sequences and expression data becoming available, bioinformatics approaches can help the further elucidation of the relationships between gene

  17. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent

  18. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. I. Liquid phase structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C., E-mail: mccribei@iq.usp.br [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giles, Carlos [Departamento de Física da Matéria Condensada, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-14

    X-ray scattering experiments at room temperature were performed for the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}]. The peak in the diffraction data characteristic of charge ordering in [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] is shifted to longer distances in comparison to [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], but the peak characteristic of short-range correlations is shifted in [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] to shorter distances. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for these ionic liquids using force fields available from the literature, although with new sets of partial charges for [N{sub 1114}]{sup +} and [N{sub 1444}]{sup +} proposed in this work. The shifting of charge and adjacency peaks to opposite directions in these ionic liquids was found in the static structure factor, S(k), calculated by MD simulations. Despite differences in cation sizes, the MD simulations unravel that anions are allowed as close to [N{sub 1444}]{sup +} as to [N{sub 1114}]{sup +} because anions are located in between the angle formed by the butyl chains. The more asymmetric molecular structure of the [N{sub 1114}]{sup +} cation implies differences in partial structure factors calculated for atoms belonging to polar or non-polar parts of [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], whereas polar and non-polar structure factors are essentially the same in [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}]. Results of this work shed light on controversies in the literature on the liquid structure of tetraalkylammonium based ionic liquids.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program (GEP) ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  20. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries ... This highly original book is essential reading for everyone concerned with equality in taxation.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Kernel Methods for Statistical Shape Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of shape learning techniques such as linear PCA, kernel PCA, locally linear embedding and propose a new method, kernelized locally linear embedding...

  2. comparative analysis of some existing kinetic models with proposed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGNATIUS NWIDI

    two statistical parameters namely; linear regression coefficient of correlation (R2) and ... Keynotes: Heavy metals, Biosorption, Kinetics Models, Comparative analysis, Average Relative Error. 1. ... If the flow rate is low, a simple manual batch.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Motivations for Occupational Choice or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Analysis of Motivations for Occupational Choice or Preference between ... The results showed that these factors (external influence, extrinsic ... are drawn, and recommendations made for career counselling of students.

  4. Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity among different Jatropha curcas genotypes. S Gupta, M Srivastava, GP Mishra, PK Naik, RS Chauhan, SK Tiwari, M Kumar, R Singh ...

  5. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... from each market giving 30 retail marketers and 30 wholesale marketers. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  7. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment returns in Abuja. ... in property shares is more risky than commercial property due to the risk ... of the stock market, it was discovered that there is a strong positive relationship ...

  8. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  9. Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of Akwa Ibom and Abia States, Nigeria. ... It specifically looked at market integration, costs and return, marketing margin, marketing ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Comparative reliability of structured versus unstructured interviews in the admission process of a residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle; Day, Andrew G; Pavlov, Andrey

    2011-12-01

    Although never directly compared, structured interviews are reported as being more reliable than unstructured interviews. This study compared the reliability of both types of interview when applied to a common pool of applicants for positions in an emergency medicine residency program. In 2008, one structured interview was added to the two unstructured interviews traditionally used in our resident selection process. A formal job analysis using the critical incident technique guided the development of the structured interview tool. This tool consisted of 7 scenarios assessing 4 of the domains deemed essential for success as a resident in this program. The traditional interview tool assessed 5 general criteria. In addition to these criteria, the unstructured panel members were asked to rate each candidate on the same 4 essential domains rated by the structured panel members. All 3 panels interviewed all candidates. Main outcomes were the overall, interitem, and interrater reliabilities, the correlations between interview panels, and the dimensionality of each interview tool. Thirty candidates were interviewed. The overall reliability reached 0.43 for the structured interview, and 0.81 and 0.71 for the unstructured interviews. Analyses of the variance components showed a high interrater, low interitem reliability for the structured interview, and a high interrater, high interitem reliability for the unstructured interviews. The summary measures from the 2 unstructured interviews were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with the structured interview. Only the structured interview was multidimensional. A structured interview did not yield a higher overall reliability than both unstructured interviews. The lower reliability is explained by a lower interitem reliability, which in turn is due to the multidimensionality of the interview tool. Both unstructured panels consistently rated a single dimension, even when prompted to assess the 4 specific domains

  11. Some considerations on the dynamic structure-soil-structure interactions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthees, W.

    1979-01-01

    A mixed method has been developed for the approximate analysis of soil-structure or structure-soil-structure interaction problems due to earthquakes. In order to produce comparable results of interaction problems as well as for shallow and for deep soils due to the same earthquake excitation (accelerogram) situated always at the lower bedrock boundary, the analysis is performed in two steps: 1) Calculation of the complex transfer function and the response of the upper interior boundary of a layered soil-system which is connected at its top to a soil-structure-system, using the one-dimensional deconvolution. 2) By making a complete interaction analysis of the surface soil-structure-system using the interior boundary excitation of the calculated response from step 1. The depth of the soil-structure-system must be chosen large enough to exclude interaction effects down to the layered soil-system's interior boundary. (orig.)

  12. Comparative analysis of 60Co intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H Edwin; Lynch, Bart; Dempsey, James F; Men, Chunhua; Aleman, Dionne M

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we perform a scientific comparative analysis of using 60 Co beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In particular, we evaluate the treatment plan quality obtained with (i) 6 MV, 18 MV and 60 Co IMRT; (ii) different numbers of static multileaf collimator (MLC) delivered 60 Co beams and (iii) a helical tomotherapy 60 Co beam geometry. We employ a convex fluence map optimization (FMO) model, which allows for the comparison of plan quality between different beam energies and configurations for a given case. A total of 25 clinical patient cases that each contain volumetric CT studies, primary and secondary delineated targets, and contoured structures were studied: 5 head-and-neck (H and N), 5 prostate, 5 central nervous system (CNS), 5 breast and 5 lung cases. The DICOM plan data were anonymized and exported to the University of Florida optimized radiation therapy (UFORT) treatment planning system. The FMO problem was solved for each case for 5-71 equidistant beams as well as a helical geometry for H and N, prostate, CNS and lung cases, and for 3-7 equidistant beams in the upper hemisphere for breast cases, all with 6 MV, 18 MV and 60 Co dose models. In all cases, 95% of the target volumes received at least the prescribed dose with clinical sparing criteria for critical organs being met for all structures that were not wholly or partially contained within the target volume. Improvements in critical organ sparing were found with an increasing number of equidistant 60 Co beams, yet were marginal above 9 beams for H and N, prostate, CNS and lung. Breast cases produced similar plans for 3-7 beams. A helical 60 Co beam geometry achieved similar plan quality as static plans with 11 equidistant 60 Co beams. Furthermore, 18 MV plans were initially found not to provide the same target coverage as 6 MV and 60 Co plans; however, adjusting the trade-offs in the optimization model allowed equivalent target coverage for 18 MV. For plans with comparable

  13. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  14. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  15. Standardization: using comparative maintenance costs in an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Roger Nelson

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates the use of comparative maintenance costs of functionally interchangeable equipments in similar U.S. Navy shipboard applications in an economic analysis of standardization. The economics of standardization, life-cycle costing, and the Navy 3-M System are discussed in general. An analysis of 3-M System maintenance costs for a selected equipment, diesel engines, is conducted. The potential use of comparative ma...

  16. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new formulation termed the Integrated Force Method (IFM) was proposed by Patnaik ... nated ``Structure (nY m)'' where (nY m) are the force and displacement degrees of ..... Patnaik S N, Yadagiri S 1976 Frequency analysis of structures.

  17. Structural Analysis of Covariance and Correlation Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joreskog, Karl G.

    1978-01-01

    A general approach to analysis of covariance structures is considered, in which the variances and covariances or correlations of the observed variables are directly expressed in terms of the parameters of interest. The statistical problems of identification, estimation and testing of such covariance or correlation structures are discussed.…

  18. Crystallographic Analysis and Structural Revision of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Single crystal X-ray analysis of a spiroterpenoid rearrangement product has revealed that its structure is, in fact, isomeric with the structure proposed previously – an observation that has significant mechanistic implications. KEYWORDS. Spiroterpenoid, rearrangement, X-ray crystallography, camphor derivative.

  19. Crystallographic Analysis and Structural Revision of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single crystal X-ray analysis of a spiroterpenoid rearrangement product has revealed that its structure is, in fact, isomeric with the structure proposed previously – an observation that has significant mechanistic implications. Keywords: Spiroterpenoid, rearrangement, X-ray crystallography, camphor derivative.

  20. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...

  1. Análisis comparativo en base a la sostenibilidad ambiental entre bóvedas de albañileria y estructuras de hormigón Comparative analysis on environmental sustainability between masonry vaults and concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García Sanz Calcedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se compara desde una perspectiva de sostenibilidad, el impacto medioambiental de una estructura de fábrica horizontal de albañilería mediante bóveda de arista, respecto a un forjado estructural de hormigón armado de tipo reticular, utilizando técnicas basadas en el Análisis del Ciclo de Vida para cuantificar la energía consumida en el proceso de fabricación de los materiales y construcción de la estructura. Se ha detectado que la bóveda consume un 75% menos de energía en el proceso de construcción, emite un 69% menos de OO2 a la atmósfera, tienen un coste medio de fabricación para pequeñas luces similar al de un forjado convencional e inferior cuando se trata de salvar grandes luces, genera un 171% menos de residuos procedentes de embalaje en obra, aunque es necesario mas cantidad de mano de obra y que ésta sea más especializada. Se demuestra que la construcción abovedada satisface con creces las exigencias actuales en cuanto a sostenibilidad, así como que esta técnica constructiva puede convivir con la tecnología propia de la sociedad actual, dando como resultado un producto de altas prestaciones económicas, funcionales y energéticas.This paper compares, from a sustainability perspective, the environmental impact of a masonry arris vault with respect to a reticulated reinforced concrete slab, using techniques based on the Life Cycle Assessment to quantify the energy used in the manufacturing process of materials and in the construction of the structure. It has been detected that the vault consumes 75% less energy in the construction process, it emits 69% less CO2 into the atmosphere, it has an average manufacturing cost for short spans similar to a conventional slab, but much lower when large spans have to be covered, and it generates 171% less packaging waste from works, but it needs a larger and more skilled labor force. This paper shows that the vaulted building fully meets the current sustainability

  2. Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…

  4. comparative analysis of the compressive strength of hollow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... Previous analysis showed that cavity size and number on one hand and combinations thickness affect the compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks. Series arrangement of the cavities is common but parallel arrangement has been recommended. This research performed a comparative analysis of ...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Engines in Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy inference engine has found successful applications in a wide variety of fields, such as automatic control, data classification, decision analysis, expert engines, time series prediction, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three fuzzy inference engines, max-product, max-min ...

  6. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  7. Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul

    2018-01-01

    RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…

  8. Assessment of higher order structure comparability in therapeutic proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Carlos A; Szabo, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly assess higher order structure (HOS) comparability in protein samples. Using a variation of the NMR fingerprinting approach described by Panjwani et al. [2010. J Pharm Sci 99(8):3334-3342], three nonglycosylated proteins spanning a molecular weight range of 6.5-67 kDa were analyzed. A simple statistical method termed easy comparability of HOS by NMR (ECHOS-NMR) was developed. In this method, HOS similarity between two samples is measured via the correlation coefficient derived from linear regression analysis of binned NMR spectra. Applications of this method include HOS comparability assessment during new product development, manufacturing process changes, supplier changes, next-generation products, and the development of biosimilars to name just a few. We foresee ECHOS-NMR becoming a routine technique applied to comparability exercises used to complement data from other analytical techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  10. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  11. Structural analysis of polycrystalline (graphitized) materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenko, M.M.; Kravchik, A.E.; Osmakov, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Specific features of the structure of polycrystal carbon materials (CM), characterized by high enough degree of structural perfection and different genesis are analyzed. From the viewpoint of fine and supercrystallite structure analysis of the most characteristic groups of graphitized CM: artificial graphites, and natural graphites, as well, has been carried out. It is ascertained that in paracrystal CM a monolayer of hexagonally-bound carbon atoms is the basic element of the structure, and in graphitized CM - a microlayer. The importance of the evaluation of the degree of three-dimensional ordering of the microlayer is shown

  12. Structural Analysis of Kufasat Using Ansys Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maliky, Firas T.; AlBermani, Mohamed J.

    2018-03-01

    The current work focuses on vibration and modal analysis of KufaSat structure using ANSYS 16 program. Three types of Aluminum alloys (5052-H32, 6061-T6 and 7075-T6) were selected for investigation of the structure under design loads. Finite element analysis (FEA) in design static load of 51 g was performed. The natural frequencies for five modes were estimated using modal analysis. In order to ensure that KufaSat could withstand with various conditions during launch, the Margin of safety was calculated. The results of deformation and Von Mises stress for linear buckling analysis were also performed. The comparison of data was done to select the optimum material for KufaSat structures.

  13. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... methods provide engineers with valuable tools for limit sta- te analysis, their application becomes difficult with increased structural complexity. The main challenge is to solve the optimization problem posed by the extremum principles. This thesis is a study of how numerical methods can be used to solve...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...

  14. Seismic analysis and design of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho Santos, S.H.; da Silva, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical methods for static and dynamic analysis of structures, as well as for the design of individual structural elements under the applied loads are under continuous development, being very sophisticated methods nowadays available for the engineering practice. Nevertheless, this sophistication will be useless if some important aspects necessary to assure full compatability between analysis and design are disregarded. Some of these aspects are discussed herein. This paper presents an integrated approach for the seismic analysis and design of NPP structures: the development of models for the seismic analysis, the distribution of the global seismic forces among the seismic-resistant elements and the criteria for the design of the individual elements for combined static and dynamic forces are the main topics to be discussed herein. The proposed methodology is illustrated. Some examples taken from the project practice are presented for illustration the exposed concepts

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Nursing Education and Other Forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to highlight points that are necessary to bridge the gaps, where they exist, in relation to the structures, process and outcome of nursing education when compared with those of other professions. As a profession, nursing is broad in scope, and nurse practitioners are expected to possess a body ...

  16. Comparing Visual and Statistical Analysis of Multiple Baseline Design Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Dickenson, Tammiee S; Miller, Bridget; McGrath, Kathleen V

    2018-04-01

    A growing number of statistical analyses are being developed for single-case research. One important factor in evaluating these methods is the extent to which each corresponds to visual analysis. Few studies have compared statistical and visual analysis, and information about more recently developed statistics is scarce. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between visual analysis and four statistical analyses: improvement rate difference (IRD); Tau-U; Hedges, Pustejovsky, Shadish (HPS) effect size; and between-case standardized mean difference (BC-SMD). Results indicate that IRD and BC-SMD had the strongest overall agreement with visual analysis. Although Tau-U had strong agreement with visual analysis on raw values, it had poorer agreement when those values were dichotomized to represent the presence or absence of a functional relation. Overall, visual analysis appeared to be more conservative than statistical analysis, but further research is needed to evaluate the nature of these disagreements.

  17. Global plastic models for computerized structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Hoffmann, A.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of structures, it is possible to use generalized stresses (like membrane forces, bending moment, torsion moment...) to define a yield surface for a part of the structure. Analysis can be achieved by using the HILL's principle and a hardening rule. The whole formulation is said 'Global Plastic Model'. Two different global models are used in the CEASEMT system for structural analysis, one for shell analysis and the other for piping analysis (in plastic or creep field). In shell analysis the generalized stresses chosen are the membrane forces and bending (including torsion) moments. There is only one yield condition for a normal to the middle surface and no integration along the thickness is required. In piping analysis, the choice of generalized stresses is bending moments, torsional moment, hoop stress and tension stress. There is only a set of stresses for a cross section and no integration over the cross section area is needed. Connected strains are axis curvature, torsion, uniform strains. The definition of the yield surface is the most important item. A practical way is to use a diagonal quadratic function of the stress components. But the coefficients are depending of the shape of the pipe element, especially for curved segments. Indications will be given on the yield functions used. Some examples of applications in structural analysis are added to the text

  18. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  19. ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H. NRC.

    2005-01-01

    Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice

  20. Comparative Study on Uni- and Bi-Directional Fluid Structure Coupling of Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Belayneh Ageze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of wind turbine blade designs are geared towards a longer and slender blade with high flexibility, exhibiting complex aeroelastic loadings and instability issues, including flutter; in this regard, fluid-structure interaction (FSI plays a significant role. The present article will conduct a comparative study between uni-directional and bi-directional fluid-structural coupling models for a horizontal axis wind turbine. A full-scale, geometric copy of the NREL 5MW blade with simplified material distribution is considered for simulation. Analytical formulations of the governing relations with appropriate approximation are highlighted, including turbulence model, i.e., Shear Stress Transport (SST k-ω. These analytical relations are implemented using Multiphysics package ANSYS employing Fluent module (Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-based solver for the fluid domain and Transient Structural module (Finite Element Analysis-based solver for the structural domain. ANSYS system coupling module also is configured to model the two fluid-structure coupling methods. The rated operational condition of the blade for a full cycle rotation is considered as a comparison domain. In the bi-directional coupling model, the structural deformation alters the angle of attack from the designed values, and by extension the flow pattern along the blade span; furthermore, the tip deflection keeps fluctuating whilst it tends to stabilize in the uni-directional coupling model.

  1. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Csikósová

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basisof theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, descriptionof the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources,reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesisis reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the companyis implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air, the missionof the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic sideof it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes he questionnaire offerfor effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance(benefits from the government and EU funds.

  2. Comparison study of inelastic analysis codes for high temperature structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. K.; Geon, G. P.; Lee, J. H

    2004-02-01

    LMR high temperature structures subjected to operating and transient loadings may exhibit very complex deformation behaviors due to the use of ductile material such as 316SS and the systematic analysis technology of high temperature structure for reliable safety assessment is essential. In this project, comparative study with developed inelastic analysis program NONSTA and the existing analysis codes was performed applying various types of loading including non-proportional loading. The performance of NONSTA was confirmed and the effect of inelastic constants on the analysis result was analyzed. Also, the applicability of the inelastic analysis was enlarged as a result of applying both the developed program and the existing codes to the analyses of the enhanced creep behavior and the elastic follow-up behavior of high temperature structures and the necessary items for improvements were deduced. Further studies on the improvement of NONSTA program and the decision of the proper values of inelastic constants are necessary.

  3. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM at four medical faculties. Part I: Conducive resources and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [, retrieved on 22.03.2016], the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management. Mapping a complex existing curriculum and convincing a faculty that this will have benefits is not easy. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen take inventory by mapping their curricula in comparison to the NKLM, using the dedicated web-based MER-database. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping could be successful in spite of resistance at the faculties. The target is conveying the widest possible overview of beneficial framework conditions, strategies and results. Part I of the article shows the beneficial resources and structures required for implementation of curriculum mapping at the faculties. Part II describes key factors relevant for motivating faculties and teachers during the mapping process.Method: The network project was systematically planned in advance according to steps of project and change management, regularly reflected on and adjusted together in workshops and semi-annual project meetings. From the beginning of the project, a grounded-theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on structures, measures and developments at the faculties using various sources and methods, to continually analyse them and to draw a final conclusion (sources: surveys among the project participants with questionnaires, semi-structured group interviews

  4. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) at four medical faculties. Part I: Conducive resources and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Giesler, Marianne; Gornostayeva, Maryna; Narciss, Elisabeth; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Griewatz, Jan; Fritze, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [NKLM, retrieved on 22.03.2016]), the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management. Mapping a complex existing curriculum and convincing a faculty that this will have benefits is not easy. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen take inventory by mapping their curricula in comparison to the NKLM, using the dedicated web-based MER LIN -database. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping could be successful in spite of resistance at the faculties. The target is conveying the widest possible overview of beneficial framework conditions, strategies and results. Part I of the article shows the beneficial resources and structures required for implementation of curriculum mapping at the faculties. Part II describes key factors relevant for motivating faculties and teachers during the mapping process. Method: The network project was systematically planned in advance according to steps of project and change management, regularly reflected on and adjusted together in workshops and semi-annual project meetings. From the beginning of the project, a grounded-theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on structures, measures and developments at the faculties using various sources and methods, to continually analyse them and to draw a final conclusion (sources: surveys among the project participants with questionnaires, semi-structured group interviews and

  5. Comparative jet wake structure and swimming performance of salps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P

    2010-09-01

    Salps are barrel-shaped marine invertebrates that swim by jet propulsion. Morphological variations among species and life-cycle stages are accompanied by differences in swimming mode. The goal of this investigation was to compare propulsive jet wakes and swimming performance variables among morphologically distinct salp species (Pegea confoederata, Weelia (Salpa) cylindrica, Cyclosalpa sp.) and relate swimming patterns to ecological function. Using a combination of in situ dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, we describe properties of the jet wake and swimming performance variables including thrust, drag and propulsive efficiency. Locomotion by all species investigated was achieved via vortex ring propulsion. The slow-swimming P. confoederata produced the highest weight-specific thrust (T=53 N kg(-1)) and swam with the highest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=55%). The fast-swimming W. cylindrica had the most streamlined body shape but produced an intermediate weight-specific thrust (T=30 N kg(-1)) and swam with an intermediate whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=52%). Weak swimming performance variables in the slow-swimming C. affinis, including the lowest weight-specific thrust (T=25 N kg(-1)) and lowest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=47%), may be compensated by low energetic requirements. Swimming performance variables are considered in the context of ecological roles and evolutionary relationships.

  6. Discrete Discriminant analysis based on tree-structured graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Eslava, Guillermina

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant a...... analysis based on tree{structured graphical models is a simple nonlinear method competitive with, and sometimes superior to, other well{known linear methods like those assuming mutual independence between variables and linear logistic regression.......The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant...

  7. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  8. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  9. Structural-Vibration-Response Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. R.; Hechenlaible, R. N.; Perez, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed as structural-vibration-response data analysis tool for use in dynamic testing of Space Shuttle. Program provides fast and efficient time-domain least-squares curve-fitting procedure for reducing transient response data to obtain structural model frequencies and dampings from free-decay records. Procedure simultaneously identifies frequencies, damping values, and participation factors for noisy multiple-response records.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Main Business Intelligence Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra RUSANEANU

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Business Intelligence solutions are the main tools for analyzing and monitoring the company’s performance at any organizational level. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the most powerful Business Intelligence solutions using a set of technical features such as infrastructure of the platform, development facilities, complex analysis tools, interactive dashboards and scorecards, mobile integration and complex implementation of performance management methodologies.

  11. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  12. A comparative study of three different gene expression analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jae Young; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Seon Duk; Lee, Hanna; Lee, Dong Eun; Ahn, Jae Yun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Seo, Kang Suk; Kim, Jong Kun

    2017-12-04

    TNF-α regulates immune cells and acts as an endogenous pyrogen. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is one of the most commonly used methods for gene expression analysis. Among the alternatives to PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows good potential in terms of specificity and sensitivity. However, few studies have compared RT-PCR and LAMP for human gene expression analysis. Therefore, in the present study, we compared one-step RT-PCR, two-step RT-LAMP and one-step RT-LAMP for human gene expression analysis. We compared three gene expression analysis methods using the human TNF-α gene as a biomarker from peripheral blood cells. Total RNA from the three selected febrile patients were subjected to the three different methods of gene expression analysis. In the comparison of three gene expression analysis methods, the detection limit of both one-step RT-PCR and one-step RT-LAMP were the same, while that of two-step RT-LAMP was inferior. One-step RT-LAMP takes less time, and the experimental result is easy to determine. One-step RT-LAMP is a potentially useful and complementary tool that is fast and reasonably sensitive. In addition, one-step RT-LAMP could be useful in environments lacking specialized equipment or expertise.

  13. Modelling structural systems for transient response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper introduces and reports success of a direct means of determining the time periods in which a structural system behaves as a linear system. Numerical results are based on post fracture transient analyses of simplified nuclear piping systems. Knowledge of the linear response ranges will lead to improved analysis-test correlation and more efficient analyses. It permits direct use of data from physical tests in analysis and simplication of the analytical model and interpretation of its behavior. The paper presents a procedure for deducing linearity based on transient responses. Given the forcing functions and responses of discrete points of the system at various times, the process produces evidence of linearity and quantifies an adequate set of equations of motion. Results of use of the process with linear and nonlinear analyses of piping systems with damping illustrate its success. Results cover the application to data from mathematical system responses. The process is successfull with mathematical models. In loading ranges in which all modes are excited, eight digit accuracy of predictions are obtained from the equations of motion deduced. Small changes (less than 0.01%) in the norm of the transfer matrices are produced by manipulation errors for linear systems yielding evidence that nonlinearity is easily distinguished. Significant changes (greater than five %) are coincident with relatively large norms of the equilibrium correction vector in nonlinear analyses. The paper shows that deducing linearity and, when admissible, quantifying linear equations of motion from transient response data for piping systems can be achieved with accuracy comparable to that of response data

  14. SiteBinder: an improved approach for comparing multiple protein structural motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, David; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Huber, Heinrich J; Geidl, Stanislav; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2012-02-27

    There is a paramount need to develop new techniques and tools that will extract as much information as possible from the ever growing repository of protein 3D structures. We report here on the development of a software tool for the multiple superimposition of large sets of protein structural motifs. Our superimposition methodology performs a systematic search for the atom pairing that provides the best fit. During this search, the RMSD values for all chemically relevant pairings are calculated by quaternion algebra. The number of evaluated pairings is markedly decreased by using PDB annotations for atoms. This approach guarantees that the best fit will be found and can be applied even when sequence similarity is low or does not exist at all. We have implemented this methodology in the Web application SiteBinder, which is able to process up to thousands of protein structural motifs in a very short time, and which provides an intuitive and user-friendly interface. Our benchmarking analysis has shown the robustness, efficiency, and versatility of our methodology and its implementation by the successful superimposition of 1000 experimentally determined structures for each of 32 eukaryotic linear motifs. We also demonstrate the applicability of SiteBinder using three case studies. We first compared the structures of 61 PA-IIL sugar binding sites containing nine different sugars, and we found that the sugar binding sites of PA-IIL and its mutants have a conserved structure despite their binding different sugars. We then superimposed over 300 zinc finger central motifs and revealed that the molecular structure in the vicinity of the Zn atom is highly conserved. Finally, we superimposed 12 BH3 domains from pro-apoptotic proteins. Our findings come to support the hypothesis that there is a structural basis for the functional segregation of BH3-only proteins into activators and enablers.

  15. CloVR-Comparative: automated, cloud-enabled comparative microbial genome sequence analysis pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sonia; Arze, Cesar; Adkins, Ricky S; Crabtree, Jonathan; Riley, David; Vangala, Mahesh; Galens, Kevin; Fraser, Claire M; Tettelin, Hervé; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Mahurkar, Anup; Fricke, W Florian

    2017-04-27

    The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI. CloVR-Comparative runs reference-free multiple whole-genome alignments to determine unique, shared and core coding sequences (CDSs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Output includes short summary reports and detailed text-based results files, graphical visualizations (phylogenetic trees, circular figures), and a database file linked to the Sybil comparative genome browser. Data up- and download, pipeline configuration and monitoring, and access to Sybil are managed through CloVR-Comparative web interface. CloVR-Comparative and Sybil are distributed as part of the CloVR virtual appliance, which runs on local computers or the Amazon EC2 cloud. Representative datasets (e.g. 40 draft and complete Escherichia coli genomes) are processed in genomics projects, while eliminating the need for on-site computational resources and expertise.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  17. Data structures and algorithm analysis in C++

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Clifford A

    2011-01-01

    With its focus on creating efficient data structures and algorithms, this comprehensive text helps readers understand how to select or design the tools that will best solve specific problems. It uses Microsoft C++ as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithm analysis.Techniques for representing data are presented within the context of assessing costs and benefits, promoting an understanding of the principles of algorithm analysis and the effects of a chosen physical medium. The text also explores tradeoff issues, f

  18. Data structures and algorithm analysis in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Clifford A

    2011-01-01

    With its focus on creating efficient data structures and algorithms, this comprehensive text helps readers understand how to select or design the tools that will best solve specific problems. It uses Java as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithm analysis. Techniques for representing data are presented within the context of assessing costs and benefits, promoting an understanding of the principles of algorithm analysis and the effects of a chosen physical medium. The text also explores tradeoff issues, familiari

  19. Geographical data structures supporting regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Durfee, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the computer has become a valuable aid in solving regional environmental problems. Over a hundred different geographic information systems have been developed to digitize, store, analyze, and display spatially distributed data. One important aspect of these systems is the data structure (e.g. grids, polygons, segments) used to model the environment being studied. This paper presents eight common geographic data structures and their use in studies of coal resources, power plant siting, population distributions, LANDSAT imagery analysis, and landuse analysis

  20. Electromagnetic and structural interaction analysis of curved shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, T.; Niho, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a finite element formulation of the eddy current and structure coupled problem for curved shell structures. Coupling terms produced by curved geometry as well as flat plate geometry were obtained. Both matrix equations for eddy current and structure were solved simultaneously using coupling sub-matrices. TEAM Workshop bench mark problem 16 was solved to verify the formulation and the computer code. Agreement with experimental results was very good for such plate problem. A coupled problem for cylindrical shell structure was also analyzed. Influence of each coupling term was examined. The next topic is the eigenvalues of the coupled equations. Although the coupled matrix equations are not symmetric, symmetry was obtained by introducing a symmetrizing variable. The eigenvalues of the coupled matrix equations are different from those obtained from the uncoupled equations because of the influence of the coupling sub-matrix components. Some parameters obtained by the eigenvalue analysis have characteristics of parameters which indicate the intensity of electromagnetic structural coupling effect. (author)

  1. Reliability analysis of prestressed concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Sun, J.

    1993-01-01

    The reliability analysis of prestressed concrete containment structures subjected to combinations of static and dynamic loads with consideration of uncertainties of structural and load parameters is presented. Limit state probabilities for given parameters are calculated using the procedure developed at BNL, while that with consideration of parameter uncertainties are calculated by a fast integration for time variant structural reliability. The limit state surface of the prestressed concrete containment is constructed directly incorporating the prestress. The sensitivities of the Choleskey decomposition matrix and the natural vibration character are calculated by simplified procedures. (author)

  2. A method for rapid similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the rapid expansion of RNA structure databases in recent years, efficient methods for structure comparison are in demand for function prediction and evolutionary analysis. Usually, the similarity of RNA secondary structures is evaluated based on tree models and dynamic programming algorithms. We present here a new method for the similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures. Results Three sets of real data have been used as input for the example applications. Set I includes the structures from 5S rRNAs. Set II includes the secondary structures from RNase P and RNase MRP. Set III includes the structures from 16S rRNAs. Reasonable phylogenetic trees are derived for these three sets of data by using our method. Moreover, our program runs faster as compared to some existing ones. Conclusion The famous Lempel-Ziv algorithm can efficiently extract the information on repeated patterns encoded in RNA secondary structures and makes our method an alternative to analyze the similarity of RNA secondary structures. This method will also be useful to researchers who are interested in evolutionary analysis.

  3. Comparative analysis of deterministic and probabilistic fracture mechanical assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Saifi, Qais [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    Uncertainties in material properties, manufacturing processes, loading conditions and damage mechanisms complicate the quantification of structural reliability. Probabilistic structure mechanical computing codes serve as tools for assessing leak- and break probabilities of nuclear piping components. Probabilistic fracture mechanical tools were compared in different benchmark activities, usually revealing minor, but systematic discrepancies between results of different codes. In this joint paper, probabilistic fracture mechanical codes are compared. Crack initiation, crack growth and the influence of in-service inspections are analyzed. Example cases for stress corrosion cracking and fatigue in LWR conditions are analyzed. The evolution of annual failure probabilities during simulated operation time is investigated, in order to identify the reasons for differences in the results of different codes. The comparison of the tools is used for further improvements of the codes applied by the partners.

  4. Transient thermal analysis of Vega launcher structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, F. [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy); De Stefanis, M. [Thales Alenia Space Italia, Rome (Italy); Worek, W.M. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States)], E-mail: wworek@uic.edu; Minkowycz, W.J. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A transient thermal analysis is carried out to verify the base cover thermal protection system of Vega 2nd stage Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) and the flange coupling of the inter-stage 2/3. The analysis is performed with a finite element code. The work has developed suitable numerical Fortran subroutines to assign radiation and convection boundary conditions. The thermal behaviour of the structures is presented.

  5. Structured Performance Analysis for Component Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salmi , N.; Moreaux , Patrice; Ioualalen , M.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Component Based System (CBS) paradigm is now largely used to design software systems. In addition, performance and behavioural analysis remains a required step for the design and the construction of efficient systems. This is especially the case of CBS, which involve interconnected components running concurrent processes. % This paper proposes a compositional method for modeling and structured performance analysis of CBS. Modeling is based on Stochastic Well-formed...

  6. Fiscal Revenues in the European Union. A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze fiscal revenues registered by the European Union member states in order to determine groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and to identify the similarities that characterize European countries in this respect. The research conducted in this paper is relevant especially for countries as Romania, which is in the process of adopting the European single currency, as is allows us to determine which countries are similar in terms of fiscal structure so that the comparison is carried out mainly with those countries. The analysis of European fiscal structures allows a better identification of tax preferences within the European Union and highlights the types of taxation that would allow leeway in implementing long term fiscal strategies, which could lead to improvements in macroeconomic dynamics registered by each member state and also at Union level.

  7. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  8. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  9. A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of physical education and school sport among South African children aged 6-15 years. ... specifically with regard to 'feeling' about PE and SS, 'values' (importance) of PE and SS, 'comparison' of PE and SS with other school subjects and 'self-rating' on PE and SS.

  10. COGNAT: a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, Olesya I; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Dibrova, Daria V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-22

    In prokaryotic genomes, functionally coupled genes can be organized in conserved gene clusters enabling their coordinated regulation. Such clusters could contain one or several operons, which are groups of co-transcribed genes. Those genes that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation (i.e. orthologs) are expected to have similar genomic neighborhoods in different organisms, whereas those copies of the gene that are responsible for dissimilar functions (i.e. paralogs) could be found in dissimilar genomic contexts. Comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods facilitates the prediction of co-regulated genes and helps to discern different functions in large protein families. We intended, building on the attribution of gene sequences to the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs), to provide a method for visualization and comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods of evolutionary related genes, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COmparative Gene Neighborhoods Analysis Tool (COGNAT), a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods. The tool is based on the COG database, as well as the Pfam protein families database. As an example, we show the utility of COGNAT in identifying a new type of membrane protein complex that is formed by paralog(s) of one of the membrane subunits of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of type 1 (COG1009) and a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function (COG3002). This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor Zhulin, Uri Gophna and Igor Rogozin.

  11. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  12. Initial implementation of a comparative data analysis ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Chisham, Brandon; Pontelli, Enrico; Thompson, Julie D; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2009-07-03

    Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species) are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: "Operational Taxonomic Units" (OTUs), representing the entities to be compared; "character-state data" representing the observations compared among OTUs; "phylogenetic tree", representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and "transitions", the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO). CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc.) that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  13. A comparative analysis of protected area planning and management frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per Nilsen; Grant Tayler

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), a Process for Visitor Impact Management (VIM), Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), and the Management Process for Visitor Activities (known as VAMP) decision frameworks examines their origins; methodology; use of factors, indicators, and standards;...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Method Books for Class Jazz Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare instructional topics and teaching approaches included in selected class method books for jazz pedagogy through content analysis methodology. Frequency counts for the number of pages devoted to each defined instructional content category were compiled and percentages of pages allotted to each…

  15. Comparative analysis of transformed potato microtubers and its non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid progress of transgenic biotechnology has significantly promoted the development and production of genetically modified (GM) crops. The aim of this study was to compare some compositional analysis and genetic variation of transformed potato microtubers (Solanum tuberosum L. Desiree) line (which harbor ...

  16. a comparative analysis of first day neonatal mortality between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 90 No. 11 November 2013. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FIRST DAY NEONATAL MORTALITY BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULT. FEMALES GIVING BIRTH AT LIGULA HOSPITAL IN MTWARA, SOUTH EASTERN TANZANIA 2008 – 2009. A. Ramaiya, MSc, Ifakara Health ...

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  18. Numerical Limit Analysis of Precast Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen

    Precast concrete elements are widely used in the construction industry as they provide a number of advantages over the conventional in-situ cast concrete structures. Joints cast on the construction site are needed to connect the precast elements, which poses several challenges. Moreover, the curr...... problems are solved efficiently using state-of-the-art solvers. It is concluded that the framework and developed joint models have the potential to enable efficient design of precast concrete structures in the near future......., the current practice is to design the joints as the weakest part of the structure, which makes analysis of the ultimate limit state behaviour by general purpose software difficult and inaccurate. Manual methods of analysis based on limit analysis have been used for several decades. The methods provide...... of the ultimate limit state behaviour. This thesis introduces a framework based on finite element limit analysis, a numerical method based on the same extremum principles as the manual limit analysis. The framework allows for efficient analysis and design in a rigorous manner by use of mathematical optimisation...

  19. Development Of The Computer Code For Comparative Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwadi, Mohammad Dhandhang

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an importance utilization of a nuclear research reactor, and this should be accelerated and promoted in application and its development to raise the utilization of the reactor. The application of Comparative NAA technique in GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor (RSG-GAS) needs special (not commercially available yet) soft wares for analyzing the spectrum of multiple elements in the analysis at once. The application carried out using a single spectrum software analyzer, and comparing each result manually. This method really degrades the quality of the analysis significantly. To solve the problem, a computer code was designed and developed for comparative NAA. Spectrum analysis in the code is carried out using a non-linear fitting method. Before the spectrum analyzed, it was passed to the numerical filter which improves the signal to noise ratio to do the deconvolution operation. The software was developed using the G language and named as PASAN-K The testing result of the developed software was benchmark with the IAEA spectrum and well operated with less than 10 % deviation

  20. IMG: the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Jacob, Biju; Huang, Jinghua; Williams, Peter; Huntemann, Marcel; Anderson, Iain; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp). PMID:22194640

  1. ZERBERUS - the code for reliability analysis of crack containing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Riesch-Oppermann, H.

    1992-04-01

    Brief description of the First- and Second Order Reliability Methods, being the theoretical background of the code, is given. The code structure is described in detail, with special emphasis to the new application fields. The numerical example investigates failure probability of steam generator tubing affected by stress corrosion cracking. The changes necessary to accommodate this analysis within the ZERBERUS code are explained. Analysis results are compared to different Monte Carlo techniques. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Li, Shuai Cheng; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria

  3. Term Structure Analysis with Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Christensen, Jens H.E.; Rudebusch, Glenn D.

    Analysis of the term structure of interest rates almost always takes a two-step approach. First, actual bond prices are summarized by interpolated synthetic zero-coupon yields, and second, a small set of these yields are used as the source data for further empirical examination. In contrast, we...

  4. Structural reliability analysis and seismic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Shinozuka, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis method for safety evaluation of nuclear structures. By utilizing this method, it is possible to estimate the limit state probability in the lifetime of structures and to generate analytically the fragility curves for PRA studies. The earthquake ground acceleration, in this approach, is represented by a segment of stationary Gaussian process with a zero mean and a Kanai-Tajimi Spectrum. All possible seismic hazard at a site represented by a hazard curve is also taken into consideration. Furthermore, the limit state of a structure is analytically defined and the corresponding limit state surface is then established. Finally, the fragility curve is generated and the limit state probability is evaluated. In this paper, using a realistic reinforced concrete containment as an example, results of the reliability analysis of the containment subjected to dead load, live load and ground earthquake acceleration are presented and a fragility curve for PRA studies is also constructed

  5. Earthquake response analysis considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Oguro, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper proposes a numerical method of earthquake response analysis considering the structure-soil-structure interaction between two adjacent buildings. In this paper an analytical study is presented in order to show some typical features of coupling effects of two reactor buildings of the BWR-type nuclear power plant. The technical approach is a kind of substructure method, which at first evaluates the compliance properties with the foundation-soil-foundation interaction and then uses the compliance in determining seismic responses of two super-structures during earthquake motions. For this purpose, it is assumed that the soil medium is an elastic half space for modeling and that the rigidity of any type of structures such as piping facilities connecting the adjacent buildings is negligible. The technical approach is mainly based on the following procedures. Supersturcture stiffness is calculated by using the method which has been developed in our laboratory based on the Thin-Wall Beam Theory. Soil stiffness is expressed by a matrix with 12 x 12 elements as a function of frequency, which is calculated using the soil compliance functions proposed in Dr. Tajimi's Theory. These stiffness values may be expressed by complex numbers for modeling the damping mechanism of superstructures. We can solve eigenvalue problems with frequency dependent stiffness and the large-scale matrix using our method which is based on condensing the matrix to the suitable size by Rayleigh-Ritz method. Earthquake responses can be solved in the frequency domain by Fourier Transform. (orig./RW)

  6. Dynamic Analysis of Partially Embedded Structures Considering Soil-Structure Interaction in Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mahmoudpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and design of structures subjected to arbitrary dynamic loadings especially earthquakes have been studied during past decades. In practice, the effects of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures are usually neglected. In this study, the effect of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures has been examined. The substructure method using dynamic stiffness of soil is used to analyze soil-structure system. A coupled model based on finite element method and scaled boundary finite element method is applied. Finite element method is used to analyze the structure, and scaled boundary finite element method is applied in the analysis of unbounded soil region. Due to analytical solution in the radial direction, the radiation condition is satisfied exactly. The material behavior of soil and structure is assumed to be linear. The soil region is considered as a homogeneous half-space. The analysis is performed in time domain. A computer program is prepared to analyze the soil-structure system. Comparing the results with those in literature shows the exactness and competency of the proposed method.

  7. MetaComp: comprehensive analysis software for comparative meta-omics including comparative metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Yang, Longshu; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Huaiqiu

    2017-10-02

    During the past decade, the development of high throughput nucleic sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis techniques have enabled the characterization of microbial communities through metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics data. To reveal the diversity of microbial communities and interactions between living conditions and microbes, it is necessary to introduce comparative analysis based upon integration of all four types of data mentioned above. Comparative meta-omics, especially comparative metageomics, has been established as a routine process to highlight the significant differences in taxon composition and functional gene abundance among microbiota samples. Meanwhile, biologists are increasingly concerning about the correlations between meta-omics features and environmental factors, which may further decipher the adaptation strategy of a microbial community. We developed a graphical comprehensive analysis software named MetaComp comprising a series of statistical analysis approaches with visualized results for metagenomics and other meta-omics data comparison. This software is capable to read files generated by a variety of upstream programs. After data loading, analyses such as multivariate statistics, hypothesis testing of two-sample, multi-sample as well as two-group sample and a novel function-regression analysis of environmental factors are offered. Here, regression analysis regards meta-omic features as independent variable and environmental factors as dependent variables. Moreover, MetaComp is capable to automatically choose an appropriate two-group sample test based upon the traits of input abundance profiles. We further evaluate the performance of its choice, and exhibit applications for metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics samples. MetaComp, an integrative software capable for applying to all meta-omics data, originally distills the influence of living environment on microbial community by regression analysis

  8. The Australian money market and the operations of the Reserve Bank of Australia: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dotsey

    1987-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of central bank operating procedures in Australia and the United States. It also examines the effect that the structure of overnight money markets, reserve requirements, and central bank lending procedures have on monetary control in both countries. Evidently the Australian financial structure is such that an interest rate instrument provides superior control of money, a result that may not hold in the United States.

  9. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  10. Seismic analysis of structures by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, C.; Gangadharan, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a state-of-the-art survey, and recommendations for future work in the area of stochastic seismic analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. First the Monte Carlo simulation procedure is described, with special emphasis on a 'unified approach' for the digital generation of artificial earthquake motions. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of the method over the power spectral method are discussed; and finally, an efficient 'Hybrid Monte Carlo-Power Spectral Method' is developed. The Monte Carlo simulation procedure consists of the following tasks: (1) Digital generation of artificial earthquake motions, (2) Response analysis of the structure to a number of sample motions, and (3) statistical analysis of the structural responses

  11. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  12. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arros, Jorma; Doumbalski, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of aircraft impact to nuclear power plant structures is discussed utilizing a simplified model of a 'fictitious nuclear building' to perform analyses using LS-DYNA software, representing the loading: (i) by the Riera force history method and (ii) by modeling the crash by impacting a model of a plane similar to Boeing 747-400 to the structure (i.e., 'missile-target interaction method'). Points discussed include: (1) comparison of shock loading within the building as obtained from the Riera force history analysis versus from the missile-target interaction analysis, (2) sensitivity of the results on the assumed Riera force loading area, (3) linear versus nonlinear modeling and (4) on failure criteria

  13. Seismic analysis of structures by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, C.; Gangadharan, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a state-of-the-art survey, and recommendations for future work in the area of stochastic seismic analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. First the Monte Carlo simulation procedure is described with special emphasis on a 'unified approach' for the digital generation of anificial earthquake motions. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of the method over the power spectral method are discussed; and finally, an efficient 'Hybrid Monte Carlo-Power Spectral Method' is developed. The Monte Carlo simulation procedure consists of the following tasks: (1) Digital generation of artificial earthquake motions, (2) Response analysis of the structure to a number of sample motions, and (3) Statistical analysis of the structural responses. (Auth.)

  14. Structural characterization and mechanical performance of calcium phosphate scaffolds and natural bones: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Elena; Sáenz de Viteri, Virginia; Igartua, Amaya; Martinetti, Roberta; Dolcini, Laura; Barandika, Gotzone

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical response of bones and their substitutes is pertinent to numerous medical problems. Understanding the effects of mechanical influence on the body is the first step toward developing innovative treatment and rehabilitation concepts for orthopedic disorders. This was a comparative study of 5 synthetic scaffolds based on porous calcium phosphates and natural bones, with regard to their microstructural, chemical, and mechanical characterizations. The structural and chemical characterizations of the scaffolds were examined by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The mechanical characterization of bones and bone graft biomaterials was carried out through compression tests using samples with noncomplex geometry. Analysis of the chemical composition, surface features, porosity, and compressive strength indicates that hydroxyapatite-based materials and trabecular bone have similar properties.

  15. Comparative analysis of the district heating systems of two towns in Croatia and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čulig-Tokić, Dario; Krajačić, Goran; Doračić, Borna

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares district heating systems in Zagreb and Aalborg in order to see their similarities and differences from which conclusions are drawn on how to improve the systems. The method chosen is the comparative analysis. Data is organized and structured so to allow clear and concise...... comparison. The results of the comparative analysis show that the district heating system in Aalborg is more advanced than the district heating system in Zagreb. This advantage is prominent in aspects of supply, demand, distribution and economic spheres. Some of the possible improvements include lowering...

  16. Evaluating the risks of clinical research: direct comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rid, Annette; Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S; Wendler, David

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about research risks.

  17. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  18. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided

  19. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  20. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  1. Alcohol: view 2000 - comparative analysis gasoline versus alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Vasconcelos, C.R. de

    1990-01-01

    The comparative analysis between alcohol and gas reveals the pros and the cons of the use of each one of those energy sources, taking as a basis an analysis of the world supply and demand of oil, and of PETROBRAS sceneries, including price expectancies for next decade, and the repercussion of PROALCOOL during its existence in the country. Regarding competitiveness, gas and the energy substitute hydrous alcohol are analyzed jointly, as an energy policy for carburetant fuels, taking into account aspects related with both the direct and the indirect cost of each energy source, as well as the benefits provided by then both. (author)

  2. Structural analysis and evaluation for the design of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, K.; Uragami, K.; Funada, T.; Baba, K.; Kira, T.

    1977-01-01

    For the design of pressure vessel, the detailed structural analysis such as the fatigue analysis under operating conditions is required by ASME Code or Japanese regulation. Accordingly, it should be verified by the analysis that the design of the pressure vessel is in compliance with the stress limitation defined in the Code or the regulation. However, it was apparent that the analysis is very complicated and takes a lot of time to evaluate in accordance with the Code requirements. Thereupon we developed the computer program by which we can perform the stress analysis with correctness and comparatively in a short period of design work reflecting the calculation results on detailed drawings to be used for fabrication. The computer program is controlled in combination with the system of the design work and out put list of the program can be directly used for the stress analysis report which is issued to customers. In addition to the above computer program, we developed the specific three dimensional finite element computer program to make sure of the structural integrity of the vessel head and flanges which are most complex for the analysis compared with the stress distribution measured by strain gauges on the vessel head and flange. Besides the structural analysis, the fracture mechanics analysis for the purpose of preventing the pressure vessel from the brittle fracture during heat-up and cool-down operation is also important and thereby we showed herein that the pressure vessel is in safety against the brittle fracture for the specified operating conditions. As a result of the above-mentioned analysis, the pressure vessel is designed with safety from the stand-points of the structural intensity and the fracture mechanics. (auth.)

  3. Case Problems for Problem-Based Pedagogical Approaches: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Dass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of 51 case problems used in five problem-based pedagogical models was conducted to examine whether there are differences in their characteristics and the implications of such differences on the selection and generation of ill-structured case problems. The five pedagogical models were: situated learning, goal-based scenario,…

  4. Replication Research in Comparative Genre Analysis in English for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of comparative studies based on an established approach to genre analysis have been published in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) literature. Studies in this emerging strand of research typically aim to identify how the rhetorical structure of a particular genre (a text type) or part of a genre may vary across…

  5. Global plastic models for computerized structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.; Hoffmann, A.

    1977-01-01

    Two different global models are used in the CEASEMT system for structural analysis, one for the shells analysis and the other for piping analysis (in plastic or creep field). In shell analysis the generalized stresses choosed are the membrane forces Nsub(ij) and bending (including torsion) moments Msub(ij). There is only one yield condition for a normal (to the middle surface) and no integration along the thickness is required. In piping analysis, the choice of generalized stresses is: bending moments, torsional moments, Hoop stress and tension stress. There is only a set of stresses for a cross section and non integration over the cross section area is needed. Connected strains are axis curvature, torsion, uniform strains. The definition of the yield surface is the most important item. A practical way is to use a diagonal quadratic fonction of the stress components. But the coefficients are depending of the shape of the pipe element, especially for curved segments. Indications will be given on the yield fonctions used. Some examples of applications in structural analysis are added to the text [fr

  6. Constitutive model and electroplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lei, Y; Du, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Many engineering structures in nuclear reactors, thermal power stations, chemical plants and aerospace vehicles are subjected to cyclic mechanic-thermal loading, which is the main cause of structural fatigue failure. Over the past twenty years, designers and researchers have paid great attention to the research on life prediction and elastoplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading. One of the key problems in elastoplastic analysis is to construct a reasonable constitutive model for cyclic plasticity. In the paper, the constitutive equations are briefly outlined. Then, the model is implemented in a finite element code to predict the response of cyclic loaded structural components such as a double-edge-notched plate, a grooved bar and a nozzle in spherical shell. Numerical results are compared with those from other theories and experiments

  7. Structural decomposition analysis of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A complex system of production links our greenhouse gas emissions to our consumer demands. Whilst progress may be made in improving efficiency, other changes in the production structure may easily annul global improvements. Utilising a structural decomposition analysis, a comparative-static technique of input-output analysis, over a time period of around 30 years, net greenhouse emissions are decomposed in this study into the effects, due to changes in industrial efficiency, forward linkages, inter-industry structure, backward linkages, type of final demand, cause of final demand, population affluence, population size, and mix and level of exports. Historically, significant competing forces at both the whole of economy and industrial scale have been mitigating potential improvements. Key sectors and structural influences are identified that have historically shown the greatest potential for change, and would likely have the greatest net impact. Results clearly reinforce that the current dichotomy of growth and exports are the key problems in need of address.

  8. Parallel processing of structural integrity analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Structural integrity analysis forms an important role in assessing and demonstrating the safety of nuclear reactor components. This analysis is performed using analytical tools such as Finite Element Method (FEM) with the help of digital computers. The complexity of the problems involved in nuclear engineering demands high speed computation facilities to obtain solutions in reasonable amount of time. Parallel processing systems such as ANUPAM provide an efficient platform for realising the high speed computation. The development and implementation of software on parallel processing systems is an interesting and challenging task. The data and algorithm structure of the codes plays an important role in exploiting the parallel processing system capabilities. Structural analysis codes based on FEM can be divided into two categories with respect to their implementation on parallel processing systems. The first category codes such as those used for harmonic analysis, mechanistic fuel performance codes need not require the parallelisation of individual modules of the codes. The second category of codes such as conventional FEM codes require parallelisation of individual modules. In this category, parallelisation of equation solution module poses major difficulties. Different solution schemes such as domain decomposition method (DDM), parallel active column solver and substructuring method are currently used on parallel processing systems. Two codes, FAIR and TABS belonging to each of these categories have been implemented on ANUPAM. The implementation details of these codes and the performance of different equation solvers are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  9. Music Structure Analysis from Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.; Goto, Masataka

    Music is full of structure, including sections, sequences of distinct musical textures, and the repetition of phrases or entire sections. The analysis of music audio relies upon feature vectors that convey information about music texture or pitch content. Texture generally refers to the average spectral shape and statistical fluctuation, often reflecting the set of sounding instruments, e.g., strings, vocal, or drums. Pitch content reflects melody and harmony, which is often independent of texture. Structure is found in several ways. Segment boundaries can be detected by observing marked changes in locally averaged texture.

  10. Analysis of fluid structural instability in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, N.

    1997-02-01

    Recent flow testing of stainless steel hardware in a high pressure/high temperature water environment produced an apparent fluid-structural instability. The source of instability was investigated by studying textbook theory and by performing NASTRAN finite element analyses. The modal analyses identified the mode that was being excited, but the flutter instability analysis showed that the design is stable if minimal structural damping is present. Therefore, it was suspected that the test hardware was the root cause of the instability. Further testing confirmed this suspicion

  11. Structural analysis of lithium lanthanum titanate with perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Koji [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo (Japan); Kawakita, Yukinobu; Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Temleitner, Laszlo; Pusztai, Laszlo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo (Japan); Jono, Atsushi; Shimakura, Hironori [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Inoue, Naoki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis of polycrystalline La{sub 4/3-x}Li{sub 3x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} have been performed to clarify the extent of disorder of the distribution of La and Li ions and to understand the relation of these distributions to ionic conduction. The distributions of the La and Li ions in a 10 x 10 x 20 cubic box (i.e., 10 x 10 x 10 unit cell) super-structure, in which Ti and O atoms are fixed onto their regular sites, were obtained by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) structural modelling of both diffraction data sets. When the occupancy of La ions in the planes perpendicular to the c-axis is analysed, one can find a La-rich and La-poor layers alternating, which is consistent with the results of earlier Rietveld analysis (Stramare et al., Chem. Mater. 15, 3974 (2003)[1]). Of particular interest, the Li ions are found mainly on the interstitial sites between the O-3 triangle plane of the TiO{sub 6} octahedron and a La ion, which is different from the earlier work (Yashima et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 3491 (2005)[2]). (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  13. Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  14. Initial Implementation of a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  15. Institutional arrangements of Currency Boards - Comparative Macroeconomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomira Anastassova

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the comparative macroeconomic analysis of the differences stemming from the extent to which the institutional framework of the currency board arrangement is implemented in the legal and regulatory systems in the different countries. The main objective of taking into consideration and examining the currency board institutional arrangements is to distinguish between the impact that currency board countries and countries with pegged exchange rate have on different m...

  16. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  17. Managing health care in the digital world: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cucciniello, Maria; Lapsley, Irvine; Nasi, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Recently, most reforms affecting healthcare systems have focused on improving the quality of care and containing costs. This has led many scholars to advocate the adoption of Health Information systems, especially electronic medical records, by highlighting their potential benefits. This study is based on a comparative analysis using a multiple method approach to examine the implementation of the same electronic medical record system at two different hospitals. Its findings offer insights int...

  18. Dimeric spectra analysis in Microsoft Excel: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A Ghanadzadeh; Moghadam, M; Zakerhamidi, M S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the reader to an Add-in implementation, Decom. This implementation provides the whole processing requirements for analysis of dimeric spectra. General linear and nonlinear decomposition algorithms were integrated as an Excel Add-in for easy installation and usage. In this work, the results of several samples investigations were compared to those obtained by Datan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria include root mean squared deviation (RMSD), MaxSub score, TM-score, GDT-TS and GDT-HA scores. All these criteria require calculation of rigid transformations to superimpose the the predicted protein structure to the native protein structure. Yet, how to obtain the rigid transformations is unknown or with high time complexity, and, hence, heuristic algorithms were proposed. In this work, we carefully design various small structure patterns, including the ones specifically tuned for local pockets. Such structure patterns are biologically meaningful, and address the issue of relying on a sufficient number of backbone residue fragments for existing methods. We sample the rigid transformations from these small structure patterns; and the optimal superpositions yield by these small structures are refined and reported. As a result, among 11; 669 pairs of predicted and native local protein pocket models from the CASP10 dataset, the GDT-TS scores calculated by our method are significantly higher than those calculated by LGA. Moreover, our program is computationally much more efficient. Source codes and executables are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/

  20. Comparative studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizabilies of NLO chromophore Ethyl 4-Dimethylaminobenzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalanathan, M.; Jasmine, G. Femina; Roy, S. Dawn Dharma

    2017-08-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational spectra and polarizabilities of Ethyl 4-Dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB) was investigated by density functional theory employing Becke's three parameter hybrid exchange functional with Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) co-relational functional involving 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and compared with some other levels. A detailed interpretation of the IR and Raman spectra of EDBA have been reported and analyzed. Complete vibrational assignments of the vibrational modes have been done on the basis of the potential energy distribution (TED) using VEDA software. The molecular electrostatic potential mapped onto total density surface has been obtained. A study on the electronic properties, such as absorption wavelength, and frontier molecular orbitals energy, was performed using DFT approach. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and accompanying charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The natural and Mulliken charge also calculated and compared with different level of calculation. The dipole moment, polarizability and first, second order hyperpolarizabilities of the title molecule were calculated and compared with the experimental values. The energy gap between frontier orbitals has been used along with electric moments and first order hyperpolarizability, to understand the non linear optical (NLO) activity of the molecule. The NLO activity of molecule was confirmed by SHG analysis.

  1. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquez, Moises; Uribe, Juan Esteban; Castro, Lyda Raquel

    2012-01-01

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  2. Comparative videostroboscopic analysis after different external partial laryngectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. After external partial laryngectomias, videostroborscopy is very usefull in evaluation of postoperative phonatory mehanisms showing the “slow motion” of the vibrations of the remaining laryngeal structures. The aim of this paper was to compare the videostroboscopic characteristics of the vibration and to establish the differences in the phonation mechanisms depending on the type of external partial laryngectomy performed. Methods. This prospective study was conducted during the period 2003-2009 at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, including 99 patients with laryngeal carcinoma, treated with open surgical approach using different types of vertical and horizontal partial laryngectomy. Videostroboscopy was used to analyse vibrations of the remaining laryngeal structures. Results. The dominant vibration structure after partial horizontal laryngectomy, chordectomy, frontolateral laryngectomy and three quarter laryngectomy was the remaining vocal fold, after hemilaryngectomy it was the false vocal fold and after subtotal and near total laryngectomy it was the arythenoid. In patients with supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy performed, many different structures were involved in the vibration. After most of the partial laryngectomies, vibrations can be found in the reconstructed part of the defect. In both horizontal and vertical partial laryngectomies movements of the larynx during phonation were mostly medial, while in cricohyoidoglottopexies they were anterior-posterior. Most of the operated patients (72.7% had insufficient occlusion of the neoglottis during the phonation. Conclusion. Videostroboscopy is a useful method in examining the phonation mechanisms of reconstructed laryngeal structures after partial laryngectomy as well as in planning postoperative voice therapy.

  3. Reliability Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1984-01-01

    . Failure of this type of system is defined either as formation of a mechanism or by failure of a prescribed number of elements. In the first case failure is independent of the order in which the elements fail, but this is not so by the second definition. The reliability analysis consists of two parts...... are described and the two definitions of failure can be used by the first formulation, but only the failure definition based on formation of a mechanism by the second formulation. The second part of the reliability analysis is an estimate of the failure probability for the structure on the basis...

  4. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    taxes on income of corporations and taxes on income of individuals and households and other current taxes. Actual social contributions were also split into employer’s actual contributions, employee’s social contributions and social contributions of self- and non-employed persons. As the primary data analysis revealed many differences between Euro Area member states, but also similarities concerning various fiscal aggregates, we completed the analysis through multidimensional analysis, with the aims of classifying Euro Area member states into subgroups with similar fiscal structures. Taking into consideration the above mentioned variables, we used cluster analysis in order to determine which member states have similar fiscal structures and which are the main similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect.

  5. Seismic response analysis of an instrumented building structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.-J.; Zhu, S.-Y.; Celebi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Sheraton - Universal hotel, an instrumented building lying in North Hollywood, USA is selected for case study in this paper. The finite element method is used to produce a linear time - invariant structural model, and the SAP2000 program is employed for the time history analysis of the instrumented structure under the base excitation of strong motions recorded in the basement during the Northridge, California earthquake of 17 January 1994. The calculated structural responses are compared with the recorded data in both time domain and frequency domain, and the effects of structural parameters evaluation and indeterminate factors are discussed. Some features of structural response, such as the reason why the peak responses of acceleration in the ninth floor are larger than those in the sixteenth floor, are also explained.

  6. Data Extraction Based on Page Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yichao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The information we need has some confusing problems such as dispersion and different organizational structure. In addition, because of the existence of unstructured data like natural language and images, extracting local content pages is extremely difficult. In the light of of the problems above, this article will apply a method combined with page structure analysis algorithm and page data extraction algorithm to accomplish the gathering of network data. In this way, the problem that traditional complex extraction model behave poorly when dealing with large-scale data is perfectly solved and the page data extraction efficiency is also boosted to a new level. In the meantime, the article will also make a comparison about pages and content of different types between the methods of DOM structure based on the page and HTML regularities of distribution. After all of those, we may find a more efficient extract method.

  7. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.

    2000-01-01

    The static and dynamic structural behavior of superconducting cavities for various projects was determined by finite element structural analysis. The β = 0.61 cavity shape for the Neutron Science Project was studied in detail and found to meet all design requirements if fabricated from five millimeter thick material with a single annular stiffener. This 600 MHz cavity will have a Lorentz coefficient of minus1.8 Hz/(Mv/meter) 2 and a lowest structural resonance of more than 100 Hz. Cavities at β = 0.48, 0.61, and 0.77 were analyzed for a Neutron Science Project concept which would incorporate 7-cell cavities. The medium and high beta cavities were found to meet all criteria but it was not possible to generate a β = 0.48 cavity with a Lorentz coefficient of less than minus3 Hz/(Mv/meter) 2

  8. MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.......g. changing external climate factors, in order to improve the indoor climate performance of the building. The derivation of equations of motion for such spatial mechanical systems is a challenging issue in scientific community. However, with new symbolic tools one can automatically derive equations in so......-called multibody system (MBS) formalism. The present paper considers MBS modeling of kinetic architectural structures using the software packages ADAMS. As a result, it is found that symbolic MBS simulation tools facilitate a useful evaluation environment for MBS users during a design phase of responsive kinetic...

  9. Evaluation of the Structure Stability of a Plate Girder Bridge Using MIDAS Structure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Soo; Kim, Jong Hyuk [National Forensic Service, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Recently, as a means of resolving the issue of legal liability in the event of an accident or a disaster, a wide variety of simulation techniques, such as structural and structure-fluid interaction analysis, have been used in the field of forensic engineering. The plate girder bridge discussed in this paper was being constructed between a pier and an abutment to expand an existing bridge, but an accident whereby the bridge overturned occurred at the end of the concrete laying process for a protective wall. This accident was caused by additional loads not being considered at the time of the design as well as the actual construction being different from the design. The additional loads ultimately generated a negative support force. In this study, we determined the cause of the accident by comparing the structural stability of the original design with that of the additional, non-conforming construction using MIDAS structural analysis.

  10. Evaluation of the Structure Stability of a Plate Girder Bridge Using MIDAS Structure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Soo; Kim, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Recently, as a means of resolving the issue of legal liability in the event of an accident or a disaster, a wide variety of simulation techniques, such as structural and structure-fluid interaction analysis, have been used in the field of forensic engineering. The plate girder bridge discussed in this paper was being constructed between a pier and an abutment to expand an existing bridge, but an accident whereby the bridge overturned occurred at the end of the concrete laying process for a protective wall. This accident was caused by additional loads not being considered at the time of the design as well as the actual construction being different from the design. The additional loads ultimately generated a negative support force. In this study, we determined the cause of the accident by comparing the structural stability of the original design with that of the additional, non-conforming construction using MIDAS structural analysis

  11. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...... reinforcement and it is therefore possible to analyze structures with complex reinforcement layouts. Tests are conducted to validate the method against well-known analytical solutions....

  12. An Atomic Data and Analysis Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, Hugh P.

    2000-01-01

    The Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) Project is a shared activity of a world-wide consortium of fusion and astrophysical laboratories directed at developing and maintaining a common approach to analysing and modelling the radiating properties of plasmas. The origin and objectives of ADAS and the organization of its codes and data collections outlined. Current special projects in the ADAS Project work-plans are listed and an illustration given of ADAS at work. (author)

  13. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  14. New rheological model for concrete structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Long time deformation is of interest in estimating stresses of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel, in predicting cracking due to shrinkage or thermal dilatation, and in the design of leak-tight structures. Many interacting influences exist among creep, shrinkage and cracking for concrete. An interaction which researchers have long observed, is that at simultaneous drying and loading, the deformation of a concrete structure under the combined effect is larger than the sum of the shrinkage deformation of the structure at no load and the deformation of the sealed structure. The excess deformation due to the difference between observed test data and conventional analysis is regarded as the Pickett Effect. A constitutive relation explaining the Pickett Effect and other similar superposition problems, which includes creep, shrinkage (or thermal dilation), cracking, aging was developed with an efficient time-step numerical algorithm. The total deformation in the analysis is the sum of strain due to elastic deformation and creep, cracking and shrinkage with thermal dilatation. Instead of a sudden stress reduction to zero after the attainment of the strength limit, the gradual strain-softening of concrete (a gradual decline of stress at increasing strain) is considered

  15. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  16. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  17. Correlation based method for comparing and reconstructing quasi-identical two-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia-Barbosa, Y.

    2000-03-01

    We show a method for comparing and reconstructing two similar amplitude-only structures, which are composed by the same number of identical apertures. The structures are two-dimensional and differ only in the location of one of the apertures. The method is based on a subtraction algorithm, which involves the auto-correlations and cross-correlation functions of the compared structures. Experimental results illustrate the feasibility of the method. (author)

  18. Comparative analysis through probability distributions of a data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Gabriel; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai

    2018-02-01

    In practice, probability distributions are applied in such diverse fields as risk analysis, reliability engineering, chemical engineering, hydrology, image processing, physics, market research, business and economic research, customer support, medicine, sociology, demography etc. This article highlights important aspects of fitting probability distributions to data and applying the analysis results to make informed decisions. There are a number of statistical methods available which can help us to select the best fitting model. Some of the graphs display both input data and fitted distributions at the same time, as probability density and cumulative distribution. The goodness of fit tests can be used to determine whether a certain distribution is a good fit. The main used idea is to measure the "distance" between the data and the tested distribution, and compare that distance to some threshold values. Calculating the goodness of fit statistics also enables us to order the fitted distributions accordingly to how good they fit to data. This particular feature is very helpful for comparing the fitted models. The paper presents a comparison of most commonly used goodness of fit tests as: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi-Squared. A large set of data is analyzed and conclusions are drawn by visualizing the data, comparing multiple fitted distributions and selecting the best model. These graphs should be viewed as an addition to the goodness of fit tests.

  19. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B L; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Madre, M; Radua, J; Monte, G; Alonso-Lana, S; Landin-Romero, R; Moreno-Alcázar, A; Bonnin, C M; Sarró, S; Ortiz-Gil, J; Gomar, J J; Moro, N; Fernandez-Corcuera, P; Goikolea, J M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Vieta, E; McKenna, P J; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2016-01-01

    Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder, and how far they resemble those seen in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have only been studied to a limited extent. Forty-five patients meeting DSM-IV and RDC criteria for schizoaffective disorder, groups of patients with 45 matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and 45 matched healthy controls were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Analyses comparing each patient group with the healthy control subjects found that the patients with schizoaffective disorder and the patients with schizophrenia showed widespread and overlapping areas of significant volume reduction, but the patients with bipolar disorder did not. A subsequent analysis compared the combined group of patients with the controls followed by extraction of clusters. In regions where the patients differed significantly from the controls, no significant differences in mean volume between patients with schizoaffective disorder and patients with schizophrenia in any of five regions of volume reduction were found, but mean volumes in the patients with bipolar disorder were significantly smaller in three of five. The findings provide evidence that, in terms of structural gray matter brain abnormality, schizoaffective disorder resembles schizophrenia more than bipolar disorder. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparing Two Modes of Instruction in English Passive Structures (Processing and Meaning-Based Output Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Dabiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effects of two types of instruction: Processing Instruction (PI and Meaning-based Output Instruction (MOI on the interpretation and production of English passive structures.  Ninety EFL intermediate tertiary level female students (PI group= 30, MOI group= 30 and control group = 30 participated in this study. The instruments were a proficiency test, a test to assess English passive structures and two instructional materials (PI and MOI. The data were analyzed by running one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and mixed between-within ANOVA. The study indicated the effectiveness of PI and MOI on English passive structures. PI had considerable enhancement on interpretation tasks all the time. It supported the use of PI rather than the use of traditional instructions in which mechanical components were emphasized. Also, the PI and MOI had long term effects on the interpretation and production of English passive sentences.  This study supported the use of PI and MOI rather than the use of traditional instruction (TI in EFL settings. The implication for particularly classroom teaching is that successful grammar instruction has to related to ultimate learning outcomes. Also, creating communicative tasks to offer opportunities for teaching grammar can lead to long-lasting learning effects.

  1. Structural integrity analysis of a steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, Maria P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a power utility is the rotor of the steam turbine. Catastrophic failures of the last decades have promoted the development of life assessment procedures for rotors. The present study requires the knowledge of operating conditions, component geometry, the properties of materials, history of the component, size, location and nature of the existing flaws. The aim of the present work is the obtention of a structural integrity analysis procedure for a steam turbine rotor, taking into account the above-mentioned parameters. In this procedure, a stress thermal analysis by finite elements is performed initially, in order to obtain the temperature and stress distribution for a subsequent analysis by fracture mechanics. The risk of a fast fracture due to flaws in the central zone of the rotor is analyzed. The procedure is applied to an operating turbine: the main steam turbine of the Atucha I nuclear power utility. (author)

  2. An Evaluation of Centrographic Analysis as Compared with Conventional Cephalometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion : Individuals belonging to same sample group and with well-balanced skeletal and soft tissue profiles and normal occlusion demonstrated wide variations in craniofacial structure as evaluated with centrographic analysis and routinely used conventional cephalometric measurements.

  3. Comparative analysis of minor histocompatibility antigens genotyping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vdovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of techniques could be employed to find mismatches in minor histocompatibility antigens between transplant recipients and their donors. In the current study we compared three genotyping methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR for four minor antigens. Three of the tested methods: allele-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR with TaqMan probes demonstrated 100% reliability when compared to Sanger sequencing for all of the studied polymorphisms. High resolution melting analysis was unsuitable for genotyping of one of the tested minor antigens (HA-1 as it has linked synonymous polymorphism. Obtained data could be used to select the strategy for large-scale clinical genotyping.

  4. Stigma, sex work, and substance use: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; McCarthy, Bill; Jansson, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Stigma is a widely used concept in social science research and an extensive literature claims that stigmatisation contributes to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies compare groups that vary in the extent to which they are stigmatised and even fewer studies examine stigma's independent and mediating effects. This article addresses these gaps in a comparative study of perceived stigma and drug use among three low-income feminised service occupations: sex work, food and alcoholic beverage serving, and barbering and hairstyling. An analysis of longitudinal data shows positive associations between sex work, perceived stigma, and socially less acceptable drug use (for example, heroin and cocaine), and that stigma mediates part of the link between sex work and the use of these drugs. Our overall findings suggest that perceived stigma is pronounced among those who work in the sex industry and negatively affects health independently of sex work involvement. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  6. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, J. P. A.; Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Manoppo, C. T. M.; Salaki, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The current growth of data and information occurs rapidly in varying amount and media. These types of development will eventually produce large number of data better known as the Big Data. Business Intelligence (BI) utilizes large number of data and information for analysis so that one can obtain important information. This type of information can be used to support decision-making process. In practice a process integrating existing data and information into data warehouse is needed. This data integration process is known as Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL). In practice, many applications have been developed to carry out the ETL process, but selection which applications are more time, cost and power effective and efficient may become a challenge. Therefore, the objective of the study was to provide comparative analysis through comparison between the ETL process using Microsoft SQL Server Integration Service (SSIS) and one using Pentaho Data Integration (PDI).

  8. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  9. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  10. Comparing methods of classifying life courses: Sequence analysis and latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, C.H.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Han, Sapphire

    2017-01-01

    We compare life course typology solutions generated by sequence analysis (SA) and latent class analysis (LCA). First, we construct an analytic protocol to arrive at typology solutions for both methodologies and present methods to compare the empirical quality of alternative typologies. We apply this

  11. Comparing methods of classifying life courses: sequence analysis and latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Elzinga, C.

    2017-01-01

    We compare life course typology solutions generated by sequence analysis (SA) and latent class analysis (LCA). First, we construct an analytic protocol to arrive at typology solutions for both methodologies and present methods to compare the empirical quality of alternative typologies. We apply this

  12. Peace Negotiations in the Third World: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Benítez Manaut

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the negotiations and peace processes in the Third World are analized from a comparative viewpoint in order to focus in on the case of Centroamerica. Reference is made to the special features and common elements of those peace processes in otherregions of the Third World and they are compared to those which have taken place in Centroamerica. It is a retrospective and comparative analysis. For this reason, the author has decided to carry out a brief typology of those conflicts offered by Centroamerica: inNicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. Later, the author goes on to analyse the most relevant peace and negotiation processes involving the Third World including one or two from Latin America: the cases of Panama, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq, Colombia, southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Angola and Cambodia. Later, the author goes overthe peace process periods in Centroamerica and the temporary contradictions which are presented by internal conflict, regional conflict and geopolitical conflict. Finally, a comparative methodological exercise is carried out which allows to focus on modes of implementation of the peace processes.

  13. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  14. A comparative analysis of measles virus RNA by oligonucleotide fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.R.; Meulen, V. ter

    1982-01-01

    Isolates from two cases of acute measles, one case of acute measles encephalitis and three patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared. This comparison was based upon the electrophoretic analysis of T 1 oligonucleotides from single-stranded, full-length RNA isolated from cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Although all viruses have oligonucleotides in common, each isolate generated a unique pattern of oligonucleotides. However, no group of oligonucleotides was observed which would allow differentiation between viruses isolated from acute infections and those isolated from CNS diseases; indicating that probably all measles viruses differ in their nucleotide sequence, regardless of origin. (Author)

  15. Racial classification in the evolutionary sciences: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.

  16. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...... condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ...

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ESTIMATION METHODS OF PHARMACY ORGANIZATION BANKRUPTCY PROBABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Adzhienko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of this study was to determine the probability of bankruptcy by various methods in order to predict the financial crisis of pharmacy organization. Estimating the probability of pharmacy organization bankruptcy was conducted using W. Beaver’s method adopted in the Russian Federation, with integrated assessment of financial stability use on the basis of scoring analysis. The results obtained by different methods are comparable and show that the risk of bankruptcy of the pharmacy organization is small.

  18. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  19. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  20. Comparation studies of uranium analysis method using spectrophotometer and voltammeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugeng Pomomo

    2013-01-01

    Comparation studies of uranium analysis method by spectrophotometer and voltammeter had been done. The objective of experiment is to examine the reliability of analysis method and instrument performance by evaluate parameters; linearity, accuracy, precision and detection limit. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is used as standard, and the sample is solvent mixture of tributyl phosphate and kerosene containing uranium (from phosphoric acid purification unit Petrokimia Gresik). Uranium (U) stripping in the sample use HN0 3 0,5 N and then was analyzed by using of both instrument. Analysis of standard show that both methods give a good linearity by correlation coefficient > 0,999. Spectrophotometry give accuration 99,34 - 101,05 % with ratio standard deviation (RSD) 1,03 %; detection limit (DL) 0,05 ppm. Voltammetry give accuration 95,63 -101,49 % with RSD 3,91 %; detection limit (DL) 0,509 ppm. On the analysis of sludge samples were given the significantly different in result; spectrophotometry give U concentration 4,445 ppm by RSD 6,74 % and voltammetry give U concentration 7,693 by RSD 19,53%. (author)

  1. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  2. Alignment-free comparative genomic screen for structured RNAs using coarse-grained secondary structure dot plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Yuki; Gorodkin, Jan; Havgaard, Jakob Hull

    2017-01-01

    . Methods: Here we present a fast and efficient method, DotcodeR, for detecting structurally similar RNAs in genomic sequences by comparing their corresponding coarse-grained secondary structure dot plots at string level. This allows us to perform an all-against-all scan of all window pairs from two genomes...... without alignment. Results: Our computational experiments with simulated data and real chromosomes demonstrate that the presented method has good sensitivity. Conclusions: DotcodeR can be useful as a pre-filter in a genomic comparative scan for structured RNAs....

  3. Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Davoodi, Mohammad; Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state

  4. Comparative analysis of the indices of solar collectors designs of abroad and domestic production. New technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shcheglov, V.N.; Sulejmanov, M.Zh.; Kolomiets, Yu.G.; Prokopchenko, I.N.

    2006-01-01

    Paper presents comparative analysis of heat-engineering and design parameters of the domestic and foreign solar collectors and describes well-grounded proposals on application of new structural materials (heat-resistant and ultraviolet radiation-resistant plastics) [ru

  5. Data and methods comparing social structure and vegetation structure of urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Mary L. Cadenasso; William R., Jr. Burch; Steward T. Pickett; Kirsten Schwarz; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Matthew Wilson; Austin Troy; Christopher Boone

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and the adoption of geographic information systems (GIS) have greatly increased the availibility of high-resolution spatial and attribute data for examing the relationship between social and vegetation structure in urban areas. There are several motivations for understanding this relationship. First, the United States has experienced a...

  6. Tools for integrated sequence-structure analysis with UCSF Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Conrad C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparing related structures and viewing the structures in the context of sequence alignments are important tasks in protein structure-function research. While many programs exist for individual aspects of such work, there is a need for interactive visualization tools that: (a provide a deep integration of sequence and structure, far beyond mapping where a sequence region falls in the structure and vice versa; (b facilitate changing data of one type based on the other (for example, using only sequence-conserved residues to match structures, or adjusting a sequence alignment based on spatial fit; (c can be used with a researcher's own data, including arbitrary sequence alignments and annotations, closely or distantly related sets of proteins, etc.; and (d interoperate with each other and with a full complement of molecular graphics features. We describe enhancements to UCSF Chimera to achieve these goals. Results The molecular graphics program UCSF Chimera includes a suite of tools for interactive analyses of sequences and structures. Structures automatically associate with sequences in imported alignments, allowing many kinds of crosstalk. A novel method is provided to superimpose structures in the absence of a pre-existing sequence alignment. The method uses both sequence and secondary structure, and can match even structures with very low sequence identity. Another tool constructs structure-based sequence alignments from superpositions of two or more proteins. Chimera is designed to be extensible, and mechanisms for incorporating user-specific data without Chimera code development are also provided. Conclusion The tools described here apply to many problems involving comparison and analysis of protein structures and their sequences. Chimera includes complete documentation and is intended for use by a wide range of scientists, not just those in the computational disciplines. UCSF Chimera is free for non-commercial use and is

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of the PKS genes in five species and expression analysis in upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Su

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS can catalyse the formation of a series of secondary metabolites with different structures and different biological functions; the enzyme plays an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. At present, the PKS gene has been identified and studied in a variety of plants. Here, we identified 11 PKS genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and compared them with 41 PKS genes in Populus tremula, Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Arabidopsis thaliana. According to the phylogenetic tree, a total of 52 PKS genes can be divided into four subfamilies (I–IV. The analysis of gene structures and conserved motifs revealed that most of the PKS genes were composed of two exons and one intron and there are two characteristic conserved domains (Chal_sti_synt_N and Chal_sti_synt_C of the PKS gene family. In our study of the five species, gene duplication was found in addition to Arabidopsis thaliana and we determined that purifying selection has been of great significance in maintaining the function of PKS gene family. From qRT-PCR analysis and a combination of the role of the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs in brown cotton fibers, we concluded that five PKS genes are candidate genes involved in brown cotton fiber pigment synthesis. These results are important for the further study of brown cotton PKS genes. It not only reveals the relationship between PKS gene family and pigment in brown cotton, but also creates conditions for improving the quality of brown cotton fiber.

  8. Dynamic analysis of the BPX machine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgen, F.; Citrolo, J.; Knutson, D.; Kalish, M.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of the BPX machine structure to a seismic input was performed. MSC/NASTRAN 5 , a general purpose XXX element computer code, has been used. The purpose of this paper is to assess the probable range of seismically induced stresses and deflections in the machine substructure which connects the machine to the test cell floor, with particular emphasis on the shear pins which will be used to attach the TF coil modules to the machine substructure (for a more detailed description of the shear pins and structure see ref. 4 in these proceedings). The model was developed with sufficient detail to be used subsequently to investigate the transient response to various dynamic loading conditions imposed on the structure by the PF, TF, and Vacuum Vessel, during normal and off-normal operations. The model does not include the mass and stiffness of the building or the building-soil interaction and as such can only be considered an interim assessment of the dynamic response of the machine to the S.S.E.(this is the Safe Shutdown Earthquake which is also the Design XXX Earthquake for all major structural components)

  9. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  11. 2004/2008 labour market information comparative analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The electricity sector has entered into a phase of both challenges and opportunities. Challenges include workforce retirement, labour shortages, and increased competition from other employers to attract and retain the skilled people required to deliver on the increasing demand for electricity in Canada. The electricity sector in Canada is also moving into a new phase, whereby much of the existing infrastructure is either due for significant upgrades, or complete replacement. The increasing demand for electricity means that increased investment and capital expenditure will need to be put toward building new infrastructure altogether. The opportunities for the electricity industry will lie in its ability to effectively and efficiently react to these challenges. The purpose of this report was to provide employers and stakeholders in the sector with relevant and current trend data to help them make appropriate policy and human resource decisions. The report presented a comparative analysis of a 2004 Canadian Electricity Association employer survey with a 2008 Electricity Sector Council employer survey. The comparative analysis highlighted trends and changes that emerged between the 2004 and 2008 studies. Specific topics that were addressed included overall employment trends; employment diversity in the sector; age of non-support staff; recruitment; and retirements and pension eligibility. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that the electricity sector could benefit greatly from implementing on-going recruitment campaigns. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of ductal and lobular invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N C S; Gomig, T H B; Milioli, H H; Cordeiro, F; Costa, G G; Urban, C A; Lima, R S; Cavalli, I J; Ribeiro, E M S F

    2016-04-04

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the first among women. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are the two major histological subtypes, and the clinical and molecular differences between them justify the search for new markers to distinguish them. As proteomic analysis allows for a powerful and analytical approach to identify potential biomarkers, we performed a comparative analysis of IDC and ILC samples by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Twenty-three spots were identified corresponding to 10 proteins differentially expressed between the two subtypes. ACTB, ACTG, TPM3, TBA1A, TBA1B, VIME, TPIS, PDIA3, PDIA6, and VTDB were upregulated in ductal carcinoma compared to in lobular carcinoma samples. Overall, these 10 proteins have a key role in oncogenesis. Their specific functions and relevance in cancer initiation and progression are further discussed in this study. The identified peptides represent promising biomarkers for the differentiation of ductal and lobular breast cancer subtypes, and for future interventions based on tailored therapy.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Results of Online and Offline Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Milorad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The logic that customer satisfaction is the starting point of marketing and business activities is based on the assumption that customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty, keeping in mind all of the positive effects that customer loyalty has on business success of an organization. Because of this, marketing and management theory and practice dedicate particular attention to the concepts of customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this paper we will use the surveys of customers of banking services not only to show the levels of their satisfaction and loyalty, but also to make a comparative analysis of data obtained through online and offline research. This approach was made possible because the research was carried out on a sample which was divided in two groups. All of the participants answered the questions from a unique questionnaire, however, one group took the survey via the Internet (online while data from the other group of participants was collected in the field by using printed questionnaires (offline. The findings of the comparative analysis of online and offline survey results are presented in the final part of the paper.

  14. Fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, J I; Kikutani, T

    2003-01-01

    Topics of fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation are explained. There are only three synchrotron radiation facilities in the world, SPring-8 (Super Photon ring-8) in Japan, APS (Advanced Photon Source) in U.S.A. and ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) in France. Online measurement of melt spinning process of PET and Nylon6 is explained in detail. Polypropylene and PBO (poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) was measured by WAXD (Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction)/SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) at the same time. Some examples of measure of drawing process of fiber are described. The structure formation process of spider's thread was measured. Micro beam of X-ray of synchrotron facility was improved and it attained to 65nm small angle resolving power by 10 mu m beamsize. (S.Y.)

  15. Chromosome-scale comparative sequence analysis unravels molecular mechanisms of genome evolution between two wheat cultivars

    KAUST Repository

    Thind, Anupriya Kaur

    2018-02-08

    Background: Recent improvements in DNA sequencing and genome scaffolding have paved the way to generate high-quality de novo assemblies of pseudomolecules representing complete chromosomes of wheat and its wild relatives. These assemblies form the basis to compare the evolutionary dynamics of wheat genomes on a megabase-scale. Results: Here, we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the 700-megabase chromosome 2D between two bread wheat genotypes, the old landrace Chinese Spring and the elite Swiss spring wheat line CH Campala Lr22a. There was a high degree of sequence conservation between the two chromosomes. Analysis of large structural variations revealed four large insertions/deletions (InDels) of >100 kb. Based on the molecular signatures at the breakpoints, unequal crossing over and double-strand break repair were identified as the evolutionary mechanisms that caused these InDels. Three of the large InDels affected copy number of NLRs, a gene family involved in plant immunity. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density revealed three haploblocks of 8 Mb, 9 Mb and 48 Mb with a 35-fold increased SNP density compared to the rest of the chromosome. Conclusions: This comparative analysis of two high-quality chromosome assemblies enabled a comprehensive assessment of large structural variations. The insight obtained from this analysis will form the basis of future wheat pan-genome studies.

  16. A comparative critical analysis of modern task-parallel runtimes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Stark, Dylan; Murphy, Richard C.

    2012-12-01

    The rise in node-level parallelism has increased interest in task-based parallel runtimes for a wide array of application areas. Applications have a wide variety of task spawning patterns which frequently change during the course of application execution, based on the algorithm or solver kernel in use. Task scheduling and load balance regimes, however, are often highly optimized for specific patterns. This paper uses four basic task spawning patterns to quantify the impact of specific scheduling policy decisions on execution time. We compare the behavior of six publicly available tasking runtimes: Intel Cilk, Intel Threading Building Blocks (TBB), Intel OpenMP, GCC OpenMP, Qthreads, and High Performance ParalleX (HPX). With the exception of Qthreads, the runtimes prove to have schedulers that are highly sensitive to application structure. No runtime is able to provide the best performance in all cases, and those that do provide the best performance in some cases, unfortunately, provide extremely poor performance when application structure does not match the schedulers assumptions.

  17. Reliability analysis of offshore structures using OMA based fatigue stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Nabuco, Bruna; Aissani, Amina; Glindtvad Tarpø, Marius

    2017-01-01

    focus is on the uncertainty observed on the different stresses used to predict the damage. This uncertainty can be reduced by Modal Based Fatigue Monitoring which is a technique based on continuously measuring of the accelerations in few points of the structure with the use of accelerometers known...... points of the structure, the stress history can be calculated in any arbitrary point of the structure. The accuracy of the estimated actual stress is analyzed by experimental tests on a scale model where the obtained stresses are compared to strain gauges measurements. After evaluating the fatigue...... stresses directly from the operational response of the structure, a reliability analysis is performed in order to estimate the reliability of using Modal Based Fatigue Monitoring for long term fatigue studies....

  18. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  19. PHARMACOPOEIA METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of quality assurance of medicinal products, namely the determination of elemental impurity concentration compared to permitted daily exposures for and the correct choice analytical methods that are adequate to the formulated tasks. The paper goal is to compare characteristics of four analytical methods recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of various countries to control the content of elemental impurities in medicines, including medicinal plant raw materials and herbal medicines. Both advantages and disadvantages were described for atomic absorption spectroscopy with various atomising techniques, as well as atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The choice of the most rational analysis method depends on a research task and is reasoned from the viewpoint of analytical objectives, possible complications, performance attributes, and economic considerations. The methods of ICP-MS and GFAAS were shown to provide the greatest potential for determining the low and ultra-low concentrations of chemical elements in medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products. The other two methods, FAAS and ICP-AES, are limited to the analysis of the main essential elements and the largest impurities. The ICP-MS is the most efficient method for determining ultra-low concentrations. However, the interference of mass peaks is typical for ICP-MS. It is formed not only by impurities but also by polyatomic ions with the participation of argon, as well as atoms of gases from the air (C, N and O or matrices (O, N, H, P, S and Cl. Therefore, a correct sample preparation, which guarantees minimisation of impurity contamination and loss of analytes becomes the most crucial stage of analytical applications of ICP-MS. The detections limits for some chemical elements, which content is regulated in modern Pharmacopoeia, were estimated for each method and analysis conditions of medicinal plant raw

  20. In silico comparative genomic analysis of GABAA receptor transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Christopher J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtypes of the GABAA receptor subunit exhibit diverse temporal and spatial expression patterns. In silico comparative analysis was used to predict transcriptional regulatory features in individual mammalian GABAA receptor subunit genes, and to identify potential transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of the GABAA receptor gene clusters. Results Previously unreported putative promoters were identified for the β2, γ1, γ3, ε, θ and π subunit genes. Putative core elements and proximal transcriptional factors were identified within these predicted promoters, and within the experimentally determined promoters of other subunit genes. Conserved intergenic regions of sequence in the mammalian GABAA receptor gene cluster comprising the α1, β2, γ2 and α6 subunits were identified as potential long range transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of these genes. A region of predicted DNase I hypersensitive sites within the cluster may contain transcriptional regulatory features coordinating gene expression. A novel model is proposed for the coordinate control of the gene cluster and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunits, based upon the selective action of putative Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions (S/MARs. Conclusion The putative regulatory features identified by genomic analysis of GABAA receptor genes were substantiated by cross-species comparative analysis and now require experimental verification. The proposed model for the coordinate regulation of genes in the cluster accounts for the head-to-head orientation and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunit genes, and for the disruption of transcription caused by insertion of a neomycin gene in the close vicinity of the α6 gene, which is proximal to a putative critical S/MAR.