WorldWideScience

Sample records for comparative european perspective

  1. Multivariate Comparative Analysis of Stock Exchanges: The European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralun-Bereźnicka, Julia

    The aim of the research is to perform a multivariate comparative analysis of 20 European stock exchanges in order to identify the main similarities between the objects. Due to the convergence process of capital markets in Europe the similarities between stock exchanges could be expected to increase over time. The research is meant to show whether and how these similarities change. Consequently, the distances between clusters of similar stock exchanges should become less significant, which the analysis also aims at verifying. The basis of comparison is a set of 48 monthly variables from the period January, 2003 to December, 2006. The variables are classified into three categories: size of the market, equity trading and bonds. The paper aims at identifying the clusters of alike stock exchanges and at finding the characteristic features of each of the distinguished groups. The obtained categorization to some extent corresponds with the division of the European Union into “new” and “old” member countries. Clustering method, performed for each quarter separately, also reveals that the classification is fairly stable in time. The factor analysis, which was carried out to reduce the number of variables, reveals three major factors behind the data, which are related with the earlier mentioned categories of variables.

  2. Characterization of European Management Perspective Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CÎMPEANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because Europe is characterized by the coexistence of several cultures whose characteristics have both similarities and differences but appreciable, the results of researchers in this regard are different from each other, this distinction is often made based on the prevailing values of that culture , which determines the orientation of the country for a certain system, management style or to a specific profile manager. A particularly important role in characterizing cultural factors play European management, each differing from the other culture as module in addressing various fundamental issues that characterize that society. These issues can be characterized by certain general cultural dimensions that Hofstede defines them as aspects of a culture that can be measured in relation to other cultures. The differences between management systems in European countries (mainly EU countries in the context of this article, the study is based on four cultural dimensions of Hofstede model (power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, femininity vs. masculinity and change scores recorded for these dimensions in each country. Dimensions considered primarily affect organizational culture which in turn significantly influence the development and performance of the organization and its members, management practices and policies.Data from Hofstede's study reinforce and support the claim that European countries can be grouped systematically cultural groups (Nordic countries, Latin, Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, Eastern Europe that allow significant interpretation in terms of management organization, and that can speak of a typical single European culture but you can see all dimensions of cultural differences taken into account.

  3. Gender Equality and Cultural Diversity from a Comparative Nordic and European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2005-01-01

    The paper looks at the relation between gender equality and cultural equality from a comparative persepctive focising on tensions and conflicts from a comporative Nordic and European perspective. It starts with a brief overview of key elements in integration strategies and philosophies in selected...

  4. Perspectives on European Governance in Comparative Perspective: Interests, Institutions and Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of papers has been crafted by students of Adrienne Héritier in honour of her 70th birthday on June 29, 2014 and her official retirement from the European University Institute in Florence. We would like to use this occasion to thank and commemorate her for the extraordinary work she......-making’, at Freie Universität in Berlin on July 4 and 5, 2014. The papers aim at encapsulating the versatility of Adrienne’s scholarship by addressing core themes regarding ‘EU Governance’, ‘Policy Analysis’, and ‘Regulation and Governance’. A number of acknowledgements are appropriate regarding the birthday...

  5. Integration Policies of European Cities in Comparative Perspective: Structural Convergence and Substantial Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinus Penninx

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the comparative study of integration policies of European cities. The first two sections present an analytical framework for the study of immigrants’ integration processes and the policies that intend to steer such processes. The third section outlines how local integration policies have developed in relation to national policies and EU integration policies, particularly after 2003. The fourth and main section analyses the framing and content of integration policies of European cities, looking at their diversity in the legal/political dimension, the socio-economic dimension – including the domains of work, housing, education and health – and the cultural, religious and ethnic dimension. It is concluded that there is a structural convergence, in the sense that in the complex structure of multilevel governance of migration and integration, cities do take a similar position, developing horizontal relations of cooperation and exchange. Cities that develop explicit integration policies tend to do this from a more inclusive and pragmatic framing than national and EU-policies. At the same time, there is great variation in what cities actually do: in the legal/political and in the cultural/religious dimensions, framing, intentions and measures do vary greatly; in the socio-economic dimension this variation is less when it comes to the domains of activity, but more in the intensity of policy intervention.

  6. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  7. The Mythology of Schooling: The Historiography of American and European Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew Gardner

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…

  8. Family Benefits In Member States Of The European Union: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănescu Simona Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to be a screening of family benefits in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU and to contribute to the research of shared trends with respect to family approach in these countries. Four types of family benefits including eight distinctive categories are analysed: child-benefit, child care allowances, child-raising allowances, and other benefits (birth and adoption grants, allowance for single parents, special allowances for children with disabilities, advance payments for maintenance and other allowances. The paper is based on primary and secondary analysis of 28 sets of national data provided through the European Union's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC. Three categories of member states are considered: founder member states of the EU, other “old” member states, and the new Central and Eastern ones. Chronological development of national regulations with impact on family benefits is analysed in connection with the moment of becoming a member state. Various forms of family benefits legislation and their main subjects of interest are further researched. The last part of the article looks at the coverage of family benefits. Seven member states operate in this respect based on regulations adopted before EU accession. Belgium, Finland, and Lithuania have the “most preserved” family regulations per category of member states. The first three topics of family regulations are: child, family, and allowance / benefit. The most frequently provided family benefits are: birth and adoption grants, and special allowance for children with disabilities. All eight family benefits are provided in France, Finland, Hungary, and Slovenia. Only two types of family benefits are available in Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus.

  9. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of cybe

  10. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  11. Just One of the 'PIIGS' or a European Outlier? Studying Irish Emigration from a Comparative Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The return of high levels of emigration has become one of the most debated and sensitive social topics in Ireland in recent years. But Irish emigration continues to be discussed in the singular rather than the plural. This paper compares Irish emigration to other Eurozone states that also encountere

  12. Second-generation Muslims in European societies: Comparative perspectives on education and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and explain individual and contextual variation in educational attainment and religiosity of second-generation Turkish and Moroccan Muslims in North-West Europe. The two minority groups are compared across local and national receiving contexts in Belgium,

  13. Minimum income protection and European integration: trends and levels of minimum benefits in comparative perspective, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This article draws attention to the Europeanization of social policy and the development of minimum income protection in a large number of welfare democracies. The empirical analyses are based on unique institutional and comparative data on benefit levels from the Social Assistance and Minimum Income Protection Interim Dataset. There is some evidence of convergence in benefit levels among the European countries in the new millennium, but there is no clear proof of universal ambitions to fight poverty or of the existence of a single European social model. There are still welfare front-runners and those who lag behind in this regard, not only among industrial welfare democracies in general but also in Europe.

  14. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  15. The crime drop in comparative perspective: the impact of the economy and imprisonment on American and European burglary rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard; Messner, Steven F

    2009-09-01

    Influential statements on recent American crime reductions maintain that the crime drop was confined to the USA. Yet other research has revealed comparable crime decreases in Europe. We suggest that the USA and European crime declines occurred in tandem because they were both brought about by upturns in the economy. In light of US research showing crime reductions resulting from growth in imprisonment, we also examine the possibility that rising imprisonment rates reduced European crime rates. We test these hypotheses in a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis of burglary rates in the USA and nine European nations between 1993 and 2006. The results indicate that burglary declines in the US and Europe were associated with rising consumer confidence. By contrast, imprisonment appears to be significantly related to burglary rates only after unusual policy interventions, such as Italy's 2006 clemency measure that dramatically reduced the size of its prison population. We interpret these findings as reflecting the structural similarity and economic integration of the world's developed nations and the uneven convergence in US and European punishment policies.

  16. European perspectives on security research

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Europe’s networked societies of today are shaped by a growing interconnection in almost all areas of life. The complexity of our infrastructures and the concurrent accessibility to means of destruction by terrorist groups and individual perpetrators call for innovative security solutions. However, such evolving innovations inevitably raise fundamental questions of concern in our societies. How do we balance the imperatives of securing our citizens and infrastructures on the one hand, and of protecting of our sacredly held civil liberties on the other? The topical network ‘Safety and Security’ of acatech – the German Academy of Science and Engineering – invited experts from the science academies of various European countries to share their perspectives on security research and the aspect of safety during a two-day workshop hosted by the Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut in March 2010. This publication is a compilation of contributions made during the workshop.

  17. Crafting a Wider Strategy for Conflict Management in the Neighbourhood? A Comparative Perspective on the European Union’s Civilian Missions in Georgia and Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Oproiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s wider neighbourhood hosts some of the world’s main unresolved conflicts. As the EU developed its foreign and security policy, a blend of internal security and external stability concerns, as well as the reference to international legal and humanitarian norms, required it to try tackling (some of these conflicts. Through both the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Stabilisation and Association Process the EU establishes contractual relations with its neighbours and tries to incentivise them for the adoption of economic and political reforms and legislative approximation to EU standards. Also, in some cases, the EU is providing support for conflict management through political dialogue, financial assistance or deployment of missions under the Common Security and Defence Policy. At its core, this paper is concerned with comparatively analysing the degree of integration between CSDP and the ENP and SAP frameworks respectively. The comparative case-study will therefore analyse CSDP missions undertaken in the Georgia/ Abkhazia and South Ossetia and Kosovo/Serbia cases, in order to identify common challenges across the two EU policy frameworks for its neighbourhood and to explore the perspectives for the emergence of an EU strategy of conflict management based on CSDP operations and various forms of engaging third countries.

  18. Patterns of Labour Market Entry : A Comparative Perspective on School-to-Work Transitions in 11 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, Maarten H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Youth labour market integration differs considerably across European countries. There are marked cross-national differences not only in terms of youth unemployment, but also in terms of the quality of the jobs in which young people are employed. This article explains cross-national patterns of labou

  19. THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE LIGHT OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Kabat-Rudnicka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In the academic literature the European Union (EU) is analysed from different theoretical perspectives. Taking the perspective of international relations, the EU emerges as an international organization or a confederation; on the other hand, looking from the perspective of comparative politics, the EU presents itself as a more integrated entity, a federation, a quasi-state or a state in the making. The recent perspective, i.e. the governance school, sees the EU as an original struct...

  20. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  1. Modelling TIMSS data in an European comparative perspective: exploring influencing factors on achievement in mathematics grade 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Klaas; Kuiper, Wilmad

    1999-01-01

    In international comparative studies like TIMSS data analysis is aimed at differences and similarities among education systems (countries). In this article the outcomes are presented of explorative path analysis on data collected with grade 8 students and classrooms in eight Western and two Central

  2. Brain death: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative.

  3. A Legal Institutional Perspective on the European External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a legal perspective on the new European External Action Service (EEAS), and positions this new body in the reshuffled institutional balance of EU external relations. Towards that end, the paper examines the EEAS’ legal nature as compared to that of Council, Commission, their...

  4. European perspectives of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU.

  5. The European perspective for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangler, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    LSST is a next generation telescope that will produce an unprecedented data flow. The project goal is to deliver data products such as images and catalogs thus enabling scientific analysis for a wide community of users. As a large scale survey, LSST data will be complementary with other facilities in a wide range of scientific domains, including data from ESA or ESO. European countries have invested in LSST since 2007, in the construction of the camera as well as in the computing effort. This latter will be instrumental in designing the next step: how to distribute LSST data to Europe. Astroinformatics challenges for LSST indeed includes not only the analysis of LSST big data, but also the practical efficiency of the data access.

  6. Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective

    CERN Document Server

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

  7. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  8. THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE LIGHT OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kabat-Rudnicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the academic literature the European Union (EU is analysed from different theoretical perspectives. Taking the perspective of international relations, the EU emerges as an international organization or a confederation; on the other hand, looking from the perspective of comparative politics, the EU presents itself as a more integrated entity, a federation, a quasi-state or a state in the making. The recent perspective, i.e. the governance school, sees the EU as an original structure, a sui generis entity, a new, emerging system of governance without government. However, at the present stage of development, the EU reveals features that are characteristic for the federal structure, i.e. the federal political system characterised by two leading models of dual and cooperative federalism, hence the comparative method seems to be the most appropriate as a research tool.

  9. Clinical comparability and European biosimilar regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, H.; Moors, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials required by European regulators to compare biosimilar products with corresponding biologic brands are surplus to requirements and may even be a barrier for the development of biosimilars of more complicated biologics.

  10. European Perspectives on International Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of a uniform rule on the law applicable to the existence and validity of an arbitration agreement. This article examines these issues in order to find out whether they are only European or also inherent in the international regulation of international commercial arbitration. The article examines to which...... extent these issues have already been addressed in the international regulation. Moreover, the article analyses the issues from a European perspective by analysing the interface between the Brussels I Regulation and arbitration and by looking into the objectives of the EU judicial cooperation in civil......During the revision of the Brussels I Regulation several issues pertaining to the interface between arbitration and the Regulation were discussed. Some of the issues were parallel proceedings and conflicting decisions between courts and between courts and arbitral tribunals and the lack...

  11. EUROPEAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TIMES OF CRISIS: REALITIES, CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Oana Iacobuta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of entrepreneurship in economic growth and development has been largely debated and acknowledged, both in literature and in policy making. Wihin the context of the present crisis, at a European level, entrepreneurship development is seen as the main solution for job creation and sustainable economic growth. As a consequence, there have been several calls and initiatives to make entrepreneurship the growth engine of European economy and to put the principle of “think small first” at the core of national and European policies. This paper discusses the challenges and the perspectives for entrepreneurship development in European countries from the point of view of the three areas of intervention proposed by Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan. The research methods are the analysis of different reports and policy papers and comparative analysis of statistical data from international databases. The main findings confirm the differences in entrepreneurial activity, level and nature of entrepreneurship existing at European level during the crisis, and also point out the strengths and weaknesses of European countries in the three areas proposed by the 2020 Action Plan.

  12. European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Andenmatten, E.; Barbati, A.; Barreiro, S.; Brang, P.; Bravo, F.; Coll, L.; Corona, P.; Ouden, den J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material an

  13. European Perspectives Approach to Asylum and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a complex process, with a multinational character that can not be managed onlyunilaterally or bilaterally, but through effective management to take into account the benefit of all involvedand changing characteristics of the migration process. Regarding the European Union, framed in the generalcontext, it aims to promote a comprehensive migration policy, to provide a coherent and efficient manner tomeet the challenges and opportunities that migration presents. Multilateral approach under considerationcovers all phases of migration, aiming to seize them and present it at the same time, to implement effectivepolicies and measures concerning illegal migration and human trafficking. It is based on generally acceptedprinciples relating to subsidiary, proportionality, solidarity and respect for law and the economic and social.From this perspective, the present study examines the quantitative aspects of migration as well as qualitativeaspects, with emphasis on the challenges that they face Romania, from the status of EU member country.

  14. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  15. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  16. Ionospheric electron content: the European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leitinger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron content of the ionosphere is an important quantity which indicates overall ionization. It is measured by means of propagation effects on radio signals which penetrate the ionosphere. In Europe relevant investigations started after the launch of the first artificial satellites. Soon the necessity arose to organize international cooperation: the regional as well as the global geographical distribution of ionization parameters is important knowledge for any meaningful geophysical interpretation of ionization parameters. Despite the fact that international scientific Unions and Committees existed and had proven their usefulness and potential, private initiatives were taken to organize cooperation in the field of research based on transionospheric propagation effects. Only in 1971 three international groups joined together to form the "Beacon Satellite Group"as a "Working Party" of COSPAR. The "Beacon Satellite Group" still exists but is now a Working Group of URSI, the International Union for Radio Science. This contribution tries to summarize the European perspective with special emphasis on the long standing cooperation between the Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche (IROE at Firenze and the Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik of the University of Graz. Examples are given of important results.

  17. Phenylketonuria management from an European perspective : A commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria is discussed from an European perspective, addressing the need of common definitions of terms commonly used, the need of a world-wide guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of phenylketonuria, the differences between existing European guidelines, and day-to-day care, further direct

  18. European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems- a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Magnus; Nordlöf, Kerstin; Gerdner, Arne

    2015-08-28

    Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights. Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted. There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems. The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems

  19. European Perspectives on the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Barry; Cressey, Peter; Tomassini, Massimo; Kelleher, Michael; Poell, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on a publication entitled "Facing up to the Learning Organisation Challenge," published in April 2003, provides an overview of the main questions emerging from recent European research projects related to the topic of the learning organisation. The rationale for focusing on this topic is the belief that the European Union goals…

  20. European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bravo-Oviedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We aim at (i developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients. The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.

  1. Product Liability Comparative Remarks from a European Perspective%产品责任:欧洲视角的比较法评论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肯·奥立芬特[英](著); 王竹(译); 王毅纯(译)

    2014-01-01

    “世界侵权法学会”设计的“刹车片故障案”、“被感染的血液案”和“桥梁垮塌案”三个虚构案例是为了从不同角度检验各个法域缺陷产品责任的适用范围和严格性。“合法期待”测试与“消费者期待”测试存在两方面的区别。适用于缺陷问题的“风险-效用”测试与适用于生产者过错问题的“风险-效用”测试之间存在重要区别。单一的理论不能对严格责任在现有产品责任法适用范围内提供正当性依据。产品责任是包含消费者法引以为据的典型正当性事由的自成一格的责任。对更广泛范围的人提供保护,可以基于普通人对市场销售或投入流通的产品不存在安全性方面的缺陷具有合理期待而正当化。%The World Tort Law Society designs three Hypothetical Cases , namely the Brake Pad Failure Case , the Infected Blood Case and the Bridge Collapse Case , to test the application extension and strictness of liability for defect products of different jurisdictions from several perspectives .The Legitimate Expectation Test and Consumer Expectations Test are different in two aspects .There is a significant difference in the Risk -U-tility Test as applied to the question of defect and the Risk -Utility Test applied to the question of producer fault.There is no single , coherent theory that underpins strict product liability as it is today to be found around the globe.Product liability is a sui generis liability that embodies the reliance -based justifications that are typical of consumer law .The protection of broader class of persons can be justified by the idea that ordinary people have a reasonable expectation that goods sold on the market or otherwise put into circulation are free from safety defects .

  2. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzmann Harald G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions.

  3. Distributive justice through taxation: European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, João Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the possibility of having distributive justice through taxes at European level. That possibility will be based on the verification of a set of conditions such as fiscal sovereignty, political community, welfare model; and personal taxes, which, according to the author, must be present at the level of the European Union in order to achieve that normative principle (distributive justice). Throughout the discussion, upon acknowledgement that those requirements are stil...

  4. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers ...

  5. Perspectives on Europeanization of national judiciaries: old and new questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Jaremba, Urszula

    The aim of this article is to bring together different legal, political science and sociological perspectives addressing the problem of Europeanization of national judiciaries. In that sense, this article provides an overview of several old aspects regarding the way and extent national courts/jud...... concerning, for instance, courts compliance with EU law, the relevance of national judges’ individual profiles (knowledge, attitudes and values) but also the role of institutions (networks) and legal systems in the process of Europeanization of judges....

  6. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  7. Dynamics of Romanian Tourism in European Tourism in the Global Crisis. Facts and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Development of tourism as part of the service activity contributes to the development of national economy and hence to the development of European tourism. If tourist industry can cover a significant share of GDP, can cover and reduce unemployment by providing jobs in this field. Economic and financial crisis influences tourism and consumer behavior of tourism services. The dynamics of Romanian tourism in European tourism in the global crisis - facts and perspectives provide a comparative ima...

  8. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  9. Introduction: Communicating European Integration: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Müller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s the so-called 'democratic deficit' of the EU became an increasingly discussed topic in both academic and political circles. In this context, the (apparently insufficient communication of European politics to its citizens has been of especially great importance. Academic research has invested considerable efforts in trying to analyse and explain these problematic relationships. However, because this still growing area of research is still dominated by social scientists, historical approaches seem to be somewhat underrepresented. Against this background, this special issue will present historical studies on actors, means and contents of communicating the process of European integration from its beginnings to the present day.

  10. Recent migration developments in the European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the development of international migration in relationship to the recent economic situation in member countries of the European Union using quantitative methods including cluster analysis. The number of immigration in Europe has declined since the start of the global recession. The main reason was the decrease of demand in many sectors of the national economy, for instance the demand for retail and construction workers. Despite the drop in new immigration, labour markets of the EU countries were hit very severely. Unemployment rates in the most of European countries increased much more in the category of migrants than among natives. Despite the general decline in immigration in Europe during the economic crisis, the number of immigrants employed in educational sector and health care has increased. Also the number of female immigrants has been growing. The cluster analysis uses a multidimensional variable that includes GDP, unemployment, inflation rate and also net migration. We can distinguish two main clusters in 2010. The majority of highly developed West European countries are a part of the first cluster; the second cluster includes the group of post-communist countries. The latter countries form two sub-groups. A relatively independent sub-cluster is formed by some of the EU15 countries that were hit by the financial crisis the most. In general, the main two clusters illustrate that the economic division of established and new member countries of the European Union is still present.

  11. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  12. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  13. Language policy issues within the European Union: applied geographic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H. Williams

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several issues that impinge on formulations of language policy within the European Union. It investigates the philosophical, methodological and technical contribution that Applied Geography can make to a more holistic perspective on language in context. An agenda for international collaborative research in an enlarged Europe is proposed.

  14. Regulatory considerations for translating gene therapy: a European Union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Maria Cristina

    2009-11-11

    A preclinical study on a gene therapy approach for treatment of the severe muscle weakness associated with a variety of neuromuscular disorders provides a forum to discuss the translational challenges of gene therapy from a regulatory point of view. In this Perspective, the findings are considered from the view of European regulatory requirements for first clinical use.

  15. Danish Cultural Policy in a European and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of national identity and cultural heritage. The role of art in society has been changed and are challenged. The essay analyzes based on critical theory and recent cultural study theory the cultural changes and the potentials impacts on art and culture in a global and European perspective....

  16. Graphene spintronics : the European Flagship perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, Stephan; Akerman, Johan; Beschoten, Bernd; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Chshiev, Mairbek; Dash, Saroj Prasad; Dlubak, Bruno; Fabian, Jaroslav; Fert, Albert; Guimaraes, Marcos; Guinea, Francisco; Grigorieva, Irina; Schoenenberger, Christian; Seneor, Pierre; Stampfer, Christoph; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Waintal, Xavier; van Wees, Bart

    We review current challenges and perspectives in graphene spintronics, which is one of the most promising directions of innovation, given its room-temperature long-spin lifetimes and the ability of graphene to be easily interfaced with other classes of materials (ferromagnets, magnetic insulators,

  17. Graphene spintronics : the European Flagship perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, Stephan; Akerman, Johan; Beschoten, Bernd; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Chshiev, Mairbek; Dash, Saroj Prasad; Dlubak, Bruno; Fabian, Jaroslav; Fert, Albert; Guimaraes, Marcos; Guinea, Francisco; Grigorieva, Irina; Schoenenberger, Christian; Seneor, Pierre; Stampfer, Christoph; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Waintal, Xavier; van Wees, Bart

    2015-01-01

    We review current challenges and perspectives in graphene spintronics, which is one of the most promising directions of innovation, given its room-temperature long-spin lifetimes and the ability of graphene to be easily interfaced with other classes of materials (ferromagnets, magnetic insulators, s

  18. A European perspective on e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2004-01-01

    E-learning at Work , edited by Anne Marie Kanstrup. Roskilde Universitetsforlag, pages Pp.15-29. 2004 Short description: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development...... of workplace-related learning. Abstract: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development of workplace-related learning.The chapter ends with a suggestion for a historical categorisation...... of e-learning, taking into consideration the technological development and the interplay with the changing learning paradigms. Key learnings from the projects indicate that ICT has already provided workplaces with a range of new tools for workplace learning. But the projects also seem to indicate...

  19. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  20. A European perspective on e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2004-01-01

    that focus is on designing the technical tools rather than on the use of tools for e-learning in general, where ICT is just one integrated element among many: objective, motivation, ways to learning, profession, workplace etc. The rojects also reveal that different European countries move at different paces...... of workplace-related learning. Abstract: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development of workplace-related learning.The chapter ends with a suggestion for a historical categorisation...... of e-learning, taking into consideration the technological development and the interplay with the changing learning paradigms. Key learnings from the projects indicate that ICT has already provided workplaces with a range of new tools for workplace learning. But the projects also seem to indicate...

  1. Organisational and strategic communication research: european perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Somerville, Ian; Melo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Série: Pesquisas em comunicação (Excerto) Created in 2006, the Organisational and Strategic Communication Section of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) aims to promote an active and critical dialogue among scholars involved in the study of Organisational and Strategic Communication (OSC) and to propose new research topics and debate concepts relevant to the interdisciplinary growth of this field of studies. At the 4th international ECREA Co...

  2. Nano-education from a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsch, I.

    2008-03-01

    At a global level, educating the nanotechnology workforce has been discussed since the beginning of the new millennium. Scientists, engineers and technicians should be trained in nanotechnology. Most educators prefer training students first in their own discipline at the Bachelor level (physics, chemistry, biology, etc) followed by specialisation in nanoscience and technology at the Master's level. Some favour a broad interdisciplinary basic training in different nanosciences followed by specialisation in a particular application area. What constitutes a good nanoscience curriculum is also being discussed, as well as the application of e-learning methodologies. The European Union is stimulating the development of nanoscience education in universities. The Erasmus Mundus programme is funding nanoscience and nanotechnology education programmes involving universities in several European countries. The policy debate in Europe is moving towards vocational training in nanotechnology for educating the technicians needed in industry and research. The EU vocational training institute CEDEFOP published a report in 2005 The EU funded European gateway to nanotechnology Nanoforum has stimulated the accessibility of nano-education throughout Europe with reports and online databases of education courses and materials. For university education, they list courses at the Bachelor, Master's, and PhD level as well as short courses. The EU funded EuroIndiaNet project also reviewed Nano-education courses at the Master's level, short courses, e-learning programmes, summerschools and vocational training courses. In this presentation, I review Nanoforum and other publications on nano-education in Europe and highlight current trends and gaps.

  3. The european paediatric legislation: benefits and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi Francesca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of availability of appropriate medicines for children is an extensive and well known problem. Paediatricians and Physicians who take care of the paediatric population are primarily exposed to cope with this negative situation very often as more than half of the children are prescribed off-label or unlicensed medicines. Discussion Medicinal products used to treat this population should be subjected to ethical research of high quality and be explicitly authorised for use in children as it happens in adults. For that reason, and following the US experience, the European Paediatric Regulation has been amended in January 2007 by the European Commission. The objective of the Paediatric Regulation is to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children aged 0 to 17 years, to facilitate the availability of information on the use of medicines for children, without subjecting children to unnecessary trials, or delaying the authorisation of medicines for use in adults. Summary The Paediatric Regulation is dramatically changing the regulatory environment for paediatric medicines in Europe and is fuelling an increased number of clinical trials in the paediatric population. Nevertheless, there are some risks and pitfalls that need to be anticipated and controlled in order to ensure that children will ultimately benefit from this European initiative.

  4. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  5. Nano-education from a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsch, I [Malsch TechnoValuation Vondellaan 90 3521 GH Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: postbus@malsch.demon.nl

    2008-03-15

    At a global level, educating the nanotechnology workforce has been discussed since the beginning of the new millennium. Scientists, engineers and technicians should be trained in nanotechnology. Most educators prefer training students first in their own discipline at the Bachelor level (physics, chemistry, biology, etc) followed by specialisation in nanoscience and technology at the Master's level. Some favour a broad interdisciplinary basic training in different nanosciences followed by specialisation in a particular application area. What constitutes a good nanoscience curriculum is also being discussed, as well as the application of e-learning methodologies. The European Union is stimulating the development of nanoscience education in universities. The Erasmus Mundus programme is funding nanoscience and nanotechnology education programmes involving universities in several European countries. The policy debate in Europe is moving towards vocational training in nanotechnology for educating the technicians needed in industry and research. The EU vocational training institute CEDEFOP published a report in 2005 The EU funded European gateway to nanotechnology Nanoforum has stimulated the accessibility of nano-education throughout Europe with reports and online databases of education courses and materials. For university education, they list courses at the Bachelor, Master's, and PhD level as well as short courses. The EU funded EuroIndiaNet project also reviewed Nano-education courses at the Master's level, short courses, e-learning programmes, summerschools and vocational training courses. In this presentation, I review Nanoforum and other publications on nano-education in Europe and highlight current trends and gaps.

  6. Satellite broadcasting - The European experience and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    1991-11-01

    The use of satellites is considered as a means for developing a European transnational broadcasting system with attention given to the control of technology. A tension is described between maintaining technology as the property of one nation when the DBSs are developed for multinational program broadcasting. The simultaneous development of satellite systems is theorized to lead eventually to a single merged program for a particular nation, and the effect is considered of the regulation of cross-holding and cross-selling systems by investors.

  7. The European 2015 drought from a hydrological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaha, Gregor; Gauster, Tobias; Delus, Claire; Vidal, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The year 2015 was hot and dry in many European countries. A timely assessment of its hydrological impacts constitutes a difficult task, because stream flow records are often not available within 2-3 years after recording. Moreover, monitoring is performed on a national or even provincial basis. There are still major barriers of data access, especially for eastern European countries. Wherever data are available, their compatibility poses a major challenge. In two companion papers we summarize a collaborative initiative of members of UNESCO's FRIEND-Water program to perform a timely Pan-European assessment of the 2015 drought. In this second part we analyse the hydrological perspective based on streamflow observations. We first describe the data access strategy and the assessment method. We than present the results consisting of a range of low flow indices calculated for about 800 gauges across Europe. We compare the characteristics of the 2015 drought with the average, long-term conditions, and with the specific conditions of the 2003 drought, which is often used as a worst-case benchmark to gauge future drought events. Overall, the hydrological 2015 drought is characterised by a much smaller spatial extend than the 2003 drought. Extreme streamflows are observed mainly in a band North of the Alps spanning from E-France to Poland. In terms of flow magnitude, Czech, E-Germany and N-Austria were most affected. In this region the low flows often had return periods of 100 years and more, indicating that the event was much more severe than the 2003 event. In terms of deficit volumes, the centre of the event was more oriented towards S-Germany. Based on a detailed assessment of the spatio-temporal characteristics at various scales, we are able to explain the different behaviour in these regions by diverging wetness preconditions in the catchments. This suggest that the sole knowledge of atmospheric indices is not sufficient to characterise hydrological drought events. We

  8. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  9. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Turner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  10. A European Perspective on Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Khoen; Hiller, Daniel; Castex, Christoph

    Tackling the complexity and interdependence of today's security environment in the globalized world of the 21st century is an everlasting challenge. Whereas the end of the Cold War presented a caesura of global dimension for the political and economic architecture and a realignment of power distribution and international relations between former adversaries, September 11th of 2001 may be seen as another caesura. Since then, specifically among countries of the Western hemisphere, traditional security paradigms and theories have been critically questioned and the different security cultures and perceptions have resulted in diverse security and defence policies as well as in security research efforts of individual countries. Consensus, it seems, exists on the question of what the threats are that our modern interconnected societies are facing. Whether looking at international terrorism, organized crime, climate change, the illegal trafficking of goods and people or naturally caused catastrophes, these phenomena all have in common that they are in most cases of transnational nature. Formerly existing dividing lines between internal and external security continue to fade, presenting an enormous challenge for those in charge of designing security policy and even more so for the various institutions safeguarding European security. That is why dissent often revolves around the question on how to get hold of these complex problems. Geographic location, cultural background, ethical make-up of society as well as relations with neighbouring countries are all important aspects to be considered when assessing the security culture and policy of individual countries.

  11. Nitrogen Emission and Deposition: The European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Erisman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Europe has been successful in reducing the emissions of several nitrogenous pollutants over recent decades. This is reflected in concentrations and deposition rates that have decreased for several components. Emissions of nitrogen containing gases are estimated to have decreased in Europe by 10%, 21%, and 14% for NO, NOx, and NH3, respectively, between 1990 and 1998. The main reductions are the result of a decrease in industrial and agricultural activities in the east of Europe as a result of the economic situation, measures in the transport sector, industry and agricultural sector, with only a small part of the reduction due to specific measures designed to reduce emissions. The reduction is significant, but far from the end goal for large areas in Europe in relation to different environmental problems. The Gothenburg Protocol will lead to reductions of 50 and 12% in 2010 relative to 1990 for NOx and NH3, respectively. The N2O emissions are expected to grow between 1998 and 2010 by 9%. Further reductions are necessary to reach critical limits for ecosystem protection, air quality standards and climate change. Emissions of nitrogen compounds result from an overload of reactive nitrogen, which is produced by combustion processes, by synthesis of ammonia or by import from other areas as concentrated animal feeds. Although some improvements can be made by improving the efficiency of combustion processes and agricultural systems, measures to reduce emissions substantially need to be focused on decreasing the production or import of reactive N. Reactive N ceilings for regions based on critical limits for all N-related effects can help to focus such measures. An integrated approach might have advantages over the pollutant specific approach to combat nitrogen pollution. This could provide the future direction for European policy to reduce the impacts of excess nitrogen.

  12. Clustering of European winter storms: A multi-model perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggli, Dominik; Buettner, Annemarie; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel; Zimmerli, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The storm series over Europe in 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke, Herta) and 1999 (Anatol, Lothar, Martin) are very well known. Such clusters of severe events strongly affect the seasonally accumulated damage statistics. The (re)insurance industry has quantified clustering by using distribution assumptions deduced from the historical storm activity of the last 30 to 40 years. The use of storm series simulated by climate models has only started recently. Climate model runs can potentially represent 100s to 1000s of years, allowing a more detailed quantification of clustering than the history of the last few decades. However, it is unknown how sensitive the representation of clustering is to systematic biases. Using a multi-model ensemble allows quantifying that uncertainty. This work uses CMIP5 decadal ensemble hindcasts to study clustering of European winter storms from a multi-model perspective. An objective identification algorithm extracts winter storms (September to April) in the gridded 6-hourly wind data. Since the skill of European storm predictions is very limited on the decadal scale, the different hindcast runs are interpreted as independent realizations. As a consequence, the available hindcast ensemble represents several 1000 simulated storm seasons. The seasonal clustering of winter storms is quantified using the dispersion coefficient. The benchmark for the decadal prediction models is the 20th Century Reanalysis. The decadal prediction models are able to reproduce typical features of the clustering characteristics observed in the reanalysis data. Clustering occurs in all analyzed models over the North Atlantic and European region, in particular over Great Britain and Scandinavia as well as over Iberia (i.e. the exit regions of the North Atlantic storm track). Clustering is generally weaker in the models compared to reanalysis, although the differences between different models are substantial. In contrast to existing studies, clustering is driven by weak

  13. The Dutch N-cascade in the European perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Willem Erisman; Nelleke Domburg; Wim de Vries; Hans Kros; Bronno de Haan; Kaj Sanders

    2005-01-01

    The Netherlands is "well known" for its nitrogen problems; it has one of the highest reactive nitrogen (Nr) emission densities in the world. It is a small country at the delta of several large European rivers. Ever since the industrial revolution, there has been a growing excess of nutrients and related emissions into the atmosphere (ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide)and into groundwater and surface water (nitrate), leading to a large range of cascading environmental impacts. Vehicular traffic, sewage and animal husbandry are the main sources of oxidized and reduced forms of Nr. This paper provides an overview of the origin and fate of nitrogen in the Netherlands, the various reported impacts of nitrogen, the Dutch and European policies to reduce nitrogen emissions and related impacts. In addition, ways are presented to go forward to potentially solve the problems in a European perspective. Solutions include the improvement of nitrogen efficiencies in different systems, technological options and education.

  14. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  15. The European 2015 drought from a hydrological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaha, Gregor; Gauster, Tobias; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Stahl, Kerstin; Prudhomme, Christel; Heudorfer, Benedikt; Vlnas, Radek; Ionita, Monica; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Adler, Mary-Jeanne; Caillouet, Laurie; Delus, Claire; Fendekova, Miriam; Gailliez, Sebastien; Hannaford, Jamie; Kingston, Daniel; Van Loon, Anne F.; Mediero, Luis; Osuch, Marzena; Romanowicz, Renata; Sauquet, Eric; Stagge, James H.; Wong, Wai K.

    2017-06-01

    In 2015 large parts of Europe were affected by drought. In this paper, we analyze the hydrological footprint (dynamic development over space and time) of the drought of 2015 in terms of both severity (magnitude) and spatial extent and compare it to the extreme drought of 2003. Analyses are based on a range of low flow and hydrological drought indices derived for about 800 streamflow records across Europe, collected in a community effort based on a common protocol. We compare the hydrological footprints of both events with the meteorological footprints, in order to learn from similarities and differences of both perspectives and to draw conclusions for drought management. The region affected by hydrological drought in 2015 differed somewhat from the drought of 2003, with its center located more towards eastern Europe. In terms of low flow magnitude, a region surrounding the Czech Republic was the most affected, with summer low flows that exhibited return intervals of 100 years and more. In terms of deficit volumes, the geographical center of the event was in southern Germany, where the drought lasted a particularly long time. A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of the 2015 event showed that the particular behavior in these regions was partly a result of diverging wetness preconditions in the studied catchments. Extreme droughts emerged where preconditions were particularly dry. In regions with wet preconditions, low flow events developed later and tended to be less severe. For both the 2003 and 2015 events, the onset of the hydrological drought was well correlated with the lowest flow recorded during the event (low flow magnitude), pointing towards a potential for early warning of the severity of streamflow drought. Time series of monthly drought indices (both streamflow- and climate-based indices) showed that meteorological and hydrological events developed differently in space and time, both in terms of extent and severity (magnitude). These results

  16. The European 2015 drought from a hydrological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Laaha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 large parts of Europe were affected by drought. In this paper, we analyze the hydrological footprint (dynamic development over space and time of the drought of 2015 in terms of both severity (magnitude and spatial extent and compare it to the extreme drought of 2003. Analyses are based on a range of low flow and hydrological drought indices derived for about 800 streamflow records across Europe, collected in a community effort based on a common protocol. We compare the hydrological footprints of both events with the meteorological footprints, in order to learn from similarities and differences of both perspectives and to draw conclusions for drought management. The region affected by hydrological drought in 2015 differed somewhat from the drought of 2003, with its center located more towards eastern Europe. In terms of low flow magnitude, a region surrounding the Czech Republic was the most affected, with summer low flows that exhibited return intervals of 100 years and more. In terms of deficit volumes, the geographical center of the event was in southern Germany, where the drought lasted a particularly long time. A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of the 2015 event showed that the particular behavior in these regions was partly a result of diverging wetness preconditions in the studied catchments. Extreme droughts emerged where preconditions were particularly dry. In regions with wet preconditions, low flow events developed later and tended to be less severe. For both the 2003 and 2015 events, the onset of the hydrological drought was well correlated with the lowest flow recorded during the event (low flow magnitude, pointing towards a potential for early warning of the severity of streamflow drought. Time series of monthly drought indices (both streamflow- and climate-based indices showed that meteorological and hydrological events developed differently in space and time, both in terms of extent and severity

  17. Dynamics of Romanian Tourism in European Tourism in the Global Crisis. Facts and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Olteanu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of tourism as part of the service activity contributes to the development ofnational economy and hence to the development of European tourism. If tourist industry can cover asignificant share of GDP, can cover and reduce unemployment by providing jobs in this field.Economic and financial crisis influences tourism and consumer behavior of tourism services. Thedynamics of Romanian tourism in European tourism in the global crisis - facts and perspectivesprovide a comparative image of tourism in Romania among other European countries, giving anoverview of the indicators analyzed in the perspective of marketing research. Tourism activity shouldbe followed not only in terms of existing realities, but also in terms of real opportunities that canprovide an insight into the field. To know our direction we need to know our coordinates and ourpotentials. Policies and strategies applied may also determine the future development of tourism.

  18. Tanzanian manufacturing performance in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Schulte, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of new estimates of employment, nominal and real GDP in Tanzanian Manufacturing, 1961-1995. Time series of GDP and employment are placed in comparative perspective by linking them to benchmark level comparisons of GDP and employment for 1989. The first part of the paper

  19. Globalisation and Comparative Education: A Caribbean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisy, Pearlette

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization argues for a broader world view that makes allowances for cultural diversity. Caribbean states have a history of living and working with people from diverse backgrounds, and could make a contribution to the new perspective through closer engagement with the field of comparative education, which has always stressed…

  20. Tanzanian manufacturing performance in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Schulte, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of new estimates of employment, nominal and real GDP in Tanzanian Manufacturing, 1961-1995. Time series of GDP and employment are placed in comparative perspective by linking them to benchmark level comparisons of GDP and employment for 1989. The first part of the paper

  1. Experience with Grid Expansion in a Northern European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders; Hethey, János

    2016-01-01

    results from the differences in hourly wholesale electricity prices between regions or countries. The presentation given by Stephanie Ropenus at the 4. BNetzA Meets Science Dialogue provides some insights into increased integration of European electricity markets from a Nordic-German perspective. In doing...... battery” in Norway and Sweden. In general, closer integration of the Nordic and German power systems leads to better utilization of renewable energy and induces price convergence between the two regions on the wholesale electricity market. While the overall welfare effects of increased integration....... Denmark is a prime example of how great interconnectivity can enable the integration of high wind energy shares into the power system. To some extent the Nordic electricity system can be considered unique with its complimentary power generation mix of wind energy in Denmark and hydropower as a “green...

  2. Engineering, Development and Philosophy American, Chinese and European Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Mitcham, Carl; Li, Bocong; An, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    This inclusive, cross-cultural study rethinks the nexus between engineering, development, and culture. It offers diverse commentary from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how the philosophies of today’s cultural triumvirate—American, European and Chinese—are shaped and given nuance by the cross-fertilization of engineering and development. Scholars from the humanities and social sciences as well as engineers themselves reflect on key questions that arise in this relational context, such as how international development work affects the professional views, identities, practice and ethics of engineers.   The first volume to offer a systematic and collaborative study that cuts across continental boundaries, the book delineates the kinds of skills and competences that tomorrow’s engineering success stories will require, and analyzes fascinating aspects of the interplay between engineering and philosophy, such as how traditionally Chinese ways of thinking can influence modern engineering practice in...

  3. Sahel State Political Violence in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Caitriona Dowd; Clionadh Raleigh

    2013-01-01

    Policy, media and academic attention on violence in the Sahel region has been widespread since the onset of the Arab Spring, and the escalating violence in recent months in Mali. This research explores the nature, patterns and dynamics of this violence in regional and national comparative perspective, contrasting divergent dynamics of violence both within and across the region. Data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset (ACLED), which facilitates analysis of both conte...

  4. Slavs in the European reflexion of Iberia. Overview and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Cieszynska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Slavs in the European reflection of Iberia. Overview and perspectives The author focuses on presenting the major determinants of the ways in which Slavs have been included/excluded within the European horizon on the part of the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, from Modernity until present-day Iberian-Slavonic cultural encounters. This subject-matter is considered in two of its aspects – on the one hand, newest research trends are discussed; on the other, the author analyses Iberian literary and journalist texts on attitudes towards Slavs. The place Iberians reserved in their reflections on Europe for Slavs – especially from Russia, Poland and the Balkans – was at different times determined by two types of factors: those immanent to any process of “reading the Other,” and those arising from the abundance of ethnic, political and/or national perspectives in which Slavs could present themselves. As a result, ethnic and cultural aspects of Slavonic countries in the common knowledge of Iberians are mixed up with their geographical, national and political connections (as “Eastern Europeans”, “Balkans”, “countries of the former Eastern Bloc and/or Yugoslavia” etc.. Another factor influencing the general trends in the perception of Slavs is geographical distance, making this group an easy target for stereotyping and mythicizing. A category determining the Iberian “reading” of Slavs is also that of the periphery, a notion important (though in different ways for both the analysed regions. The complex nature of Iberians’ identity had an impact on their relations with Slavs in the 19th and 20th centuries; the resulting attitude, marked as it is by the inferiority/superiority question, was expressed particularly strongly around the process of the 5th EU Enlargement (mid-1990s to 2004, which sealed the emergence of closer Iberian-Slavonic relations intra muros, dating back at least from the collapse of the USSR. These

  5. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  6. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  7. Administrative Appeals in Romania and Poland - A Topical Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian C. DRAGOŞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of administrative appeal and analyzes how the appeal functions in two different jurisdictions: Poland and Romania. The authors start by providing information on the nature of the administrative appeal (mandatory or not, deadlines for exercising it, suspensive effect for the action in court etc. All these aspects are examined from a comparative perspective. The aim of the comparative perspective is to highlight that currently the European national systems are fluid and continuously changing; in addition, the goal is to identify best practices that could be transferred from one system to the other. One of the key topics addressed in the context of this theme refers to the relationship that exists between the administrative appeal and the action in court. Authors try to answer the question whether the citizens’ access to justice is breached in cases when the appeal is mandatory. The authors also discuss the fact that very often a mandatory appeal can lead to a high number of cases being solved outside the courts.

  8. European dimension and European identity through the perspective of geography teaching in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses geography teaching inSloveniaas viewed through the prism of a European dimension and identity. The author aims to identify to what extent the ‘European dimension’ and ‘European identity’ exist within school geography curricula, and how they are represented and constructed. Surveys discussed in the paper cover a 15 year period and dealing with the three most important elements of (geography education: teachers, content and pupils/students. Using the results of the surveys, the author suggests possibilities for the development of geography teaching, particularly with regard to subject areas concerning the implementation of European identity issues within the framework of European dimension.

  9. The comparative burden of salmonellosis in the European Union member states, associated and candidate countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Birgitta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella is an infectious agents causing numerous cases of illness each year, and thereby having significant economic impact. Using returning Swedish travellers we estimated the burden of salmonellosis in different European countries. Methods From the Swedish database on notifiable communicable diseases 15,864 cases with travel-associated salmonellosis acquired in Europe from 1997–2003 were retrieved. These cases were compared to a dataset from the same years on 14,171 randomly selected Swedish residents, with a history of recent overnight travel in Europe. Distribution of salmonellosis in returning travellers and the distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis was analysed for different member states in the European Union, associated and candidate countries. The risk of being notified with a salmonella infection after return from each European country/region was calculated, and compared with official reporting data rom these countries. Using Norway as reference country, we could 1 construct comparable incidence estimates and 2 calculate the "under-reporting" in each country compared to Norway. Results The highest burden of salmonellosis was estimated for Bulgaria (2741/100,000, followed by Turkey with 2344/100 000 and Malta with 2141/100 000. S. Enteritidis is the dominating serotype, 66.9 % of all cases and phage type 4 accounts for 37.5 % of the S. Enteritidis cases Conclusion Using returning tourists as a sentinel population can provide a useful base for comparison of disease burdens in different countries/regions. Focusing prevention of salmonellosis to prevention of egg and poultry associated S. Enteritidis infection will have a major impact from a public health perspective and will significantly lower the burden of disease in most European countries.

  10. EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE LABOUR FIELD: PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nicolaescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European integration is not a slogan, a political discourse or a foundation for the political platform of political parties. European integration includes concrete directives of action to be taken into account by all states. One of the most important of them might be considered the social partnership in the labour field. Under current circumstances, the need to study relations established within social partnership, factors contributing to social dialogue development and fulfillment of social partnership potential within existing political and socio-economic reforms increased. Analysis of European dimension of Moldovan social partnership evolution is essential for further democratization of labour field and European perspectives of the country.

  11. Ecological restoration, ecosystem services, and land use: a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tolvanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This special feature provides an overview on how the ecosystem service concept has been and can be incorporated into the science, practice, and policies of ecological restoration (ER and evidence-based land-use. It includes an edited selection of eleven invited and peer-reviewed papers based on presentations given during the 9th European Conference on Ecological Restoration in 2014. The focus is on Europe, but many contributors also make appraisals and recommendations at the global scale. Based on the contributors' papers, and our own overview of the promise of ecological restoration in the existing international treaties, coalitions, and conventions, we propose that the following actions could contribute to the positive impacts of ER on biodiversity maintenance, ecosystem functioning, progressive mainstreaming the concepts of both ER and ecosystem services, significant mitigation and offsetting of anthropogenic climate change, and lasting enhancement of both ecosystem and human health: •\tER should be incorporated into land use planning, wherever needed, and the synergies and trade-offs of different land use scenarios should be assessed in terms of their impacts on ecosystem services. •\tThe discourse of ER should be enlarged, wherever it is needed, to include multifunctional land use that simultaneously supports sustainable production systems, built environments, and the quality and quantity of diverse ecosystem services. This approach will generate ecological, social, and economic benefits in the long run. •\tMonitoring and evaluation of ER projects should be a continuous process involving careful selection of indicators chosen with the full range of stakeholders in mind, and a sufficiently long-term perspective to catch the progress of long-term or highly dynamic ecosystem processes. •\tScientists should actively participate in policy and land management discussions in order to give their views on the potential outcomes of decisions.

  12. The European Spatial Development Perspective Shaping the Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2006-01-01

    The fact that they have created the European Union (EU) notwithstanding, Member States are suspicious of, and even hostile to it. This creates a dynamic that is often puzzling, and this is also true for spatial planning. The latter is not a competence of the European Community, but there is the inte

  13. Guide to reform of higher education: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs; F. van der Ploeg

    2006-01-01

    Although there are exceptions, most European universities and institutions of higher education find it difficult to compete with the best universities in the Anglo-Saxon world. Despite the Bologna Agreement and the ambitions of the Lisbon Agenda, European universities are in need of fundamental refo

  14. Guide to Reform of Higher Education: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs; F. van der Ploeg

    2005-01-01

    Although there are exceptions, most European universities and institutions of higher education find it difficult to compete with the best universities in the Anglo-Saxon world. Despite the Bologna agreement and the ambitions of the Lisbon agenda, European universities are in need of fundamental refo

  15. Sahel State Political Violence in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Dowd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy, media and academic attention on violence in the Sahel region has been widespread since the onset of the Arab Spring, and the escalating violence in recent months in Mali. This research explores the nature, patterns and dynamics of this violence in regional and national comparative perspective, contrasting divergent dynamics of violence both within and across the region. Data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset (ACLED, which facilitates analysis of both contemporary and historical patterns. Regional characteristics of Sahelian violence are highlighted, which underscore a relatively low level of violence in the region as a whole, with increases in conflict levels largely driven by the single case of Mali in recent months. Detailed analysis of specific groups and actor types reveal important intra-regional discrepancies which have been largely obscured by characterisations of a regional, trans-national crisis. Together, these observations point to the need to interrogate narratives of regional dynamics which may conceal important national and even sub-national variations and drivers of political violence.

  16. Discursive junctions in flood risk governance - A comparative understanding in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Maria; Wiering, Mark

    2017-03-18

    Flood risks are managed differently across Europe. While a number of research studies aim to understand these differences, they tend to pay little attention to the social constructionist aspects of flood risk governance, i.e. the meaning that societies give to flood risk and governance. This paper aims to address this gap by understanding differences in flood risk management approaches (FRMA) from a discursive-institutional perspective. Based on this perspective, an analytical framework was developed to systematically analyse and compare discourses pertaining to flood risk and its governance in six European member states (England (the United Kingdom), Flanders (Belgium), France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). Correspondingly, this paper demonstrates how the hegemonic discursive-institutional patterns of flood risk governance differ between the six European countries. These differences may influence the capability of countries to learn from each other, adopt new FRMAs or cooperate with each other. Moreover, the paper argues that differences in discourses partially account for the differences in FRMAs between countries, combined with other factors. Additionally, broader implications are discussed. For example, the research findings imply that some discourses tend to favour or disfavour other discourses, and that they additionally also tend to favour particular FRMAs; e.g. the flood risk discourse pertaining to high manageability of risks seems to favour a governance discourse of collectivity and central governance. The different insights imply that further research is necessary to understand the complex interaction of discourses and institutional arrangements.

  17. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea STROE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  20. The Emergent European Educational Policies Under Scrutiny. The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European regional solutions), in the absence of references to global changes and huge globalization-related political and economic transformations underlyin...

  1. A European perspective on immunotherapy for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Food allergies are common, and frequently, the only treatment option is strict avoidance. Unfortunately, many patients accidentally ingest allergenic foods, which can result in severe anaphylactic reactions. Several immunotherapies are being developed for food allergies; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. Oral immunotherapy seems to be the most promising approach based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. However, it is a challenge to compare results among immunotherapy trials because of differences in protocols. Studies conducted thus far have tested the most prevalent food allergens: it is not clear whether their results can be extended to other allergens. Sublingual administration of immunotherapy has shown some efficacy and fewer side effects than oral administration in some trials, yet neither approach can be recommended for routine practice. Controlled studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to determine short- and long-term efficacy and side effects. In Europe immunotherapy trials for food allergies face many ethical and regulatory issues. Guidelines from the European Medicine Agency on the clinical development of products for specific immunotherapy of allergic diseases do not adequately address immunotherapy for food allergies, especially for therapies that orally administer native food or that include pediatric patients.

  2. SOME PROBLEMS OF COMPARATIVE ONTOLOGY – EUROPEAN AND BUDDHISTS THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kurpiewski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper supplies an introduction to the systematic comparative analysis of European and Buddhist (mainly from mahâyana tradition philosophies. It elaborates the subject with a general approach as well as expounds individual philosophical views, including Polishthinkers. What seems important, is to stress the need for such intercultural approach in contemporary way of philosophizing, it is a way to widen philosophy itself. Comparative research may be successful only if we try to avoid approach to the questionsdiscussed only from the opacity of one tradition, points of view of both sides should be taken into account. One of important method of such comparative approach is then to expound likeness and differences between the subjects analyzed, differences seems to be more important. More refined and advanced research incorporates interconnected relations: differences among what is similar and similarities among the differences.An analysis of philosophical questions themselves starts with the problems: (1 In what sense we may speak about Buddhist ontology. On one side, there are sufficient reasons to relate this concept to the Buddhist philosophy, on the another, it should be widened, comparing to European thought. (2 Does soteriological metaphysics is still metaphysics?A strict, actual comparative research takes into account such questions as: dharma theory and philosophy of being (to on; mind, consciousness in Buddhism and in phenomenology; emptiness (oeûnyatâ versus being (to on and non-being (to me on; ultimate reality; philosophy of dependent arising (pratîtyasamutpâda in opposition to philosophy of being; two truths (satyadvaya; problem of existence in both traditions. Comparisons are summed up with two kinds of conclusions. Methodological ones point at the significance of hermeneutics for better understanding of Buddhist thought. Content-related ones reveal, first of all, directional differences – so to speak – of both traditions

  3. The European 2015 drought from a climatological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Tallaksen, Lena; Kingston, Daniel; Stagge, James

    2016-04-01

    The summer drought of 2015 affected a large portion of continental Europe and was one of the worst droughts since the heat wave of 2003. The summer was characterized by exceptionally high temperatures in many parts of the central and eastern part of Europe, with daily maximum temperatures 2 °C warmer compared to the seasonal mean (1971-2000) over most of western Europe, and more than 3 °C warmer in the east. Combined with a lack of precipitation, these conditions resulted in high evapotranspiration, strongly affecting soil moisture content and vegetation. Further, it led to record low river flows in several major European rivers, e.g. the Elbe River recorded its lowest flow in the last 60 years. Understanding how the 2015 drought event developed and the factors that contributed to it may help improve seasonal forecasting models and assess the risk of this kind of event occurring in the future. This paper analyses the European summer drought of 2015 by placing it into historical context with past historical droughts and by discussing the role of the main contributing factors controlling the occurrence and persistence of this event: temperature and precipitation anomalies, blocking episodes and sea surface temperatures. Large parts of central Europe experienced a severe lack of precipitation, with widespread areas of negative 3-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) values present from May onwards. During summer, values dropped as low as -3 in Eastern Europe - corresponding to an annual probability of 0.1. Similar to the 2003 summer drought, the upper level atmospheric circulation over continental Europe was characterized by a large positive 500hPa geopotential height anomaly bordered by a large negative anomaly to the north and west (i.e. over the central North Atlantic Ocean extending to northern Scandinavia) and another center of positive geopotential height anomalies over Greenland and northern Canada. Simultaneously, summer sea surface temperature (SST

  4. Gestión estratégica de la comunicación digital en la empresa ecuatoriana. Perspectiva comparada con la realidad Europea / Strategic management of digital communication in the Ecuadorian company. Comparative perspective with the European reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Puertas Hidalgo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En la era de la convergencia digital, la consecución en las organizaciones de un modelo de relación y gestión de intereses con los públicos simétrico y bidireccional requieren de la construcción de una imagen y una reputación, resultado de una planificación estratégica de la comunicación. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva sistémica -en la que la comunicación se vuelve eje transversal a todos procesos organizacional- y que le asigna al profesional de la comunicación una función directiva –Dircom-, no es una constante en la realidad en las empresas ecuatorianas. Este artículo es resultado de la investigación que lleva adelante el Observatorio de la Comunicación Estratégica del Ecuador de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja-Ecuador, el constituido en 2014 para estudiar el perfil profesional de los comunicadores en el ámbito de la comunicación interna, corporativa, digital y la comercial así como la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa. Para este primer año, se ha enfocado en la identificación de la situación actual de la Comunicación Estratégica: profesionales formados para desempeñar esta función, organización, función de la comunicación estratégica en las empresas, estrategias y acciones ejecutadas, y tendencias. Los resultados recogidos en este trabajo se han contrastado con algunos de los resultados del trabajo realizado en el European Communication Monitor 2014. Descubriendo que tanto en Europa como en Ecuador, la tendencia del uso de tecnologías para las diversas tareas y actividades en el área de comunicación se incrementa. Es necesario entonces encontrar un escenario común de diálogo y aportaciones hacia un mismo objetivo: conseguir una experiencia equilibrada de relación simétrica con las personas.

  5. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  6. Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

    2013-10-29

    The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology.

  7. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure......) and the advantage of integrating equivalent rules into a European rule set. The Danish rules, which have now been in effect for some years, are then considered....

  8. The European 2015 drought from a groundwater perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne; Kumar, Rohini; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-04-01

    In 2015 central and eastern Europe were affected by severe drought. Impacts of the drought were felt across many sectors, incl. agriculture, drinking water supply, electricity production, navigation, fisheries, and recreation. This drought event has recently been studied from meteorological and streamflow perspective, but no analysis of the groundwater drought has been performed. This is not surprising because real-time groundwater level observations often are not available. In this study we use previously established spatially-explicit relationships between meteorological drought and groundwater drought to quantify the 2015 groundwater drought over two regions in southern Germany and eastern Netherlands. We also tested the applicability of the Gravity Recovery Climate Experiment (GRACE) Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) and GRACE-based groundwater anomalies to capture the spatial variability of the 2003 and 2015 drought events. We use the monthly groundwater observations from 2040 wells to establish the spatially varying optimal accumulation period between the Standardized Groundwater Index (SGI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at a 0.250 gridded scale. The resulting optimal accumulation periods range between 1 and more than 24 months, indicating strong spatial differences in groundwater response time to meteorological input over the region. Based on these optimal accumulation periods, we found that in Germany a uniform severe groundwater drought persisted for several months (i.e. SGI below the drought threshold of 20th percentile for almost all grid cells in August, September and October 2015), whereas the Netherlands appeared to have relatively high groundwater levels (never below the drought threshold of 20th percentile). The differences between this event and the European 2003 benchmark drought are striking. The 2003 groundwater drought was less uniformly pronounced, both in the Netherlands and Germany, with the regional

  9. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  10. Immigration and Muslim Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis of European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T. Duncan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Immigration policies serve a number of functions for states. Governments may use policies as instruments of foreign policy, economic growth, population growth, and/ or national security. In this post-September 11, 2001 global environment, integration policies have become more assimilationist and immigration restrictions toward nationals from Muslim countries of origin have increased in the name of national security. While this trend is common among many Western states, Britain’s immigration stance toward Muslim migrants remains unchanged. This study examines changes in policies toward immigrants—changes that make these policies de facto immigration policies though they may not have been conceived as such—in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the absence of this change in the UK. It seeks to answer the question: what explains reforms in the Netherlands, Germany, and France while British immigration policy remained unchanged? In this effort, the article emphasizes the impact of these changes on potential migrants from predominantly Muslim countries of origin. Based on a comparative case study analysis using process tracing, findings indicate that Dutch immigration/integration policy choices influence government policy changes in other West European countries. Through a learning process, governments experiencing similar socio-political challenges observe overlapping societal responses to them and optimize in creating policy alternatives by using short-cuts and adopting policies implemented in comparable states and situations.

  11. Coercion within Danish psychiatry compared with 10 other European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Aggernæs, Karin Helle

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) criticized the use of mechanical restraint in Denmark and referred to it as ill-treatment. What do other European countries do better? To answer this question, we compa...

  12. The Hungarian ICT sector – a comparative CEE perspective with special emphasis on structural change

    OpenAIRE

    Balázs Lengyel

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the Hungarian ICT sector from a Central European and Estern European perspective. It outlines the position of the ICT sector in Central European and Eastern European states. Furthermore, it describes the impact of ICT on structural improvement in the regiuon. In conclusion, it gives an overview of the Hungarian ICT policy.

  13. A European perspective on the market accessibility of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declerck PJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Paul J Declerck,1 Steven Simoens21Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Biology, 2Research Centre for Pharmaceutical Care and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Biopharmaceuticals are complex molecules produced by living cells. Copies of these drugs, called biosimilars, are not identical to their reference medicine, and therefore specific regulatory requirements for registration apply. Pharmaceutical quality evaluation requires a complete dossier and a detailed comparative analysis to the reference drug. However, nonclinical and clinical requirements are much less extensive compared to the requirements for an innovator. Therefore, at the time of introduction onto the market, only limited clinical experience is available for the biosimilar. Differences of 15%–30% between the acquisition price of biosimilars and their corresponding reference biopharmaceuticals have been suggested in the literature. Although the percentage price difference between reference biopharmaceuticals and biosimilar medicines may be limited, absolute savings are still likely to be substantial when calculated with respect to expensive reference biopharmaceutical medicines. Although an economic evaluation needs to be carried out in an increasing number of European countries to inform reimbursement decisions, uncertainty exists about how such an economic evaluation should be conducted for a biosimilar. The assessment of the cost-effectiveness of a biosimilar for reimbursement purposes depends primarily on the relative efficacy, given that a biosimilar is likely to be less expensive than the reference biopharmaceutical. To date, the question of meaningful differences in efficacy between biosimilar and biopharmaceutical drugs has not been answered. Due to a lack of demand-side incentives, biosimilar medicines have enjoyed limited success in Europe to date. Other factors that inhibit the market accessibility

  14. Comparing the 2010 North American and European atrial fibrillation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Anne M; Skanes, Allan C

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the important differences in the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA)/Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2010 guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF). All guidelines recommend more lenient targets for ventricular rate control although the CCS guidelines recommend a target heart rate at rest drug for maintenance of sinus rhythm be based on the underlying cardiovascular disease state. However, the CCS guidelines do not recommend that the use of Class IC drugs or sotalol be restricted in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy alone. All the guidelines have incorporated dronedarone into their recommendations of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, the CCS guidelines do not make a specific recommendation that the use of dronedarone is reasonable to decrease the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in patients with AF. The ACCF/AHA/HRS update makes a strong recommendation for catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF who have failed a single anti-arrhythmic drug whereas the CCS and ESC guidelines make this a conditional recommendation. The CCS guidelines are the only guidelines at present that recommend dabigitran for prevention of stroke in high risk patients and suggest that dabigatran is preferred to warfarin for stroke prevention in most patient groups.

  15. The Dutch N-cascade in the European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Domburg, N.; Vries, de W.; Kros, H.; Haan, de B.; Sanders, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Netherlands is "well known" for its nitrogen problems; it has one of the highest reactive nitrogen (Nr) emission densities in the world. It is a small country at the delta of several large European rivers. Ever since the industrial revolution, there has been a growing excess of nutrients and

  16. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  17. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  18. An impact perspective on pan-European drought sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, K.; Kohn, I.; Stefano, De L.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Rego, F.C.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Andreu, J.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, Europe experienced several severe drought events with diverse environmental and socio-economic impacts. The EU FP-7 project DROUGHT R&SPI has investigated past drought impacts across different European countries and geoclimatic regions based on different approaches: parti

  19. European Teacher Education: A Fractal Perspective Tackling Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caena, Francesa; Margiotta, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    This article takes stock of the complex scenario of the European education space in its past, present and future developments, which highlights the priorities of the modernisation, improvement and convergence of the goals for education and training systems in the knowledge and learning society. The critical case of teacher education is then…

  20. Latin America Policies of European NGOs: Recent Trends and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Many Latin American partner organisations that received support from European donor NGOs in recent years for contributing to structural poverty alleviation had expected that these agencies will gradually withdraw from the Latin American region. It is feared that funding will dec

  1. Quality of emission inventory data: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission inventories have been, and still are being, compiled within a broad range of national and international activities. The quality of the data in the inventories however is often not defined or not known. This paper concentrates on this aspect of European scale inventories and will present som

  2. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  3. Ulrik Huber on fundamental laws: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nifterik, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give the Frisian jurist Ulrik Huber (1636-94) his place in the European history of the notion of fundamental laws and to enhance our understanding of the history of the rule of law, particularly of the role of fundamental laws therein. In order to do so Huber's notion of

  4. The Dutch N-cascade in the European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Domburg, N.; Vries, de W.; Kros, H.; Haan, de B.; Sanders, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Netherlands is "well known" for its nitrogen problems; it has one of the highest reactive nitrogen (Nr) emission densities in the world. It is a small country at the delta of several large European rivers. Ever since the industrial revolution, there has been a growing excess of nutrients and rel

  5. An impact perspective on pan-European drought sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, K.; Kohn, I.; Stefano, De L.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Rego, F.C.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Andreu, J.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, Europe experienced several severe drought events with diverse environmental and socio-economic impacts. The EU FP-7 project DROUGHT R&SPI has investigated past drought impacts across different European countries and geoclimatic regions based on different approaches:

  6. A European Perspective on Kinesiology in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Benoit G.

    2008-01-01

    A collection of information about kinesiology around the world is given in this article. Institutions, societies, and journals that have contributed to the emergence of the field are indicated to illustrate the richness of current places where research on movement is conducted. The particular case of kinesiology in the European Union is detailed.…

  7. Obesity in Europe: The Strategy of the European Union from a Public Health Law Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese....

  8. From a Far-Flung Field: Some Considerations of Robbins from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Guy

    1988-01-01

    Viewing the Robbins Report from a European perspective, Neave states that it was unique among contemporary educational reforms. Argues that, by strengthening the private life of British academia, maintaining quality, and preventing deterioration of staff-student ratios, Robbins allowed for greater flexibility in Britain while higher education…

  9. From a Far-Flung Field: Some Considerations of Robbins from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Guy

    1988-01-01

    Viewing the Robbins Report from a European perspective, Neave states that it was unique among contemporary educational reforms. Argues that, by strengthening the private life of British academia, maintaining quality, and preventing deterioration of staff-student ratios, Robbins allowed for greater flexibility in Britain while higher education…

  10. Perspectives from the European Language Portfolio: Learner Autonomy and Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Barbel, Ed.; Cavana, Maria Luisa Perez, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Using constructivist principles and autonomous learning techniques the ELP has pioneered innovative and cutting edge approaches to learning languages that can be applied to learning across the spectrum. Although articles on the success of the ELP project have appeared in some academic journals, "Perspectives from the European Language…

  11. The Corridor Chronicles. Integrated perspectives on European transport corridor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to clarify the added value of an integrated perspective on corridor development in Europe. For many years, knowledge on corridors has been developed in a sectoral, technocratic manner, despite a growing call for an integrated analysis of corridor issues. The integration argume

  12. Education in the Learning Economy: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Rasmussen, Palle; Lorenz, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge-based and the learning economy perspectives have in common that they point to an inherent tendency toward a polarisation in labour markets between people with strong and people with weak educational foundation. On this background we discuss how a movement toward mode 2 learning may...

  13. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  14. A review of canine babesiosis: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Sainz, Ángel; Roura, Xavier; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Miró, Guadalupe

    2016-06-11

    Canine babesiosis is a significant tick-borne disease caused by various species of the protozoan genus Babesia. Although it occurs worldwide, data relating to European infections have now been collected for many years. These data have boosted the publication record and increased our working knowledge of these protozoan parasites. Both the large and small forms of Babesia species (B. canis, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, and B. microti-like isolates also referred to as "B. vulpes" and "Theileria annae") infect dogs in Europe, and their geographical distribution, transmission, clinical signs, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for each species. The goal of this review is to provide veterinary practitioners with practical guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of babesiosis in European dogs. Our hope is that these guidelines will answer the most frequently asked questions posed by veterinary practitioners.

  15. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  16. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  17. Current safety standards in infant nutrition--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below.

  18. Food Scares and Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocchi, Mario; Lobb, Alexandra E.; Traill, W. Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a consumer food choice model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is extended to account for risk perception and trust. The data are from a nationally representative European survey of 2 725 respondents from five countries, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The model relates the intention to purchase chicken in an extended TPB framework, which incorporates risk perceptions, and trust in alternative sources of food safety information. This mode...

  19. [Bioethics from a social perspective: European Biopolitics Conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela López, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The European Congress on biopolitics entitled "Connecting civil society implementing basic values" was held in March 2006 in Berlin. It was organised by the Heinrich Böll foundation and the Institut Mensch, Ethik und Wissenschaft. The aim of the Congress was to provide a forum for discussion on the ethical and social aspects derived from biotechnology and genetics on human beings. This work summarises some of the aspects that reveal the international interest and relevance of this meeting.

  20. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests.

  1. European Union: Innovation Activity and competitiveness. Realities and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECATERINA STǍNCULESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to capture some relevant aspects of the research - development and innovation (RD&I sector in the European Union and some Member States and the current EU political commitments in this field, with a special focus on the „Innovation Union”, the consolidation of the European Research Area, the European re-industrialization and the action plan „Horizon 2020”. According to the most recent and relevant documents in the field, the EU is in an industrial revival process, which implies a fruitful activity in research and technological innovation of products, processes and adjacent services. The author envisages evaluating the RDI sector development in some EU member states - both developed and less developed Central and Eastern Europe (including Romania - and the contribution of this sector to the development and competitiveness of the respective countries on international market (the parallel study between international competitiveness and innovation level of the EU and its Member States being an important point in this paper. The findings of this article highlight the demonstrated importance of innovation for a good EU international competitiveness and the measures (imposed by the reality that can be taken for its increase at EU and national level (especially for those countries with a less intensive innovative activity.

  2. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context.

  3. Global health in the European Union--a review from an agenda-setting perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focuses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

  4. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined.

  5. A PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBORHOOD POLICY IN THE PAN-EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frunza Ramona

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Neighbourhood Policy introduces a new approach in the EU external relations with its interest neighbourhood; its strategic role is to provide a system which can allow the Union to set its external limits, without risking having new dividing l

  6. Wind energy. Energy technologies in national, European and global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Bjerregaard, E.T.D. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    According to a recent study, global wind generating capacity increased by some 6800 MW in 2001, an annual growth of just over half the corresponding figure for 2000. 2001 was the third consecutive year in which new wind power capacity exceeded new nuclear power capacity, showing the maturity of wind power technology. Total installed wind power worldwide by the end of 2001 was close to 25.000 MW. Germany, Spain and Denmark are the main players, accounting for 56% of the world's capacity increase in 2001 and a total cumulative installed capacity of 14.750 MW, or 59% of the global total. The USA and India are also significant users of wind power; in 2001 the USA added 1700 MW of new installed capacity to become the world's second-largest market for wind power. The report Wind Force 10 outlines a scenario in which wind power provides 10% of the world's electricity by 2020, corresponding to a total installed capacity of 1200 GW. Risoe's System Analysis Department has looked at the possible future costs of electricity produced by wind turbines compared to conventional power. A learning curve analysis of historical data results in a progress ratio of 0,85. This means that for every doubling of the installed capacity, the cost of wind-generated electricity is reduced by 15%. Until recently the main driver for wind power has been a concern for greenhouse gases. Security of energy supply has now become an important issue, however, especially in Europe and the USA. Wind power plants can be erected at short notice and in a modular fashion that allows capacity to be added as required. The European Commission has supported wind power by sponsoring international research co-operation between institutes, universities and equipment manufacturers. The IEA supports worldwide co-operation, and has recently issued a report on the longterm R and D needs of wind energy. Denmark has, mainly financed by the Danish Energy Agency, taken part in the IEA's R and D Wind

  7. REVIEW: Narrative Research on Learning Comparative and International Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    TOJDE, Reviewed By

    2009-01-01

    This book examines narrative research from a range of different perspectives. It discusses international and comparative experiences of doing narrative research on learning, paying particular attention to the cultural contexts within which the research is conducted.

  8. Approach to seizures in the neonatal period: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vento, M; de Vries, Lisbeth Elvira; Alberola, A

    2010-01-01

    approach among different doctors and institutions. Hence, although phenobarbital is still considered the initial drug of choice, the protocols reported in the literature show a great variability in the approach to treatment of refractory seizures. We used a questionnaire to gain information regarding...... the treatment of seizures in the neonatal period in different European institutions. Conclusion: We conclude that phenobarbital is still the initial drug of choice followed by benzodiazepines, except in preterm infants with a birth weight below 1800 g. In refractory seizures, the use of continuous lidocaine...

  9. European perspective on multiple myeloma treatment strategies in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Heinz; Sonneveld, Pieter; Davies, Faith;

    2014-01-01

    recommendations for the management of patients with myeloma. Treatment approaches depend on "fitness," with chronological age still being an important discriminator for selecting therapy. In younger, fit patients, a short three drug-based induction treatment followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT......) remains the preferred option. Consolidation and maintenance therapy are attractive strategies not yet approved by the European Medicines Agency, and a decision regarding post-ASCT therapy should only be made after detailed discussion of the pros and cons with the individual patient. Two- and three...

  10. Comparing tasks of 160 occupations across eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.G.; de Ruijter, E.; de Ruijter, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Do similar job titles refer to the same work activities, as assumed often, but hardly empirically tested? The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarity of 160 occupations within and across eight European countries using interrater agreement statistics (rWG).

  11. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMERS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are considered, within the European vision, the “life force” of the economy. Although the technological means are increasingly available, both European SMEs and consumers are still suspicious of conducting cross-border trade. Single European market has the potential to become the largest market in the world. Currently, it remains largely fragmented along national borders, forming 27 mini-markets. The European Commission’s aim is to achieve a more integrated internal market such that consumers from each Member State have an equally high level of confidence in products, traders, selling methods, as well as consumer protection – no matter where they decide to make their purchases within the EU. The paper presents a secondary analysis of data regarding the many differences in terms of Europeans’ consumption patterns for different product categories (as a percentage of total expenditures. For example, the share of household budget used to purchase food is highest in our country and lowest in Luxembourg.. Also, the largest proportion of family budget allocated for utilities (water, electricity, gas we find in Bulgaria, and for cultural activities – in Austria.

  12. Comparing the European and US nutraceuticals innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.; Pennings, J.

    2012-01-01

    In its health strategy to overcome the grand societal challenge of obesity, the European Union (EU) is committed to promote healthy lifestyles by stimulating healthy food choices (EU 2011).Accordingly, during the last decades the role of dietary active components in human nutrition has become an imp

  13. Comparing the European and US nutraceuticals innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.; Pennings, J.

    2012-01-01

    In its health strategy to overcome the grand societal challenge of obesity, the European Union (EU) is committed to promote healthy lifestyles by stimulating healthy food choices (EU 2011).Accordingly, during the last decades the role of dietary active components in human nutrition has become an

  14. A Comparative Study of the Trends in Career and Technical Education among European Countries, the United States, and the Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Compares developmental trends, theories, and philosophical perspectives in career and technical education in Europe, the United States, and Taiwan. Describes the European model as based on social action and workplace reform, the U.S./Taiwanese model as focused on human resource development and economic growth. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  15. THE ORGANIZATION OF JURISDICTION FROM A EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA AGHENITEI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, universal jurisdiction is the favorite technique used to prevent impunity for international crimes and it is one of the most effective methods to deter and prevent international crimes by increasing the like hood of prosecution and punishment of its preparators. In regard to the defendant’s rights, the European Union states consider applicable all the rights that are necessary to assure that the trial is equitable and expeditious. There is no exception to the right to a fair trial. So, a defendant who is being prosecuted on the basis of the universality principle can rely on all the procedural rights provided for the Convention on Human Rights and the domestic code of criminal procedure without any restrictions. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, in a case concerning genocide committed abroad, declared expressly that no special criminal proceedings must be provided for specific crimes.

  16. Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, B

    2017-01-01

    Besides immunizations against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and herpes zoster, which are recommended specifically for elderly people, regular booster vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and in some cases pertussis and polio are recommended in many European countries for adults, including elderly people. Vaccination recommendations for adults differ greatly between individual countries and coverage data is scarce. Tetanus-specific antibody concentrations are generally higher than diphtheria-specific antibodies, and a substantial proportion of adults, and particularly of elderly people, do not have protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria. Antibody levels increase upon booster vaccination in all age groups, but diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations remain below protective levels in some older individuals, even immediately after vaccination and long-term protection is frequently not achieved. Future vaccination strategies should therefore include regular and well-documented booster shots, e.g. against tetanus and diphtheria, throughout life. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Approach to seizures in the neonatal period: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vento, M; de Vries, Lisbeth Elvira; Alberola, A

    2010-01-01

    In the neonatal period, seizures rank among the most common neurological symptoms, often indicating an underlying serious neurological condition. It is remarkable that although new tools have been incorporated into the diagnosis of neonatal seizures, there is no consensus about the therapeutic...... approach among different doctors and institutions. Hence, although phenobarbital is still considered the initial drug of choice, the protocols reported in the literature show a great variability in the approach to treatment of refractory seizures. We used a questionnaire to gain information regarding...... the treatment of seizures in the neonatal period in different European institutions. Conclusion: We conclude that phenobarbital is still the initial drug of choice followed by benzodiazepines, except in preterm infants with a birth weight below 1800 g. In refractory seizures, the use of continuous lidocaine...

  18. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  19. A European perspective on intravascular catheter-related infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouza, E; San Juan, R; Muñoz, P;

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory workload, microbiological techniques and aetiology of catheter-related infections in European hospitals are mostly unknown. The present study (ESGNI-005) comprised a 1-day (22 October 2001), laboratory-based, point-prevalence survey based on a questionnaire completed by microbiology...... by these institutions was 121,363,800, and the estimated number of admissions during 2000 was 6,712,050. The total number of catheter tips processed during 2000 was 142,727, or 21/1,000 admissions, of which 23.7% were considered to be positive in the institutions using semiquantitative or quantitative techniques....... Overall, EU centres received significantly more catheter tip samples/1,000 admissions and had a significantly higher rate of 'positivity' (p...

  20. An Assessment of Radiation Modification from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, J. E.; Lawrence, M. G.; Boucher, O.; Haywood, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Muri, H.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, M.; Vaughan, N.; Watson, M.; Born, W.; Schaefer, S.; Stelzer, H.

    2014-12-01

    The European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE) project (2012-2014) is funded by the European Commission (EC). In EuTRACE, researchers from the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities have joined forces to assess various proposed geoengineering techniques concerning their radiative forcing potential and side effects, ethical aspects, economics aspects, as well as governance and regulation aspects. A comprehensive assessment report will be submitted to the EC in autumn 2014. We will present some highlights of the part of the EuTRACE assessment that deals with the natural science aspects of proposed Radiation Modification (RM) techniques. The techniques considered are: a) Stratospheric Sulfur Injections; b) Marine Cloud Brightening; c) Desert Brightening; d) Vegetation Brightening; and e) Cirrus Cloud Thinning. A large number of publications in the scientific literature has been considered, as well as recently published assessment reports by the Royal Society in the UK and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Some of the findings of the assessment are: Globally averaged, the current anthropogenic radiative forcing could conceivably be offset by the RM techniques considered. The RM techniques could have a significant global effect already after 1 year or less. Model simulations consistently show that Solar RM leads to regional imbalances due to different spatial footprints of solar and carbon dioxide radiative forcings. This may have significant consequences for precipitation patterns and the hydrological cycle. Very rapid warming is virtually certain if RM were to be stopped abruptly or over a period of one to a few years. Model studies of RM usually assume that the techniques are technologically feasible. In fact, the technological challenges are poorly known, and in many cases the physical processes involved are poorly understood. We will end by discussing key research questions and knowledge gaps.

  1. Pharmaco-economics of levosimendan in cardiology: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M S; Buerke, M; Parissis, J; Ben-Gal, T; Pollesello, P; Kivikko, M; Karavidas, A; Severino, P; Comín-Colet, J; Wikström, G; Fedele, F

    2015-11-15

    Heart failure places a significant economic burden on health care. Acute heart failure requires hospitalization and often frequent re-hospitalization in expensive wards where vasoactive rescue therapy is often added on top of standard medications. In these lean times, there is a growing need for cost-effective therapeutic options that supply superior support and in addition shorten the length of stay in hospital and reduce re-hospitalization rates. The inodilator levosimendan represents the latest addition to the vasoactive treatments of acute heart failure patients, and it appears to meet these expectations. Our aim was to answer the question whether the treatment efficacy of levosimendan - when selected as therapy for patients hospitalized for acute heart failure - brings savings to hospitals in various European countries representing different economies. We took a conservative approach and selected some a fortiori arguments to simplify the calculations. We selected seven European countries to represent different economies: Italy, Spain, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Finland and Israel. Data on the costs of medications and on the cost per day were collected and fed in a simple algorithm to detect savings. These saving varied from country to country, from a minimum of €0.50 in Germany to a maximum of €354.64 in Sweden. The use of levosimendan as a therapy for patients hospitalized for acute heart failure provides a net saving to hospitals driven by a reduction in the length of hospital stay. This finding is true in each of the countries considered in this study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Comparing German and Danish employee representatives on European Works Councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicknell, Helen; Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the links and possible‘fit’ between German and Danish representation structures and trade union policies on the one hand, and the views and activities of European Works Council (EWC) representatives from the two countries on the other. Which similarities or differences....... It is concluded that the views and practices of German and Danish EWC representatives largely converge. Those divergent views that are found are explained by differences in national representation structures, union policies and labour market situation....

  3. Euthanasia in International and Comparative Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia probably is one of the most natural issues to study in a comparative way. 14 national reports, submitted for discussion during the XVIIth Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, as well as a general report were edited and published in this volume. Thus it provides

  4. EUROPEAN TERATOLOGY INFORMATION SERVICE: EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations are still the important medical and social issue. They take the second place among the reasons for the infant mortality and cause up to 18,3% of disablement cases among the children. Exogenous factors, effecting the growing fetus, are very essential along with the genetic matters among the reasons for the congenital malformations. The importance of information on the teratogenic potential of the medications is acknowledged by the doctors from various countries. The article outlines the information on entis activity — European network of teratology information services — a non profit organization, rendering consulting services to the pregnant women and medical staff, regarding the embryo and fetotoxic actions of the medications. The authors highlight the history of entis, its objectives, principles of operation and consulting algorithm and list the basic scientific publications by the entis members for the recent years. The article deals with the most obvious problems, which the organization members face, first of all — the quality of the information they receive. The authors also provide the substantiation for the necessity to develop such an information service in Russia and express hope for the successful development of the entis subsidiary they formed in Moscow.Key words: congenital malformations, medications, pregnancy, embryotoxicity.

  5. The European perspective on pale, soft, exudative conditions in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Cavani, C

    2009-07-01

    Over the past 15 yr, the European poultry processing industry has gradually increased the availability of poultry meat in a large variety of processed ready meals following what occurred a few years before in North America. This shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. In parallel to this market change, the consciousness of the pale, soft, and exudative (PSE)-like meat issue has extensively grown. In poultry, PSE-like meat can be generally considered meat having low ultimate pH, pale color, and poor functional properties (i.e., low water-holding capacity). In the last 10 yr, some studies have been undertaken in Europe to both characterize and evaluate the overall incidence of PSE-like chicken and turkey breast meat. According to these studies, the occurrence of PSE-like meat can be up to 40% within a flock during hot climate. Several key factors have been identified and their effects have been analyzed, including genetics, season, antemortem factors, and slaughtering conditions.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperfibrinolysis in Trauma (A European Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Lewis S; Brohi, Karim; Davenport, Ross A

    2017-03-01

    Fibrinolysis activation occurs almost universally after severe trauma. Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is a key component of acute traumatic coagulopathy and associated with poor clinical outcomes, although controversy exists over optimal treatment strategies. The mechanistic drivers and dynamics of fibrinolytic activation in response to injury and trauma resuscitation are currently unclear. Furthermore, therapeutic triggers are compounded by the lack of a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool, with discrepancy between hyperfibrinolysis diagnosed by viscoelastic hemostatic assays versus biomarkers for fibrinolysis. Rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography appear capable of detecting the severest forms of hyperfibrinolysis but are relatively insensitive to moderate, yet clinically significant fibrinolytic activation. Rapid evaluation of the current status of the fibrinolytic system remains a challenge and therefore the decision whether to administer an antifibrinolytic agent should be based on available evidence from clinical trials. In line with current European guidelines, we recommend that all bleeding trauma patients, and in particular, severely injured patients with evidence of hemorrhagic shock, should receive early empiric tranexamic acid. This review explains our current knowledge of the pathophysiological pathways which induce hyperfibrinolysis in trauma hemorrhage, evaluates the available diagnostic modalities, and describes current treatment strategies.

  7. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY IN ATTRACTING EUROPEAN FUNDS BY REGIONS OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan LUPU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current decentralization reforms and severe budget constraints faced by Eastern European countries, we consider as imperative to analyze the effectiveness of structural funds management at regional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the technical efficiency of attracting structural funds by the regions in Poland, Bulgaria and Romania, determining the factors that influence efficiency and its implications for local development. The calculations were based on the mathematical model Data Envelopment Analysis, the main source of data being EUROSTAT. The estimates confirm the strong need for systemic reforms in the organization and operation of the development regions: modification of current transfer system, strengthen financial autonomy and solve the problem of excessive fragmentation of administrative-territorial structure, all having a negative impact on the efficiency of absorption of European funds developing regions of analyzed states.

  8. Developmental and comparative perspectives of contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning (i.e. yawning triggered by perceiving others' yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about: (1) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing populations, and (2) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that contagious yawning may share a developmental basis with the capacity for theory of mind. Comparative studies have suggested that contagious yawning can be observed in non-primate species, such as domestic dogs. As dogs are known to have exceptional skills in communicating with humans, it has also been suggested that contagious yawning may be related to the capacity for social communication. These results from developmental and comparative studies are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RECENT EVOLUTIONS OF ROMANIAN AND EUROPEAN UNION'S COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felea Adrian Ioan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper refers to an analysis of the recent trends and evolution of Romanian competitiveness compared to the European Union competitiveness and it is structured in four main parts. The first section of the paper regards an introduction of the competitiveness evolution process, recalling the three actual evaluation models of the competitiveness level. In the second part of the paper there can be found the competitiveness indexes practiced and published by the World Economic Forum, indicators that are structured on three main levels as following: the Global Competitiveness Index and its aggregate indicators that are developed on three categories of factors that are essential for the competitiveness process (Basic requirements, Efficienty Enhancers, Innovation and sophistication factors and the indexes associated to the twelve pillars of competitiveness: Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic stability, Health and primary education, Higer education and training, Goods market efficiency, Labor market efficiency, Financial market sophistication Technological readiness, Market size, Business sophistication, Innovation. Based on the values obtained after consulting the World Economic Forum Reports and regarding the competitiveness from a global perspective, the third part of the paper presents a comparative analyisis of the evolution of the Romanian competitiveness process and the one of the EU25. In the last part of the paper there can be found the conclusions of this analysis, with respect to the values found This paper is part of the doctoral thesis entitled "Increased Competitiveness in the Romanian economy, in the context of Sustainable Development, coordinated by Professor Michael Berinde University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. Doctoral research is supported by Human Resources Development Operational Programme 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU/CPP107/DMI1.5/S/80272 , "Doctoral programs to train researchers performing

  10. Clinical diagnosis of dental caries: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a broad international perspective on aspects of the RTI/UNC systematic review, to introduce relevant literature not cited, and to make recommendations for clinical practice education and research suggested by the evidence. Clinical caries diagnosis represents the foundation on which the answers to most of the consensus questions will be based. This paper highlights needs for being clear about definitions and nomenclature; understanding the importance of the concepts underlying the D1 and D3 diagnostic thresholds used widely within the RTI/UNC Review; and appreciating that the diagnostic challenge now faced by clinicians is significant and is becoming more complex as the presentation and distribution of the disease changes over time and the range of preventive and operative treatment options expands. A series of recommendations informed by the evidence are made, including a rather contentious issue for many clinicians concerning the lack of evidence supporting the continued use of a sharp explorer as a diagnostic tool for primary caries diagnosis. This practice should be discontinued as it may cause some harm to the patient and yet fails to provide a significant balancing diagnostic benefit. Finally, it is suggested that dentistry should learn from the developing evidence base in medicine on how best to disseminate the findings of reviews and promote appropriate changes in clinical practice.

  11. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 1. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    strategists in Spain has been incorporated into the Plan Estrategico Conjunto (PEC, Joint Strategic Plan ), which is the centerpiece around which revolves the...China yields the following major conclusions relevant to U.S. defense policy and force structure planning . %.4 .4.. WEST EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES i" Doubts...confronts security dilemmas that hold major implications for U.S. defense planning . These include: 0 A perceived need to raise the conventional

  12. Evolutionary computation techniques a comparative perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book compares the performance of various evolutionary computation (EC) techniques when they are faced with complex optimization problems extracted from different engineering domains. Particularly focusing on recently developed algorithms, it is designed so that each chapter can be read independently. Several comparisons among EC techniques have been reported in the literature, however, they all suffer from one limitation: their conclusions are based on the performance of popular evolutionary approaches over a set of synthetic functions with exact solutions and well-known behaviors, without considering the application context or including recent developments. In each chapter, a complex engineering optimization problem is posed, and then a particular EC technique is presented as the best choice, according to its search characteristics. Lastly, a set of experiments is conducted in order to compare its performance to other popular EC methods.

  13. The clinical practice of interventional radiology: a European perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical environment in which interventional radiology (IR) is practiced throughout Europe. A survey, comprising 12 questions on IR clinical practice, was sent to 1800 CIRSE members. Members were asked to return one survey per department. Two hundred seventy-four departments returned completed questionnaires, 22% from the United Kingdom (n = 60), 11% from Germany (n = 30), 8% from Austria (n = 23), and the remainder spread over Europe. Experts, with more than 10 years of IR experience, comprised 74% of the survey group. Almost one-third of the radiologists dedicated more than 80% of their clinical sessions to IR alone (27%; n = 75), with two-thirds practicing in a university teaching hospital setting (66%; n = 179). Few institutions have dedicated IR inpatient hospital beds (17%; n = 46), however, to compensate, day case beds are available (31%), IR admitting rights are in place (64% overall, 86% for in-patients, and 89% for day cases), and elective IR admissions can be made through other clinicians (87%). IR outpatient clinics are run at 26% of departments, with an average of two sessions per week. Dedicated nurses staff the majority of IR suites (82%), but clinical junior doctors are lacking (46%). Hospital management\\'s refusing access to beds was the most commonly cited reason for not developing a clinical IR service (41%). In conclusion, there is marked variation across European centers in the current practice of IR. Half do not have dedicated junior doctors and only a small minority have inpatient hospital beds. If IR is to be maintained as a dedicated clinical specialty, these issues need to be addressed urgently.

  14. Earth as a Tool for Astrobiology—A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Carrasco, Nathalie; Cockell, Charles S.; de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Demets, René; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Foing, Bernard; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; Stalport, Fabien; ten Kate, Inge L.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Westall, Frances

    2017-07-01

    Scientists use the Earth as a tool for astrobiology by analyzing planetary field analogues (i.e. terrestrial samples and field sites that resemble planetary bodies in our Solar System). In addition, they expose the selected planetary field analogues in simulation chambers to conditions that mimic the ones of planets, moons and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space conditions, as well as the chemistry occurring in interstellar and cometary ices. This paper reviews the ways the Earth is used by astrobiologists: (i) by conducting planetary field analogue studies to investigate extant life from extreme environments, its metabolisms, adaptation strategies and modern biosignatures; (ii) by conducting planetary field analogue studies to investigate extinct life from the oldest rocks on our planet and its biosignatures; (iii) by exposing terrestrial samples to simulated space or planetary environments and producing a sample analogue to investigate changes in minerals, biosignatures and microorganisms. The European Space Agency (ESA) created a topical team in 2011 to investigate recent activities using the Earth as a tool for astrobiology and to formulate recommendations and scientific needs to improve ground-based astrobiological research. Space is an important tool for astrobiology (see Horneck et al. in Astrobiology, 16:201-243, 2016; Cottin et al., 2017), but access to space is limited. Complementing research on Earth provides fast access, more replications and higher sample throughput. The major conclusions of the topical team and suggestions for the future include more scientifically qualified calls for field campaigns with planetary analogy, and a centralized point of contact at ESA or the EU for the organization of a survey of such expeditions. An improvement of the coordinated logistics, infrastructures and funding system supporting the combination of field work with planetary simulation investigations, as well as an optimization of the scientific return and data processing

  15. The Independence Case in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lineira, Robert; Cetra, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Scotland is not the only sub-state unit in Europe where relevant political actors make claims for independence. To generate insights on these independence demands, we compare the drivers, arguments and popular support for secession in Scotland, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Flanders. We argue that national identity, party politics and the economy are behind the independence requests, and the exact articulation of these elements varies from case to case. Currently, the most salient of thes...

  16. Comparative flood damage model assessment: towards a European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jongman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide variety of flood damage models in use internationally, differing substantially in their approaches and economic estimates. Since these models are being used more and more as a basis for investment and planning decisions on an increasingly large scale, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties involved and develop a harmonised European approach, in particular with respect to the EU Flood Risks Directive. In this paper we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of seven flood damage models, using two case studies of past flood events in Germany and the United Kingdom. The qualitative analysis shows that modelling approaches vary strongly, and that current methodologies for estimating infrastructural damage are not as well developed as methodologies for the estimation of damage to buildings. The quantitative results show that the model outcomes are very sensitive to uncertainty in both vulnerability (i.e. depth–damage functions and exposure (i.e. asset values, whereby the first has a larger effect than the latter. We conclude that care needs to be taken when using aggregated land use data for flood risk assessment, and that it is essential to adjust asset values to the regional economic situation and property characteristics. We call for the development of a flexible but consistent European framework that applies best practice from existing models while providing room for including necessary regional adjustments.

  17. The European Refugee Crisis from the Perspective of International Migration Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Tingting

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influx of refugees in Europe in 2015 has greatly increased, which not only affects the stability and unity of European society, but also exerts certain pressure on its economic development. In the face of the refugee crisis, it is a dilemma for the European countries to choose either humanitarian or national interests. Starting from the impact and challenge that international migration has had on effective governance within national boundaries, this paper uses the theories of international migration to analyze the three basic choices. Further, the authors provide a new way of thinking about the European refugee crisis from the perspective of international migration governance mechanisms. Of course, China should seize the opportunity to become an advocate of the international migration governance mechanism and rule maker of the global governance.

  18. Globalisation, sustainable development and competencies of landscape change in a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    During the last 10 years the collective goals connected with the agenda of sustainable development has been challenged by the globalisation agenda furthering a global liberalised market with the individual producer and consumer in focus. Only in the local planning and management of the concrete...... on the ability and strength of local authorities to unite for such goals, and that detailed analyses of the power balance between different geographical competences in the rural community is necessary to evaluate the possibilities for a sustainable landscape development in rural areas under the conditions...... landscape the two agendas seems to meet. In a European perspective the European landscape convention has been promoted as a common frame for the promotion of landscape aspect of the sustainability agenda. The paper analyses the EU proposal for a European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) from...

  19. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  20. The evolution of music in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, I briefly review some comparative data that provide an empirical basis for research on the evolution of music making in humans. First, a brief comparison of music and language leads to discussion of design features of music, suggesting a deep connection between the biology of music and language. I then selectively review data on animal "music." Examining sound production in animals, we find examples of repeated convergent evolution or analogy (the evolution of vocal learning of complex songs in birds, whales, and seals). A fascinating but overlooked potential homology to instrumental music is provided by manual percussion in African apes. Such comparative behavioral data, combined with neuroscientific and developmental data, provide an important starting point for any hypothesis about how or why human music evolved. Regarding these functional and phylogenetic questions, I discuss some previously proposed functions of music, including Pinker's "cheesecake" hypothesis; Darwin's and others' sexual selection model; Dunbar's group "grooming" hypothesis; and Trehub's caregiving model. I conclude that only the last hypothesis receives strong support from currently available data. I end with a brief synopsis of Darwin's model of a songlike musical "protolanguage," concluding that Darwin's model is consistent with much of the available evidence concerning the evolution of both music and language. There is a rich future for empirical investigations of the evolution of music, both in investigations of individual differences among humans, and in interspecific investigations of musical abilities in other animals, especially those of our ape cousins, about which we know little.

  1. Information, communication and education on climate change. European perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, W.L.; Mannke, F. [TuTech Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, P. (eds.) [Geologinen Tutkimuslaitos, Espoo (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    It is now beyond any doubt that climate change represents a major threat to the environmental, social and economic well being of the planet. The book under consideration is an attempt to contribute to the global debate on climate change by outlining some educational methods, approaches and projects which have been focusing on climate issues in Europe. The book under consideration consists of the following chapters: (a) ESPACE - A New Transnational Approach to Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (Jill Cook, Doogie Black, Angela Bentham, Tania Stadsbader, Jorn Peters, Lesley van Dijk, Mark Goldthorpe, Tim Yair, Fran Wallington, Meinte de Hoogh, Michael Belau); (b) Communicating Climate Change Impacts - an Approach Derived from two Regional Development Projects (Philipp Schmidt-Thome, Johannes Klein); (c) Baltex Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC) (Hans von Storch, Anders Omstedt, Hans-Joerg Isemer); (d) Promoting Climate friendly Communities in Northamptonshire, United Kingdam (Philip Gray, Shane Conway); (e) Climite Change Mitigation and Sustainability: Educational Issues (Remigijus Ciegis; Dalia Streimikiene, Dalia Gineitiene); (f) Case Study Research as Bridge Builder between Science and the Society - The Rationale behind the ASTRA 2005 Winter Storm Study (Simo Haanpaeae, Lasse Peltonen); (g) Educational Actions in Italy to face the Problem of Climate Change (Eugenia Aloj, Mariagrazia De Castro, Anna Zollo); (h) Teaching Global Climate Change as a Controversial Issue - Active Learning in Higher Education (Evangelos I. Manolas); (i) Regional Climate Change and Coasts - A Case Study on Perception, Information, Dissemination and Education (Gerald Schernewski, Steffen Bock, Holger Janssen, Nardine Loeser, Annemone Himielorz); (j) KLARA-Net: An Interdisciplinary Action Oriented Approach on Climate Change Adaptation (Birte Frommer; Lena Herlitzius); (k) Climate Change, Featuring the ACCROTELM Project: Dissemination of a European RTD

  2. The Slovenian Architect Ciril Metod Koch in a European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Simonišek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian architect and urban planner Ciril Metod Koch (1867–1925 worked in Ljubljana’s town office for almost three decades. He received his degree in Vienna, where he probably studied under the architect Karl von Hasenauer. Especially at the beginning of his career, Koch was influenced by Baron Hasenauer, who was one of the most important architects of the Vienna court. Hasenauer was very close to Emperor Franz Joseph I (with plans for the Art History Museum, Natural History Museum, Imperial Court Theater, Lützow Palace, etc., and had already established his name when Koch came to Vienna. This article also addresses some specific similarities between these two architects, which can be seen on the facades of some buildings today. After Koch finished his studies, he immediately returned to Ljubljana, where he first worked in a private office for the successful builder Filip Supančič. After the 1895 earthquake, he designed many secular buildings in Ljubljana (inns, apartment buildings, detached houses and also worked in the countryside (detached houses, a church, and a bridge. Today his life and work is known only from letters; on the basis of archival reports, more than fifty buildings can be attributed to him. He started with buildings, where he remained committed to the more conservative tradition of historicism. A characteristic feature of his architectural activity is stylistic variety and eclecticism. While Ivan Hribar was mayor of Ljubljana at the turn of the century, Koch was ambitiously developing his sensitive and original form of expression. In his modern works, Koch took international European currents as a model, thereby considerably moving towards the esthetics of the Viennese Secession. At that time Koch probably followed modern trends with the help of international journals: Ver Sacrum (a leading and very popular Austrian journal, the mouthpiece of Vienna Secession and Der Architekt (an important journal for art and

  3. Land Use Planning and Disaster: A European Perspective From Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Ponce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the role of EU and EU Member States in relation to disasters and land use planning. It considers how land use planning can evaluate and manage risks to avoid disasters, paying special attention to the European use of precautionary principle, sometimes explained with the sentence “Better safe than Sorry”. The analysis uses especially, but not only, the example of the Spanish legal system taking into account its inclusion in the more general EU legal system. The study also considers public responsibility in preventing disasters and possible consequences of maladministration when taking planning decisions, using real Spanish cases. Finally, the article explores the possibilities of planning as a tool to prevent disasters in relation to two specific areas: location of nuclear plants and new developments regarding the prevention of crime and terrorist attacks by means of urban planning (the so called Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. El estudio analiza el papel de la Unión Europea (UE y los Estados miembros de la UE en relación con los desastres y la planificación del uso del suelo. Se describe cómo la planificación del uso del suelo puede evaluar y gestionar los riesgos para evitar desastres, prestando especial atención al uso europeo del principio de precaución, a veces resumido en la frase “Más vale prevenir que curar”. El análisis utiliza especialmente, pero no sólo, el ejemplo del sistema jurídico español, teniendo en cuenta su inclusión en el sistema legal general de la UE. El estudio también tiene en cuenta la responsabilidad pública en la prevención de desastres y las posibles consecuencias de la mala administración cuando se toman decisiones de planificación, a través de casos reales españolas. Por último, el artículo explora las posibilidades de la planificación como una herramienta para prevenir desastres en relación a dos áreas específicas: la ubicación de centrales

  4. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2009-01-01

      This presentation takes general view of understanding outdoor education in New Zealand.  This is seen from an outsider's perspective and is compared with "friluftsliv" in Denmark and the Nordic countries. Analysing and understanding one's culture is never easy, and the main challenge is to focus...... on and question everyday phenomena which seem natural and that reproduce one's own perspective. Cultural analysis and the analysis of social configurations together with a comparative cultural perspective form the research approach.  . The presentation is based on a comparative and qualitative case study (Ragin......, 1992) of friluftsliv in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Friluftsliv and outdoor education are understood as socio-cultural constructs which develop and differ in time and space. The theoretical framework is based on ethnological cultural analysis (Ehn & Lofgren, 1982, 2008) combined...

  5. The Topography of Corruption: Explorations in a Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenheimer, Arnold J.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes how corruption is linked to scandalization in the traditions of European countries and how this has helped shape contemporary perceptions. Compares and contrasts levels of tolerance and manifestations of corruption. Includes a table of nations ranked on reputation for corrupt public services. (MJP)

  6. European roadmap on superconductive electronics - status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S. [Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Department of Quantum Detection, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Blamire, M.G. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science, Pembroke St, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Buchholz, F.-Im. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Crete, D.-G. [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/THALES, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau CEDEx (France); Cristiano, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Napoli (Italy); Febvre, P. [University of Savoie, IMEP-LAHC, CNRS UMR 5130, Campus scientifique, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Fritzsch, L. [Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Department of Quantum Detection, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Herr, A. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience - MC2, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Il' ichev, E. [Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Department of Quantum Detection, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Kohlmann, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Kunert, J., E-mail: juergen.kunert@ipht-jena.d [Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Department of Quantum Detection, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Meyer, H.-G. [Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Department of Quantum Detection, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Niemeyer, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ortlepp, T. [Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Theoretische Elektrotechnik, PF 10 05 65 D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Rogalla, H. [University of Twente, Fac. Science and Technology, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Schurig, T. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Device (SQUID). Amongst many other applications SQUIDs are used as sensors for magnetic heart and brain signals in medical applications, as sensor for geological surveying and food-processing and for non-destructive testing. As amplifiers of electrical signals, SQUIDs can nearly reach the theoretical limit given by Quantum Mechanics. A further important field of application is the detection of very weak signals by 'transition-edge' bolometers, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, and superconductive tunnel junctions. Their application as radiation detectors in a wide frequency range, from microwaves to X-rays is now standard. The very low losses of superconductors have led to commercial microwave filter designs that are now widely used in the USA in base stations for cellular phones and in military communication applications. The number of demonstrated applications is continuously increasing and there is no area in professional electronics, in which superconductive electronics cannot be applied and surpasses the performance of classical devices. Superconductive electronics has to be cooled to very low temperatures. Whereas this was a bottleneck in the past, cooling techniques have made a huge step forward in recent years: very compact systems with high reliability and a wide range of cooling power are available commercially, from microcoolers of match-box size with milli-Watt cooling power to high-reliability coolers of many Watts of cooling power for satellite applications. Superconductive electronics will not replace semiconductor electronics and similar room-temperature techniques in standard applications, but for those applications which require very high speed, low-power consumption, extreme sensitivity or extremely high precision, superconductive electronics is superior to all other available techniques. To strengthen the European competitiveness in superconductor electronics research projects have to be set-up in the following field: - Ultra

  7. European roadmap on superconductive electronics - status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, S.; Blamire, M. G.; Buchholz, F.-Im.; Crété, D.-G.; Cristiano, R.; Febvre, P.; Fritzsch, L.; Herr, A.; Il'ichev, E.; Kohlmann, J.; Kunert, J.; Meyer, H.-G.; Niemeyer, J.; Ortlepp, T.; Rogalla, H.; Schurig, T.; Siegel, M.; Stolz, R.; Tarte, E.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Toepfer, H.; Villegier, J.-C.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Zorin, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    many other applications SQUIDs are used as sensors for magnetic heart and brain signals in medical applications, as sensor for geological surveying and food-processing and for non-destructive testing. As amplifiers of electrical signals, SQUIDs can nearly reach the theoretical limit given by Quantum Mechanics. A further important field of application is the detection of very weak signals by ‘transition-edge’ bolometers, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, and superconductive tunnel junctions. Their application as radiation detectors in a wide frequency range, from microwaves to X-rays is now standard. The very low losses of superconductors have led to commercial microwave filter designs that are now widely used in the USA in base stations for cellular phones and in military communication applications. The number of demonstrated applications is continuously increasing and there is no area in professional electronics, in which superconductive electronics cannot be applied and surpasses the performance of classical devices. Superconductive electronics has to be cooled to very low temperatures. Whereas this was a bottleneck in the past, cooling techniques have made a huge step forward in recent years: very compact systems with high reliability and a wide range of cooling power are available commercially, from microcoolers of match-box size with milli-Watt cooling power to high-reliability coolers of many Watts of cooling power for satellite applications. Superconductive electronics will not replace semiconductor electronics and similar room-temperature techniques in standard applications, but for those applications which require very high speed, low-power consumption, extreme sensitivity or extremely high precision, superconductive electronics is superior to all other available techniques. To strengthen the European competitiveness in superconductor electronics research projects have to be set-up in the following field: Ultra-sensitive sensing and imaging

  8. Developmental Plasticity and Language: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Pepperberg, Irene M; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-04-01

    The growing field of evo-devo is increasingly demonstrating the complexity of steps involved in genetic, intracellular regulatory, and extracellular environmental control of the development of phenotypes. A key result of such work is an account for the remarkable plasticity of organismal form in many species based on relatively minor changes in regulation of highly conserved genes and genetic processes. Accounting for behavioral plasticity is of similar potential interest but has received far less attention. Of particular interest is plasticity in communication systems, where human language represents an ultimate target for research. The present paper considers plasticity of language capabilities in a comparative framework, focusing attention on examples of a remarkable fact: Whereas there exist design features of mature human language that have never been observed to occur in non-humans in the wild, many of these features can be developed to notable extents when non-humans are enculturated through human training (especially with intensive social interaction). These examples of enculturated developmental plasticity across extremely diverse taxa suggest, consistent with the evo-devo theme of highly conserved processes in evolution, that human language is founded in part on cognitive capabilities that are indeed ancient and that even modern humans show self-organized emergence of many language capabilities in the context of rich enculturation, built on the special social/ecological history of the hominin line. Human culture can thus be seen as a regulatory system encouraging language development in the context of a cognitive background with many highly conserved features. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    landslides. Along with a large number of small, but costly landslide events and widespread insidious damages, the interplay of these societal trends determines landslide hazard and risk in Germany or elsewhere in Central Europe (e.g., Houlihan, 1994; Klose et al., 2015). The case studies presented here help to better understand human-environment interactions in the hazard context. Although there has been substantial progress in assessing landslide hazards, integrated approaches with an interdisciplinary focus are still exceptional. The scope of historical datasets available for hazard assessments, however, covers the whole range of natural and social systems interacting with hazards, their influences on overall system vulnerability, and the feedbacks, time lags, and couplings among these systems. In combination with methods from the natural and social sciences, systems analysis supports hazard assessments across disciplinary boundaries to take a broader look at landslide hazards as is usually done. References Houlihan, B., 1994. Europe's ageing infrastructure: Politics, finance and the environment. Utilities Policy 4, 243-252. Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., Alberti, M., Folke, C., Moran, E., Pell, A.N., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., Lubchenco, J., Ostrom, E., Ouyang, Z., Provencher, W., Redman, C.L., Schneider, S.H., Taylor, W.W., 2007. Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Science 317, 1513-1516. Klose, M., Damm, B., Maurischat, P., 2015. Landslide impacts in Germany: A historical and socioeconomic perspective. Landslides, doi:10.1007/s10346-015-0643-9.

  10. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    homogenoues export markets but ingeneral confirms the heterogeneity of the European fo cultures. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective...... of being one of the most generally open food cultures of Europe with relatively many overlapping characteristicsw with other European food cultures....

  11. Ceftobiprole for the treatment of pneumonia: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapikou, Adamantia; Cillóniz, Catia; Torres, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a new broad spectrum, parenteral cephalosporin, exhibits potent in vitro activity against a number of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gram-negative pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to ceftriaxone with or without linezolid in CAP, with clinical cure rates 86.6% versus 87.4%, or ceftazidime in HAP, with clinical cure rates of 77% versus 76%, respectively. However, ceftobiprole was inferior in the subgroup of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Ceftobiprole has so far demonstrated a good safety profile in preliminary studies, with similar tolerability to comparators. The most commonly observed adverse events of ceftobiprole included headache and gastrointestinal upset. It is the first cephalosporin monotherapy approved in the EU for the treatment of both CAP and HAP (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia).

  12. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  13. Box III-1: Comparing emissions from 9 European cities and their bus fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The urgent need to reconfigure urban areas to consume fewer resources, generate less pollution, be more resilient to the impacts of extreme events and become more sustainable in general, is widely recognised. To address these issues, requires integrated thinking across a range of urban systems, topics, issues and perspectives that are traditionally considered separately. This book introduces key results from the European Science Foundation funded COST Action TU0902 network t...

  14. High resolution earth observation satellites and services in the next decade a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Gunter; Dech, Stefan

    2005-07-01

    Projects to use very high resolution optical satellite sensor data started in the late 90s and are believed to be the major driver for the commercialisation of earth observation. The global political security situation and updated legislative frameworks created new opportunities for high resolution, dual use satellite systems. In addition to new optical sensors, very high resolution synthetic aperture radars will become in the next few years an important component in the imaging satellite fleet. The paper will review the development in this domain so far, and give perspectives on future emerging markets and opportunities. With dual-use satellite initiatives and new political frameworks agreed between the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), the European market becomes very attractive for both service suppliers and customers. The political focus on "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security" (GMES) and the "European Defence and Security Policy" drive and amplify this demand which ranges from low resolution climate monitoring to very high resolution reconnaissance tasks. In order to create an operational and sustainable GMES in Europe by 2007, the European infrastructure need to be adapted and extended. This includes the ESA SENTINEL and OXYGEN programmes, aiming for a fleet of earth observation satellites and an open and operational earth observation ground segment. The harmonisation of national and regional geographic information is driven by the European Commission's INSPIRE programme. The necessary satellite capacity to complement existing systems in the delivery of space based data required for GMES is currently under definition. Embedded in a market with global competition and in the global political framework of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, European companies, agencies and research institutions are now contributing to this joint undertaking. The paper addresses the chances, risks and options for the future.

  15. Comparing Chinese and English Anger Metaphors from a Semantic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培珊

    2007-01-01

    The thesis targets at a preliminary comparison of anger metaphors between Chinese and English. Compared in terms of container metaphor and containment schema from the perspective of cognitive semantics, the anger metaphorical expressions of the two languages are observed to be of differences as well as similarities.

  16. Sexual harassment in tertiary institutions: A comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Janice

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective...

  17. Comparing Theoretical Perspectives in Describing Mathematics Departments: Complexity and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2010-01-01

    We draw on two studies of mathematics departments in 11-18 comprehensive maintained schools in England to compare and contrast the insights provided by differing theoretical perspectives. In one study, activity theory was used to describe common features of the work of three departments. In the other, a mathematics department was viewed and…

  18. The Biology and Evolution of Music: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the biology of music (as of language) are highly interdisciplinary and demand the integration of diverse strands of evidence. In this paper, I present a comparative perspective on the biology and evolution of music, stressing the value of comparisons both with human language, and with those animal communication systems traditionally…

  19. How do European democracies compare when it comes to the length of ministerial careers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bright, Jonathan; Doring, Holger; Little, Conor

    Ministerial careers can be notoriously nasty, brutish, and short, with the doctrine of ministerial accountability leading to numerous prematurely ended political careers. But how do European democracies compare? Looking at evidence from seven countries, Jonathan Bright, Holger Doring, and Conor...

  20. How do European democracies compare when it comes to the length of ministerial careers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bright, Jonathan; Doring, Holger; Little, Conor

    Ministerial careers can be notoriously nasty, brutish, and short, with the doctrine of ministerial accountability leading to numerous prematurely ended political careers. But how do European democracies compare? Looking at evidence from seven countries, Jonathan Bright, Holger Doring, and Conor...

  1. Considerations Regarding Comparative Management in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Constantin Dima; Camelia Mihai

    2005-01-01

    The comparative management represents the science that studies managerial processes and relations within those organizations which function in different cultural and national contexts, being centered on determining and analyzing managerial similarities and differences.

  2. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    contain uncertainties, which must be quantified and included in the error budget. This is a prerequisite for combining and comparing data. The purpose of this study is to compare, taking into account uncertainties, forest area estimates for year 2000 derived from four different harmonized satellite...... the best accordance with official statistics due to its focus on land use. The other maps overestimated the forest area in mountainous countries and showed underestimation in countries with large forest area or open forest formations....

  3. Mental imagery of positive and neutral memories: A fMRI study comparing field perspective imagery to observer perspective imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; Vingerhoets, Guy; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-02-01

    Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories. Behavioral results revealed field perspective imagery of positive memories, as compared to observer perspective, to be associated with more positive feelings afterwards. At the neurobiological level, contrasting observer perspective to field perspective imagery was associated with greater activity, or less decrease relative to the control visual search task, in the right precuneus and in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Greater activity in the right TPJ during an observer perspective as compared to field perspective could reflect performing a greater shift of perspective and mental state during observer perspective imagery than field perspective imagery. Differential activity in the precuneus may reflect that during observer perspective imagery individuals are more likely to engage in (self-) evaluative processing and visuospatial processing. Our findings contribute to a growing understanding of how imagery perspective can influence the type of information that is recalled and the intensity of the emotional response. Observer perspective imagery may not automatically reduce emotional intensity but this could depend on how the imagined situation is evaluated in relation to the self-concept.

  4. Can hospitals prohibit euthanasia? An analysis from a European human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    At present, in four European countries euthanasia and/ or physician assisted suicide (PAS) are tolerated under strict legal conditions. However, in practice these patient groups are often deprived of the possibility to undergo such decisions. Particularly Catholic health care institutions have developed policies which restrict the internal application of the law. Yet, the legitimacy of such policies is questionable. From a European human rights perspective it can be defended that the freedom of association allows hospitals to develop policies elaborating their ethical stances on euthanasia and PAS. However, to respect the patient's right to self-determination the concerned hospitals should at least inform current and future patients about the restrictive policy and deal carefully with euthanasia and PAS requests. If a patient's wish remains seriously incompatible with the ethical stances of the hospital, at least reasonable and attainable alternatives (such as a referral to a tolerant regional hospital) should be offered.

  5. A parimutuel gambling perspective to compare probabilistic seismicity forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechar, J. Douglas; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2014-10-01

    Using analogies to gaming, we consider the problem of comparing multiple probabilistic seismicity forecasts. To measure relative model performance, we suggest a parimutuel gambling perspective which addresses shortcomings of other methods such as likelihood ratio, information gain and Molchan diagrams. We describe two variants of the parimutuel approach for a set of forecasts: head-to-head, in which forecasts are compared in pairs, and round table, in which all forecasts are compared simultaneously. For illustration, we compare the 5-yr forecasts of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models experiment for M4.95+ seismicity in California.

  6. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  7. For or Against the Eurozone? Romanian Students’ Perspective on the Economic Crisis and Their Future as European Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Daniela MIHALCEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and of the aftermath of the economic crisis, the pillars on which the EU stands no longer satisfy the demands and necessities of the European citizens (Van Ham, 2005; Habermas, 2012.  The euro crisis has generated, on one hand, a gap between the “center” and the “periphery” that can be correlated with the fragmentation both of the EU’s spheres of influence and of the European financial market (Dobrescu & Palada, 2012; EFCR, 2013.  On the other hand, the euro crisis has generated a lack of solidarity and confidence in the European project. At this point, the major challenge for the European Union is not only the Euro-zone crisis, but also the level of confidence amongst young people. Recent polls (Gallup, 2013; Pew Research Center, 2013 indicate a dramatic rise in pessimism among Europe’s young people that have been labeled as “the Lost Generation” (European Commission, 2012. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on Romanian students’ attitudes towards the future of the European project and towards their European identity. The study aims at identifying the major concerns of Romanian students in terms of their future as European citizens. Our approach of this subject covers two perspectives: the first one is the utilitarian perspective, that is taking into consideration the actual advantages of the Europeanization process and the sustainability of the European social and economic model in the current national economic context; the second one is the identity perspective, that is taking into account the impact of the economic crisis on the Romanian students’ sense of belonging to the European community. The results of our study indicate that, overall, the Romanian youth holds an optimistic view concerning the EU, however they express some concerns in terms of lack of solidarity and fear of national identity loss.

  8. Comparative or competitive advantages of Ljubljana in the European integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler Milanović

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comparative advantages of Ljubljana, the capital city of Slovenia, in the process of international and European integrations and the competitiveness of cities in the framework of the sustainable development paradigm. The aim of the article is to define the advantages and factors that are important for the future role of Ljubljana in the network of European cities, as well as to devise an empirical basis that can be used for strategists of urban development and researchers in the fields of urban and regional development. Special emphasis is given to the position and role of Ljubljana in comparison to other cities in Slovenia and to the comparative analysis between Ljubljana and chosen (sample and competitive cities within the European Union, Central European capital cities and nearby cross border cities within the framework of the Alpe-Adria union.

  9. Comparative decline in funding of European Commission malaria vaccine projects: what next for the European scientists working in this field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoukhuede Egeruan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, under the Fifth and subsequent Framework Programmes, the European Commission has funded research to spur the development of a malaria vaccine. This funding has contributed to the promotion of an integrated infrastructure consisting of European basic, applied and clinical scientists in academia and small and medium enterprises, together with partners in Africa. Research has added basic understanding of what is required of a malaria vaccine, allowing selected candidates to be prioritized and some to be moved forward into clinical trials. To end the health burden of malaria, and its economic and social impact on development, the international community has now essentially committed itself to the eventual eradication of malaria. Given the current tentative advances towards elimination or eradication of malaria in many endemic areas, malaria vaccines constitute an additional and almost certainly essential component of any strategic plan to interrupt transmission of malaria. However, funding for malaria vaccines has been substantially reduced in the Seventh Framework Programme compared with earlier Framework Programmes, and without further support the gains made by earlier European investment will be lost.

  10. Transculturality as a Perspective: Researching Media Cultures Comparatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hepp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on media cultures operates in a "national-territorial" frame. Media cultures are considered as national cultures and other forms of media culture (for example professional journalism cultures, diasporas, celebrity cultures etc. are not investigated in their "deterritorial" character. But it is exactly such deterritorial forms of media culture that are gaining relevance with the ongoing pace of media globalization: they therefore have to be placed in the focus of comparative media and communication research. Starting with this consideration, the article develops a transcultural perspective on researching media cultures. Within this perspective it becomes possible to conduct comparative research on (territorial national media cultures as well as on other (deterritorial forms of present media cultures, as this approach moves the processes of cultural construction and articulation into the focus of analysis. To arrive at a better understanding of this approach, "media cultures" are defined as translocal phenomena in their territorial as well as their deterritorial relations. Based on this, the "semantics" of a transcultural research perspective are outlined, which then makes it possible to formulate practical principles for carrying out comparative qualitative research within this framework. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901267

  11. Comparative Analysis on Romanian Taxation in the European Context, as a Prerequisite for Tax Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of tax harmonization at EU level is becoming more present in the global crisis context, as it is both accepted and disputed by the European officials that manifest their preference for either coordination or tax competition. The crisis has generated, among other things, large budget deficits and a dangerous crisis of debts in the euro area, a situation that has attracted many followers in terms of tax harmonization. There is a European regulated Area, a unique European market, European unique currency and common monetary policy which regard the criteria relating to public finances (budget deficits, public debt. We ask ourselves to what extent it is necessary to achieve coordination or even tax unification and how does that help. This paper examines, according to the statistical database, the level and type of taxation, on categories of taxes and as a share of GDP, in Romania compared to EU countries, in order to clarify the current situation, the existing differences, the prospect of good European practice. If we speak of tax harmonization in terms of being acquired by Romania, the conclusion is that we can not report only to the technical or quantifiable aspects, as compared with the best results in European area, because they do not represent a guarantee of similar results. The fiscal policy must be both a prerequisite and a consequence of sustainable economic and financial policies, and the tax harmonization can only help insofar as it relates to the relationships between states and not at the tax level.

  12. Transition into the workplace: comparing health graduates' and organisational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Arlene; Costa, Beth M

    2017-02-01

    Health graduates face personal and work-related stressors during the graduate year. The extent to which employers and health graduates have a shared understanding of graduate stressors is unclear but may impact graduate support and transition into the health profession. Aim and design: The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify factors that impact health graduates' transition and integration into the workplace, comparing the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives. Individual and small group semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical and 26 nursing graduates and five organisational representatives from a regional health organisation in Victoria, Australia. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the data. Five main categories were identified: dealing with change, dealing with conflict, workload, taking responsibility and factors that influence performance. Similarities and differences in the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives were identified. These findings have implications for current graduate support programs.

  13. Qualitative Life-Grids: A Proposed Method for Comparative European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul; McLean, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon their large three-year mixed-method study comparing four English university sociology departments, the authors demonstrate the benefits to be gained from concisely recording biographical stories on life-grids. They argue that life-grids have key benefits which are important for comparative European educational research. Some of these…

  14. PARTICIPATION AND INTEGRATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF PERSONS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY FROM FIVE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruoranen, Kaisa; Post, Marcel W. M.; Juvalta, Sibylle; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subjective understanding of participation and integration of persons with spinal cord injuries from 5 European countries and to compare these findings with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)'s conceptualization of participation. Met

  15. The European Neighbourhood Policy in perspective: context, implementation and impact / Edited by Richard G. Whitman, Stefan Wolff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia BUREIKO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP – the EU’s initiative to launch deeper relations between the European Union and its neighbourhood both in the political and economic fields – was developed in the context of 2004 EU enlargement which aimed at materialising Brussels’ aspirations for deeper integration with the surrounding states, the immediate backyard of the EU. Through the ENP the EU has struggled to preserve the attractiveness of the European model for neighbouring states by using various mechanism of cooperation, however without offering them a full-fledged membership perspective. The ENP was intended to become a tool for shaping a stable environment for the European integration processes, guaranteeing security and stability, supporting democracy and the rule of law. In such way, the ENP was meant to establish a ring of friends on the European Union borders.

  16. Sexual harassment in tertiary institutions: A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Janice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective. It specifically focuses on the definition of sexual harassment, incidence of sexual harassment of students in tertiary institutions, effects of sexual harassment on victims; and victims’ responses to sexual harassment. It also offers suggestions for curtailing sexual harassment in these institutions.

  17. Comparing Structural Perspectives on Medical Informatics: EMBASE vs. MEDLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theodore Allan

    2003-01-01

    Previous bibliometric analyses of Medical Informatics’ internal structure used MEDLINE records as the unit of study. EMBASE, a product of Excerpta Medica, carries a wider international scope and offers complementary retrieval results to MEDLINE. Since much medical informatics critical thinking originated abroad and migrated to North America, this difference in coverage may also indicate a different perspective of “what constitutes medical informatics.” Using traditional bibliometric and multivariate data analysis techniques, the present work examines EMBASE indexing records for the same 1995–1999 time frame as earlier MEDLINE studies to identify and compare structural features of the field.. PMID:14728448

  18. Comparing structural perspectives on Medical Informatics: EMBASE vs. MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theodore Allan

    2003-01-01

    Previous bibliometric analyses of Medical Informatics' internal structure used MEDLINE records as the unit of study. EMBASE, a product of Excerpta Medica, carries a wider international scope and offers complementary retrieval results to MEDLINE. Since much medical informatics critical thinking originated abroad and migrated to North America, this difference in coverage may also indicate a different perspective of "what constitutes medical informatics." Using traditional bibliometric and multivariate data analysis techniques, the present work examines EMBASE indexing records for the same 1995-1999 time frame as earlier MEDLINE studies to identify and compare structural features of the field.

  19. The evolution of the music faculty: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D; McDermott, Josh

    2003-07-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for exploring the evolution of the music faculty from a comparative perspective. This framework addresses questions of phylogeny, adaptive function, innate biases and perceptual mechanisms. We argue that comparative studies can make two unique contributions to investigations of the origins of music. First, musical exposure can be controlled and manipulated to an extent not possible in humans. Second, any features of music perception found in nonhuman animals must not be part of an adaptation for music, and must rather be side effects of more general features of perception or cognition. We review studies that use animal research to target specific aspects of music perception (such as octave generalization), as well as studies that investigate more general and shared systems of the mind/brain that may be relevant to music (such as rhythm perception and emotional encoding). Finally, we suggest several directions for future work, following the lead of comparative studies on the language faculty.

  20. Is the Perspective of a Closer French Policy toward Russian a threat for Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim BELGACEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current world is not moving as all specialists predicted. Brexit, Trump, everyone was wrong. This paper will have two targets: describing the French policy toward Russia, making a perspective on the future policy, whatever the new French presidency in 2017, Francois Hollande will transmit the key to his successor with new election. He refused to compete for a second mandate. It is good to remind that Hollande was involving in the Ukrainian affairs and had managed with Germany the Minsk I and II agreements. He also had suspended Mistral ships selling and approving sanctions against Russia. How will be the future with François Fillon, Marine Le Pen or other? The analysis will be focusing on the future relationships toward Russia and Eastern European Countries.

  1. Clinical development of gene therapy needs a tailored approach: a regulatory perspective from the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Gopalan; Cossu, Giulio; Galli, Maria Cristina; Flory, Egbert; Ovelgonne, Hans; Salmikangas, Paula; Schneider, Christian K; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy is a rapidly evolving field that needs an integrated approach, as acknowledged in the concept article on the revision of the guideline on gene transfer medicinal products. The first gene therapy application for marketing authorization was approved in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) region in 2012, the product being Alipogene tiparvovec. The regulatory process for this product has been commented on extensively, highlighting the challenges posed by such a novel technology. Here, as current or previous members of the Committee for Advanced Therapies, we share our perspectives and views on gene therapy as a treatment modality based on current common understanding and regulatory experience of gene therapy products in the European Union to date. It is our view that a tailored approach is needed for a given gene therapy product in order to achieve successful marketing authorization.

  2. Pan-European backcasting exercise, enriched with regional perspective, and including a list of short-term policy options

    OpenAIRE

    KOK, K.; Vliet, Van; Bärlund, I.; Sendzimir, J.; Dubel, A.

    2011-01-01

    This deliverable reports on the results of the third and final pan-European stakeholder meeting and secondly, on the enrichment with a Pilot Area and regional perspective. The main emphasis is on backcasting as a means to arrive at long-term strategies and short-term (policy) actions.

  3. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.V. Thomas; L. Bijlsma; S. Castiglioni; A. Covaci; E. Emke; R. Grabic; F. Hernández; S. Karolak; B. Kasprzyk-Hordern; R.H. Lindberg; A. Meierjohann; C. Ort; Y. Pico; J. Quintana; M. Reid; J. Rieckermann; S. Terzic; A.L.N. van Nuijs; P. de Voogt

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare il

  4. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, K.V.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; Emke, E.; Grabic, R.; Hernández, F.; Karolak, S.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Lindberg, R.H.; Meierjohann, A.; Ort, C.; Pico, Y.; Quintana, J.; Reid, M.; Rieckermann, J.; Terzic, S.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare

  5. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  6. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  7. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  8. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  9. Intercultural Education in the European Context: Key Remarks from a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on some findings of a comparative study carried out by a network of scholars and researchers who are active in the field of intercultural education in the European context in the main "old immigration countries" (United Kingdom, France and Germany), "new immigration countries" (Italy, Spain and Greece) and…

  10. COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON MARKET-ORIENTED MODELS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaciu Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of corporate governance requires not only the knowledge of economic, financial, managerial and sociological mechanisms and norms, but it must also incorporate an ethical dimension, while remaining aware of the demands of various stakeholders. The interest towards good governance practice is very present in the company laws of many countries. National differences may lead to specific attributes derived from the meaning that is given to the role of competition and market dispersion of capital. Based on a research consisting of a critical and comparative perspective, the present contribution is dominated by qualitative and mixed methods. In conclusion, it can be said that a market-oriented corporate governance model, though not part of the European Union’s convergence process, may very well respond to the increasing importance of investors’ rights and to the gradual evolution of corporate responsibilities, beyond the national context, with the aim of ensuring market liberalization.

  11. Natural Hazard Management from a Coevolutionary Perspective: Exposure and Policy Response in the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Röthlisberger, Veronika; Thaler, Thomas; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2017-03-04

    A coevolutionary perspective is adopted to understand the dynamics of exposure to mountain hazards in the European Alps. A spatially explicit, object-based temporal assessment of elements at risk to mountain hazards (river floods, torrential floods, and debris flows) in Austria and Switzerland is presented for the period from 1919 to 2012. The assessment is based on two different data sets: (1) hazard information adhering to legally binding land use planning restrictions and (2) information on building types combined from different national-level spatial data. We discuss these transdisciplinary dynamics and focus on economic, social, and institutional interdependencies and interactions between human and physical systems. Exposure changes in response to multiple drivers, including population growth and land use conflicts. The results show that whereas some regional assets are associated with a strong increase in exposure to hazards, others are characterized by a below-average level of exposure. The spatiotemporal results indicate relatively stable hot spots in the European Alps. These results coincide with the topography of the countries and with the respective range of economic activities and political settings. Furthermore, the differences between management approaches as a result of multiple institutional settings are discussed. A coevolutionary framework widens the explanatory power of multiple drivers to changes in exposure and risk and supports a shift from structural, security-based policies toward an integrated, risk-based natural hazard management system.

  12. Flood hazard management from a coevolutionary perspective: exposure and policy response in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Röthlisberger, Veronika; Thaler, Thomas; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2017-04-01

    A coevolutionary perspective is adopted to understand the dynamics of exposure to hydrological hazards in the European Alps. A spatially explicit, object-based temporal assessment of elements at risk to flood hazards (river floods, torrential floods and debris flows) in Austria and Switzerland is presented for the 1919-2012 period. The assessment is based on two different datasets, (a) hazard information adhering to legally binding land use planning restrictions and (b) information on building types combined from different national level spatial data. We discuss these transdisciplinary dynamics and focus on economic, social and institutional interdependencies and interactions between human and physical systems. Exposure changes in the response to multiple drivers, including population growth and land use conflicts. The results show that while some regional assets are associated with a strong increase in exposure to hazards, others are characterized by a below-average level of exposure. The spatiotemporal results indicate relatively stable hot spots in the European Alps. These results coincide with the topography of the countries and with the respective range of economic activities and political settings. Furthermore, the differences between management approaches as a result of multiple institutional settings are discussed. A coevolutionary framework widens the explanatory power of multiple drivers to changes in exposure and risk, and supports a shift from structural, security-based policies towards an integrated, risk-based natural hazard management system.

  13. Natural Hazard Management from a Coevolutionary Perspective: Exposure and Policy Response in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Röthlisberger, Veronika; Thaler, Thomas; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2017-01-01

    A coevolutionary perspective is adopted to understand the dynamics of exposure to mountain hazards in the European Alps. A spatially explicit, object-based temporal assessment of elements at risk to mountain hazards (river floods, torrential floods, and debris flows) in Austria and Switzerland is presented for the period from 1919 to 2012. The assessment is based on two different data sets: (1) hazard information adhering to legally binding land use planning restrictions and (2) information on building types combined from different national-level spatial data. We discuss these transdisciplinary dynamics and focus on economic, social, and institutional interdependencies and interactions between human and physical systems. Exposure changes in response to multiple drivers, including population growth and land use conflicts. The results show that whereas some regional assets are associated with a strong increase in exposure to hazards, others are characterized by a below-average level of exposure. The spatiotemporal results indicate relatively stable hot spots in the European Alps. These results coincide with the topography of the countries and with the respective range of economic activities and political settings. Furthermore, the differences between management approaches as a result of multiple institutional settings are discussed. A coevolutionary framework widens the explanatory power of multiple drivers to changes in exposure and risk and supports a shift from structural, security-based policies toward an integrated, risk-based natural hazard management system.

  14. The European Teacher: Transnational Perspectives in Teacher Education Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schratz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The future role of teachers in Europe will contribute to raising the awareness of a new expectation of what it means to be a "European Teacher”. If there is unity in diversity through national identities, the question remains: what makes a teacher “European”? Answering this unusual question, one encounters several aspects that have strong national traits of what it means to teach in a particular country (e.g. political culture, which still does not enable teachers to easily move their employment from one country to another because of differences in career structure, teacher education, selection and recruitment, etc. However, there are many similarities in general teacher competences that are required throughout Europe and beyond. This paper looks at teacher professionalism from various perspectives, attempts to discern the “Europeanness” in teachers’ work and mobility as a goal, and highlights particular policy development areas necessary to stimulate further discussions. The depiction of a European Doctorate in Teacher Education concludes the paper.

  15. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism.

  16. The GOLF-NG prototype and the solar European perspective for cosmic vision 2015-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mathur, Savita; Ballot, Jerome; GarcIa, Rafael A; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Barriere, Jean-Christophe; Daniel-Thomas, Philippe; Delbart, Alain; Desforges, Daniel; Granelli, Remi; Nunio, Francois; Piret, Yves [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France and Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot - DAPNIA/SAp, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Palle, Pere L; Jimenez, Antonio J; Jimenez-Reyes, Sebastian J; Simoniello, Rosaria [IAC, Calle Via Lactea s/n, la Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: sylvaine.turck-chieze@cea.fr

    2008-10-15

    The progress on the dynamics of the radiative zone by global Doppler velocity measurements aboard SoHO (GOLF+ MDI) and with ground networks (BiSON and GONG) opens a new perspective for solar and stellar physics. It is why we prepare a new generation of solar resonant spectrometer. The objectives of the GOLF-NG instrument and its present status are described. We have demonstrated this year that most of the technical challenges have been successfully faced and the next steps are mentioned. We then recall the scientific questions that might be solved with the next generation of instruments in construction in different european laboratories to reach a complete 3D vision of our star from the core to the corona. Two formation flying missions DynaMICCS and HIRISE have been proposed to ESA in the framework of the 2015-2025 Cosmic Vision perspective to contribute to solve these questions. A strategy of measurements must be found for the next decade.

  17. On the Geography of Accountability: Comparative Analysis of Teachers' Experiences across Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jorg; Hernandez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Different forms of accountability are part of educational restructuring across Europe. This article will focus on the different national configurations of accountability from teachers' point of view. A comparative perspective will enlarge on commonalities and differences between teachers' experiences in Spain, Portugal, Ireland, England, Sweden,…

  18. Comparative decline in funding of European Commission malaria vaccine projects: what next for the European scientists working in this field?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Regitze L; Holder, Anthony A; Hill, Adrian Vs

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Since 2000, under the Fifth and subsequent Framework Programmes, the European Commission has funded research to spur the development of a malaria vaccine. This funding has contributed to the promotion of an integrated infrastructure consisting of European basic, applied and clinical sci...

  19. Change in European local governments: A comparative study / Transformación y cambio del gobierno local en Europa: un estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmut Wollmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a comparative perspective and starting from the concept of institutionalism, this paper provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of change in local government in six major European countries (England, Sweden, France, Italy and Spain, as representatives of the western, central and Mediterranean European countries, with country-specific intergovernmental architecture and political and administrative culture. Our study considers a set of variables related to institutional change and administrative modernisation. Although there are common trends, similarities and differences will be estimated in order to shed some light on the degree of their convergence or divergence. The comparative results across countries suggest that although change is a similar trend, there exist significant cross-country specific differences that underly the importance of institutional dimensions.

  20. COMPARABLE ANALYSIS REGARDING KEY MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS ON MOLDOVA’S WAY TOWARDS EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina GANCIUCOV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As Moldova has the purpose to enter the European Union the actual situation in the country is analyzed in this article. The article gives the comparative analysis of the basic parameters of Moldova with the other European Union country-members to define the ways of development of the country in the given direction. Since 1994 relations between Moldova and the European Union have developed on an upward trajectory. The dialogue between the two sides officially started that year with the signing of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA, which entered into force in 1998 and provided the basis for cooperation with the EU in political, commercial, economic, legal, cultural fields. EU-Moldova relations have advanced to a higher level in 2009 when the country participated in the Eastern Partnership – an instrument of European policy that favored the signing on 29 May 2013 of the Association Agreement, the document which came to replace previous PCA and that is currently the most important element of the legal framework of Moldova-EU dialogue. But beyond the respective treaties signed, individually, between EU and states that intend to join the European community, there are a number of fundamental requirements3 (criteria, which condition the process of European integration of the state with declared intentions of accession. The aim of the research is to analyze to what extent Moldovan economy meet the requirements of economic alignment with EU standards, achieving a comparative analysis of the main relevant macroeconomic indicators. Research methodology. For analysis were used analysis-synthesis method, comparison method and others. Results of the analysis. Part of the criteria analyzed converge with EU requirements, while the most relevant indicators regarding standards of living show reserves show reserves for future improvement, such as the average wage, the lending rate, the exchange rate of the Moldovan Leu against the major international

  1. A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the psychophysical judgment of mobile display color appearances between Europeans and Asians. A total of 50 participants, comprising 20 Europeans (9 French, 6 Swedish, 3 Norwegians, and 2 Germans) and 30 Asians (30 Koreans) participated in this experiment. A total of 18 display stimuli with different correlated color temperatures were presented, varying from 2,470 to 18,330 K. Each stimulus was viewed under 11 illuminants ranging from 2,530 to 19,760 K, while their illuminance was consistent around 500 lux. The subjects were asked to assess the optimal level of the display stimuli under different illuminants. In general, confirming the previous studies on color reproduction, we found a positive correlation in the correlated color temperatures between the illuminants and optimal displays. However, Europeans preferred a lower color temperature compared to Asians along the entire range of the illuminants. Two regression equations were derived to predict the optimal display color temperature (y) under varying illuminants (x) as follows: y = α + β*log(x), where α = -8770.37 and β = 4279.29 for European (R2 = 0.95, p < .05), and α = -16076.35 and β = 6388.41 for Asian (R2 = 0.85, p < .05). The findings provide the theoretical basis from which manufacturers can take a cultural-sensitive approach to enhancing their products' appeal in the global markets.

  2. Self-regulation and the new challenges in journalism: Comparative study across European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Karmasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.

  3. Comparative analyses of regional politics of the European Union and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show through the comparative analysis, the basic characteristics of regional policy, or the policy of support to the development of less developed areas in our country compared to the regional policy of European Union, with an accent on the instruments for implementation of that policy. Without putting accent on different starting positions for those two development policies, what is for sure the main reason of differences in realized results, the experiences of European Union can be in any case useful and instructive for Serbia as a country with a task of rationalization and establishment of an effective regional policy being a necessity in the forthcoming period.

  4. COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF TAXES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION DURING THE PERIOD 1995-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen UNGUREANU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax burden has constantly increased in the countries of the European Union at the end of the 90’s, largely reflecting an expansion of the public sector. During that period, many EU countries adopted measures to lower taxes, but the tax system level is still high compared with other countries. The mix of tax policies is very different from country to country.

  5. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability: Comparing U.S. States and European Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerberg, J; Feldman, M; Srholec, M. (Martin)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors that shape the technological capabilities of individual U.S. states and European countries, which are arguably comparable policy units. The analysis demonstrates convergence in technological capabilities from 2000 to 2007. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as a highly educated labor force, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety, condition the growth of technological capability. The analys...

  6. A Comparative Analysis on Arab and European Identity Structures: Portraying Distinctive Transnational Identity Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Joelle Chamieh

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen Arab countries speaking the same language (Arabic) and sharing the same cultural background, yet so far, a superficial coordination exists among them. Whereas, comparatively, European community members, who have less in common (in terms of multilingual and multicultural societies), have succeeded in forming a certain unified transnational identity structure. In order to understand this perplexity which indicates an apparent incoherence vis-à-vis both identity formations – in terms of...

  7. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  8. Patient-Focused Benefit-Risk Analysis to Inform Regulatory Decisions: The European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin; Beyer, Andrea R; Garner, Sarah

    Regulatory decisions are often based on multiple clinical end points, but the perspectives used to judge the relative importance of those end points are predominantly those of expert decision makers rather than of the patient. However, there is a growing awareness that active patient and public participation can improve decision making, increase acceptance of decisions, and improve adherence to treatments. The assessment of risk versus benefit requires not only information on clinical outcomes but also value judgments about which outcomes are important and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. There are a number of mechanisms for capturing the input of patients, and regulatory bodies within the European Union are participating in several initiatives. These can include patients directly participating in the regulatory decision-making process or using information derived from patients in empirical studies as part of the evidence considered. One promising method that is being explored is the elicitation of "patient preferences." Preferences, in this context, refer to the individual's evaluation of health outcomes and can be understood as statements regarding the relative desirability of a range of treatment options, treatment characteristics, and health states. Several methods for preference measurement have been proposed, and pilot studies have been undertaken to use patient preference information in regulatory decision making. This article describes how preferences are currently being considered in the benefit-risk assessment context, and shows how different methods of preference elicitation are used to support decision making within the European context. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The European language portfolio (ELP in Slovenian primary education: the teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sešek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Language Portfolio (ELP is a unique, pan-European language learning material, aimed at supporting life-long language learning and the development of learner autonomy and intercultural competences. The article outlines the ELP's origins, structure and functions, and its impact on foreign language learning and teaching in Europe. Of the Slovenian ELP models, the two intended for primary school have been the most widely-implemented. Their implementation was the subject of a three-year study, in the context of a national piloting project involving over 600 learners and 100 teachers, held in 2008 and 2009. Due to the complexity and scope of the study, this article focuses on the perspective of the teachers, as carriers of pedagogical innovation. The results show that the two versions of ELP validated for Slovenian primary schools are judged by the teachers as being quality materials which are well-adapted to the learners. This pilot period yielded a number of positive effects in both teaching and learning, most notably more communicative and learner-centered instruction formats, and an increase in the learners' motivation and self-assessment skills. The main concern was strained lesson planning, due to the fact that the ELP was not integrated into the curriculum. Overall, the study shows that, of the two parallel functions of the ELP, the documenting of language learning and achievement is more readily embraced, while the self-assessment and self-directedness aspects involve a paradigm shift, which would require further sustained and widely-supported implementation. This would enable the full unfolding of the ELP's great potential for the promotion of language and intercultural competences and lifelong learning in Slovenia and in Europe.

  10. Economic Integration and National Identity in Northeast Asia: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pape

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian Paradox” in the Northeast of the continent appears to be particularly evident if seen through European eyes. While one of the tightest networks of intra-regional trade binds the economies of China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, their political leaders hardly ever connect with each other in substantive exchanges. Cold images of frozen faces and of an “icy lady” seem to contrast with the warm embraces that businesspeople enjoy after successful deals over borders. However, is this the view only in the eyes of the European beholder, who is used to the myriad of regular institutionalised meetings at all political and bureaucratic levels of the EU? Northeast Asia comprises two of the three biggest national economies in the world and on the basis of its interdependence flourishes economically – with the exception of Japan – with GDP growth-rates above OECD average. At the same time, in view of unresolved historical legacies their leading politicians still feel forced to keep frozen faces because of voters’ gazes of self-instilled nationalisms back home. Homogeneous cultures of Confucianism and shame rather than guilt, notably on the islands and the peninsula, maintain a very high level of national identity, in spite of a growing awareness of economic interdependence and globalisation that even conservative schoolbooks and dominant mainstream media cannot refute anymore. Nevertheless, fledgeling attempts to facilitate the flow of goods and services across national borders through bilateral and plurilateral free trade agreements seem to advance, albeit only slowly. China, Japan and South Korea have managed to institutionalise at the level of rotating ambassadors at the tri-lateral secretariat in Seoul some forms of cooperation. “Hot-lines” of emergency communications have been installed at the highest level to fend off sudden misunderstandings related to still looming territorial disputes. This paper will explore the above issues

  11. The ‘Eurosceptic Europeanization of Public Spheres’: Comparing Swedish and Danish Reactions to the 2014 European Parliament elections across Print Media and Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ? To test for this ‘Eurosceptic Europeanization of Public Spheres,’ we compare Swedish and Danish print media and Twitter reactions to the far-right’s success on May26th, the day following the elections. We find that the narrative of the ‘rise of the far right’ is indeed presented in European terms...... communication cultures. On Twitter, however, we find much more congruence between the countries in the tone used to discuss the Eurosceptics’ success. Despite this unity of tone, the Twitter narrative was not as Europeanized as in the print media, undermining claims that online channels are more prone...

  12. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  13. AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE ON MOTORISATION IN URBAN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff KENWORTHY

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available During a period of economic reform, the People's Republic of China has emerged as an important market for multinational automobile manufacturers and a source of concern for “sustainable transport” advocates worried about the long-term sustainability of systems based on private automobiles and fossil fuels. Much of the growth in China's motor vehicle fleet and the negative consequences of that growth has been concentrated in China's large, economically dynamic coastal cities. Based on a large standardised 1995 database on urban transport, this paper compares characteristics of three of China's largest cities with cities around the world. This international comparative perspective suggests that in 1995, Chinese cities still had exceptionally high use of non-motorised and public transport modes. However, some characteristics of these cities indicated a high potential for extensive and rapid growth in private motor vehicles which could generate significant problems in the future. In particular, the relatively high population density and lack of reserved public transport routes suggested that the potential for highly concentrated negative impacts were in place, while the means of moving large numbers of people with lesser polluting modes of transport than the private motor vehicle were not in place. Finally, data on investment in public transport and freeways indicated that in the early 1990s the conditions were being created for rapid and continued motorisation. While in 1995 China's cities in some ways approximated a “sustainable transport” ideal, this is likely to have already changed substantially.

  14. A Comparative Analysis on Arab and European Identity Structures: Portraying Distinctive Transnational Identity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Chamieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Arab countries speaking the same language (Arabic and sharing the same cultural background, yet so far, a superficial coordination exists among them. Whereas, comparatively, European community members, who have less in common (in terms of multilingual and multicultural societies, have succeeded in forming a certain unified transnational identity structure. In order to understand this perplexity which indicates an apparent incoherence vis-à-vis both identity formations – in terms of unification models – this article proposes to dig deeply within the transnational European identity formation so as to disclose the mechanisms of its unifying functions by excavating tangibly rationalized theoretical analyses and apply them on Arab identity formations. Accordingly, a comparison is performed based on a set of theoretical analysis, where Arab and European identity formations are comparatively examined for cause of identifying plausible unifying patterns that may be adhered within the construct of a common Arab identity structure. Our original analysis framework is based on several theoretical approaches leading to the identification of identity-significant independent variables that will enable us to measure the similarities and the differences between the two above mentioned identity models.

  15. Corruption, public integrity, and globalization in South-Eastern European states. A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I.E. EWOH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a proliferation of studies on the globalization of corruption or convergence of anticorruption strategies. These studies have been motivated by scholarly concerns from various administrative, economic, and political fields. In view of these interdisciplinary concerns, the purpose of this article is to provide a comparative analysis of corruption phenomena and the demand for public integrity because these developments pertain to the discourse on globalization issues in some South-Eastern European nations within the last decade. The article concludes that the differences observed in these countries are due to their level of maturation in the democratic processes, their stages in the European Union integration process, and the geopolitical condition of each nation, and offers a palatable public policy prescription for achieving a lasting impact in the region.

  16. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  18. A DIALOGIC ENLIGHTENMENT PERSPECTIVE; APPROACH TO THE OTTOMAN AND EUROPEAN RELATIONS IN PSEUDO-ORIENTAL LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hasan BAKTIR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly held that pseudo-oriental letters used anOriental mask to comment on contemporary European society andmanners; Eastern contexts, proverbs, customs and culture were thoughtto be supplementary to the central theme. Therefore, the representationof the Ottoman Orient in the letters was taken as of mostly illustrative(Conant, 157-61. However, it is not illuminating to argue that pseudoorientalletters were mainly concerned with the discussion ofcontemporary social and political issues. We can find more thanillusion in the letters in terms of the representation of the OttomanOrient. We will survey the historical process can disclose theinteraction between Europe and the Orient and unravel the consistentspirit which reinforced the negotiation between East and West. Thecritical perspectives in the Turkish Spy and Persian Letters blended thepositive and negative aspects of the two worlds; the pseudo-orientalletters amalgamated the familiar and unfamiliar, ridiculous and seriousfacets of the Eastern and Western cultures. The use of Orientalnarrators worked as a metaphor for the intellectual and culturaltransformation of Eastern and Western perceptions of each other. Thistransformation created a critical narrative tradition where Eastern andWestern values had contact, clashed, and found a way to get rid ofreligious prejudice. Using Bakhtin’s concept of dialogy, the presentpaper aims to discuss how the two continents interanimated each otherby disclosing the serious and absurd aspects of the two cultures.

  19. Health Promotion Development in the Spa Treatment. Perspectives for the European Countries Learned from Poland's Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Romaniuk, Piotr; Holecki, Tomasz; Frączkiewicz-Wronka, Aldona; Jaruga, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to outline the perspective for future developments of the spa treatment in light of demographic transitions characterized by the increasing number of seniors, as well as changing expectations and health needs of younger population. We made a systematic review of literature referring to the experience of Poland, and similar experiences of other countries in Central Europe. Based on the existing knowledge we conclude that spa treatment should become one of the preferred directions of development of health systems in European countries. Moreover, we state that a desirable direction to modify the therapeutic paradigm used in spa treatment is to put a far-reaching greater emphasis on the provision of innovative health promotion, which is justified by both its effectiveness, and strongly good foundation for its provision in spas. For this purpose it is necessary to extend the specialized health sector personnel with qualified health educators, which will enable an effective implementation of health promotion actions and their proper alignment to the specific target groups. Developing this category of specialists will also enable other professionals to concentrate on therapeutic activity fitting their competence.

  20. Permitting Pornography. A Critical Review of the History of Pornography Censorship in Iceland in a European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ásta Guðrún Helgadóttir 1990

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation will discuss Iceland's approach toward pornography censorship in a European perspective. The Icelandic laws banning pornography production and distribution date back to an article from 1869 and no substantial revisions have been made since then, only further additions to the article. The laws have generally been considered to be deadletter laws, but have received a new life in the 21st century as the main antagonist in the quest for Internet censorship. Iceland became syn...

  1. Comparative analysis of specialization in palliative medicine processes within the World Health Organization European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carlos; Bolognesi, Deborah; Biasco, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Palliative medicine (PM), still in the development phase, is a new, growing specialty aimed at caring for both oncology and non-oncology patients. There is still confusion about the training offered in the various European PM certification programs. To provide a detailed, comparative update and analysis of the PM certification process in Europe, including the different training approaches and their main features. Experts from each country completed an online survey addressing historical background, program name, training requirements, length of time in training, characteristic and content, official certifying institution, effectiveness of accreditation, and 2013 workforce capacity. We prepared a comparative analysis of the data provided. In 2014, 18 of 53 European countries had official programs on specialization in PM (POSPM): Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and the U.K. Ten of these programs were begun in the last five years. The PM is recognized as a "specialty," "subspecialty," or "special area of competence," with no substantial differences between the last two designations. The certification contains the term "palliative medicine" in most countries. Clinical training varies, with one to two years being the most frequent duration. There is a clear trend toward establishing the POSPM as a mandatory condition for obtaining a clinical PM position in countries' respective health systems. PM is growing as a specialization field in Europe. Processes leading to certification are generally long and require substantial clinical training. The POSPM education plans are heterogeneous. The European Association for Palliative Care should commit to establishing common learning standards, leading to additional European-based recognition of expertise in PM. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. The European Marine Observing Network and the development of an Integrated European Ocean Observing System. An EuroGOOS perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Gorringe, Patrick; Nolan, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The ocean benefits many sectors of society, being the biggest reservoir of heat, water, carbon and oxygen and playing a fundamental role regulating the earth's climate. We rely on the oceans for food, transport, energy and recreation. Therefore, a sustained marine observation network is crucial to further our understanding of the oceanic environment and to supply scientific data to meet society's need. Marine data and observations in Europe, collected primarily by state governmental agencies, is offered via five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) within the context of EuroGOOS (http://www.eurogos.eu), an International Non-Profit Association of national governmental agencies and research organizations (40 members from 19 member states) committed to European-scale operational oceanography within the context of the Intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Strong cooperation within these regions, enabling the involvement of additional partners and countries, forms the basis of EuroGOOS work. Ocean data collected from different type of sensors (e.g. moored buoys, tide gauges, Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars, gliders and profiling floats) is accessible to scientist and other end users through data portals and initiatives such as the European Marine Observations and Data Network (EMODnet) (www.emodnet.eu) and the Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus (www.copernicus.eu). Although a relatively mature European ocean observing capability already exists and its well-coordinated at European level, some gaps have been identified, for example the demand for ecosystem products and services, or the case that biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. Assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems is still

  3. "The times they are a-changin'"*: 25 years of psychotherapy research--a European and Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Bernhard M; Shapiro, David A; Barkham, Michael; Parry, Glenys; Machado, Paulo P P

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the 25th anniversary of the journal Psychotherapy research from a European perspective. Based upon the reflections of one of the founding editors of the journal (David A. Shapiro), together with overviews from SPR colleagues, this article focuses on the major developments in the field of psychotherapy research in the U.K., Germany, as well as and other European countries, as well as Portugal, Spain, and Latin America. The Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR), which founded the journal as its official organ, underwent a metamorphosis from a purely North American to an international scientific organization during the 1980s. The move towards a greater international audience has been mirrored in the journal, where articles from North America are increasingly balanced with articles from other, especially European, countries. The journal Psychotherapy Research has become an important journal and its development allows thoughts about the future direction of the journal as well as the research field as a whole.

  4. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    to Asian food producers and marketing people". 2. Therefore two questions of importance to Asian (with special attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored in this paper. 3. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do any...... different European countries and regions to more homogeneous export markets but in general confir heterogeneity of the European food cultures. 5. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated...... certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective, using qualitative techniques to explore changes in eating beghaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food in particular. 6. This micro-level analysis was carried out in Denmark, for convenience reasons as well...

  5. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  6. The Far Right in Europe: A summary of attempts to define the concept, analyze its identity, and compare the Western European and Central European far right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Kopeček

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the far right with emphasis on summing up some of its more widespread definitions, evaluating the reasons for classifying it as a distinctive family of parties, and comparing of the Western European and (post-Communist Central European far right. The text presents the theories of Piero Ignazi, Hans-Georg Betz, Cas Mudde, and other authors. The best working definition of the contemporary far right may be the four-element combination of nationalism, xenophobia, law and order, and welfare chauvinism proposed for the Western European environment by Cas Mudde. This concept allows for a basic ideological classification within a unified party family, despite the heterogeneity of the far right parties. Comparison of Central European far right parties with those of Western Europe shows that these four elements are present in Central Europe as well, though in a somewhat modified form, despite differing political, economic, and social influences.

  7. Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2013-02-01

    Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries.

  8. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  9. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  10. The European Constitution Project from the Perspective of Constitutional Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Lars P.

    2005-01-01

    Three topics of a European constitution are discussed. First, basic arguments from constitutional political economy that aim at restricting representatives? potential misuse of powers in a European Union with extended competencies are summarized. Since a European demos does not yet exist, an extension of competencies of the Euro¬pean Parliament is not sufficient in order to legitimate political decisions at the EU le¬vel. The introduction of elements of direct democracy in the European cons...

  11. From Summitry to EU Government : An Agenda Formation Perspective on the European Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carammia, Marcello; Princen, Sebastiaan; Timmermans, Arco

    2016-01-01

    While some observers have claimed that the European Council has become the key institution in European Union politics, others have argued that the Council's role has remained relatively stable over time. In this article, we argue that an analysis of agenda formation dynamics in the European Council

  12. Green Regions? Comparing Civil Society Activism in NAFTA and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Zito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the role of environmental civil society in two regional organizations, the European Union and nafta. It uses the Transnational Advocacy Network approach to assess how non-governmental organizations make use of opportunities to influence policy, and the effects of civil society engagement. Despite wide differences between the two organizations, there are important commonalities: both provide resources and important access points for NGOS, both have limits and frustrations, and both encourage coalition-building among NGOS. 

  13. Collective Redress in Multiple Perspectives the challenges of integrating competition law, consumer law and the construction of a European judicial area

    OpenAIRE

    Sibony, Anne-Lise; 17th CLasF Workshop - Private Enforcement, Access to Justice and Collective redress

    2011-01-01

    Collective redress ought to be looked at from several different perspectives: that of competition law, that of consumer law and that of building a European judicial area. This paper looks at the challengenges posed by the necessity to hold all three perspective together.

  14. Book Review: The Political Economy of Work Security and Flexibility. Italy in Comparative Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Review of F.. Berton, M Richiardi, S. Sacchi: The Political Economy of Work Security and Flexibility: Italy in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press: Bristol, 2012. 190 pp.......Review of F.. Berton, M Richiardi, S. Sacchi: The Political Economy of Work Security and Flexibility: Italy in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press: Bristol, 2012. 190 pp....

  15. A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carol C.

    This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role

  16. Comparative Study of the Local Collectivity in the European Administrative Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the need of an unitary research on the local collectivity issue with the objective of highlightening the necesity for standardization and adjustment to social and economic realities inside the european administrative space. The paper will be structured into three parts so that the study will begin to clarify the notion of competece, then determining the place and role of local communities-we will identify common features and criteria for their differentiation.Given this objective we propose to realise a comparative study of local collectivities skills in Europe, to identify their relationship with the State. The conducted research continues others concerning the timeliness of this research in the theoretical plan, therefore the following are necesary: establishing the place and role, definition and identification of its legal nature, emphasizing key features of the functions and criteria in relation with the State. The work may be useful to the Romanian authorities involved in the enforcement of local collectivities in the context of decentralization. The results and the essential contribution of the work, its originality, consist of the general examination of the categories of local collectivities elected for representation and the diversity of european experiences, regarding the local administrative device -organizatoric forms, in federal states, decentralized unitary states and unitary states partial or non-centralized.

  17. Knowledge Perspectives of New Product Development A Comparative Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias; Dossani, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) is about the ideation, formulation, and implementation of new and superior solutions in the market. Beyond the obvious need for organizations to innovate in order to compete, embedded in any NPD program are knowledge, technological expertise, and the social networks that convert these capabilities into offerings that create value at every level—for customers, industries, communities, and regions.    This volume provides an array of knowledge perspective in NPD across multiple levels of analysis and geographic regions, including Europe, the United States, China, Japan, and India, to explore the dynamics of NPD in today’s global environment.   Presenting case studies from such industries as ICT services, semiconductors, software development, bio-technology, higher education, and even safety for children’s toys, and drawing from a variety of theoretical perspectives, including technology and knowledge management, sociology, economic geography, and organizational behavior, ...

  18. Offshore Outlook: the European Side Perspectives offshore : le point de vue européen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacour J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The offshore hydrocarbon potential of Europe was fully revealed during the 1970s by various major discoveries which, after the first oil shock in 1973 and in the light of the high energy consumption in this zone, were a major asset in the new equilibria that would be found between producing and consuming countries. The offshore potential of Europe is concentrated in two zones: the North Sea and the Mediterranean. The North Sea, with the particularly harsh operating conditions, has quickly given rise to what can today be qualified as a new engineering state-of-the-art. At the same time, developments in the Mediterranean have brought a demonstration of entirely original and profitable petroleum achievements. For the future and despite current economic uncertainties, the outlook for European offshore development remain particularly attractive, obviously with regard to oil, but also, and more and more so, from the standpoint of natural gas. Le potentiel offshore en hydrocarbures de l'Europe a été pleinement mis en évidence au cours des années 70 par un certain nombre de grandes découvertes qui constituaient, après le premier choc pétrolier de 1973, compte tenu des fortes consommations d'énergie dans cette zone, un atout majeur dans les nouveaux équilibres qui s'instauraient entre pays producteurs et pays consommateurs. Le potentiel offshore de l'Europe se concentre sur deux zones : la mer du Nord et la Méditerranée. La mer du Nord, avec des conditions d'exploitation particulièrement sévères, a donné rapidement naissance à ce que l'on peut, aujourd'hui, qualifier de nouvel art de l'ingénieur, tandis que les développements en Méditerranée apportaient la démonstration de réalisations pétrolières tout à fait originales et profitables. Pour le futur, et malgré les incertitudes économiques actuelles, les perspectives de développement de l'offshore européen restent particulièrement attractives, au niveau du pétrole

  19. Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Paananen; Marko Seppänen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review of customer value concepts and distinguishes complex customer value from the various perspectives. It structures the themes and dimensions between the various approaches along the customer value main lines in the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current literature and illustrates different types of value representations through a case example. Findings: Based on a comprehensive literature re...

  20. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective, using qualitative techniques to explore changes in eating beghaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food in particular. 6. This micro-level analysis was carried out in Denmark, for convenience reasons as well...... as because Denmark in the macro-level analysis showed signs of being one of the most generally open food cultures in Europe with relatively many overlapping characteristics with other European food cultures. It consisted of five focus grou interviews and six auto-driven interviews with selected households. 7...

  1. Contract law as fairness: a Rawlsian perspective on the position of SMEs in European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Klijnsma

    2014-01-01

    European Contract Law is still very much in development. So far, only piecemeal legislation on contract law has been enacted on a European level. Accordingly, many of the questions concerning which rules to decide on are still up for debate. One such debate concerns weaker party protection and more

  2. Historical perspectives : the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its

  3. Competition Policy in the European Film Industry Focused on Consumers’ Interests – a Romanian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiu Nistoreanu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available European cinema was and still is often assimilated by film consumers as art cinema which is more difficult to understand and ultimately to reach a big number of consumers. The objectives of this paper were to examine the pathway of European cinema market and the relationship with its consumers along with their interests and attitudes towards European films and to research the most important measures taken by European Union institutions under their competition policy to support European films through state aid schemes. In order to give shape to these objectives, in-depth interviews with five elite specialists from the Romanian film industry were used, specialists who possess international expertise and recognition. The problems of the qualitative research are: the modification of consumer behaviour face to European cinema and support measures. The findings suggest that regarding its relationship with consumers and their interests in the seventh art, European cinema faces many different difficulties ranging from the competition with American films and insufficient funds, to the increased comfortableness or coziness of the movie consumers of our times. The paper concludes with examples of measures suggested by the respondents, to help European cinema become more attractive to consumers, measures which are already being implemented by the industry, making the results of our study useful for policy and decision makers within this cultural area.

  4. Contract law as fairness: a Rawlsian perspective on the position of SMEs in European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    European Contract Law is still very much in development. So far, only piecemeal legislation on contract law has been enacted on a European level. Accordingly, many of the questions concerning which rules to decide on are still up for debate. One such debate concerns weaker party protection and more

  5. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  6. Historical perspectives: the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its disco

  7. Vrancea Vineyard: A Rural Area with a European Comparative Advantage –The Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA CHICOŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to disseminate the partial results of a work that lasted more than three years and involved a substantial number of resources at both national and international level within the COHESION Project, implemented under the C.I.P. Interreg IIIB CADSES Neighbourhood Program. The Vrancea vineyard was the pilot area for the Romanian study and the main activities of the Romanian team (Urbanproiect Bucuresti, Partner Project no.13 within the project has been focused on this area.The COHESION (Integrated COncepts EnHancing CohESion of EurOpeaN Space Project aimed at enforcing the cohesion of the CADSES area, through developing policies to meet the problems of the European rural space. To this context, the project developed during 2003-2005 applied a methodology focused on increasing competitiveness of areas. An indicative product (wine, in which the involved areas provide a comparative advantage, has been targeted and integrated development pilot projects have been implemented in the participating areas. The Project's area of intervention consisted in the territories of Karditsa, Achaia and Nemea in Greece, the territory of Steirisches Vulkanland in Austria, Meissen in Germany, Appennino Reggiano in Italy, Northwest Bohemia in Czech Republic, and Vrancea in Romania.The aim of the project was “to investigate the development process in remote agricultural areas from practical point of view, i.e. locate the factors that hamper or promote local development in the remote agricultural zones of the CADSES area, and provide this information to other local development actors, so as to facilitate their action and thus contribute to accelerating convergence of the space in question and cohesion of the European territory” (PINDOS Strategic Planning Centre, 2006. The approach planned and applied by COHESION was the bottom up approach. Parallel and similar development projects (pilot activities were generated in a number of the areas involved and

  8. ROMANIA ON THE PATH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardos Mihaela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issues of sustainable development are of great interest and importance, as countries, organisations, institutions worldwide are still searching for the right solutions leading to human well-being and life quality in a society socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally sustainable, in an integrated vision between states and generations. Due to the difficulties of measuring such a complex, multi-dimensioned concept, one of the main questions refers to necessity and the possibility of determining countries’ progress towards sustainable development. In this respect, there are a very large number of initiatives and efforts to develop the appropri¬ate indicators; yet, there is no one agreed method. In this generous context of analysis, the paper aims to offer some answers regarding Romania’s progress towards sustainable development, based on a comparative analysis within the European Union, using data provided by three of the most widely used indicators for measuring sustainable development: Human Development Index, Environmental Performance Index and Ecological Footprint. The research methodology uses the comparative analysis and synthesis of data, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion on the topic. The research results are far from being optimistic, highlighting a serious gap between Romania and the other member states in terms of progress towards sustainable development. Therefore, they call for immediate action and increased efforts, so that European Union’s objectives of real cohesion and of becoming one of the global leaders in supporting sustainable development can be reached. The merit of this study is its contribution with an original research to the efforts of assessing Romania’s progress on the path to sustainable development, which may be particularly important for both researchers and policy makers. Due to some limitations induced by

  9. DATA ISSUES IN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BENCHMARKING: A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machek Ondrej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity is a method of measuring overall productivity of businesses, industries or economies. It is an approach which is recently becoming popular among government regulatory agencies when applying the so-called performance-based regulation. This principle induces regulated companies (for instance, electricity or natural gas distributors to behave efficiently even if their industries are not exposed to competitive pressures, since they are rewarded for being more productive than other firms in the industry, and penalized in the opposite case. The aim of this article is to deal with the question what are the main data issues when comparing total factor productivity among firms or industries with focus on the Central European region, which is very heterogeneous in terms of geographic, social, economic and historic conditions. In the first part, we introduce total factor productivity and the most common methods of its measurement � Malmquist and T�rnqvist indexes. Consequently, we divide the data issues into separate categories and discuss them more in detail. The first category of issues is related to defining the set of comparable firms. Many factors, such as the degree of competition in the market, the extent of government regulation, economies of scale, firm size, geographical conditions and historic development have to be taken into consideration. The second category is associated with specifying the time period. TFP estimates should be based on long time series and the period should include the whole business cycle and be representative and exclude extraordinary events. The third group of issues is related to defining and measuring the inputs and outputs. Since a number of difficulties are associated with labor input measurement, it is often included into operating expenditures along with materials and services. The measurement of capital is even more contentious. The outputs should reflect performance

  10. ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE HUMAN SECURITY CONCEPT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Paulina Marczuk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide economic support and an attempt to guarantee safety, which the European governments are trying to provide for their citizens, are reasons why the European Union explores new directions of conducting common policies for which the most important is the human being and his needs. The European security policy – and the new concept of human security – could be one example of the EU`s new behavior. Taking into consideration the previous attempts at developing security theories in Europe and other countries, it is possible to state that the modern human security doctrine in the EU could be followed by creating a special kind of European corps which would be a new tool for ensuring security where it would be necessary to provide it – European Gendarmerie Forces (known as EGF or EUROGENDFOR. The aim of this article is to show the impact of the evolution of the modern security theories for creating a human security doctrine in the framework of the European Union. Moreover, genesis and activity of the EGF are presented and the author is trying to answer the question: could the EGF be a tool of human security in the EU?. Finally, a couple of proposals for the future development of the European security policy are mentioned.

  11. Comparative analysis of public service advertising regulation in Russian Federation and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureeva Maria, R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear

  12. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  13. Cross-cultural perspectives of successful aging: Young Turks and Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosco, T.D.; Brehme, D.; Grigoruta, N.; Kaufmann, L.K.; Lemsalu, L.; Meex, R.C.R.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Sener, N.; Stephan, B.C.M.; Brayne, C.

    2015-01-01

    Successful aging (SA) has been conceptualized in a number of ways. Despite increasing research into how laypersons define SA, few studies capturing lay perspectives of SA in younger cohorts and in non-English speaking countries have been undertaken. The current study examines cross-cultural perspect

  14. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Lüschen, Günther; von Lengerke, Thomas; Abel, Thomas; Kannas, Lasse; Rodríguez Diaz, Josep A; Vinck, Jan; van der Zee, Jouke

    2003-01-01

    This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rütten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in terms of output (implemented measures) and outcome (health behaviour change). Policy determinants investigated are goals, resources, obligations and opportunities as related to the policymaking process. Theory is applied to a comparative analysis of prevention and health promotion policy in Belgium, Finland, Germany. The Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. The study is MED2-part of a project that has developed a Methodology for the Analysis of the Rationality and Effectiveness of Prevention and Health Promotion Strategies (MAREPS) within the EU-BIO-program. A mail survey of 719 policymakers on the executive and administrative level selected by a focused sample procedure was conducted. This survey used policymakers' experience and evaluative expertise to analyse determinants of policy output and outcome. Regression analyses reveal differential predictive power of policy goals, resources, obligations, as well as of political, organisational and public opportunities. For instance, whereas resources, concreteness of goals, and public opportunities have significant importance for health outcome of policy, obligations and organisational opportunities significantly predict policy output. Results are discussed in terms of rationality and effectiveness of health policy. They indicate that six sensitising constructs derived from the theoretical framework represent equivalent structures across nations. They comprise a validated instrument that can be used for further comparative health policy research.

  15. A New Perspective of Investment Modelling at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study that represents the subject of this paper follows the analysis of the investment function and the influencing factors at the European Union level. The research has, as a starting point, the hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between the European Union investments and tax rates. For verifying this hypothesis, the structural equation modeling is used (SEM, and the same technique is applied in the second part of the research, which will track the development of the investments’ model at the European Union level. The results will highlight the relationships that are established between specific variables that characterize the volume of investments.

  16. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  17. Data Infrastructures for the next IPCC report: A European Perspective (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhause, M.; Lautenschlager, M.; Lawrence, B.; Kindermann, S.; Toussaint, F.

    2010-12-01

    Climate data and especially data of climate projections of Earth System Models play a key role for the investigation of climate change impacts and for the derivation of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The user community grows from the original climate research community into a heterogeneous climate community with diverse requirements for data and data related services. The next assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5) will provide a large dataset of high quality for earth system and impact researchers as well as for decision makers. A data infrastructure has been established to serve climate model data and information. It is based on the Earth System Grid (ESG) infrastructure and data will be distributed through the ESG gateway hosted by PCMDI. A subset of data will be replicated among the ESG Federation partners PCMDI, BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) and WDCC (World Data Center for Climate). Compared with IPCC-AR4 the data infrastructure is extended by two components as European contributions: technical-statistical data quality checks (supervised by WDCC) and comprehensive scientific metadata (supervised by BADC). Quality control procedures are applied to the replicated subset of the available IPCC data. They consist of the statistical evaluation of data (level 2) and the STD-DOI publication process (level 3). After receiving the final approval by the author the data is assigned a persistent identifier (DOI/URN), i.e. the data is frozen and uniquely citable in scientific publications. Optionally, a peer-reviewed publication in a data journal like ESSD (Earth System Science Data) or alike is supported, which can be entered in scientists lists of publications. Comprehensive scientific metadata on experiments, simulations, models, and quality is provided by the Common Information Model developed by Metafor (Common Metadata for Climate Modelling). This information is introduced in the IPCC infrastructure through a web

  18. A. Hepatica in European ground squirrel (Citellus Citellus compared to other experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European ground squirrel is the only representative of its genus in Serbia. It is used as experimental animal in microbioogy, parasitology, pharmacology and immunology. The objective of this work was to investigate a part of cardiovascular system of ground squirrel so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 ground squirrels, of both gender, body weight 200-300 grams. For obtaining the liver arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into abdominal aorta (Aorta abdominalis. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. In ground squirrel A. celiaca is odd, larger vessel that exits the abdominal aorta. It is divided into three branches: A. lienalis, A. gastrica sinistra and A. hepatica. A. hepatica is divided into A. hepatica propria and A. gastroduodenalis. A. hepatica propria further gives A. cystica, Rami cardiaci and small branches for Lnn. portales. A. gastroduodenalis is divided into A. pancreaticoduodenalis and A. gastroepiploica dextra. A. celiaca in nutria and rat is an odd artery, divided into A. lienalis, A. gastrica sinistra and A. hepatica. In rabbits, celiac artery (A. celiaca is divided into A. lienalis and short trunk from which A. gastrica sinistra and A. Hepatica emerge. A. celiaca in golden hamster does not exist in the form of tripus coeliacus (A. lienalis, A. gastrica sinistra and A. hepatica, but from A. celiaca it is firstly separated A. hepatica, and then short trunk from which A. gastrica sinistra and A. Lienalis emerge. In guinea-pig, from abdominal aorta a joint tree branches off into A. celiaca and A. mesenterica cranialis (Truncus celiacomesentericus. Based on the above mentioned results, it can be concluded that A. celiaca in European ground squirrel, nutria and rat branches from abdominal aorta as a

  19. Software tool for a comparative analysis of Romanian fiscality with other country in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The corporation activity represents a factor of major interest for the economies of all the States due to the economic and social effects that it generates. The conditions of tax nature have an influence on corporations’ investment localization decisions and capital flows so that the policy of each sate in the field of corporative income tax payment must constitute the object of a very careful analysis. Thus, the companies choose to carry out their activity in the countries where they can obtain the biggest net profit after carrying out their specific operations. Reducing taxation rates of the corporate incomes in various member states of the European Union, as an effect of the tax competition, represents the compliance with an international trend, being only to a small extent the result of the government will. In the European Union, Romania has one of the lowest income tax rates as compared to other member states. Starting with 2005, the income tax rate that applies to the taxable profit is of 16%. Analysis of economic and financial performances of subsidiaries of transnational companies active in Romania, considered as representative for their fields of activity, allowed us to formulate judgments about the prospects of investment in the Romanian economy produced by firms with trans-borders business.An information system can have a major impact on corporate strategy and organizational success. The involvement of managers and decision makers in all aspects of information systems is a major factor for organizational success, including higher profits and lower costs. Some of the benefits business organizations seek to achieve through information systems include: better safety, competitive advantage, fewer errors, greater accuracy, higher quality products, improved communications, increased efficiency and productivity, more efficient administration, superior financial and managerial decision making.

  20. Suffrage, gender and citizenship in Finland – A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sulkunen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland was the first European country where women gained the full political rights. The reform, carried out in a political inflammable situation after the great strike in 1905, was pioneering: it gave women not only the right to vote but also to stand as candidates for Parliament. In Finland, as well as in other young nations, the early suffrage of women was connected with strong national aspirations and in these nations democracy also emerged rapidly. Furthermore the right to vote was the most salient vehicle to regulate the limits and contents of citizenship including a new notion of genders. Due to the cultural background, which was strongly bound with agricultural tradition, the relationship between genders in Finland contained some peculiar features. This, associated with a favourable political situation, enabled the early entry of Finnish women into Parliament.

  1. A European and Swedish perspective on ICT – policies and strategies in education. National and institutional pathways: crossings, blind alleys and uphill slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hansson

    2004-04-01

    The globalisation of education forces different value systems to meet. There is on the national level highly different political values on what kind of education system to prefer – the Scandinavian model and the American model are two extremes. There are also very different values inherent in higher education institutions, the academia, - compared with the values and visions held by the political leaders. These value differences between and within countries are elaborated and discussed. A Swedish, Scandinavian and European perspective is adopted, but a wider international outlook is also given. It is suggested that the value conflicts, often not explicit, understood or recognised, are one of the major inhibitors for systemic change. The direction of change cannot be taken for granted – the driving forces pull in opposing directions. Different visions of the future struggle to be fulfilled.

  2. Food Engineering at Multiple Scales: Case Studies, Challenges and the Future—A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Y.; Fryer, P.J.; Knorr, D.; Schuchmann, H.P.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Trystram, G.; Windhab, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A selection of Food Engineering research including food structure engineering, novel emulsification processes, liquid and dry fractionation, Food Engineering challenges and research with comments on European Food Engineering education is covered. Food structure engineering is discussed by using stru

  3. The European language portfolio (ELP) in Slovenian primary education: the teachers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Urška Sešek; Janez Skela; Tomi Deutsch

    2014-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is a unique, pan-European language learning material, aimed at supporting life-long language learning and the development of learner autonomy and intercultural competences. The article outlines the ELP's origins, structure and functions, and its impact on foreign language learning and teaching in Europe. Of the Slovenian ELP models, the two intended for primary school have been the most widely-implemented. Their implementation was the subject of a three-y...

  4. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY: CHANGING EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S PERSPECTIVE ON FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to look at the European Central Bank governance in terms of decisions taken to deploy a new kit of unconventional monetary policy measures, in order to respond to a new economic paradigm characterized by dynamic change in evolution, high volatility and enhanced financial risks. As an institution, the European Central Bank is led by the Governing Council and the decisions taken on how to use monetary policy impact an entire financial system. European Central Banking governance is about safeguarding the common currency and ensuring a future for the economic and monetary area to emerge stronger. For this purpose, when conventional monetary policies reach limits in their effects, it is time for the European Central Bank governance to analyse and assume the decision to deploy the arsenal of unconventional monetary policies. The experience of recent years showed a positive effect of the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary measures, but costs could rise in case of extensive use of such measures. When these measures are used in combination, the effect is amplified and the European Central Bank needs to assess when it is time to withdraw the support, how to communicate and what exit strategy should use, what the costs are and impact can expect.

  5. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  6. Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Paananen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review of customer value concepts and distinguishes complex customer value from the various perspectives. It structures the themes and dimensions between the various approaches along the customer value main lines in the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current literature and illustrates different types of value representations through a case example. Findings: Based on a comprehensive literature review, a framework how to scholars can structure customer value constructs is presented. Originality/value: In business and management research a conceptual confusion prevails and this paper attempts to clarify different types of customer value to provide a better resolution tool for scholars.

  7. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication: a comparative European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Degener, John E; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Monnet, Dominique L; Scicluna, Elizabeth A; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    2007-11-01

    Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed on their attitudes towards appropriateness of self-medication with antibiotics and situational use of antibiotics, beliefs about antibiotics for minor ailments, knowledge about the effectiveness of antibiotics on viruses and bacteria and awareness about antibiotic resistance. To deal with the possible confounding effect of both use of self-medication and education we performed stratified analyses, i.e. separate analyses for users and non-users of self-medication, and for respondents with high and low education. The differences between countries were considered relevant when regression coefficients were significant in all stratum-specific analyses. Respondents from the UK, Malta, Italy, Czech Republic, Croatia, Israel and Lithuania had significantly less appropriate attitudes, beliefs or knowledge for at least one of the dimensions compared with Swedish respondents. The Dutch, Austrian and Belgian respondents did not differ from Swedish for any dimension. The most pronounced differences were for awareness about resistance, followed by attitudes towards situational use of antibiotics. Awareness about antibiotic resistance was the lowest in countries with higher prevalence of resistance.

  8. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market.

  9. Studies in Business Administration in the European Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Rubio, José Antonio; Mullor, Javier Reig; Martín, Agustín Pérez

    2015-01-01

    On signing the Bologna declaration in 1999, European countries committed themselves to addressing the reforms necessary for adapting their university education to the European Higher Education Area. This modification process culminated in 2010, and this research aims to analyse the degree of divergence that currently exists in each course subject…

  10. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE Projec

  11. Identifying the factors influencing minority language use in health care education settings: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G W; Paden, L

    2000-07-01

    The recent enhanced status of many minority languages across the European Community has led to increasing demands for their use within the public sector. This is particularly evident in health care, where, in circumstances of stress and vulnerability, denying opportunities for clients to communicate in their preferred language may place them at a personal disadvantage and compromise their health chances. In view of the exclusion of many minority languages from the public domain over the years, their re-introduction demands adaptations to health care education programmes in order to promote language sensitivity in practice. Before embarking on developments which establish such languages within the professional sphere, valuable insight may be gained by examining their current use in practice education. Furthermore, comparing their use across language communities enables the sharing of common experiences and furthers opportunities for developing networks across Europe. This paper describes an ethnographic study of the use, within midwifery education, of the Welsh language in north Wales, the Catalan language in Barcelona and the Irish language in Western Ireland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key lecturers, clinical mentors and students across the three communities in order to determine patterns of language use within a range of learning environments. Focus groups were also held in order to confirm the findings. The data reveal many commonalities in terms of language use across the three settings and important factors are identified which support the use of minority languages in practice education. The findings are invaluable for guiding future bilingual initiatives across health care education programmes.

  12. Integrated fly management in European ruminant operations from the perspective of directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, Luc; Estrada-Peña, Augustin; Franc, Michel; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2015-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) in agriculture animals remains undeveloped as compared to IPM in crops. With respect to the range of external nuisance arthropods that may bother farm animals, development and implementation of systematic IPM strategies are difficult to carry out. However, recurrent outbreaks of blue tongue disease in sheep and cattle, the public threats regarding the prophylactic use of veterinary insecticides and the need to preserve the efficacy of available actives have to lead the reflexion on new control strategies for arthropod pests of livestock. A recent extension of EU regulation on the use of pesticides in crops provides an opportunity to compare IPM strategies and to suggest new lines of reflection for the control of nuisance pests in ruminants under European conditions. In this paper, actions suggested by the Annex III of the Directive 2009/128/CE on Sustainable Use of Pesticides and related National Action Plans from 28 member states of the EU were reviewed from an animal production perspective by a group of veterinary entomologists. Eight lines of action have been identified and thus challenged with respect to current husbandry practices in modern European ruminant operations. Many IPM strategies for crops were identified to be unsuitable for large animals. Suggestions for implementing tools, opportunities and constraint assessment, and needs for support were also discussed. Only control of pest development sites and monitoring of harmful organisms were considered achievable in the near future; both in conjunction with the use of topical insecticides. Complementary actions such as alternatives to chemical control require further researches and industrial development. Marketing of IGR-based feed additives would be of great interest, but development of new compounds for veterinary medicines is very unlikely with respect to the European regulatory environment and associated cost of development.

  13. [Compulsory outpatient treatment and mental health care: aspects of the legal discussion from the European and Israeli perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegendörfer, Gerhard

    2007-04-01

    Recent German legal initiatives for ordering compulsory outpatient treatment in mental health care are discussed and contrasted with regulations from other European countries and Israel. The legal basis for such coercive measures is comparatively assessed by use of these documents. European countries seem somewhat hesitant to incorporate compulsory outpatient treatment into their civil legislation frameworks. Legal initiatives on this issue in Germany were rejected both on the level of the Federal civil law, and on the State-level of public administrative law. From the legal point of view reasons against compulsory outpatient treatment in mental health care are embedded in the constitutional law and in international human rights.

  14. The Biomedicine Convention as an object and a stimulus for comparative research in the European Journal of Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Herman

    2008-09-01

    The European Association for Health Law has ambitious objectives. Two of them are "to encourage and facilitate co-operation among health lawyers throughout Europe" and "to encourage and support the development of health law in European and international relations". Comparative legal research will be an important means to reach these objectives. In this contribution the author takes a closer look at this Convention as an object but also as a stimulus for comparative research in health law. To this end relevant articles have been analyzed that have been published in this journal from its creation in 1994 until the end of 2007.

  15. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects.

  16. Trends in the internationalization of European higher education in a convergence perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Alina Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes several indicators for the degree of convergence in the internationalization of European higher education, based on previous research on the topic and on the availability of data in the large repositories, such as Eurostat. Starting from longitudinal data series built using the values of the selected indicators in 2015; we have grouped European higher education systems in clusters, based on their similarity, that is, potential for medium term convergence. These findings may serve as a guiding methodology for further, more detailed investigations on convergence and divergence of higher education systems in Europe. The main limitations arise from the availability of data, more specifically from the lack of in-depth data collection at the European level.

  17. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Krings, Gautier M; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify ...

  18. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  19. Characteristics of the Entrepreneurial Environment in European Union Countries: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Diana Rusu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The major importance of entrepreneurship for economic growth, competitiveness, creating jobs and innovation is widely recognized. The objectives of our paper are to realize a comparative analyze of the characteristics of entrepreneurship in the EU countries, as well as to identify the perceptions about it. For our analysis we use the values for the key indicators obtained from data base and reports of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Also, in order to realize the comparison we use the classification of EU countries according to their development level. The results obtained show that there are important differences between the EU countries regarding entrepreneurial activity, but also among the countries in the same group. The countries with a higher economic development have a better entrepreneurial environment than those less developed. Regarding the perception about entrepreneurship, our results show that almost half of working age population from EU observe good opportunities in the region for starting a business, but almost as many of them affirm that a big constrain in starting a business would be their fear of failure. Overall, the results of our research allow identifying the measures that would be required to be taken by policy makers to stimulate entrepreneurship in European countries.

  20. Comparative analysis of management plans of the Marine Protected Areas of four European Atlantic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Alvarez Fernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Management plans for Marine Protected Areas (MPA in four European Atlantic countries (UK, France, Portugal and Spain were analyzed comparatively. The information used in the analysis was related to the development and the content of the plans, as governance, control and enforcement. It was collected through questionnaires from a total of 125 management plans, corresponding to 234 marine protected areas. The overall priority goal in all of the management plans was biodiversity conservation and restoration, except in Spain were management of exploited natural resources was always present as an objective. In general the management plans have more objectives than described in the MPA designation, as to improve environment education and raising of public awareness or to maintain key ecological functions. However these objectives are qualitative in all of the management plans and only 15% of them have quantitative objectives, mainly in France and Portugal. Over 70% of the management plans studied provided a regular monitoring program and approximately half provided indicators to monitor each of the MPA objectives, except in the case of Portugal (15%.

  1. Comparative analysis of the quality of European institutions 2003-2009: convergence or divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Jurlin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a comparative cross-country analysis of the quality of the institutional framework that underpins economic governance in European countries. The paper attempts to identify the trends of change in the quality of institutions and determine if there is a convergence in the quality of EU institutions. The countries included in the analysis are selected groups of EU countries and the Western Balkan Countries. The analysis is based on the results of the executive officers’ opinion surveys conducted by the World Economic Forum for the Global Competitiveness Index 2003-2009. In order to identify the relative quality of public institutions and the trend towards convergence/divergence for different clusters of EU countries, a three-pillar composite indicator of institutional quality was constructed from available WEF indicators. The analysis was conducted at the aggregated level as well as for individual countries and pillars, measured in terms of difference to an average rank of survey response in the EU-14 + EU-8 members.

  2. A Comparative Review Over the Pension Systems’ Performance in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Mladen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the late 90’s, together with overcoming the shock of transition, most countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a process of profound reform of the pension systems. The aim of these reforms was mainly ensuring the financial sustainability of the pension systems often without taking into account their primary goal: to provide adequate retirement incomes, to allow the elderly to maintain a decent living standard after retirement and to have economic independence. However, a successful pension system is not the one that involves little spending but the one achieving its primary goal while limiting the future pressures on public finances.The economic crisis has increased the vulnerability of the pension systems. The economic recessions or slow economic growth, budget deficits and debt burdens, low employment rates have led to rising the concern about the ability of pension systems to fulfill their purpose. In this context, most Central and Eastern European countries have recently been forced to take up new changes in pensions. In our study we accomplished a comparative analysis of the pension systems’ performance based on calculating a composite indicator that includesthree components: the indicator of adequacy, the financial sustainability indicator and the indicator of modernity. Each of these components is obtained by aggregating a selection of sub-indicators. The purpose of this analysis is to identify best practices for successful reform, but also to highlight potentialhazards or imbalances that might face various emerging countries.

  3. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  4. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law: A Scandinavian Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside......’ the European arbitration landscape. Even so, we have attempted to include and contribute to a few of the main discussions concerning the landscape in which the decisions were rendered in the introductory section. In the last section, we build on the reasoning of the two Supreme Courts in order to propose...

  5. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  6. Comparative acute toxicity of DDT metabolites among American and European species of planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J C; Wells, M R

    1987-01-01

    1. DDT metabolism in a North American species of planarian leads to the formation of metabolites more toxic than the parent compound. 2. The increased toxicity of DDT metabolites is similar to acute toxicity data reported previously in a European species. 3. It is suggested that planarians lack a direct mechanism for DDT detoxification, since two North American and one European species are known to metabolize DDT initially to DDE and DDD.

  7. The Politics of City Regions in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kantor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An age of the urban regionalism has arrived. Postindustrial capitalism is evolving in ways that give renewed importance to city regions. New forms of economic interdependence, the rise of specialized flexible production, the spread of new technologies, and other factors are making the city region a prominent node in today’s globalized economy. Although governments at all levels have been responding to manage this reality, political intervention remains a contentious matter because regional economic development has unleashed new political tensions over governance. Some tensions arise from economic obstacles to regional political cooperation. Other tensions arise from the urban political process in city regions. Many political interests, including entire governments, oppose political collaboration necessary for regional governance because it threatens them with loss of power, status or wealth. The political forces favoring resistance at the local and metropolitan levels tend to differ in the North American and Western European contexts, however.L’âge du «régionalisme urbain» est arrivé. Le capitalisme postindustriel se développe avec des modalités qui accordent une nouvelle importance aux villes-régions. De nouvelles formes d’interdépendance économique, l’émergence d’une production spécialisée flexible, la diffusion des nouvelles technologies, et d’autres facteurs font des villes-régions un nœud prédominant dans l’économie globalisée d’aujourd’hui. Bien que les gouvernements de tous niveaux aient fourni des réponses pour gérer cette réalité, l’intervention politique demeure un objet de conflit parce que le développement économique régional a libéré de nouvelles tensions politiques. Certaines tensions naissent des obstacles économiques à une coopération politique de niveau métropolitain. D’autres proviennent de l’intérieur même du processus politique des villes. De nombreux int

  8. A European perspective on GIS-based walkability and active modes of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2017-02-01

    The association between GIS-based walkability and walking for transport is considered to be well established in USA and in Australia. Research on the association between walkability and cycling for transport in European cities is lacking. The aim of this study was to test the predictive validity of established walkability measures and to explore alternative walkability measures associated with walking and cycling for transport in a European context. Outcome data were derived from the representative cross-sectional survey ( n  = 843) ‘Radfreundliche Stadt’ of adults in the city of Graz (Austria). GIS-based walkability was measured using both established measures (e.g. gross population density, household unit density, entropy index, three-way intersection density, IPEN walkability index) and alternative measures (e.g. proportion of mixed land use, four-way intersection density, Graz walkability index). ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the adjusted association between walkability measures and outcomes. Household unit density, proportion of mixed land use, three-way intersection density and IPEN walkability index were positively associated with walking for transport, but the other measures were not. All walkability measures were positively associated with cycling for transport. The established walkability measures were applicable to a European city such as Graz. The alternative walkability measures performed well in a European context. Due to measurement issues the association between these walkability measures and walking for transport needs to be investigated further.

  9. The South African Engineering Education Model with a European Perspective: History, Analogies, Transformations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloot, Bruce; Rouvrais, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    South Africa, with its national cultural diversity and post-apartheid challenges and commitments, finds echoes in the European context, especially considering the imperatives of openness and non-discrimination in higher education. With an historical tradition of excellence in engineering education, the emphasis on supporting educationally…

  10. Bringing a European perspective to the health human resources debate: a scoping study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, E.; Batenburg, R.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Larsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare systems across the world are increasingly challenged by workforce shortages and misdistribution of skills. Yet, no comprehensive European approach to health human resources (HHR) policy exists and action remains fragmented. This scoping study seeks to contribute to the debates by providin

  11. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  12. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…

  13. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on liter

  14. Nitrogen use and food production in European regions from a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinsven, van H.J.M.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Westhoek, H.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; Erisman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Current production systems for crops, meat, dairy and bioenergy in the European Union (EU) rely strongly on the external input of nitrogen (N). These systems show a high productivity per unit of land. However, the drawback is a complex web of N pollution problems contributing in a major way to

  15. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  16. EERA: A participant or an agent in European research policy? A governance perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moos, L.; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors begin to frame a discussion of the educational research space that the European Educational Research Association (EERA) has been given and aims to take. The educational space is not merely a geographical phenomenon, but rather refers to the networks, flows and scapes tha

  17. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  18. The Road Travelled in Europe towards the 2020 European Objectives in Education. A Spanish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Seijo, María Luz; Torrego Seijo, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of the European Community to the current EU there have been important steps in education cooperation between the participating countries. In this article, we analyse the facts and difficulties that influence the educational policy of the EU to reach agreements and the facts that define common work until the year 2020, mainly…

  19. The importance of international collaboration for rare diseases research: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julkowska, D; Austin, C P; Cutillo, C M; Gancberg, D; Hager, C; Halftermeyer, J; Jonker, A H; Lau, L P L; Norstedt, I; Rath, A; Schuster, R; Simelyte, E; van Weely, S

    2017-09-01

    Over the last two decades, important contributions were made at national, European and international levels to foster collaboration into rare diseases research. The European Union (EU) has put much effort into funding rare diseases research, encouraging national funding organizations to collaborate together in the E-Rare program, setting up European Reference Networks for rare diseases and complex conditions, and initiating the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) together with the National Institutes of Health in the USA. Co-ordination of the activities of funding agencies, academic researchers, companies, regulatory bodies, and patient advocacy organizations and partnerships with, for example, the European Research Infrastructures maximizes the collective impact of global investments in rare diseases research. This contributes to accelerating progress, for example, in faster diagnosis through enhanced discovery of causative genes, better understanding of natural history of rare diseases through creation of common registries and databases and boosting of innovative therapeutic approaches. Several examples of funded pre-clinical and clinical gene therapy projects show that integration of multinational and multidisciplinary expertize generates new knowledge and can result in multicentre gene therapy trials. International collaboration in rare diseases research is key to improve the life of people living with a rare disease.

  20. PET/CT without capacity limitations: a Danish experience from a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie Holm

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We report the 3-year clinical experience of a large new Danish PET/CT centre without capacity limitations in relation to national and European developments. METHODS: The use of PET/CT in cancer was registered from early 2006 to early 2009 to judge the impact on patient management...

  1. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  2. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  3. Training in Occupational Medicine: Jurisprudential Malfunctions in the Italian System and European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegolon, L; Heymann, W C; Xodo, C; Lange, J H

    2017-01-01

    To practice occupational health in Europe, a medical doctor must qualify in occupational medicine. This requires a period of postgraduate specialist medical training lasting a minimum of four years, in conformity with European regulations, to obtain a certificate of completion of training which is then mutually recognized within the entire European Union. In 2002 an Italian law allowed doctors specialized in public health medicine and legal/forensic medicine to also practice as consultants in occupational medicine in the country. However a subsequent law in 2008 determined that only physicians specialized in occupational medicine could freely practice as consultants in this discipline. The other two categories (consultants in public health medicine and consultants in legal/forensic medicine) were required to undertake additional training (a Master course) to qualify as consultants in occupational medicine. Doctors who entered postgraduate training in public health or legal/forensic medicine before 2008, with the option to practice also as consultants in occupational medicine upon completion of their training, suffered an unprecedented and legally questionable retroactive application of this new law which stripped them of previously acquired rights. Moreover, even after qualifying by undertaking this extra training in occupational medicine, the latter two categories of doctors do not have their training recognized in other member states of the European Union. To disallow the rights of doctors qualified in occupational medicine to work as consultants in the latter medical discipline elsewhere within the European Union seems a clear violation of professional rights and, as such, legal action could be taken to submit this issue to European attention.

  4. AN APPROACH OF SME’s FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES FROM AN EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Bugeac

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SMEs form one of the sectors mostly affected by this financial crisis, due to their lack of financial power. Still, a HVI analysis indicates this period as favorable to any SME that manages to identify and to react promptly to market changes. Most of the times, managers tend to focus on the technical and practical aspects of the manufacturing process, underestimating the financial management and the real facts related to the operations under their control. Starting from these thoughts, the hereby article approaches the real need for specific training in the field of financial reports and indicators aiming to draw the attention to the performances that may be achieved by the small and medium size enterprises, performances that mainly depend on the effective financial management, on the good understanding of basic accounting notions and on an adequate decision making process.Even after 20 years of „capitalism” and democracy, the Romanian SMEs are still at a low level. This is not discouraging, although, having in view the lack of liquidities at global level, the possibility to get a bank loan is limited, and the over-exigency of commercial banks. Thus, the long-term loans designed for SME’s and corporations become more and more difficult to get1. Despite these, performances can still be achieved, even on the background of a deep crisis. Compared to the big companies from EU and not only, the advantage of SME’s is their increased flexibility and their capacity to implement new services and to market new products. In the absence of higher levels of decision and approval, the decision-making process in SME’s is easier and thus, more efficient. In this context, SME’s may act promptly by applying solutions adjusted to the market conditions. (Ciobanu, 1998, p. 98 ”The small entrepreneurs are the engine of the economy” is a well-known saying, but we are still far from reaching the level of the European Union.

  5. Anthropology and the study of menopause: evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to consider how the discipline of anthropology contributes to the study of menopause through evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives. This study was a review of skeletal and ethnographic evidence for menopause and postreproductive life in humans' distant past, hypotheses for the evolution of menopause and long postreproductive life, variation in age at menopause with focus on childhood environments, and the study of variation in symptom experience across populations. Longevity, rather than capacity for menopause, sets humans apart from other primates. Skeletal evidence demonstrates that some Neanderthals and archaic Homo sapiens lived to the age at menopause and that at least one third of women in traditional foraging populations live beyond menopause. The evolutionary reasons for why women experience a long postreproductive life continue to be debated. A developmental perspective suggests that early childhood may be a critical time for the environment to irreversibly influence the number of oocytes or rate of follicular atresia and, ultimately, age at menopause. A comparative perspective examines symptom experience at midlife through participant observation, qualitative interviews, and quantitative instruments to gain a holistic understanding of the meaning, experience, and sociocultural context of menopause. An evolutionary perspective suggests that menopause is not a recent phenomenon among humans. A developmental perspective focuses on the influence of early childhood on ovarian function. A comparative perspective expands clinical norms and provides knowledge about the range of human variations.

  6. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  7. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  9. Bias in protein and potassium intake collected with 24-h recalls (EPIC-Soft) is rather comparable across European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Freisling, H.; Souverein, O.W.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Andersen, L.F.; Ruprich, J.; Keizer, de W.; Huybrechts, I.; Lafay, L.; DeMagistris, M.S.; Ricceri, F.; Tumino, R.; Krogh, V.; Bueono-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Naska, A.; Crowe, F.L.; Boeing, H.; McTaggart, A.R.; Kaaks, R.; Veer, van 't P.; Slimani, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether group-level bias of a 24-h recall estimate of protein and potassium intake, as compared to biomarkers, varied across European centers and whether this was influenced by characteristics of individuals or centers. Methods: The combined data from EFCOVAL and EPIC studie

  10. Contingent and Continuing Employment: Comparative National and Historical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marens, Richard; Tackney, Charles T.

    This symposium focuses on the comparative impact of social institutions and labor laws on both contingent and continuing employment. Presenters will apply a wide range of analytical concepts to the history and culture of five individual nations. These concepts include a diverse set of theoretical...... approaches aimed at understanding the web of rules governing comparative industrial and employment relations around the world. The approaches include path dependence, institutional theory, historical materialism, and post-modernism. The central strength of this symposium is its comprehensive and inclusive...

  11. R and D and Innovation Electric Utilities Challenges: the USA EPRI perspective and the European Horizon2020 framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagle, J. A.; Garcia Martin, J.; Martin Gomez, M.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the real challenges for the utilities worldwide to move the scientific and technological knowledge existing in our hands out of the laboratory and put it into the market place as rapidly as possible to provide a global electrification needed for a better worldwide life. Six main issues have been identified and each one is confronted with top ten challenges: Long-term operation of future and existing assets; Renewable energies; Zero-emission technologies; Energy Efficiency; Smart grids and cities and Water resources management. The corresponding challenges for each issue are described from both sides the USA utilities perspective and the European strategy with special emphasis in the road map for future R and D and innovation efforts needed for a Nuclear Energy renaissance policy.

  12. The policy of school autonomy and the reform of educational administration Hungarian changes in an East European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Gábor

    1993-11-01

    The paper presents the background, the main elements and the contradictions of the reform of educational administration in Hungary in the late '80s in a Central and East European perspective. It also tries to provide an analysis of the challenges that have emerged with the political changes of the '90s. The introductory part of the paper analyses the differences between policies of decentralization in Eastern and Western Europe. In the second part, the most important changes introduced by the 1985 Hungarian Education Act are summarized, and the policy background of these changes is presented. It is assumed that the policy behind the decentralization measures had a negative character: it intended more to abolish the existing structures of control than to establish new ones. In the final part of the paper those factors are presented which may play a role in the future for or against the policy of decentralization.

  13. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    This article origines as part of a Danish national food research program: Market-based Process and Product Innovation in the Food Sector (MAPP), presenting some of the results of a project concerning the cultural dimension of food consumption. Two questions of importance to Asian (with special...... attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do change processes in the European food cultures faclitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? Of course......-perspective, using qualitative tec to explore changes in eating behaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food inparticular. This micro-level analysis was carried out in the country of Denmark, both for conveneince reasons but also because Denmark i macro-level analysis showed signs...

  14. The Turkish Educational Planning Experience in a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Isik, Halil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reexamine the 40 years of educational planning experience in Turkey comparatively with the educational planning experience in the international arena. Turkey has used educational planning since 1963. Planning in general has been defined as a decision-making process to reach certain goals in the future. This study…

  15. Child Welfare, Education, Inequality, and Social Policy in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    Using international data on child well-being and educational attainment, this article compares child well-being in the United States to member countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple measures of child well-being are analyzed, such as material well-being (including poverty, unemployment, and income…

  16. Comparability of Examination Standards between Subjects: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2009-01-01

    Heated discussions about the comparability of standards between examination subjects have kept Qualification Authorities, Testing Services, independent researchers and academics around the world busy for many years. As a result, many countries have adopted statistical techniques which aspire to make aggregated scores based on different subjects…

  17. Introduction to Special Section: "Perspectives on Comparative Higher Education."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how in this issue's special section, three leading scholars in the comparative study of education explore research questions and methods from three social science frameworks: postmodernism, feminism, and political economy/political sociology. Describes the articles and asserts that these analyses address significant gaps in the existing…

  18. Translating agency reform: rhetoric and culture in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smullen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Through comparative analysis this book examines and explains the official rhetoric of agency reform across consensus and adversarial political cultures. It traces the trajectory of talk about agency reform in The Netherlands, Sweden and Australia and identifies the national styles of speaking that m

  19. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C

    1981-02-01

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

  20. Patient-Focused Benefit-Risk Analysis to Inform Regulatory Decisions : The European Union Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlbacher, Axel C.; Juhnke, Christin; Beyer, Andrea R.; Garner, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory decisions are often based on multiple clinical end points, but the perspectives used to judge the relative importance of those end points are predominantly those of expert decision makers rather than of the patient. However, there is a growing awareness that active patient and public

  1. Cross-cultural perspectives of successful aging: Young Turks and Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosco, T.D.; Brehme, D.; Grigoruta, N.; Kaufmann, L.K.; Lemsalu, L.; Meex, R.C.R.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Sener, N.; Stephan, B.C.M.; Brayne, C.

    2015-01-01

    Successful aging (SA) has been conceptualized in a number of ways. Despite increasing research into how laypersons define SA, few studies capturing lay perspectives of SA in younger cohorts and in non-English speaking countries have been undertaken. The current study examines cross-cultural

  2. Arbitration’s perspectives in the light of European Union regulations. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LEFTER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to identify the relationship between arbitration (commercial arbitration and the primary and secondary rules of EU law. Through a systemic analyze of community doctrine and jurisprudence there will be identified the points where the arbitration procedure interferes with regulations of EU law and which are the perspectives to change these rules.

  3. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyhia Belhabib

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of European Union (EU and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1 and China (2.3 million t•year(-1 report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1 on average in the 1970s-1980s. The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime

  4. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhabib, Dyhia; Sumaila, U Rashid; Lam, Vicky W Y; Zeller, Dirk; Le Billon, Philippe; Abou Kane, Elimane; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of European Union (EU) and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1)) and China (2.3 million t•year(-1)) report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible) from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1) on average in the 1970s-1980s). The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime impossible to

  5. Europeanization and Domestic Parliamentary Adaptation A Comparative Analysis of the Bundestag and the House of Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels B. Hansen

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to explain the institutional development of the parliamentary scrutiny systems in Germany and the UK on the basis of existing Europeanization frameworks. So far these attempts have con-centrated on policy specific analyses or on the development of governmental or administrative structures. There has been no attempt to explicitly link the evolving discussion on the role of national Parliaments and the development of scrutiny structures to the theoretical debate about Europeanization and domestic change. We will apply a strict top down approach taking on board key notions of the Europeanization literature such as misfit, mediating factors or domestic change. However, in order to grasp the various dynamics at work we had to specify the existing frameworks. The rather undefined concept of 'misfit' between the European and national level is divided into three sub-categories: constitutional, functional and cultural misfit. This allows for a more differentiated analysis of how the various mediating factors exerted their influence on the development of the domestic institutions. Drawing on explanatory models from sociological as well as ra-tional choice institutionalism we argue that cultural factors such as the attitude towards European Integra-tion account for the longer term developments of the scrutiny systems whereas formal mediating institutions such as national Governments or Courts are responsible for the more abrupt changes.

  6. Classical Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes: A Comparative Genomics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana K. Pickeral

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available We have curated a reference set of cancer-related genes and reanalyzed their sequences in the light of molecular information and resources that have become available since they were first cloned. Homology studies were carried out for human oncogenes and tumor suppressors, compared with the complete proteome of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and partial proteomes of mouse and rat and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Our results demonstrate that simple, semi-automated bioinformatics approaches to identifying putative functionally equivalent gene products in different organisms may often be misleading. An electronic supplement to this article1 provides an integrated view of our comparative genomics analysis as well as mapping data, physical cDNA resources and links to published literature and reviews, thus creating a “window” into the genomes of humans and other organisms for cancer biology.

  7. Preventive detention of sex offenders: A comparative law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins Mercado, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, criminal justice and mental health legislation across the globe has sought to manage and prevent the problem of repeat sexual violence. Perhaps some of the most restrictive measures have been those aimed at the preventive detention of those sex offenders thought to pose an elevated risk of re-offense. This paper examines Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) legislation, deemed constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in Kansas v. Hendricks (1997), and compares this post-sentence...

  8. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    E de Waal,; R Mestry; CJ Russo

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US), as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionall...

  9. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    E de Waal,; Mestry, R; CJ Russo

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US), as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionall...

  10. Religious and cultural dress as school: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Waal, E. de; C.J. Russo; Mestry, R

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US), as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour t...

  11. Issues in Supply Chain Implementation: A Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Manzouri; Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman; Haslina Arshad

    2015-01-01

    The current global market forces compel most companies to create an international supply chain. Most of these companies have examined the problems and issues that they encounter during the implementation of this international supply chain. These problems are related to the attitude and culture of people around the world or rooted in the nature of the supply chain. Thus, this study compares the implementation of supply chain management (SCM) in two different countries with different cultures a...

  12. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  13. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  14. The effects of the European Working Time Directive on surgical training: the basic surgical trainee's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.

  15. Russian Representative Institutions of the 16th-17th Centuries in the European Context: A Historiographical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Dmítrievich NAZÁROV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of the origins and development of Zemsky Sobors – Russian representative institutions, their main features and differences from corresponding bodies in Western Europe. It marks out those traits of Russian history that determined the character and development dynamics of Zemsky Sobors, shows a connection between their heyday and specific condition of Russian society and state during the Time of Troubles, and describes some sources for this subject. The focus of the article is on Russian research of the history of representative institutions in Russia and Western Europe. It also investigates a close attention to European historical experience, inherent in the Russian social thought. In this context reasons for the origin and existence of the term of «estaterepresentative monarchy», characteristic for the Russian historiography, are analysed. And the main periods of the study of representative institutions from the mid-19th century to the present day are determined and characterised. The article considers the outcome of a Moscow conference of 2013 devoted to the representative Institutions of Russia in the european context and outlines perspectives of further research.

  16. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  17. Advances and Perspectives in Photonic Technology Research in the European Information Society Technologies Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasme, Didier; Minot, Christophe; Ohman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Ackaert, Ann; Demeester, Peter; Lagasse, Paul; Politi, Christina; O'Mahony, Mike; Saniter, Juergen; Patzak, Erwin; Rao, Sathya; Vogel, Paul

    2004-08-01

    The 5th framework programme, which the European Union launched in 1998, supported a wide range of industrial areas among which “Information Society Technologies (IST)” was one of the focus areas. The present paper presents a short overview of the research on photonic component technologies within the IST programme. It also presents the views on the future evolution of photonic component technologies for optical communications, which have emerged from a road map exercise within the thematic network OPTIMIST.

  18. European Medicines Agency Perspective on Oncology Study Design for Marketing Authorization and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Martinalbo, J; Pignatti, F

    2017-05-01

    In the development of highly active anticancer drugs, the European situation may be viewed as paradoxical. Limited data may support marketing authorization, but may be insufficient for the health economic appraisal needed for reimbursement and market uptake. To achieve this, conventional confirmatory studies may be needed. For products of special interest, studies aimed at optimizing cost-effectiveness may be warranted. Efficient designs of studies to meet these objectives constitute challenges to all stakeholders. © 2017 ASCPT.

  19. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi

    To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenk C

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Christian Lenk,1 Gunnar Duttge2 1Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany; 2Center for Medical Law, Göttingen University, Göttingen, Germany Abstract: For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. Keywords: ethics, law, Europe, health care policy 

  1. GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES: EVOLUTION AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Brindusa Tudose

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is analyzing the theoretical and empirical research in the field of competitiveness and it presents the methodology of determining the global competitiveness index. Also, our paper is analyzing the evolution of the global competitiveness index in the Member States of the European Union, in the last years. The results obtained show that more than half of European Union Member States recorded an increase in the global competitiveness index on the account of the basic influence factors. With the exception of six countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia, France, Italy, Malta, the European Union countries show a favorable influence of the efficiency on the index of global competitiveness. The highest contribution of the efficiency on the increase of global competitiveness is recorded in Portugal, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania and Bulgaria; on the opposite side is Malta, Cyprus and Germany. Regarding the influence of innovation, only three countries have recorded a negative impact of the innovation on the global competitiveness index: Finland, Spain and Austria. On the other hand Romania, Cyprus and Portugal show the highest favorable effect of innovation on the competitiveness.

  2. DOCTRINAL BASICS OF THE LEGAL TECHNIQUE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal technique was initially developed as a kind of “interpreter” for the legislative will in the legal language using a specific ingenuity of legal engineering. Historically, the theoretical base of the legal technique was formed on a phased basis, essentially stimulated by state reforms, social transformations, and active legislation systematization. It should be mentioned here that legal technique is a distinctive category reflecting the political, economic, and legal situation in the historical period of a certain state development, but being extra-national in itself.The resource harmonization of the legal technique within the European legal framework means norm-setting regulations, coordination, and elaboration of common recommendations for the European countries. The cooperation in the legal technique standards harmonization will require the all-European cooperation to the new level as far as legal standards, human rights, democratic development, legitimacy and cultural cooperation are concerned.

  3. Interculturality and Education in Argentina from a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Novaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares two different research cases, one carried out in Mbyà Guaraní villages in northwestern Argentina, and the other in a Buenos Aires city suburban site inhabited by Bolivian migrants. Despite the differences, both groups live in situations of poverty and displacement, wager on identity continuity, and present profound discontinuities in terms of generational transmission. Focusing on family and community spaces, we rebuild the meanings of practices strongly related to identity processes that are transmitted to children and youngsters. We also observe the tensions between these practices and educational expectations, and current school mandates.

  4. Perspectives for imaging single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Ayyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules & Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SPB/SFX instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. Here, we propose a cost-effective proof-of-principle experiment, aiming to demonstrate the actual feasibility of a single molecule diffraction experiment at the European XFEL. To this end, we assume self-seeding capabilities at SASE1 and we suggest to make use of the baseline European XFEL accelerator complex—with the addition of a slotted-foil setup—and of the SPB/SFX instrument. As a first step towards the realization of an actual experiment, we developed a complete package of computational tools for start-to-end simulations predicting its performance. Single biomolecule imaging capabilities at the European XFEL can be reached by exploiting special modes of operation of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator. The output peak power can be increased up to more than 1.5 TW, which allows to relax the requirements on the focusing efficiency of the optics and to reach the required fluence without changing the present design of the SPB/SFX instrument. Explicit simulations are presented using the 15-nm size RNA Polymerase II molecule as a case study. Noisy diffraction patterns were generated and they were processed to generate the 3D intensity distribution. We discuss requirements to the signal-to-background ratio needed to obtain a correct pattern orientation. When these are fulfilled, our results indicate that one can achieve diffraction without destruction with about 0.1 photons per Shannon pixel per shot at 4 Å resolution with 1013 photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 0.3 μm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 1014 photons/μm2. We assume

  5. Perspectives for imaging single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Kartik; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Zagorodnov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules & Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SPB/SFX) instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. Here, we propose a cost-effective proof-of-principle experiment, aiming to demonstrate the actual feasibility of a single molecule diffraction experiment at the European XFEL. To this end, we assume self-seeding capabilities at SASE1 and we suggest to make use of the baseline European XFEL accelerator complex-with the addition of a slotted-foil setup-and of the SPB/SFX instrument. As a first step towards the realization of an actual experiment, we developed a complete package of computational tools for start-to-end simulations predicting its performance. Single biomolecule imaging capabilities at the European XFEL can be reached by exploiting special modes of operation of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator. The output peak power can be increased up to more than 1.5 TW, which allows to relax the requirements on the focusing efficiency of the optics and to reach the required fluence without changing the present design of the SPB/SFX instrument. Explicit simulations are presented using the 15-nm size RNA Polymerase II molecule as a case study. Noisy diffraction patterns were generated and they were processed to generate the 3D intensity distribution. We discuss requirements to the signal-to-background ratio needed to obtain a correct pattern orientation. When these are fulfilled, our results indicate that one can achieve diffraction without destruction with about 0.1 photons per Shannon pixel per shot at 4 Å resolution with 10(13) photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 0.3 μm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 10(14) photons/μm(2). We assume negligible structured

  6. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the country. An attempt is made to suggest how the religious course in a plural society like Malaysia, in the future, can be used to achieve Vision 2020 by integrating science and religion based on the position that science is a problem-solving activity.

  7. Managerial adjustment and its limits: sequential fault in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Cunha Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on explanations for sequential faults in administrative reform. It deals with the limits of managerial adjustment in an approach that attempts to connect theory and empirical data, articulating three levels of analysis. The first level presents comparative evidence of sequential fault within reforms in national governments through a set of indicators geared toward understanding changes in the role of the state. In light of analyses of a representative set of comparative studies on reform implementation, the second analytical level proceeds to identify four typical mechanisms that are present in explanations on managerial adjustment faults. In this way, we seek to configure an explanatory matrix for theories on sequential fault. Next we discuss the experience of management reform in the Brazilian context, conferring special attention on one of the mechanisms that creates fault: the control dilemma. The major hypotheses that guide our article are that reforms lead to sequential fault and that there are at least four causal mechanisms that produce reforms: a transactions costs involved in producing reforms; b performance legacy; c predominance of fiscal adjustment and d the control dilemma. These mechanisms act separately or in concert, and act to decrease chances for a transformation of State managerial patterns. Major evidence that is analyzed in these articles lend consistency to the general argument that reforms have failed in their attempts to reduce public expenses, alter patterns of resource allocation, reduce the labor force and change the role of the State. Our major conclusion is that reforms fail sequentially and managerial adjustment displays considerable limitations, particularly those of a political nature.

  8. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday dilem

  9. Responsive to the people? : Comparing the European cognitive maps of Dutch political leaders and their followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Esch, Femke; Joosen, Rik; van Zuydam, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Political leaders are often perceived as unresponsive to the daily concerns of citizens, especially when European integration is concerned. Academic research, however, provides at most mixed evidence for the existence of such a gap. This article tries to shed light on this discrepancy by introducing

  10. Responsive to the people? Comparing the European cognitive maps of dutch political leaders and their followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Femke; Joosen, Rik; van Zuydam, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Political leaders are often perceived as unresponsive to the daily concerns of citizens, especially when European integration is concerned. Academic research, however, provides at most mixed evidence for the existence of such a gap. This article tries to shed light on this discrepancy by introducing

  11. Social Capital and Adolescents Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Analysis of Eight European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Berglind

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of social capital on mathematics achievement in eight European cities. The study draws on data from the 2008 Youth in Europe survey, carried out by the Icelandic Center for Social Research and Analysis. The sample contains responses from 17,312 students in 9th and 10th grade of local secondary schools in the…

  12. European and Japanese Logistics Paradigms: An Explorative and comparative study of the dynamics of logistics management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Shinohara

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation explores a new field of study in the paradigms of logistics management and their evolution. General observations detected the existence of large differences of logistics practices between Europe and Japan, and that Japanese are apparently trying to tread the European pa

  13. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday

  14. The Distribution of Skills among the European Adult Population and Unemployment: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Jorge; Choi, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    The most painful effect of the Great Recession in European countries has been the surge in unemployment rates during a period that has been characterised by an increase in income inequality and the heterogeneous pattern of this inequality by educational level. Thus, workers with low levels of educational attainment were among the first to lose…

  15. A comparative study on innovation in European cities by means of multicriteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reggiani, Aura; Nijkamp, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of innovative behaviour of firms in an urban European context. It aims to identify key factors for innovation at thelocal level, based on micro survey information from firms. In seeking for prominent explanatory variables for entrepreneurial innovation in variousclasse

  16. Comparing Faculty and Student Perspectives of Graduate Teaching Assistants' Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriques, Romola A. Bernard; Bond-Robinson, Janet

    2006-02-01

    Assessments of teaching quality by undergraduates (UGs) and faculty are illustrated in this study of new graduate students training as TAs (GTAs). The GTAs' instructors (FAC) coached them while they taught labs, and coded teaching interactions on the valid and reliable ITAT instrument (Cronbach's a = 0.863). Interactions were documented by a remote audio-visual observational system. Audio-visual clips and ITAT feedback were used to foster GTAs' development in managing a chemical lab procedurally, and teaching chemical concepts. The UGs assessed their TA with the UGATA instrument (Cronbach's a = 0.953). Our research compared the FAC rating of GTAs to UGs' end-of-semester ratings. The UG and FAC ratings were similar on procedural management interactions, but not on concept teaching. The FAC saw significantly less quality in GTAs' interactions that linked concepts from lecture into lab and explained abstract concepts basic to the lab experiment. In fact, UG ratings failed to note significant differences between teaching of procedural knowledge and teaching of abstract concepts that were fundamental chemically to the lab experiment. While over 75% of GTAs executed management interactions well, only 30 40% of GTAs were actively attempting to teach concepts and to help UGs reason conceptually in chemistry.

  17. Comparative metabolism of tramadol and tapentadol: a toxicological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Tramadol and tapentadol are centrally acting, synthetic opioid analgesics used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Main metabolic patterns for these drugs in humans are well characterized. Tramadol is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 to O-desmethyltramadol (M1), its main active metabolite. M1 and tapentadol undergo mainly glucuronidation reactions. On the other hand, the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and tapentadol are dependent on multiple factors, such as the route of administration, genetic variability in pharmacokinetic components and concurrent consumption of other drugs. This review aims to comparatively discuss the metabolomics of tramadol and tapentadol, namely by presenting all their known metabolites. An exhaustive literature search was performed using textual and structural queries for tramadol and tapentadol, and associated known metabolizing enzymes and metabolites. A thorough knowledge about tramadol and tapentadol metabolomics is expected to provide additional insights to better understand the interindividual variability in their pharmacokinetics and dose-responsiveness, and contribute to the establishment of personalized therapeutic approaches, minimizing side effects and optimizing analgesic efficacy.

  18. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  19. Estimation of Potential GDP and output Gap. Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Măntescu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to assess the impact of the crisis on the potential output and output gaps, to study their evolution by using a comparative approach for a sample of EU countries that were in majority included recently in financial assistance and macroeconomic adjustment programmes. The potential GDP growth rates calculated using the Cobb Douglas production function and Hodrick-Prescott methodology, decelerated substantially across the board in the countries studied once the international economic and financial crisis hit, recording even negative rates of growth in Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain. In addition to the specific factors that characterise each country, there is a series of common features that will affect the developments of the potential GDP on a long-term basis, such as the increase of global risk aversion correlated with the reduction of the banking exposures, the slow economic recovery in the EU, and last but not least the incoming ageing process, which will exert an additional negative impact on the growth potential of the EU member states. The article makes a series of economic policy recommendations to promote key measures aiming to increase the flexibility of the goods, services, and labour markets, to improve the prioritisation of public expenditures especially capital spending, and to improve the management of the public assets including real estate and public buildings by promoting a mix of measures including privatisation, monetisation and a wider involvement of the private sector in their management.

  20. The effect of a change of circumstances on the binding force of contracts : comparative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Momberg Uribe, RA

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research is the study of the situation on which unexpected circumstances render the performance of the contract much more difficult or onerous and those which frustrate the purpose of the transaction. The research includes the comparative analysis of European Civil Law Jurisdictions (

  1. The effect of a change of circumstances on the binding force of contracts : comparative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Momberg Uribe, RA

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research is the study of the situation on which unexpected circumstances render the performance of the contract much more difficult or onerous and those which frustrate the purpose of the transaction. The research includes the comparative analysis of European Civil Law Jurisdictions

  2. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food--review from European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90-98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the "real" source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in Western European

  3. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.malisch@cvuafr.bwl.de; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  4. Comparative analysis of the health status of the Greek population vs the health status of 28 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkia V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population health depends on the economic, social, cultural and health changes in a country over time and is reflected in a series of health indicators, such as life expectancy, healthy life years, infant mortality and low birth weight, which are commonly used for monitoring and improvement of a population’s health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the health status of the Greek population compared to the health of 28 European countries. Material: Data for this study were drawn from both the European database ECHI (European Core Health Indicators and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD. Results: Life expectancy in Greece (81,4 years and healthy life years (64,7 years for Greek men and 65,1 years for Greek women in 2013 are higher than in Germany and Europe. Even though infant mortality in Greece is showing increasing trends since 2008, is still lower than the European average. In contrast, births of underweight infants (less than 2500 grams are constantly increasing in Greece. The latter health indicator is higher than the German and European one, especially after 2009. The main causes of death for the Greek population are circulatory diseases and malignant neoplasms, as in Europe. Smoking and alcohol are the two main nonmedical determinants of health for the Greek population. Conclusions: Health of the Greek population is quite satisfactory compared to Europe and is comparable to that of the German population, despite the differences in health expenditure. Health inequalities, due to economic crisis in Greece since 2009, are likely to affect certain health indicators. The constant reduction of health expenditure necessitates the contribution of health prevention, promotion and education, in order to improve the health status of the Greek population.

  5. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  6. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Waal,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different

  7. Competitive universities need to internationalize learning: Perspectives from three European universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lara

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of restructuring European universities in order to harmonize their educational systems is rapidly approaching a key milestone as 2010 looms large on the horizon. This paper describes an approach to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA based on a real case study of students that belong to five European Universities (University of Burgos, Technical University of Valencia, University of Valladolid, University of Basque Country and University of Applied Sciences Cologne. The objective of this paper is two-fold: on the one hand, to analyze from the student’s point of view how they value the restructuring of teaching as a result of the Bologna process and what are the implications for students with regards to both their academic qualifications and their future incorporation into the labour market; and, on the other hand, to deduce from the results obtained recommendations which may help to guide teachers towards successful internationalization and collaboration between interuniversity networks, as well as achieving greater standards of quality within university teaching. Only this would permit an environment in which students are capable of developing the necessary competences, and put into practice learning outcomes. The results show that students value communication, innovative proposals and cooperation between universities; the internationalization of knowledge between universities has been positively accepted and this has motivated research to place a stronger focus on this aspect; it impacts strongly on scientific productivity, improves the quality of education offered by the teaching staff, and leads to greater student mobility. This strategy is intrinsically linked to learning from local experiences shared by members of the same university as well as from more global experiences made available through inter-university networks. It implies being willing to listen, to communicate, to engage in dialogue and means that we must

  8. The Development of the Future European Knowledge Workers. An Academic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Leon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research purpose was to determine whether the economics and business administration higher education institutions from the European Union members states are facilitating the development of the future knowledge workers or not. In order to achieve this goal, we employed an exploratory research and we combined a qualitative approach with a quantitative one. We focused on the common courses that are taught in the best European Union higher education institutions, according to the QS World University Rankings. We applied a content analysis to 267 syllabuses that belonged to 21 economics and business administration faculties. Then we employed a logistic regression in order to determine if the teaching methods, used during the bachelor studies, can predict the development of the future knowledge workers. The results have showed that the economics and business administration higher education institutions from the European Union member states tend to respond positively to companies’ necessity by developing almost 50% of the “ideal” knowledge worker profile. These findings have implications on both educational and managerial level. At the educational level, it reflects the vulnerable area of the educational process namely, skills development. It seems to be forgotten that education is more than just sharing explicit knowledge; it is about developing the current and the future citizens, building characters and stimulating the need for lifelong learning. At the managerial level, it brings forefront the deficiencies of the future human resources and it indicates the need for adapting the organizational culture and practices. What had been overlooked by the educational system may be complemented by an open organizational culture, an inspirational leadership and an effective coaching process.

  9. The harmonization of the regulation of blood products: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, R; Heiden, M; Nübling, C M; Unger, G; Löwer, J

    2008-05-01

    The development of blood products as medicines initially took place on the national level in various countries, which resulted in considerable diversity of mechanisms and stringency of regulatory oversight. The scenario changed dramatically with the catastrophic experience that severe virus infections had been transmitted by blood products world-wide. Blood products, which had been regulated differently in the member states, became subject to the European pharmaceutical legislation in 1989. A specialized directive regulating the blood transfusion sector and the collection of plasma for fractionation was enacted in 2002. The European Community, particularly the Commission and the European Medicines Agency, is continuously refining the requirements, providing detailed technical and scientific guidance. In addition, institutions of the Council of Europe play an important role in the transfusion sector, the elaboration of the European Pharmacopoeia prescriptions, and the co-ordination of Official Medicines Control Laboratory or Laboratories batch release. However, further and sustained efforts towards international harmonization are needed. There are already important mechanisms in place, such as the International Conference on Harmonization initiative, which is producing internationally recognized guidelines on central issues. Another important achievement is the common technical document format, which enables the use of uniform applications for marketing authorization. However, there is still room for progress, for example, questions regarding regulatory requirements for licensing of in vitro diagnostic devices, or mutual recognition of inspections. The World Health Organization continues to play an important role in harmonization, both substantially by the production of high-level guidance documents or the establishment of physical international standard preparations, and in a more general sense by providing a platform for international collaboration. A very

  10. Regulating the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Hutton, John

    2003-02-01

    Throughout the developed world, economic evaluation of costly new pharmaceuticals and medical devices became increasingly widespread and systematic during the 1990s. However, serious concerns remain about the validity and relevance of this economic evidence, and about the transparency and accountability of its use in public sector reimbursement decisions. In this article, we summarise current concerns in Europe, based on interviews with European health economists from industry, universities, research institutes and consulting firms. We identify five challenges for European policy-makers, and conclude that there is considerable scope for improving decision-making without damaging incentives to innovate. The challenges are: (1). full publication of the economic evidence used in reimbursement decisions; (2). the redesign of licensing laws to improve the relevance of economic data available at product launch; (3). harmonisation of economic evaluation methodologies; (4). development of methodologies for evaluation of health inequality impacts; and (5). negotiation of price-performance deals to facilitate the use of economic evidence in post-launch pricing review decisions, as information is gathered from studies of product performance in routine use.

  11. Reconstructing the Indian origin and dispersal of the European Roma: a maternal genetic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mendizabal

    Full Text Available Previous genetic, anthropological and linguistic studies have shown that Roma (Gypsies constitute a founder population dispersed throughout Europe whose origins might be traced to the Indian subcontinent. Linguistic and anthropological evidence point to Indo-Aryan ethnic groups from North-western India as the ancestral parental population of Roma. Recently, a strong genetic hint supporting this theory came from a study of a private mutation causing primary congenital glaucoma. In the present study, complete mitochondrial control sequences of Iberian Roma and previously published maternal lineages of other European Roma were analyzed in order to establish the genetic affinities among Roma groups, determine the degree of admixture with neighbouring populations, infer the migration routes followed since the first arrival to Europe, and survey the origin of Roma within the Indian subcontinent. Our results show that the maternal lineage composition in the Roma groups follows a pattern of different migration routes, with several founder effects, and low effective population sizes along their dispersal. Our data allowed the confirmation of a North/West migration route shared by Polish, Lithuanian and Iberian Roma. Additionally, eleven Roma founder lineages were identified and degrees of admixture with host populations were estimated. Finally, the comparison with an extensive database of Indian sequences allowed us to identify the Punjab state, in North-western India, as the putative ancestral homeland of the European Roma, in agreement with previous linguistic and anthropological studies.

  12. Reconstructing the Indian Origin and Dispersal of the European Roma: A Maternal Genetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Isabel; Valente, Cristina; Gusmão, Alfredo; Alves, Cíntia; Gomes, Verónica; Goios, Ana; Parson, Walther; Calafell, Francesc; Alvarez, Luis; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    Previous genetic, anthropological and linguistic studies have shown that Roma (Gypsies) constitute a founder population dispersed throughout Europe whose origins might be traced to the Indian subcontinent. Linguistic and anthropological evidence point to Indo-Aryan ethnic groups from North-western India as the ancestral parental population of Roma. Recently, a strong genetic hint supporting this theory came from a study of a private mutation causing primary congenital glaucoma. In the present study, complete mitochondrial control sequences of Iberian Roma and previously published maternal lineages of other European Roma were analyzed in order to establish the genetic affinities among Roma groups, determine the degree of admixture with neighbouring populations, infer the migration routes followed since the first arrival to Europe, and survey the origin of Roma within the Indian subcontinent. Our results show that the maternal lineage composition in the Roma groups follows a pattern of different migration routes, with several founder effects, and low effective population sizes along their dispersal. Our data allowed the confirmation of a North/West migration route shared by Polish, Lithuanian and Iberian Roma. Additionally, eleven Roma founder lineages were identified and degrees of admixture with host populations were estimated. Finally, the comparison with an extensive database of Indian sequences allowed us to identify the Punjab state, in North-western India, as the putative ancestral homeland of the European Roma, in agreement with previous linguistic and anthropological studies. PMID:21264345

  13. New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

    2009-01-01

    Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences.

  14. Reconstructing the Indian origin and dispersal of the European Roma: a maternal genetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Isabel; Valente, Cristina; Gusmão, Alfredo; Alves, Cíntia; Gomes, Verónica; Goios, Ana; Parson, Walther; Calafell, Francesc; Alvarez, Luis; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Comas, David; Prata, Maria João

    2011-01-10

    Previous genetic, anthropological and linguistic studies have shown that Roma (Gypsies) constitute a founder population dispersed throughout Europe whose origins might be traced to the Indian subcontinent. Linguistic and anthropological evidence point to Indo-Aryan ethnic groups from North-western India as the ancestral parental population of Roma. Recently, a strong genetic hint supporting this theory came from a study of a private mutation causing primary congenital glaucoma. In the present study, complete mitochondrial control sequences of Iberian Roma and previously published maternal lineages of other European Roma were analyzed in order to establish the genetic affinities among Roma groups, determine the degree of admixture with neighbouring populations, infer the migration routes followed since the first arrival to Europe, and survey the origin of Roma within the Indian subcontinent. Our results show that the maternal lineage composition in the Roma groups follows a pattern of different migration routes, with several founder effects, and low effective population sizes along their dispersal. Our data allowed the confirmation of a North/West migration route shared by Polish, Lithuanian and Iberian Roma. Additionally, eleven Roma founder lineages were identified and degrees of admixture with host populations were estimated. Finally, the comparison with an extensive database of Indian sequences allowed us to identify the Punjab state, in North-western India, as the putative ancestral homeland of the European Roma, in agreement with previous linguistic and anthropological studies.

  15. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  16. Strategic management of digital communication in the Ecuadorian company. Comparative perspective with the European reality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Puertas Hidalgo; Elizabeth Cadme; Alejandro Alvarez Nobell

    2015-01-01

    En la era de la convergencia digital, la consecución en las organizaciones de un modelo de relación y gestión de intereses con los públicos simétrico y bidireccional requieren de la construcción de una imagen y una reputación, resultado de una planificación estratégica de la comunicación. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva sistémica -en la que la comunicación se vuelve eje transversal a todos procesos organizacional- y que le asigna al profesional de la comunicación una función directiva –Dircom-,...

  17. ESCAP Expert Paper: New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; van Elburg, Annemarie; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a potentially life-threatening disorder with a typical onset in adolescence and high rates of medical complications and psychiatric comorbidity. This article summarizes issues relating to classification in DSM-5 and presents a narrative review of key evidence-based medical and behavioral interventions for adolescent AN and subthreshold restricting eating disorders, mainly, but not exclusively published between 2012 and 2014. In addition, it systematically compares the clinical guidelines of four European countries (Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and outlines common clinical practice, in relation to treatment settings, nutritional rehabilitation, family-oriented and individual psychotherapy, and psychopharmacological treatment. With the exception of family-based treatment, which is mainly evaluated and practiced in Anglo-American countries, the evidence base is weak, especially for medical interventions such as refeeding and pharmacological intervention. There is a need for common European research efforts, to improve the available evidence base and resulting clinical guidance.

  18. Comparative typology in six european low-intensity systems of grassland management

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Rafael; Riseth, Jan Age; Labba, Niklas; Tyran, Ewa; Musial, Wieslaw; Molik, Edyta; Boltshauser, Andrea; Hofstetter, Pius; Gueydon, Anne; Roeder, Norbert; Hoffmann, Helmut; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Coelho, Inocêncio Seita; Brito, Olga; Gil, Ángel

    2007-01-01

    European biodiversity significantly depends on large-scale livestock systems with low input levels. In most countries forms of grazing are organized in permanent or seasonal cooperations (land-owner/land-user agents) and covers different landscape such as alpine areas, forest, grasslands, mires, and even arable land. Today, the existence of these structures is threatened due to changes in agricultural land use practices and erratic governmental policies. The present chapter ...

  19. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the...

  20. Social Science Studies on European and African Agriculture Compared: Bringing Together Different Strands of Academic Debate on GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Fischer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the social science-orientated literature on genetically modified (GM crops in Europe and compared it with the corresponding literature on GM crops in African contexts, in order to determine the nature and extent of north-south cross-fertilisation in the literature. A total of 1625 papers on GM crops and agriculture falling within the ‘social science and humanities’ subject area in the Scopus abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature were analysed for major trends relating to geographical areas. More detailed analysis was performed on papers discussing African (56 papers and European (127 papers contexts. The analysis revealed that studies on policy and politics were common in both strands of the literature, frequently focusing on effects of the relatively restrictive European Union regulations on GM crops. There were also clear differences, however. For example, papers focusing on Africa frequently examined farm-level impacts and production, while this theme was almost non-existent in the Europe literature. It focused instead on policy impacts on trade and consumer attitudes to GM products. The lack of farm-level studies and of empirical studies in general in the European literature indicates a need for empirical research on GM crops in European farming. Social science research on GM crop production in Europe could draw lessons from the African literature.

  1. Consumers’ perception of farm animal welfare: an Italian and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of some recent European and Italian surveys on consumer perception of farm animal welfare are shown and discussed. Special attention is paid to consumers’ opinions about animal welfare attributes, differences among species (and across countries in terms of animal welfare perception, “animal-friendly” labels and willingness of purchasers to pay more for food (eggs deriving from animals raised under higher welfare conditions. From a general standpoint, consumers’ perception and knowledge of animal welfare varies among European countries and it is mainly affected by their economic and educational level. Among animal welfare attributes, a strong preference is given to the availability of spaces, and, in the case of Italian respondents, also to the absence of movement restrictions (chains or tethers. Laying hens (44%, followed by broilers (42% and pigs (28% are the categories/species for which rearing conditions in the EU are judged to need the highest improvement in terms of welfare. Italian consumers appear less concerned about swine welfare (17% than other Europeans. It is noteworthy that 12% of EU respondents states that all farmed animals need more welfare and/or protection. With respect to labels on food packaging, claims for animal welfare often fall within wider schemes for quality assurance and, with the exception of eggs and organic goods, in many countries the possibility of identifying animal friendly products and the knowledge of the specific legislation on farm animal protection are still limited. According to the Community Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010, the establishment of an EU label for animal welfare, based on standardised scientific indicators, is an option to be explored which could promote the consumption of products elaborated under high welfare standards thus facilitating the choice of consumers. The readiness of consumers to pay more for a higher animal welfare level has

  2. A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribution of trade dominance; and the influence of norms and values on the trade pattern. It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

  3. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fundagul Bilgic; Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health ...

  4. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  5. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  6. Cultural Economy. The economic impact of the cultural sector from a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Colombo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture is playing an increasingly important role in the economic development of industrialised countries. Thus, the management of large cultural events and the relationship between cultural management and cultural policies will be key elements in the development of the so-called cultural economy. This article looks at the concept of cultural economy, in terms of the appearance of the idea and the different European methodological positions. The case of the Berlin International Film Festival is taken as an example to show the importance of cultural management with regard to economic development of the sector. This case study also allows for the analysis of the increasingly complex forms of cultural management adopted, as well as their effects on the regulation of the cultural market and their links to other basic economic sectors in urban development.

  7. Participatory mapping of landscape values in a Pan-European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Fagerholm, Nora; Bieling, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    . Methods: The research consisted of a cross-site comparison study on how landscape values are perceived in six areas of Europe using Public Participation GIS surveys. Answers were analysed combining contingency tables, spatial autocorrelation and bivariate correlation methods, kernel densities, land cover...... ratios, and viewshed analyses. Results were discussed in the light of findings derived from other European participatory mapping studies. Results: We identified shared patterns in the perception of landscape values across Europe. Recreation, aesthetics, and social fulfilment were the most common values......: The aim of this research was to increase the current knowledge on the most and least common landscape values perceived by local stakeholders, the patterns in the spatial distribution of values, and their connection to different socio-economic backgrounds and landscape characteristics across Europe...

  8. Classroom acoustics design for speakers’ comfort and speech intelligibility: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, David Pelegrin; Rasmussen, Birgit; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Current European regulatory requirements or guidelines for reverberation time in classrooms have the goal of enhancing speech intelligibility for students and reducing noise levels in classrooms. At the same time, school teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to high vocal load...... experienced at work. With the aim of improving teachers' working conditions, this paper proposes adjustments to current regulatory requirements on classroom acoustics in Europe from novel insights on classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort for teachers and speech...... are combined with a model of speech intelligibility based on the useful-to-detrimental ratio and empirical models of signal-to-noise ratio in classrooms in order to derive classroom acoustic guidelines, taking into account physical volume restrictions linked to the number of students present in a classroom...

  9. Opportunities and threats of the MOOC movement for higher education: the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuwer, Robert; Gil-Jaurena, Ines; Hakan Aydin, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    between institutions, stimulated by EU funded programs and the many innovative pedagogical models used in MOOCs published in Europe. The main threats mentioned were a lacking implementation of the ECTS system, hindering bridging non/formal and formal education and too much regulation, hindering......The Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) movement is the latest ‘big thing’ in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) which threatens to transform Higher Education. Both opportunities and threats are extensively discussed in literature, comprising issues on opening up education for the whole world, pedagogy...... and online versus campus education. Most of the literature focus on the origin of the MOOC movement in the US. The specific context of Europe with on the one hand autonomous countries and educational systems and on the other hand cross-border cooperation and regulations through the European Union differs...

  10. Multiple perspectives on the attribution of the extreme European summer of 2012 to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Laura J.; Yiou, Pascal; Hauser, Mathias; Lott, Fraser C.; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Colfescu, Ioana; Dong, Buwen; Hegerl, Gabi; Shaffrey, Len; Sutton, Rowan

    2017-07-01

    Summer 2012 was very wet in northern Europe, and unusually dry and hot in southern Europe. We use multiple approaches to determine whether anthropogenic forcing made the extreme European summer of 2012 more likely. Using a number of observation- and model-based methods, we find that there was an anthropogenic contribution to the extremes in southern Europe, with a qualitative consensus across all methodologies. There was a consensus across the methodologies that there has been a significant increase in the risk of hot summers in southern Europe with climate change. Most approaches also suggested a slight drying, but none of the results were statistically significant. The unusually wet summer in northern Europe was made more likely by the observed atmospheric circulation pattern in 2012, but no evidence was found for a long-term trend in circulation.

  11. European facilities for accelerator neutrino physics: perspectives for the decade to come

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, R; Migliozzi, P; Terranova, F

    2009-01-01

    Very soon a new generation of reactor and accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments - Double Chooz, Daya Bay, Reno and T2K - will seek for oscillation signals generated by the mixing parameter theta_13. The knowledge of this angle is a fundamental milestone to optimize further experiments aimed at detecting CP violation in the neutrino sector. Leptonic CP violation is a key phenomenon that has profound implications in particle physics and cosmology but it is clearly out of reach for the aforementioned experiments. Since late 90's, a world-wide activity is in progress to design facilities that can access CP violation in neutrino oscillation and perform high precision measurements of the lepton counterpart of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. In this paper the status of these studies will be summarized, focusing on the options that are best suited to exploit existing European facilities (firstly CERN and the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratories) or technologies where Europe has a world leadership. Similar consid...

  12. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited.

  13. Striking the balance: Challenges and perspectives for the protected areas network in northeastern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degteva, Svetlana V; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Eisenman, Sasha W; Dushenkov, Vyacheslav

    2015-10-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressure on the largest remaining tracts of old-growth boreal forest in Europe necessitates additional conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity in northeastern European Russia. In a regional network comprising 8 % of the Nenets Autonomous District and 13.5 % of the Komi Republic, 248 areas have varying protected statuses as state nature reserves (zapovedniks), national parks, reserves/sanctuaries (zakazniks), or natural monuments. Due to increased natural resource extraction in this relatively pristine area, designation of additional protected areas is critical for the protection of key ecological sites. The history of ecological preservation in these regions is herein described, and recent recommendations for incorporating additional ecologically representative areas into the regional network are presented. If the protected area network can be expanded, the overall environmental stability in these globally significant ecosystems may remain intact, and can help Russia meet the 2020 Aichi conservation targets, as set forth by the Convention of Biological Diversity.

  14. A legal institutional perspective on the European Union External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2010-01-01

    It is beyond doubt that setting up the European External Action Service will have a deep impact on EU external policy making. Both in legal and policy terms, this new player thoroughly changes the institutional balance in EU external relations. The goal of this paper is to examine the legal side...... of that coin, by exploring the legal and institutional nature and position of the EEAS in the EU’s external relations machinery. To that end, it queries the meaning of the EEAS’ sui generis status in the EU institutional set-up: what does it mean to say that the EEAS is ‘functionally autonomous’ from...... the Council and Commission? What are the implications of its absence of legal personality? What are its formal powers – if any, and could the EEAS be subject or object of Court proceedings? Against the backdrop of seeking answers to these questions, the paper then queries to which extent the legal choices...

  15. Health in the information and knowledge economy age--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Rosalie

    2004-01-01

    The health sector today faces great challenges. Health is an information-intensive sector where Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) could significantly contribute to efficiency and productivity gains. European Union is looking at the different facets of eHealth and mainly at the following three: a) Research and development, in particular to support the development of several regional health information networks, telemedicine services, and personal health systems for patients and citizens. b) Regulatory framework and standardisation, which ensure competition, interoperability and, at the same time, the confidentiality of personal data. c) Promotion of eHealth best practices through various eEurope 2002 and 2005 initiatives. After the pharmaceutical and radiology industry, eHealth is now the third industrial pillar for health. This emerging sector forms the backbone for the reengineering of health systems. It actually improves the access to and quality of care and places citizens at the very centre of its concern.

  16. Clinical marine toxicology: a European perspective for clinical toxicologists and poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Corinne; De Haro, Luc

    2013-08-02

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances--including global warming--that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

  17. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc De Haro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

  18. Expansion of chemical space for collaborative lead generation and drug discovery: the European Lead Factory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Benningshof, Jorg; Hamza, Daniel; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Pouwer, Kees; Morgentin, Remy; Nelson, Adam; Müller, Gerhard; Piechot, Alexander; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) represents a major cornerstone of drug discovery. The availability of an innovative, relevant and high-quality compound collection to be screened often dictates the final fate of a drug discovery campaign. Given that the chemical space to be sampled in research programs is practically infinite and sparsely populated, significant efforts and resources need to be invested in the generation and maintenance of a competitive compound collection. The European Lead Factory (ELF) project is addressing this challenge by leveraging the diverse experience and know-how of academic groups and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in synthetic and/or medicinal chemistry. Here, we describe the novelty, diversity, structural complexity, physicochemical characteristics and overall attractiveness of this first batch of ELF compounds for HTS purposes.

  19. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  20. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2013-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

  1. The triad of success in personalised medicine: pharmacogenomics, biotechnology and regulatory issues from a Central European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, Bertalan; Zahuczky, Gabor; Nagy, Laszlo

    2012-09-15

    The population of the world has recently passed the 7 billion milestone and as the cost of human genome sequencing is rapidly declining, sequence data of billions of people should be accessible much sooner than anyone would have predicted 10 years ago. This will form the basis of personalised medicine. However it is still not clear, even in principle, whether these data, combined with data of the expression of one's genome in various cells and tissues relevant to different diseases, could be used effectively in clinical medicine and healthcare, or in predicting responses to different therapies. Therefore this is an important issue which needs to be addressed before more resources are wasted on less than informative studies and surveys simply because technologies exist. As a typical example, we have selected and summarise here key studies from the biomedical literature that focus on gene expression profiling of the response to biologic therapies in peripheral blood and biopsy samples in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathy, inflammatory bowel diseases and psoriasis. We also present the state of the biotechnology market from a European perspective, discuss how spin-offs leverage the power of genomic technologies and describe how they might contribute to personalised medicine. As ethical, legal and social issues are essential in the area of genomics, we analysed these aspects and present here the European situation with a special focus on Hungary. We propose that the synergy of these three issues: pharmacogenomics, biotechnology and regulatory issues should be considered a triad necessary to succeed in personalised medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  3. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, Glenn B; Anderson, Janet E; Burnett, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. METHODS/DESIGN: in-depth multi-level (macro, meso...... and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness...

  4. Deep sea corals and carbonate mounds of the nw european margin: a biogeochemical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakoulakis, K.; White, M.; Bett, B.; Wolff, G. A.

    2003-04-01

    The deep-sea, scleractinian, reef-forming coral Lophelia pertusa is widespread along the NW European Continental Margin and its presence has been documented since the 19th century. However little is known about its ecology, biochemistry and particularly its relationship with the carbonate mounds it is often associated with. The characterisation of particulate organic matter (POM), which fuels the Lophelia pertusa ecosystems and the sediments on and around the coral/mound sites, may potentially shed light on the biogeochemical processes of the deep water coral (DWC) ecosystems. In this study, POM (20--40 m above bottom) and sediments have been collected from five mound/coral sites along the European Continental Slope (water depth ˜500--1000 m) with distinct oceanographic and sedimentological conditions, (Darwin, Logachev, Pelagia, Hovland and Belgica Mounds located around the Rockall Trough and Porcupine Seabight). Coral densities and mound sizes, shapes and conditions vary significantly from site to site. POM at these sites are significantly different, particularly with respect to the lipid concentrations relative to organic carbon, which are much higher at the Darwin Mounds (N.Rockall Trough; ˜1000m depth) than the rest of the sites (46.63 -- 225.11 mg g-1 and 0.49 -- 14.21 mg g-1 respectively). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are used as proxies of labile organic matter are also abundant at the Darwin Mounds, indicating that POM is 'fresh'. Scanning electron microscopy carried out on filtered material from this area confirms this. These mounds are affected by a branch of the poleward slope current, which, in combination with enhanced Ekman downwelling, could transport appreciable amounts of high quality organic matter to the depth that they are found. Lipid (including PUFAs) concentrations at the Pelagia Mounds (SE Rockall Trough; ˜700 m) although lower than at the Darwin Mounds are higher than at the other sites. This location is also influenced by

  5. The human rights framework, the school and healthier eating among young people: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Engesveen, Kaia; Afflerbach, Thorsten; Barnekow, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    To give an account of provisions in the framework of international human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements in relation to eating at school and discuss how these provisions could be invoked to ensure healthy eating at school. A review of provisions in the international and European human rights frameworks and policy documents was performed in order to identify evidence and examples of provisions implying responsibilities of the school as a public service provider to ensure healthy eating. The review of the human rights and policy texts showed that there are a large number of provisions that can be invoked in support of measures at school which can contribute to ensuring healthier eating as well as better education supporting such measures. The international frameworks of human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements should be invoked and translated into concrete strategies, policies, regulations and accountability mechanisms at national, regional, local and school levels. Ensuring healthy eating should be a top priority among all stakeholders in and around the school environment since it is a good investment in children's short- and long-term health and educational achievements.

  6. Collaborative and Competitive Strategies in Virtual Teams of e-Entrepreneurs: A pan-European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Matlay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the advent of the Internet have facilitated the emergence and growth of collaborative strategies amongst small e-Businesses (Matlay & Westhead, 2005. In addition, during the last decade or so, team-led entrepreneurship has been identified as a highly profitable alternative to single founder entrepreneurship. Recent research suggests that growth oriented, small e-Businesses operating in international e-Markets are more likely to be founded and managed by teams of e-Entrepreneurs (Matlay & Westhead, 2007. In increasingly globalised and hyper-competitive markets, "virtual teams" of e-Entrepreneurs search, discover and exploit new entrepreneurial opportunities. This type of entrepreneurial team consists of geographically dispersed entrepreneurs who are led by common entrepreneurial interests and interact electronically in order to promote interdependent strategies and fulfil entrepreneurial goals. In this article, an illustrative longitudinal case study of a pan-European virtual team of 24 e-Entrepreneur members is used to evaluate emergent collaborative and competitive strategies in small e-Businesses that are lead and managed by members. Collaborative and competitive strategies of e-Businesses are identified and related outcomes are analysed. Future research opportunities are suggested and pertinent policy recommendations are offered.

  7. The neglected shadow: European perspectives on emotional supports for early school leaving prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Downes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OECD reports emphasise ten key steps to equity in education, with concrete targets related to low attainment and early school leaving. Such steps, however, neglect the importance of emotional dimensions to early school leaving and the consequent need for system level emotional supports. The current study involves qualitative research interviews with senior government officials and secondary school management representatives across eight European countries, with a particular focus on school climate and emotional support issues. Issues raised by interviewees for students at risk of early school leaving include supports for withdrawn children, for those at risk of suicide and those being bullied at school affecting their nonattendance. Other emerging themes include alternatives to suspension and teacher education for improving their conflict resolution skills. Some interviewees explicitly observe the dearth of emotional support services available in practice in their countries. The pervasive policy gaps across national levels for a mental health and emotional support strategy, as part of an early school leaving prevention strategy, requires serious and immediate attention.

  8. What is the way forward for protein supply? The European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a description of the current European situation regarding protein supply. It calls for a more accurate assessment of the contribution of domestic feed materials to the EU protein balance sheet, in particular cereals. The article then looks at various options to improve the EU protein balance sheet and analyses the consequences of main EU policies in that regard, such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the EU biofuels policy. The last part of the article deals with the possibility to reduce protein consumption by the EU feed industry, by further increase of feed efficiency. Taking into account the need for the EU feed and livestock industries to remain competitive on a global market, as well as the strategic dimension of the EU protein deficit, this article calls for a pragmatic approach and recommends facilitating access to existing sources of vegetable proteins as a first step to improve the EU protein supply. The article also underlines the importance of research and development to improve the competiveness of EU protein crops, therefore reducing the need for public support.

  9. Probiotic formulations and applications, the current probiotics market, and changes in the marketplace: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxelin, Maija

    2008-02-01

    Europe is a multicultural continent where the consumption of fermented milks has traditionally been high in several countries. Thus, it is no wonder that the market for fermented dairy products with probiotic bacteria has been successful. The market for food applications of probiotics is clearly larger than that for probiotics sold in capsules, sachets, and other pharmaceutical forms. Yogurt-type drinks are the fastest-growing product category, but the diversity of probiotic food applications is not limited to milk-based products. Probiotic fruit juices, berry soups, and soy- and cereal-based fermented products are also sold. Some probiotic strains that are successful in Europe are marketed globally, but there is also a variety of local probiotic strains that are key players in their limited markets. The health messages of probiotic products have focused mainly on general well-being and support of gastrointestinal microbiota. However, because of newly accepted regulation from the European Union regarding health claims, such claims will be evaluated officially, which may substantially change their content. However, more-specific product claims may also appear on the market. This article describes trends and phenomena in mainly the food sector, which covers the most-successful probiotic applications, but food supplements are also discussed.

  10. Water Property Models as Sovereignty Prerogatives: European Legal Perspectives in Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Casalini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water resources departed once civil law jurisdictions leveled the demesne on ownership model, by introducing public ownership in the French codification of 1804, while common law jurisdiction developed a broader legal concept of property that includes even the rights to use res communes. The models led respectively to the establishment of administrative systems of water rights and markets of water rights. According to the first, public authorities’ power to manage and preserve water resources is grounded in a derogatory regime, whereby water rights, grounded on licenses or concessions, are neither transferable nor tradeable. On the contrary, environmental and social concerns in water market schemes must be enforced by means of regulation, thus limiting private property rights on water, in compliance with the constitutional and common law constraints set out to protect the minimum content of property as a fundamental human right.

  11. Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Stockley, Louise; Rangdale, Rachel; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterial pathogens found naturally in marine and estuarine waters, and are a leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial illness. These pathogens are commonly reported in the USA and in many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan; however, there is growing concern that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus may represent an important and increasing clinical problem in Europe. Several factors underlie the need for a greater understanding of these non-cholera vibrios within a European context. First, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus infections are increasing, and tend to follow regional climatic trends, with outbreaks typically following episodes of unusually warm weather. Such findings are especially alarming given current predictions regarding warming of marine waters as a result of global climatic change. Second, a myriad of epidemiological factors may greatly increase the incidence as well as clinical burden of these pathogens - including increasing global consumption and trade of seafood produce coupled to an increase in the number of susceptible individuals consuming seafood produce. Finally, there is currently a lack of detailed surveillance information regarding non-cholerae Vibrio infections in Europe, as these pathogens are not notifiable in many countries, which probably masks the true clinical burden of many human infections. This review will present a pertinent overview of both the environmental occurrence and clinical impact of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in Europe.

  12. Combination analgesic involvement in the pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseviers, M M; De Broe, M E

    1996-07-01

    Analgesic nephropathy (AN) is a chronic renal disease characterized by renal papillary necrosis and interstitial nephritis caused by excessive consumption of analgesic mixtures. In a recent study, diagnostic criteria for AN, based on a computed tomography scan investigation without contrast, were presented. The observation of a decreased renal mass of both kidneys combined with either bumpy contours or papillary calcifications was found to have a high diagnostic performance. Although several case control studies and two prospective studies demonstrated the association between analgesic abuse and nephropathy, the nephrotoxicity of the different analgesic products had not been clearly established. Analgesic abuse can be defined as a daily consumption of analgesic mixtures over a several-year period. Abuse of single analgesics is rare; it has been clearly demonstrated that abusers prefer analgesic mixtures. In Belgium, the prevalence of AN was positively related to the sales of analgesic mixtures containing two analgesic components plus caffeine and/or codeine. This relationship could not be observed for analgesics containing only one analgesic component plus caffeine and/or codeine. Moreover, during a European multicenter study, nephrotoxicity of different combinations of analgesic mixtures (all containing caffeine and/or codeine) could be documented in the absence of any previous phenacetin consumption. Epidemiologic observations in Sweden, France, and Belgium regarding incidence of AN, sales figures of analgesics, and legislative measurements concerning analgesic consumption supported the previous observations.

  13. Healthy ageing and home: the perspectives of very old people in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, J; Sixsmith, A; Fänge, A Malmgren; Naumann, D; Kucsera, C; Tomsone, S; Haak, M; Dahlin-Ivanoff, S; Woolrych, R

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on in-depth research, using a grounded theory approach, to examine the ways in which very old people perceive healthy ageing in the context of living alone at home within urban settings in five European countries. This qualitative study was part of a cross-national project entitled ENABLE-AGE which examined the relationship between home and healthy ageing. Interviews explored the notion of healthy ageing, the meaning and importance of home, conceptualisations of independence and autonomy and links between healthy ageing and home. Data analysis identified five ways in which older people constructed healthy ageing: home and keeping active; managing lifestyles, health and illness; balancing social life; and balancing material and financial circumstances. Older people reflected on their everyday lives at home in terms of being engaged in purposeful, meaningful action and evaluated healthy ageing in relation to the symbolic and practical affordances of the home, contextualised within constructions of their national context. The research suggests that older people perceive healthy ageing as an active achievement, created through individual, personal effort and supported through social ties despite the health, financial and social decline associated with growing older. The physicality and spatiality of home provided the context for establishing and evaluating the notion of healthy ageing, whilst the experienced relationship between home, life history and identity created a meaningful space within which healthy ageing was negotiated.

  14. Risk stratification with the risk chart from the European Society of Hypertension compared with SCORE in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The risk chart from the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) are equally recommended tools for risk stratification. However, ESH risk chart recommends measuring subclinical organ damage, whereas...... SCORE is based on traditional risk factors. We wanted to compare the predictive performance of the two charts. METHODS: In a Danish population sample of 1344 individuals aged 41, 51, 61 and 71 years without known diabetes, prior stroke or myocardial infarction, not receiving cardiovascular, antidiabetic...... or lipid-lowering medications and with higher than optimal blood pressure (> or =120/80 mmHg), we measured traditional risk factors and subclinical organ damage. The endpoints were cardiovascular death and a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke (CEP). RESULTS: During...

  15. Responsive to the People? Comparing the European Cognitive Maps of Dutch Political Leaders and their Followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Van Esch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Political leaders are often perceived as unresponsive to the daily concerns of citizens, especially when European integration is concerned. Academic research, however, provides at most mixed evidence for the existence of such a gap. This article tries to shed light on this discrepancy by introducing an alternative measure to study leaders’ responsiveness—narrative congruence—and explores the assumption that responsiveness increases leaders’ credibility in the eyes of their voters. As narrative congruence is a more intricate measure that captures leaders’ and followers’ policy preferences and argumentation, it may better capture the gap between their positions and therefore provide a more adequate explanation for citizens’ support for their leaders than traditional congruence measures like issue saliency and ideological distance. To provide a first test of this, the technique of cognitive mapping is introduced and used to explore the congruence in beliefs on European integration of four Dutch political leaders and their followers. Although the study finds a significant gap between some leaders and their followers’ narratives on Europe, it finds no evidence that this narrative congruence is related to the credibility of these leaders in the eyes of their followers.

  16. Comparative psychology, a new perspective for the 21st century: up the spiral staircase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gary; Partridge, Ty; Weiss, Emily; Pisula, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    This article responds to the continuing obituaries for Comparative Psychology. We understand the field to be a general psychology, a way of understanding the origins of all behavior of all species. We outline a methodological and conceptual foundation for comparative psychology to enter the new millennium-with an anagenetic and dynamic systems perspective. We see an important role to be played by comparative psychologists in managing resources, increasing our activity in social and political issues, and transcending our traditional role as the study of animal behavior to one that makes significant contributions to psychology and humanity by studying relationships between animals and changing environments, and by providing a historical perspective on human evolution.

  17. European dimension and European identity through the perspective of geography teaching in Slovenia = Evropska dimenzija in evropska identiteta z vidika pouka geografije v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to identify to what extent the ‘European dimension’ and ‘European identity’exist within school geography curricula, and how they are represented and constructed.Surveys discussed in the paper cover a 15 year period and dealing with the three mostimportant elements of (geography education: teachers, content and pupils/students. Usingthe results of the surveys, the author suggests possibilities for the development of geographyteaching, particularly with regard to subject areas concerning the implementation of Europeanidentity issues within the framework of European dimension.

  18. Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props and those that hinder (burdens behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological, social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600

  19. Brief Interventions implementation on alcohol from the European health systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan eColom

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol related health problems are important public health issues and alcohol remains one of the leading risk factors of chronic health conditions. In addition, only a small proportion of those who need treatment access it, with figures ranging from 1 in 25 to 1 in 7. In this context, Screening and Brief Interventions (SBI have proven to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems in primary health care (PHC and are very cost effective, or even cost-saving, in PHC. Even if the widespread implementation of SBI has been prioritized and encouraged by the WHO, in the global alcohol strategy, the evidence on long term and population level effects is still weak. This review study will summarize the SBI programs implemented by six European countries with different socio-economic contexts. Similar components at health professional level but differences at organizational level, especially on the measures to support clinical practice, incentives and monitoring systems developed were adopted. In Italy cost-effectiveness analyses and Internet trials shed new light on limits and facilitators of renewed, evidence-based approaches to better deal with brief intervention in PHC. The majority of the efforts were aimed at overcoming individual barriers and promoting health professionals’ involvement. The population screened have been in general too low to be able to detect any population level effect, with a negative impact on the acceptability of the program to all stakeholders.This paper will present a different point of view based on a strategic broadening of the implemented actions to real inter-sectoriality and a wider holistic approach. Effective alcohol policies should strive for quality provision of Health Services (HS and the empowerment of the individuals in a Health System (HSys approach.

  20. Strategies for structuring interdisciplinary education in Systems Biology: an European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijovic, Marija; Höfer, Thomas; Aćimović, Jure; Alberghina, Lilia; Almaas, Eivind; Besozzi, Daniela; Blomberg, Anders; Bretschneider, Till; Cascante, Marta; Collin, Olivier; de Atauri, Pedro; Depner, Cornelia; Dickinson, Robert; Dobrzynski, Maciej; Fleck, Christian; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Gonze, Didier; Hahn, Jens; Hess, Heide Marie; Hollmann, Susanne; Krantz, Marcus; Kummer, Ursula; Lundh, Torbjörn; Martial, Gifta; Dos Santos, Vítor Martins; Mauer-Oberthür, Angela; Regierer, Babette; Skene, Barbara; Stalidzans, Egils; Stelling, Jörg; Teusink, Bas; Workman, Christopher T; Hohmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Systems Biology is an approach to biology and medicine that has the potential to lead to a better understanding of how biological properties emerge from the interaction of genes, proteins, molecules, cells and organisms. The approach aims at elucidating how these interactions govern biological function by employing experimental data, mathematical models and computational simulations. As Systems Biology is inherently multidisciplinary, education within this field meets numerous hurdles including departmental barriers, availability of all required expertise locally, appropriate teaching material and example curricula. As university education at the Bachelor's level is traditionally built upon disciplinary degrees, we believe that the most effective way to implement education in Systems Biology would be at the Master's level, as it offers a more flexible framework. Our team of experts and active performers of Systems Biology education suggest here (i) a definition of the skills that students should acquire within a Master's programme in Systems Biology, (ii) a possible basic educational curriculum with flexibility to adjust to different application areas and local research strengths, (iii) a description of possible career paths for students who undergo such an education, (iv) conditions that should improve the recruitment of students to such programmes and (v) mechanisms for collaboration and excellence spreading among education professionals. With the growing interest of industry in applying Systems Biology approaches in their fields, a concerted action between academia and industry is needed to build this expertise. Here we present a reflection of the European situation and expertise, where most of the challenges we discuss are universal, anticipating that our suggestions will be useful internationally. We believe that one of the overriding goals of any Systems Biology education should be a student's ability to phrase and communicate research questions in such a

  1. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  2. A European and Swedish perspective on ICT – policies and strategies in education. National and institutional pathways: crossings, blind alleys and uphill slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hansson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at answering the following questions: 1. What general goals do politicians in Europe express in national policy documents for the integration of information and communication technology (ICT in their education systems? To develop that theme further we explored the situation in our own country Sweden as a case. 2. What policies and strategies for ICT in education do leaders of Swedish higher education institutions develop? 3. How do Swedish national priorities and academic institutional interests match? The globalisation of education forces different value systems to meet. There is on the national level highly different political values on what kind of education system to prefer – the Scandinavian model and the American model are two extremes. There are also very different values inherent in higher education institutions, the academia, - compared with the values and visions held by the political leaders. These value differences between and within countries are elaborated and discussed. A Swedish, Scandinavian and European perspective is adopted, but a wider international outlook is also given. It is suggested that the value conflicts, often not explicit, understood or recognised, are one of the major inhibitors for systemic change. The direction of change cannot be taken for granted – the driving forces pull in opposing directions. Different visions of the future struggle to be fulfilled.

  3. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014 and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Football Efficiency Among Two Small European Countries: Portugal and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change by means of data envelopment analysis(DEA applied to a representative sample of football clubs operating in the two small European countries: Portugal and Greece. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the market. We rank the football clubs according to their change in total productivity for the period 1999/2000 to 2002/2003,concluding that some clubs experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are considered in terms of managerial policy.

  5. A comparative study on the functional properties of the wild European mouflon and domestic sheep hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, M; Giardina, B; Pellegrini, M; Manca, L; Olianas, A; Sanna, M T; Fais, A; Masala, B

    1997-07-01

    The functional properties of Hb B of the wild European mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), Hb B of domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and Hb C isolated from anemic mouflon were investigated. Mouflon and sheep Hbs appear to be very similar in their response to organic anions and protons, whereas sheep Hb B displays an oxygen affinity lower than that of mouflon Hb B and sheep Hb A. Mouflon Hb B and Hb C, like sheep Hb A and Hb C, have similar efficiencies in transporting oxygen to the tissues. As in other ruminant Hbs, the effect of temperature on the oxygen affinity is slight. Data suggest that mouflon Hb B is not only structurally, but even functionally, more similar to sheep Hb A than to sheep Hb B.

  6. Comparing the fractality of European urban neighbourhoods: do national contexts matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Isabelle; Frankhauser, Pierre; Badariotti, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that morphological similarities between built-up urban surfaces are greater across borders than within cities in Europe: living, architectural and planning trends are international. The spatial arrangement of built-up areas is analysed here by means of fractal indices using a set of 97 town sections selected from 18 European urban agglomerations. The fractal dimension is estimated by correlation techniques. Results confirm that morphological similarities are higher across countries/cities than within. Moreover, two types of fractal laws are considered: one uses the basic fractal scaling law; the other introduces a prefactor a that is often called a "form factor" in the fractal literature. Differences in the results obtained by both laws are explained empirically as well as theoretically, and suggestions are made for further measurements.

  7. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union's Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Petronille; Bochenek, Tomasz; Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union's perspective.

  8. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  9. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. European orientations; Perspectives energetiques de la France a l'horizon 2020-2050. Orientations europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The authors recall the absence in 2007 of a real european energy policy and present the new energy Plan of the european commission, fight against the climatic change, reinforce the security of the energy supply, maintain the competitiveness of the european economy. This plan is then discussed. (A.L.B.)

  10. In situ groundwater and sediment bioremediation: barriers and perspectives at European contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, Mauro; Verdini, Roberta; Aulenta, Federico; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Agathos, Spiros; Puig, Sebastià; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    This paper contains a critical examination of the current application of environmental biotechnologies in the field of bioremediation of contaminated groundwater and sediments. Based on analysis of conventional technologies applied in several European Countries and in the US, scientific, technical and administrative barriers and constraints which still need to be overcome for an improved exploitation of bioremediation are discussed. From this general survey, it is evident that in situ bioremediation is a highly promising and cost-effective technology for remediation of contaminated soil, groundwater and sediments. The wide metabolic diversity of microorganisms makes it applicable to an ever-increasing number of contaminants and contamination scenarios. On the other hand, in situ bioremediation is highly knowledge-intensive and its application requires a thorough understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and ecology of contaminated soils, groundwater and sediments, under both natural and engineered conditions. Hence, its potential still remains partially unexploited, largely because of a lack of general consensus and public concerns regarding the lack of effectiveness and control, poor reliability, and possible occurrence of side effects, for example accumulation of toxic metabolites and pathogens. Basic, applied and pre-normative research are all needed to overcome these barriers and make in situ bioremediation more reliable, robust and acceptable to the public, as well as economically more competitive. Research efforts should not be restricted to a deeper understanding of relevant microbial reactions, but also include their interactions with the large array of other relevant phenomena, as a function of the truly variable site-specific conditions. There is a need for a further development and application of advanced biomolecular tools for site investigation, as well as of advanced metabolic and kinetic modelling tools. These would allow a

  11. Future Developments of the Next Generation Manned Space Platforms (European and Russian Space Students Perspectives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Douglas K. R.

    2002-01-01

    , concepts and research being undertaken by space researchers and students just entering the space arena. With opinions from Europe and Russia, we hope that common lines of interest are observable. The final aim was to show how new European space students, researchers and engineers are currently co- operating with their Russian colleagues through projects and how during these interactions and respect gained that we can in the future work more closely together, providing a framework pooling resources to make next generation manned space platform research more efficient and innovative. 1 University (France) I have permission to attend the conference and am willing to present the paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program.

  12. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  13. Space Educational Opportunities and Outreach Activities at the Dawn of the 21st Century. A European Students Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, S.; Robinson, D.; Manfletti, C.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Bedogna, P.; Corradi, P.; Marcuccio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Taking part in space activities and participating in the development and growth of space project has now become an undeniable reality. Thanks to academic institutions and outreach activities space enthusiasts can engage in numerous and diverse yet unique opportunities. The ESA Outreach Office sees students of every background taking part in its activities. This unique mixture of students of diverse nationalities enthusiastically co-operating ensures the program's interdisciplinarity. The added value of such an environment to the programs is significant and must not be forgotten. The friendship that blossom, and lose with which cultural and language barriers are overcome during the time spent working on the projects offered to university student and young professionals are invaluable. The purpose of this abstract is to give our perspective to the space community and to the general public on the importance of developing a space culture. The academic value of the space research projects mainly in which the authors have participated, the importance of such projects for the future of European relations and personal and social development through experience of international teams are topics that will be addressed. The activities discussed are : Attending sessions of congresses around the world, making contacts of major companies and players in the space sector, dealing of topics such as space engineering, policy and law, life sciences, business and finance, satellite applications, the exhilaration of floating in zero-g, the interdisciplinary, international and intercultural approach, the chance of quickly learning about many new concepts are just some of the marvellous experiences and opportunities that these programs offer. Reaching out to the general public is the second purpose of these unique activities.Images, photos and reports can seep into every house thanks to the great instrument that is the media, thus informing almost everyone about the activities and

  14. The EULAR Study Group for Registers and Observational Drug Studies: comparability of the patient case mix in the European biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Zavada, Jakub; Lund Hetland, Merete; Nordstrom, Dan C.; Aaltonen, Kalle J.; Listing, Joachim; Zink, Angela; Gati, Tamas; Rojkovich, Bernadette; Iannone, Florenzo; Gremese, Elisa; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Lie, Elisabeth; Kvien, Tore K.; Canhao, Helena; Fonseca, Joao E.; Rotar, Ziga; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loretto; Askling, Johan; Johansson, Kari; Finckh, Axel; Dixon, William G.; Hyrich, Kimme L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), a study group of investigators representing European biologic DMARD (bDMARD) registers was convened. The purpose of this initial assessment was to collect and compare a cross section of patient characteristics and

  15. Dimensional comparability of psychosocial working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formazin, Maren; Burr, Hermann; Aagestad, Cecilie; Tynes, Tore; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Perkio-Makela, Merja; Díaz Aramburu, Clara Isabel; Pinilla García, Francisco Javier; Galiana Blanco, Luz; Vermeylen, Greet; Parent-Thirion, Agnes; Hooftman, Wendela; Houtman, Irene

    2014-12-09

    In most countries in the EU, national surveys are used to monitor working conditions and health. Since the development processes behind the various surveys are not necessarily theoretical, but certainly practical and political, the extent of similarity among the dimensions covered in these surveys has been unclear. Another interesting question is whether prominent models from scientific research on work and health are present in the surveys--bearing in mind that the primary focus of these surveys is on monitoring status and trends, not on mapping scientific models. Moreover, it is relevant to know which other scales and concepts not stemming from these models have been included in the surveys. The purpose of this paper is to determine (1) the similarity of dimensions covered in the surveys included and (2) the congruence of dimensions of scientific research and of dimensions present in the monitoring systems. Items from surveys representing six European countries and one European wide survey were classified into the dimensions they cover, using a taxonomy agreed upon among all involved partners from the six countries. The classification reveals that there is a large overlap of dimensions, albeit not in the formulation of items, covered in the seven surveys. Among the available items, the two prominent work-stress-models--job-demand-control-support-model (DCS) and effort-reward-imbalance-model (ERI)--are covered in most surveys even though this has not been the primary aim in the compilation of these surveys. In addition, a large variety of items included in the surveillance systems are not part of these models and are--at least partly--used in nearly all surveys. These additional items reflect concepts such as "restructuring", "meaning of work", "emotional demands" and "offensive behaviour/violence & harassment". The overlap of the dimensions being covered in the various questionnaires indicates that the interests of the parties deciding on the questionnaires in

  16. Prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the post-seven valent vaccine era: A European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weil-Olivier Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children decreased dramatically following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae now reflects infections caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. Recently introduced higher valency pneumococcal vaccines target the residual burden of invasive and non-invasive infections, including those caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. This review is based on presentations made at the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in June 2011. Discussion Surveillance data show increased circulation of the non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 6C, 7 F and 19A in countries with routine vaccination. Preliminary evidence suggests that broadened serotype coverage offered by higher valency vaccines may be having an effect on invasive disease caused by some of those serotypes, including 19A, 7 F and 6C. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. However, recent reports indicate that pneumococcal vaccination has reduced hospitalisations of children for vaccine serotype pneumonia. Variations in serotype circulation and occurrence of complicated and non-complicated pneumonia caused by non-PCV7 serotypes highlight the potential of higher valency vaccines to decrease the remaining burden. PCVs reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM caused by vaccine serotypes. Recent investigations of the interaction between S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae suggest that considerable reduction in severe, complicated AOM infections may be achieved by prevention of early pneumococcal carriage and AOM infections. Extension of the vaccine serotype spectrum beyond PCV7 may provide additional benefit in preventing the evolution of AOM. The direct and indirect costs associated with pneumococcal disease are high, thus herd protection and infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes

  17. Co-decision in the European Parliament: Comparing Rationalist and Constructivist Explanations of the Returns Directive

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    Ariadna Ripoll Servent

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses rationalist and constructivist explanations of co-decision in the European Parliament (EP. It seeks to understand the change in the policy preferences of the EP during negotiations on the ‘Returns’ directive – dealing with the voluntary or compulsory return of irregular immigrants. This article shows that the introduction of co-decision contributed considerably to the EP’s change of stance on immigration policies. A long-standing advocate of civil liberties in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ, the EP was expected to raise the standards of protection for third-country nationals. In view of the inability of the EP to construct a more liberal policy, the study uses two institutionalist approaches to understand why the EP was unsuccessful in raising the standards. Therefore, the approaches aim at identifying the logics and layers of change. The empirical application of the models highlights the necessity to integrate rationalist and constructivist understandings of co-decision in order to understand motivations for policy change. Synergies in the direction of change also point to the importance of institutional motivations, in order to understand major changes in the policy preferences of the EP.

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Kunst, Anton E; Bopp, Matthias; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Kovács, Katalin; Artnik, Barbara; Kalediene, Ramune; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-11-01

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5% at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  19. What Kind of Critical University Education for Sustainable Development? A Comparative Study of European Students and Social Representations

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    Agnieszka Jeziorski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the institutional integration of education for sustainable development (ESD, university courses have been going through rapid changes, but this process can be blocked or aided by each country’s peculiar features, whether institutional, financial, cultural or other. This article proposes an examination of the specific socio-educational characteristics of the implementation of ESD based on a study of the social representations of students in three European countries (Germany, France and Poland, and in two types of Master’s level university education. The paper initially focuses on the differences and similarities in the student research groups. It then analyses the representational components in terms of the possible impacts on the implementation of ESD at the university from a critical, citizenship perspective. Despite the differences in the students’ representational structures in the various countries, we can see that, in the three national groups, the social representations of sustainable development are highly focused and have a highly fragmented character. The lack of systematization of the different elements of the representation poses barriers to critical education, although this takes different forms in the different countries.

  20. The perspective of European researchers of national occupational safety and health institutes for contributing to a European research agenda: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Diana; Rondinone, Bruna M; Mirabile, Marco; Buresti, Giuliana; Ellwood, Peter; Hery, Michel; Paszkiewicz, Peter; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-06-23

    This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers.The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies. The study was carried out using a modified Delphi method with a two-round survey. Each round involved a panel of about 110 researchers representing the network member institutes was selected according to specific criteria, including the ownership of research expertise in at least one of the four macroareas identified by the reference report developed by EU-OSHA in 2013. The study identified some innovative research topics (for example, 'Emerging technological devices' and 'OSH consequences of markets integration') and research priorities (ie, crowdsourcing, e-work, zero-hours contracts) that are not reflected in previous studies of this nature.The absence of any reference to violence and harassment at work among the researchers' proposals is a major difference from previous similar studies, while topics related to gender issues and electromagnetic fields show a lower importance. The innovative design of a research priorities identification process, which takes advantage of a large, representative and qualified panel of European researchers allowed the definition of a number of research priorities able to support the inclusion of innovative OSH research issues in the scope of the next European research agenda. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Ceftobiprole for the treatment of pneumonia: a European perspective

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    Liapikou A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adamantia Liapikou,1 Catia Cillóniz,2 Antonio Torres216th Respiratory Department, Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Pulmonology Department, Clinic Institute of Thorax (ICT, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain Insitut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Ceftobiprole, a new broad spectrum, parenteral cephalosporin, exhibits potent in vitro activity against a number of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gram-negative pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to ceftriaxone with or without linezolid in CAP, with clinical cure rates 86.6% versus 87.4%, or ceftazidime in HAP, with clinical cure rates of 77% versus 76%, respectively. However, ceftobiprole was inferior in the subgroup of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Ceftobiprole has so far demonstrated a good safety profile in preliminary studies, with similar tolerability to comparators. The most commonly observed adverse events of ceftobiprole included headache and gastrointestinal upset. It is the first cephalosporin monotherapy approved in the EU for the treatment of both CAP and HAP (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia.Keywords: antibiotic resistance, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, cephalosporins

  2. European air pollution in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, A.; Bessagnet, B.; Vautard, R.; Szopa, S.; Rao, S.; Schucht, S.; Klimont, Z.; Holland, M.; Menut, L.; Meleux, F.; Rouïl, L.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution and climate change are closely related. They share both driving geophysical processes and mitigation strategies. Increased temperature, changes in weather regimes and precipitation patterns will alter the formation of pollution episodes. At the same time curbing greenhouse gases emission will also induce indirect co-benefits for air pollutant emissions. As a consequence, understanding the long-term efficiency of air pollution mitigation strategies requires the integrated implementation of comprehensive geophysical and economical models. Coupling air pollution and climate models for long term projections raise a number of scientific and technical issues. Global scale circulation outputs must be downscaled in order to provide high resolution three dimensional meteorological fields at high temporal frequency to the chemistry transport model. The computational cost of the air quality model is comparable to the cost of the regional climate model. So that the computing demand and storage call for an efficient design of a complex modelling suite. Moreover the cost of the project prohibits the implementation of large ensemble of model, thereby raising concerns on the treatment of uncertainty analyses of the projections. We present an integrated assessment of future air quality that relies on up-to-date emission scenarios and full-frame geophysical models of climate and atmospheric chemistry which are themselves embedded in monetised economical models to propose a cost-benefit assessment. Emissions: For long lived trace species, we use the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP) produced for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC whereas regional air quality modelling is based on the updated emissions scenarios produced in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) that offer an explicit representation of air quality policies. Climate and chemistry models: We use the latest sources of recent coordinated model intercomparison projects, each

  3. Incentives for telehealthcare deployment that support integrated care: a comparative analysis across eight European countries

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    Maria Lluch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care systems are struggling to deal with the increasing demands of an older population. In an attempt to find a solution to these demands, there has been a shift towards integrated care supported by information and communication technologies. However, little is understood about the role played by incentives and reimbursement schemes in the development of integrated care and information and communication technologies uptake. The objective of this paper is to investigate this question, specifically as regards telehealthcare.Methods: In order to identify the deployment of telehealthcare applications and their role in supporting integrated care, a case study approach was used. A clustering exercise was carried out and eight European countries were selected for in-depth study: Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK. In total, 31 telehealthcare initiatives across eight countries involving over 20,000 patients were investigated.Results: Reflecting on specific examples in each initiative, drivers promoting integrated care delivery supported by telehealthcare mainstreaming and associated incentive mechanisms were identified. Attention was also paid to other factors which acted as barriers for widespread deployment.Discussion and conclusions: Trends towards telehealthcare mainstreaming were found in Denmark, the UK, and in some regions of Spain, Italy and France. Mainstreaming often went hand-in-hand with progress towards integrated care delivery and payment reforms.A general trend was found towards outcomes-based payments and bundled payment schemes, which aimed to promote integrated care supported by telehealthcare deployment. Their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains to be seen.In addition, a form of outpatient diagnostic-related group reimbursement for telehealthcare services was found to have emerged in a few countries. However, it is questionable how this incentive could promote

  4. Comparing vowel perception and production in Spanish and Portuguese: European versus Latin American dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.; Escudero, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent acoustic descriptions have shown that Spanish and Portuguese vowels are produced differently in Europe and Latin America. The present study investigates whether comparable between-variety differences exist in vowel perception. Spanish, Peruvian, Portuguese, and Brazilian listeners were tested

  5. Crowding and Delivery of Healthcare in Emergency Departments: The European Perspective

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    Jayaprakash, Namita

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergency department (ED crowding is a multifactorial problem, resulting in increased ED waiting times, decreased patient satisfaction and deleterious domino effects on the entire hospital. Although difficult to define and once limited to anecdotal evidence, crowding is receiving more attention as attempts are made to quantify the problem objectively. It is a worldwide phenomenon with regional influences, as exemplified when analyzing the problem in Europe compared to that of the United States. In both regions, an aging population, limited hospital resources, staff shortages and delayed ancillary services are key contributors; however, because the structure of healthcare differs from country to country, varying influences affect the issue of crowding. The approach to healthcare delivery as a right of all people, as opposed to a free market commodity, depends on governmental organization and appropriation of funds. Thus, public funding directly influences potential crowding factors, such as number of hospital beds, community care facilities, and staffing. Ultimately ED crowding is a universal problem with distinctly regional root causes; thus, any approach to address the problem must be tailored to regional influences.[West J Emerg Med. 2009; 10:233-239].

  6. Crowding and delivery of healthcare in emergency departments: the European perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jayaprakash, Namita

    2009-11-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a multifactorial problem, resulting in increased ED waiting times, decreased patient satisfaction and deleterious domino effects on the entire hospital. Although difficult to define and once limited to anecdotal evidence, crowding is receiving more attention as attempts are made to quantify the problem objectively. It is a worldwide phenomenon with regional influences, as exemplified when analyzing the problem in Europe compared to that of the United States. In both regions, an aging population, limited hospital resources, staff shortages and delayed ancillary services are key contributors; however, because the structure of healthcare differs from country to country, varying influences affect the issue of crowding. The approach to healthcare delivery as a right of all people, as opposed to a free market commodity, depends on governmental organization and appropriation of funds. Thus, public funding directly influences potential crowding factors, such as number of hospital beds, community care facilities, and staffing. Ultimately ED crowding is a universal problem with distinctly regional root causes; thus, any approach to address the problem must be tailored to regional influences.

  7. Johann P. Arnason & Kurt A. Raaflaub, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gibbons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arnason and Raaflaub’s edited volume, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, is the fifth volume in a series entitled The Ancient World: Comparative Histories. The overarching aim of the series is to bring a comparative perspective to studies of ancient histories, and earlier titles focus either on content or geography. This is the only volume to date that focuses on a specific civilization, and Rome is of course significant enough to merit its own volume.

  8. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.

  9. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: Model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.

  10. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: Model and analysis of competitiveness of mayor European soccer leagues

    CERN Document Server

    Criado, Regino; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.

  11. European atmosphere in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify changes in air pollution in Europe at the 2050 horizon, we designed a comprehensive modelling system that captures the external factors considered to be most relevant and relies on up-to-date and consistent sets of air pollution and climate policy scenarios. Global and regional climate as well as global chemistry simulations are based on the recent Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP produced for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of IPCC whereas regional air quality modelling is based on the updated emissions scenarios produced in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment. We explored two diverse scenarios: a reference scenario where climate policies are absent and a mitigation scenario which limits global temperature rise to within 2 °C by the end of this century. This first assessment of projected air quality and climate at the regional scale based on CMIP5 (5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project climate simulations is in line with the existing literature using CMIP3. The discrepancy between air quality simulations obtained with a climate model or with meteorological reanalyses is pointed out. Sensitivity simulations show that the main factor driving future air quality projections is air pollutant emissions, rather than climate change or long range transport. Whereas the well documented "climate penalty" bearing upon ozone over Europe is confirmed, other features appear less robust compared to the literature: such as the impact of climate on PM2.5. The quantitative disentangling of each contributing factor shows that the magnitude of the ozone climate penalty has been overstated in the past while on the contrary the contribution of the global ozone burden is overlooked in the literature.

  12. European atmosphere in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To quantify changes in air pollution over Europe at the 2050 horizon, we designed a comprehensive modelling system that captures the external factors considered to be most relevant, and that relies on up-to-date and consistent sets of air pollution and climate policy scenarios. Global and regional climate as well as global chemistry simulations are based on the recent representative concentration pathways (RCP produced for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change whereas regional air quality modelling is based on the updated emissions scenarios produced in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment. We explored two diverse scenarios: a reference scenario where climate policies are absent and a mitigation scenario which limits global temperature rise to within 2 °C by the end of this century. This first assessment of projected air quality and climate at the regional scale based on CMIP5 (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project climate simulations is in line with the existing literature using CMIP3. The discrepancy between air quality simulations obtained with a climate model or with meteorological reanalyses is pointed out. Sensitivity simulations show that the main factor driving future air quality projections is air pollutant emissions, rather than climate change or intercontinental transport of pollution. Whereas the well documented "climate penalty" that weights upon ozone (increase of ozone pollution with global warming over Europe is confirmed, other features appear less robust compared to the literature, such as the impact of climate on PM2.5. The quantitative disentangling of external factors shows that, while several published studies focused on the climate penalty bearing upon ozone, the contribution of the global ozone burden is somewhat overlooked in the literature.

  13. Body size, body composition and fat distribution: comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine C; Freitas, Ismael; Plank, Lindsay D

    2009-08-01

    Although there is evidence that Asian Indians, Polynesians and Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking. We investigated differences in the relationships between body fatness and BMI, fat distribution, muscularity, bone mineral mass, leg length and age-related changes in body composition between these ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis of 933 European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adult volunteers was performed for total and percentage of BF, abdominal fat, thigh fat, appendicular muscle mass, bone mineral content and leg length measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Indian men and women (BMI of 24 and 26 kg/m2, respectively) had the same percentage of BF as Europeans with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or Pacific men and women with BMI of 34 and 35 kg/m2, respectively. Asian Indians had more fat, both total and in the abdominal region, with less lean mass, skeletal muscle and bone mineral than all other ethnic groups. Leg length was relatively longer in Pacific men and Asian and Pacific women than in other ethnic groups. In Asian Indians, abdominal fat increased with increasing age, while the percentage of BF showed little change. In the other ethnic groups, both abdominal and total BF increased with age. In conclusion, ethnic differences in fat distribution, muscularity, bone mass and leg length may contribute to ethnic-specific relationships between body fatness and BMI. The use of universal BMI cut-off points may not be appropriate for the comparison of obesity prevalence between ethnic groups.

  14. Comparing the Law and Governance of Assisted Dying in Four European Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a comparative law and governance insight to assisted dying in England, France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, bringing together empirical studies of regulation and normative thinking about the role of the state. It follows the ‘new governance’ scholarly effort to challenge

  15. Comparing the Law and Governance of Assisted Dying in Four European Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a comparative law and governance insight to assisted dying in England, France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, bringing together empirical studies of regulation and normative thinking about the role of the state. It follows the ‘new governance’ scholarly effort to challenge th

  16. Primary liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis: A comparative analysis of the European liver transplant registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Schramm (Christoph); M. Bubenheim (Michael); R. Adam (René); V. Karam (Vincent); J. Buckels (John); J.G. O'Grady (John); N. Jamieson (Neville); S. Pollard (Stephen); P. Neuhaus (Peter); M.M. Manns (Michael); R.J. Porte (Robert); D. Castaing (Denis); A. Paul (Anna); O. Traynor (Oscar); J. Garden (James); S. Friman (Styrbjörn); B.G. Ericzon; L. Fischer (Lutz); S. Vitko (Stefan); M. Krawczyk (Marek); H.J. Metselaar (Herold); A. Foss (Aksel); M. Kilic (Murat); K. Rolles (Keith); P. Burra (Patrizia); X. Rogiers (Xavier); A.W. Lohse (Ansgar)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe principal aim of this study was to compare the probability of and potential risk factors for death and graft loss after primary adult and pediatric liver transplantation in patients undergoing transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to those in patients undergoing transplantat

  17. Primary Liver Transplantation for Autoimmune Hepatitis : A Comparative Analysis of the European Liver Transplant Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, Christoph; Bubenheim, Michael; Adam, Rene; Karam, Vincent; Buckels, John; O'Grady, John G.; Jamieson, Neville; Pollard, Stephen; Neuhaus, Peter; Manns, Michael M.; Porte, Robert; Castaing, Denis; Paul, Andreas; Traynor, Oscar; Garden, James; Friman, Styrbjorn; Ericzon, Bo-Goran; Fischer, Lutz; Vitko, Stefan; Krawczyk, Marek; Metselaar, Herold J.; Foss, Aksel; Kilic, Murat; Rolles, Keith; Burra, Patrizia; Rogiers, Xavier; Lohse, Ansgar W.

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to compare the probability of and potential risk factors for death and graft loss after primary adult and pediatric liver transplantation in patients undergoing transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to those in patients undergoing transplantation for prim

  18. Resistances to Scientific Knowledge Production of Comparative Measurements of Dropout and Completion in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlhed, Carina

    2017-01-01

    The article is a critical sociological analysis of current transnational practices on creating comparable measurements of dropout and completion in higher education and the consequences for the conditions of scientific knowledge production on the topic. The analysis revolves around questions of epistemological, methodological and symbolic types…

  19. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  20. The Suggestion of Some Comparative European Group Corporate Governance Standards after Financial Crisis, Corporate Scandals and Manipulation

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    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In past few years, corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe and other parts of the world show some certain evidence on weak corporate governance, weak internal control system and weak audit. Though there are a few researches which have been done in the field of international corporate governance standards, we believe that this field with more rooms to explore. Therefore, this paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions. First, it classifies European Group representative corporate governance (CG standards into two (2 groups: EASD and ECODA CG principles covered in group 1 and, group 2, including EFAMA Code and Corporate Practices from EBRD, so-called relative good CG group, while it uses ACCA and CFA principles as reference. Second, it , through analysis, shows differences between above set of standards which are and have been used as reference principles for many relevant organizations. Third, it establishes a selected comparative set of standards for European group representative corporate governance system in accordance to international standards. Last but not least, this paper covers some ideas and policy suggestions.