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Sample records for comparative developmental approach

  1. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  2. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  3. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  4. Developmental Plasticity and Language: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Pepperberg, Irene M; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-04-01

    The growing field of evo-devo is increasingly demonstrating the complexity of steps involved in genetic, intracellular regulatory, and extracellular environmental control of the development of phenotypes. A key result of such work is an account for the remarkable plasticity of organismal form in many species based on relatively minor changes in regulation of highly conserved genes and genetic processes. Accounting for behavioral plasticity is of similar potential interest but has received far less attention. Of particular interest is plasticity in communication systems, where human language represents an ultimate target for research. The present paper considers plasticity of language capabilities in a comparative framework, focusing attention on examples of a remarkable fact: Whereas there exist design features of mature human language that have never been observed to occur in non-humans in the wild, many of these features can be developed to notable extents when non-humans are enculturated through human training (especially with intensive social interaction). These examples of enculturated developmental plasticity across extremely diverse taxa suggest, consistent with the evo-devo theme of highly conserved processes in evolution, that human language is founded in part on cognitive capabilities that are indeed ancient and that even modern humans show self-organized emergence of many language capabilities in the context of rich enculturation, built on the special social/ecological history of the hominin line. Human culture can thus be seen as a regulatory system encouraging language development in the context of a cognitive background with many highly conserved features. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  6. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  7. The Developmental Approach to School Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    In the United States, a psychometric psychology dominates the thinking of educators. For traditional, political, and social reasons, developmental psychology rarely informs educational practices. This is the case even though studies show that the inducing of cognitive learning before a child is ready will reduce the child's learning potential and…

  8. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  9. Comparative approaches to gentrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin; Smith, Darren P

    2018-01-01

    The epistemologies and politics of comparative research are prominently debated within urban studies, with ‘comparative urbanism’ emerging as a contemporary lexicon of urban studies. The study of urban gentrification has, after some delay, come to engage with these debates, which can be seen to pose a major challenge to the very concept of gentrification. To date, similar debates or developments have not unfolded within the study of rural gentrification. This article seeks to address some of the challenges posed to gentrification studies through an examination of strategies of comparison and how they might be employed within a comparative study of rural gentrification. Drawing on Tilly (Big structures Large Processes Huge Comparisons. New York: Russell Sage), examples of four ‘strategies of comparison’ are identified within studies of urban and rural gentrification, before the paper explores how ‘geographies of the concept’ and ‘geographies of the phenomenon’ of rural gentrification in the United Kingdom, United States and France may be investigated using Latour’s (Pandora’s Hope. London: Harvard University Press) notion of ‘circulatory sociologies of translation’. The aim of our comparative discussion is to open up dialogues on the challenges of comparative studies that employ conceptions of gentrification and also to promote reflections of the metrocentricity of recent discussions of comparative research. PMID:29657708

  10. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  11. A relational developmental systems approach to moral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpendale, Jeremy I M; Hammond, Stuart I; Atwood, Sherrie

    2013-01-01

    Morality and cooperation are central to human life. Psychological explanations for moral development and cooperative behavior will have biological and evolutionary dimensions, but they can differ radically in their approach to biology. In particular, many recent proposals have pursued the view that aspects of morality are innate. We briefly review and critique two of these claims. In contrast to these nativist assumptions about the role of biology in morality, we present an alternative approach based on a relational developmental systems view of moral development. The role for biology in this approach is in setting up the conditions--the developmental system--in which forms of interaction and later forms of thinking emerge.

  12. Developmental psychopathology in an era of molecular genetics and neuroimaging: A developmental neurogenetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W

    2015-05-01

    The emerging field of neurogenetics seeks to model the complex pathways from gene to brain to behavior. This field has focused on imaging genetics techniques that examine how variability in common genetic polymorphisms predict differences in brain structure and function. These studies are informed by other complimentary techniques (e.g., animal models and multimodal imaging) and have recently begun to incorporate the environment through examination of Imaging Gene × Environment interactions. Though neurogenetics has the potential to inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology, there has been little integration between principles of neurogenetics and developmental psychopathology. The paper describes a neurogenetics and Imaging Gene × Environment approach and how these approaches have been usefully applied to the study of psychopathology. Six tenets of developmental psychopathology (the structure of phenotypes, the importance of exploring mechanisms, the conditional nature of risk, the complexity of multilevel pathways, the role of development, and the importance of who is studied) are identified, and how these principles can further neurogenetics applications to understanding the development of psychopathology is discussed. A major issue of this piece is how neurogenetics and current imaging and molecular genetics approaches can be incorporated into developmental psychopathology perspectives with a goal of providing models for better understanding pathways from among genes, environments, the brain, and behavior.

  13. Annelids in evolutionary developmental biology and comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcdougall C.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Annelids have had a long history in comparative embryology and morphology, which has helped to establish them in zoology textbooks as an ideal system to understand the evolution of the typical triploblastic, coelomate, protostome condition. In recent years there has been a relative upsurge in embryological data, particularly with regard to the expression and function of developmental control genes. Polychaetes, as well as other annelids such as the parasitic leech, are now also entering the age of comparative genomics. All of this comparative data has had an important impact on our views of the ancestral conditions at various levels of the animal phylogeny, including the bilaterian ancestor and the nature of the annelid ancestor. Here we review some of the recent advances made in annelid comparative development and genomics, revealing a hitherto unsuspected level of complexity in these ancestors. It is also apparent that the transition to a parasitic lifestyle leads to, or requires, extensive modifications and derivations at both the genomic and embryological levels.

  14. Developmental screening in South Africa: comparing the national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parent completed screening tool, instead of a clinician administered .... velopment on the following areas, global/ cognitive, ex- ... needed for other services such as occupational therapy, ..... fy Developmental-Behavioral Problems in Their Chil-.

  15. Diagnostic boundaries of autism disorder vs pervasive developmental disorder nos comparative observational study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carigi, Tiziana; Muratori, Filippo; Termine, Cristiano; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Derhemi, Ledhina; Di Nardo, Roberta; Rossi, Giorgio; Balottin, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), and above all diagnosis of the different PDD subtypes, is an ongoing challenge in psychopathology. Application of categorical criteria is complex and problematic in the clinical field where the boundaries dividing some of the PDD entities are blurred, creating particular problems for the clinician. A dimensional clinical approach, considering autistic symptom severity, level of functioning, developmental characteristics and symptoms other than the ones typically observed in autism, may be a more suitable approach in the clinical field and could provide the clinician treating these disorders with empirical guidance. To identify the clinical features that might differentiate the PDD subtypes, we conducted a comparative study in a clinical sample of children affected by autism disorder (AD) or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and a mini critical review of the available literature addressing clinical and psychopathological differences between the two subtypes. The results of both our study and our literature review seem to show little support for the current PDD subtypes. In such a framework, the most significant element in clinical practice appears to be a deep knowledge of the characteristics of the individual in question. By adopting a broad and multi-faceted perspective, it becomes possible to define the most effective rehabilitation treatment. This applies particularly to the pharmacological treatment, since, to date, no specific therapies for PDDs are known and the choice of pharmacotherapy can be decided only on the basis of the patient's general profile and specific features.

  16. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugan, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  17. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  18. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquito developmental genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta K Behura

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1 are components of developmental signaling pathways, 2 regulate fundamental developmental processes, 3 are critical for the development of tissues of vector importance, 4 function in developmental processes known to have diverged within insects, and 5 encode microRNAs (miRNAs that regulate developmental transcripts in Drosophila. While most fruit fly developmental genes are conserved in the three vector mosquito species, several genes known to be critical for Drosophila development were not identified in one or more mosquito genomes. In other cases, mosquito lineage-specific gene gains with respect to D. melanogaster were noted. Sequence analyses also revealed that numerous repetitive sequences are a common structural feature of Drosophila and mosquito developmental genes. Finally, analysis of predicted miRNA binding sites in fruit fly and mosquito developmental genes suggests that the repertoire of developmental genes targeted by miRNAs is species-specific. The results of this study provide insight into the evolution of developmental genes and processes in dipterans and other arthropods, serve as a resource for those pursuing analysis of mosquito development, and will promote the design and refinement of functional analysis experiments.

  20. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  1. Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Haun, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As a discipline, developmental psychology has a long history of relying on animal models and data collected among distinct cultural groups to enrich and inform theories of the ways social and cognitive processes unfold through the lifespan. However, approaches that draw together developmental, cross-cultural and comparative perspectives remain rare. The need for such an approach is reflected in the papers by Heyes (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150069. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0069)), Schmelz & Call (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150067. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0067)) and Keller (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150070. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0070)) in this theme issue. Here, we incorporate these papers into a review of recent research endeavours covering a range of core aspects of social cognition, including social learning, cooperation and collaboration, prosociality, and theory of mind. In so doing, we aim to highlight how input from comparative and cross-cultural empiricism has altered our perspectives of human development and, in particular, led to a deeper understanding of the evolution of the human cultural mind. PMID:26644590

  2. Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Haun, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    As a discipline, developmental psychology has a long history of relying on animal models and data collected among distinct cultural groups to enrich and inform theories of the ways social and cognitive processes unfold through the lifespan. However, approaches that draw together developmental, cross-cultural and comparative perspectives remain rare. The need for such an approach is reflected in the papers by Heyes (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150069. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0069)), Schmelz & Call (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150067. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0067)) and Keller (2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, 20150070. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0070)) in this theme issue. Here, we incorporate these papers into a review of recent research endeavours covering a range of core aspects of social cognition, including social learning, cooperation and collaboration, prosociality, and theory of mind. In so doing, we aim to highlight how input from comparative and cross-cultural empiricism has altered our perspectives of human development and, in particular, led to a deeper understanding of the evolution of the human cultural mind. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Transcriptomic signatures shaped by cell proportions shed light on comparative developmental biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantalacci, S.; Gueguen, L.; Petit, C.; Lambert, A.; Peterková, Renata; Sémon, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, feb (2017), s. 29 ISSN 1474-760X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : comparative transcriptomics * developmental biology * transcriptomic signature Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 11.908, year: 2016

  4. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Andrea L.; Goodale, Britton C.; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T.; Swanson, Annika J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely

  5. Developmental Programming of Renal Function and Re-Programming Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Dötsch, Jörg; Weber, Lutz T; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long-term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to "re-program" renal susceptibility toward disease. Clinical manifestations of programmed kidney disease include arterial hypertension, proteinuria, aggravation of inflammatory glomerular disease, and loss of kidney function. Nephron number, regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal sodium transport, vasomotor and endothelial function, myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback have been identified as being vulnerable to environmental factors. Oxidative stress levels, metabolic pathways, including insulin, leptin, steroids, and arachidonic acid, DNA methylation, and histone configuration may be significantly altered by adverse environmental conditions. Studies on re-programming interventions focused on dietary or anti-oxidative approaches so far. Further studies that broaden our understanding of renal programming mechanisms are needed to ultimately develop preventive strategies. Targeted re-programming interventions in animal models focusing on known mechanisms will contribute to new concepts which finally will have to be translated to human application. Early

  6. Developmental Programming of Renal Function and Re-Programming Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nüsken

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long-term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to “re-program” renal susceptibility toward disease. Clinical manifestations of programmed kidney disease include arterial hypertension, proteinuria, aggravation of inflammatory glomerular disease, and loss of kidney function. Nephron number, regulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, renal sodium transport, vasomotor and endothelial function, myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback have been identified as being vulnerable to environmental factors. Oxidative stress levels, metabolic pathways, including insulin, leptin, steroids, and arachidonic acid, DNA methylation, and histone configuration may be significantly altered by adverse environmental conditions. Studies on re-programming interventions focused on dietary or anti-oxidative approaches so far. Further studies that broaden our understanding of renal programming mechanisms are needed to ultimately develop preventive strategies. Targeted re-programming interventions in animal models focusing on known mechanisms will contribute to new concepts which finally will have to be translated

  7. Developmental Programming of Renal Function and Re-Programming Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Dötsch, Jörg; Weber, Lutz T.; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long-term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to “re-program” renal susceptibility toward disease. Clinical manifestations of programmed kidney disease include arterial hypertension, proteinuria, aggravation of inflammatory glomerular disease, and loss of kidney function. Nephron number, regulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, renal sodium transport, vasomotor and endothelial function, myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback have been identified as being vulnerable to environmental factors. Oxidative stress levels, metabolic pathways, including insulin, leptin, steroids, and arachidonic acid, DNA methylation, and histone configuration may be significantly altered by adverse environmental conditions. Studies on re-programming interventions focused on dietary or anti-oxidative approaches so far. Further studies that broaden our understanding of renal programming mechanisms are needed to ultimately develop preventive strategies. Targeted re-programming interventions in animal models focusing on known mechanisms will contribute to new concepts which finally will have to be translated to human application

  8. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years, middle-aged (44–55 years, and older (70–81 years men and women. We report novel findings supporting variations by face and perceiver age, in interaction with gender and emotion: although older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers generally rated faces of all ages as more attractive, young perceivers gave relatively higher attractiveness ratings to young compared to middle-aged and older faces. Controlling for variations in attractiveness, older compared to young faces were viewed as more distinctive by young and middle-aged perceivers. Age affected attractiveness more negatively for female than male faces. Furthermore, happy faces were rated as most attractive, while disgusted faces were rated as least attractive, particularly so by middle-aged and older perceivers and for young and female faces. Perceivers largely agreed on distinctiveness ratings for neutral and happy emotions, but older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers rated faces displaying negative emotions as more distinctive. These findings underscore the importance of a lifespan perspective on perception of facial characteristics and suggest possible effects of age on goal-directed perception, social motivation, and in-group bias. This publication makes available picture-specific normative data for experimental stimulus selection.

  9. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Developmental Learning Approach of Mobile Manipulator via Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqi Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by infant development theories, a robotic developmental model combined with game elements is proposed in this paper. This model does not require the definition of specific developmental goals for the robot, but the developmental goals are implied in the goals of a series of game tasks. The games are characterized into a sequence of game modes based on the complexity of the game tasks from simple to complex, and the task complexity is determined by the applications of developmental constraints. Given a current mode, the robot switches to play in a more complicated game mode when it cannot find any new salient stimuli in the current mode. By doing so, the robot gradually achieves it developmental goals by playing different modes of games. In the experiment, the game was instantiated into a mobile robot with the playing task of picking up toys, and the game is designed with a simple game mode and a complex game mode. A developmental algorithm, “Lift-Constraint, Act and Saturate,” is employed to drive the mobile robot move from the simple mode to the complex one. The experimental results show that the mobile manipulator is able to successfully learn the mobile grasping ability after playing simple and complex games, which is promising in developing robotic abilities to solve complex tasks using games.

  11. The Importance of Comparative Psychology for Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to elucidate the relevance of cross-species comparisons for the investigation of human behavior and its development. The focus is on the comparison of human children and another group of primates, the non-human great apes, with special attention to their cognitive skills. Integrating a comparative and developmental…

  12. School bullying - A comparative approach -

    OpenAIRE

    Kosevaliska, Olga; Buzarovska - Lazetik, Gordana; Nanev, Lazar

    2014-01-01

    The modest purpose of this paper is to elaborate the phenomenon of school bullying and to try to give an answer to questions that remain open over time because of the seriousness of this issue. A child is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort through physical contact, verbal attacks, fighting or psychological manipulation. Besides finding the proper definition of bullying, we’ll give a comparative a...

  13. Developmental Transition of Motherhood: Treating Postpartum Depression Using a Feminist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Gage, Darcie; Kettmann, Julie Jenks; Moel, Joy

    2010-01-01

    During the developmental lifeline for women, some individuals are affected by postpartum depression. This article describes the treatment of a Latina woman experiencing postpartum depression. The authors illustrate the feminist approach using counseling interventions that incorporate the client's developmental level, cultural background, and…

  14. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  15. Preventing behavioural and emotional problems in children who have a developmental disability: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Inter-Ethnic Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlberg, Lawrence; Davidson, Florence

    Psychological research on race and ethnic stereotypes and attitudes has been carried out from two points of view -- a social learning view and a psychodynamic view. Neither of these grasp essential components of young children's ethnic attitudes or prejudices, nor do they detail the major developmental factors leading to the growth of tolerance…

  17. Developmental Transformations Art Therapy: An Embodied, Interactional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marni; Pitre, Renée; Johnson, David Read

    2016-01-01

    A new method of art therapy is described, based on Developmental Transformations, in which the therapist participates in joint art making with a client. The therapist's task is to present a graduated set of interpersonal demands on the client through the artwork, helping the client find adaptive responses to accommodations required by others, as…

  18. Entrepreneurship in Adolescence: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Damon, William

    2012-01-01

    Will significant numbers of today's youth become able to succeed in careers that require entrepreneurial capacities? Who among today's youth will have the talent, skills, knowledge, and drive needed to become successful entrepreneurs? To answer these questions, it will be necessary to understand the developmental bases of individual and ecological…

  19. Planning for School Transition: An Ecological-Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes an ecological-developmental model for planning a child's transition from a preschool special education program to a public school classroom. The model stresses interactions between the various environments in which the child functions. A description of a preschool transition program based on the model is also included.…

  20. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Joerg Luedicke; Manuel C. Voelkle; Manuel C. Voelkle; Michaela Riediger; Michaela Riediger; Tian Lin; Ulman Lindenberger; Ulman Lindenberger

    2018-01-01

    Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years), middle-aged (44–55 years), and older (70–81 years) men and women. We report novel findings su...

  1. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  2. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C.; Aihie Sayer, A.; Eendebak, R. J.; Clough, G. F.; Beard, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. PMID:26518329

  3. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  4. Comparative study of occupational performance in children with global developmental delay at 3 and 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Isabel Candeias Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to compare the occupational performance of children with global developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI, and children with typical development, at 3 and 5 years of age, and to verify what functional areas children with global developmental delay feature more difficulties. Method: This is a comparative descriptive study including a sample of 40 participants, and 20 show Typical Development with 20 presenting diagnosis of Global Development Delay. These two groups were divided into two age subgroups of 10 children (aged 3 to 5 years. Results: The Inventory Pediatric Evaluation of Disability was filled out by parents and the results show that occupational performance of children with developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI is lower than those with typical development, with 3 and 5 years old, in the areas personal, mobility and socialization autonomy. Conclusion: The publication of more studies related to the practice of occupational therapy in Portugal is crucial, thus contributing to the knowledge of professionals and students in this scientific area. In addition, more and more evidence-based practice is an approach adopted by health professionals, including occupational therapists, and to this end it is extremely important to carry out newer studies locally in Portugal.

  5. Should Kohlberg's Cognitive Developmental Approach to Morality Be Replaced with a More Pragmatic Approach? Comment on Krebs and Denton (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Krebs and Denton (2005; see record 2005-08166-005) proposed that Kohlberg's cognitive developmental approach to morality be replaced by a pragmatic approach more relevant to everyday social behavior and the cooperative moral orders of society. Although the Krebs and Denton article raises some legitimate questions, their proposal is at best…

  6. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  7. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  8. Anthropology and the study of menopause: evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to consider how the discipline of anthropology contributes to the study of menopause through evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives. This study was a review of skeletal and ethnographic evidence for menopause and postreproductive life in humans' distant past, hypotheses for the evolution of menopause and long postreproductive life, variation in age at menopause with focus on childhood environments, and the study of variation in symptom experience across populations. Longevity, rather than capacity for menopause, sets humans apart from other primates. Skeletal evidence demonstrates that some Neanderthals and archaic Homo sapiens lived to the age at menopause and that at least one third of women in traditional foraging populations live beyond menopause. The evolutionary reasons for why women experience a long postreproductive life continue to be debated. A developmental perspective suggests that early childhood may be a critical time for the environment to irreversibly influence the number of oocytes or rate of follicular atresia and, ultimately, age at menopause. A comparative perspective examines symptom experience at midlife through participant observation, qualitative interviews, and quantitative instruments to gain a holistic understanding of the meaning, experience, and sociocultural context of menopause. An evolutionary perspective suggests that menopause is not a recent phenomenon among humans. A developmental perspective focuses on the influence of early childhood on ovarian function. A comparative perspective expands clinical norms and provides knowledge about the range of human variations.

  9. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.

  11. Promoting the developmental social welfare approach in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was prompted by the on - going discourse on the appropriateness of existing social welfare delivery mechanisms in the Third World which, over time, have tended to be informed by the modernization approach. The prevailing view, particularly among academics and practitioners in Africa, is essentially that the ...

  12. Strategy Formulation in Small Enterprises: A Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Robert; Brownlie, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    The Small Company European Analysis Technique is a diagnostic tool that small businesses can use to analyze market opportunities in preparation for 1992. The approach uses small group consensus building as in the Delphi technique and brainstorming to formulate a strategic plan. (SK)

  13. Comparing Two Approaches for Engineering Education Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade there have been two dominating models for reforming engineering education: Problem/Project Based Learning (PBL) and the CDIO Initiative. The aim of this paper is to compare the PBL and CDIO approaches to engineering education reform, to identify and explain similarities...... and differences. CDIO and PBL will each be defined and compared in terms of the original need analysis, underlying educational philosophy and the essentials of the respective approaches to engineering education. In these respects we see many similarities. Circumstances that explain differences in history...... approaches have much in common and can be combined, and especially that the practitioners have much to learn from each other’s experiences through a dialogue between the communities. This structured comparison will potentially indicate specifically what an institution experienced in one of the communities...

  14. Comparative Approaches to Genetic Discrimination: Chasing Shadows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Song, Lingqiao; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2017-05-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is one of the most pervasive issues associated with genetic research and its large-scale implementation. An increasing number of countries have adopted public policies to address this issue. Our research presents a worldwide comparative review and typology of these approaches. We conclude with suggestions for public policy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gang Involvement among Immigrant and Refugee Youth: A Developmental Ecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M.; Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and refugee youth are at elevated risk for joining gangs, which, in turn, is associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Previous literature on risk and protective factors for immigrant and refugee youth gang involvement has been inconclusive. Applying a developmental ecological systems approach, this study investigated contextual…

  16. Comparative study on developmental stages of the clavicle by postmortem MRI and CT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels; Jensen, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The developmental stages of the clavicles are important for forensic age estimation purposes in adolescents. This study compares the 4-stage system to evaluate the ossification of the medial end of the clavicle as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography...... (CT). As several forensic institutes routinely perform CT scans, the large amount of available data may serve as reference sample for MRI in specific cases. Material and methods: This prospective study included an MRI and CT scan of 47 autopsy cases performed prior to medico-legal autopsy (age range...

  17. Intelligent Flowcharting Developmental Approach to Legal Knowledge Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Balaji Bilgi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research, described in this paper is to develop a hybrid legal expert system/ knowledge based system, with specific reference to the transfer of property act, within the Indian legal system which is often in demand. In this paper the authors discuss an traditional approach to combining two types of reasoning methodologies, Rule Based Reasoning (RBR and Case Based Reasoning (CBR. In RBR module we have interpreted and implemented rules that occur in legal statutes of the Transfer of property act. In the CBR module we have an implementation to find the related cases. The VisiRule software made available by Logic Programming Associates is used in the development of RBR part this expert system. The authors have used java Net Beans for development of CBR. VisiRule is a decision charting tool, in which the rules are defined by a combination of graphical shapes and pieces of text, and produces rules.

  18. Auditory Processing Interventions and Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparison of Phonemic and Rhythmic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two auditory processing interventions for developmental dyslexia, one based on rhythm and one based on phonetic training. Thirty-three children with dyslexia participated and were assigned to one of three groups (a) a novel rhythmic processing intervention designed to highlight auditory…

  19. Preventing Behavioural and Emotional Problems in Children Who Have a Developmental Disability: A Public Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend…

  20. Developmental Systems Theory and the Person-Oriented Approach. Commentary on: "An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    Molenaar's (2015) article concerns Developmental Systems Theory (DST) in relation to behavior genetics and he presents implications of DST for empirical research, especially the need for subject-specific studies. In this commentary, the article is discussed from a broader developmental science perspective, particularly regarded through the lens of…

  1. Comparative study on attitudes and psychological problems of mothers towards their children with developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, M; Saravanan, C

    2014-03-01

    Parents' positive attitudes and psychological wellbeing play an important role in the development of the children with developmental disability. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychological problems among mothers of children with autism disorder, intellectual disability, and Down syndrome. The second aim was to assess the differences in mothers' attitudes and psychological problems among their children with intellectual disability, autism disorder, and Down syndrome. The third aim was to identify whether negative attitude was a predictor of psychological problems in these mothers. In this study, 112 mothers of children having mild and moderate levels of autism disorder, Down syndrome, and intellectual disability were assessed using the Parental Attitude Scale and General Health Questionnaire-28. Overall, mothers of children with intellectual disability were found to have the most negative attitude towards their child. Mothers of children with autism disorder exhibited higher scores on somatic symptoms, anxiety, and social dysfunction when compared with their counterparts with Down syndrome and intellectual disability. Negative attitude was a significant predictor of psychological problems. Parental attitudes and psychological problems would vary among mothers of children with different types of developmental disability.

  2. The approach to developmental dyslexia. The use of functional MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Okada, Tomohisa; Sadato, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as a specific and significant impairment in reading ability that cannot be accounted for by any deficit in general intelligence or sensory acuity. It has been known that dyslexic children exhibit deficits for phonological awareness tasks, which require the ability to manipulate abstract phonological representations. A lower prevalence of dyslexia in Japanese suggests that the Japanese language may be more easily learned and manipulated by people with dyslexia. There are two supposable approaches to studying the mechanism of dyslexia using the functional MRI (fMRI). One is the study in healthy Japanese to investigate advantageous properties of Japanese related to less prevalence of dyslexia and the other is the comparative study in children to investigate the different cortical activity of dyslexia and normal readers. First, fMRI was used to investigate the neural substrates underlying phonological manipulation of the Japanese language. The posterior parts of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) were active during the auditory tasks, suggesting that phonological representations are manipulated in this area. In contrast, the intraparietal sulci (IPS), which have been implicated in visuospatial tasks, were active during the visual tasks, indicating that phonemic manipulation of kana'' letters is visuospatial. We suggest that because of the phonological and orthographical simplicities of the Japanese language, dyslexic children more easily learn the correspondence between letters and sounds. (author)

  3. Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieden, Nicole I. zur; Davis, Lesley A.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    Birth defects belong to the most serious side effects of pharmaceutical compounds or environmental chemicals. In vivo, teratogens most often affect the normal development of bones, causing growth retardation, limb defects or craniofacial malformations. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is one of the most promising models that allow the in vitro prediction of embryotoxicity, with one of its endpoints being bone tissue development. The present study was designed to describe three novel inexpensive endpoints to assess developmental osteotoxicity using the model compounds penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil (strong teratogen) and all-trans retinoic acid (bone teratogen). These three endpoints were: quantification of matrix incorporated calcium by (1) morphometric analysis and (2) measurement of calcium levels as well as (3) activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in matrix calcification. To evaluate our data, we have compared the concentration curves and resulting ID 50 s of the new endpoints with mRNA expression for osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is an exclusive marker found only in mineralized tissues, is regulated upon compound treatment and reliably predicts the potential of a chemical entity acting as a bone teratogen. By comparing the new endpoints to quantitative expression of osteocalcin, which we previously identified as suitable to detect developmental osteotoxicity, we were ultimately able to illustrate IMAGE analysis and Ca 2+ deposition assays as two reliable novel endpoints for the EST. This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming.

  4. Molecular and Chemical Genetic Approaches to Developmental Origins of Aging and Disease in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kishi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of diseases increases rapidly with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but mostly inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states in response to different environmental or genetic perturbations. On the one hand, we hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds of adaptive plasticity by chemical genetic approaches, we have been investigating whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during embryogenesis (“embryonic senescence”), subsequently showing shortened lifespan in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other hand, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and regulation. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes and small molecular compounds that can be linked to the senescence phenotype, and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental origins

  5. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  6. A Developmental and Process Approach to "Choice Categories": Imagination and "Tacit Knowledge".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria C D P

    2016-09-01

    A developmental process approach is proposed in order to contribute to reflect upon "choice categories" as the phenomena of human individuation (Mammen and Mironenko, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49:681-713, 2015; Mammen, 2016). Firstly we contrapose this perspective to the results referred by Krøjgaard (Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50(2), 264-276, 2016) regarding infant development. Subsequently, we discuss the role of imagination and the role of Polanyi's "tacit knowledge" as contributing to complement the concept of "choice categories". By this way we aim to highlight the heuristic value of focusing on the quality of the dynamics that guide developmental changes and its embeddedness in sociocultural milieu.

  7. Microgenetic experiment in developmental psychology: A new approach to discover cognitive change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Svetina

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Microgenetic experiment is relatively new tool in a developmental psychology research. It is primarily used in discovering broad range of cognitive processes such as the development of logical operations, memory and attention as well as beliefs or school adaptation. Designed as an extension of simple longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches it is convinient to research mental processes in all developmental stages of human being, from infancy to the old age. Microgenetic approach is characterised with repeated observations of behaviour. Observations are carried out in a relatively short period of time and yet they cover the whole interval between first appearance and stabilisation of a process in a subject. The microgenetic approach offers a good insight into the nature and development of the change. The article presents the general steps in both forming and performing of a microgenetic experiment, as well as the approaches used in the data analyses. On more general level, the article presents major practical and theoretical advantages and disadvantages of a microgenetic approach to be considered in the future.

  8. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  9. Comparing the Developmental Genetics of Cognition and Personality over the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Daniel A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Empirical studies of cognitive ability and personality have tended to operate in isolation of one another. We suggest that returning to a unified approach to considering the development of individual differences in both cognition and personality can enrich our understanding of human development. Method We draw on previous meta-analyses of longitudinal, behavior genetic studies of cognition and personality across the lifespan, focusing particular attention on age trends in heritability and differential stability. Results Both cognition and personality are moderately heritable and exhibit large increases in stability with age; however, marked differences are evident. First, the heritability of cognition increases substantially with child age, while the heritability of personality decreases modestly with age. Second, increasing stability of cognition with age is overwhelmingly mediated by genetic factors, whereas increasing stability of personality with age is entirely mediated by environmental factors. Third, the maturational time-course of stability differs: Stability of cognition nears its asymptote by the end of the first decade of life, whereas stability of personality takes three decades to near its asymptote. Conclusions We discuss how proximal gene-environment dynamics, developmental processes, broad social contexts, and evolutionary pressures may intersect to give rise to these divergent patterns. PMID:26045299

  10. A developmental approach to the treatment of bipolar disorder: IPSRT with an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Marie; Inder, Maree; Joyce, Peter; Moor, Stephanie; Carter, Janet; Luty, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This case study explains how a psychotherapy previously used with adults can be used with adolescents by focusing on the specific developmental issues associated with adolescence. Bipolar disorder is a damaging disorder to experience during the developmental phase of adolescence. Interpersonal social rhythm psychotherapy has been developed as an adjunct to medication for managing bipolar disorder and shows some promising outcomes in adults. This is a single case study design drawn from a larger randomised control trial of two psychotherapies for bipolar disorder. The case study addressed the question: How can Interpersonal social rhythm therapy be applied with adolescents who have bipolar disorder? This study used a purposeful sampling process by selecting the youngest adolescent participating in the randomised control trial. All the subject's sessions of Interpersonal social rhythm therapy were taped, transcribed and analysed. The analysis involved describing the process of psychotherapy as it occurred over time, mapping the process as a trajectory across the three phases of psychotherapy experience and focusing the analysis around the impact of bipolar disorder and IPSRT on adolescent developmental issues, specifically the issue of identity development. Interpersonal social rhythm therapy allowed the therapist to address developmental issues within its framework. As a result of participation in the psychotherapy the adolescent was able to manage her mood symptoms and develop a sense of identity that was age-appropriate. Interpersonal social rhythm therapy provided the adolescent in the case study the opportunity to consider what it meant to have bipolar disorder and to integrate this meaning into her sense of self. Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurring disorder that can have a serious impact on development and functioning. Interpersonal social rhythm therapy provides an approach to nursing care that enables adolescents to improve social functioning.

  11. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest

  12. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some

  13. Does College Matter for Emerging Adulthood? Comparing Developmental Trajectories of Educational Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lauren L; Syed, Moin

    2015-11-01

    Critics of emerging adulthood theory have suggested that it only applies to college students, but this assertion has largely gone untested. The purpose of the present study was to compare developmental trajectories of non-students versus college-educated youth in theoretically relevant domains of work, love, and financial independence. Using data from the Youth Development Study (N = 1139, 49.6 % female, 63.3 % White, 10.9 % Southeast Asian, 1.5 % Other Asian, 8.6 % Black, 5.3 % Mixed Race, 4.0 % Latino, 0.8 % Native American), latent growth curve models were fitted to chart each group's development, from ages 14 to 30. Different trajectories were revealed for hours worked, children, and financial dependence on parents, spouses, and government aid. No differences were found in employment rates, marriage rates, or financial dependence on own income. These results provide a clearer picture of emerging adulthood for non-students, and highlight problems with generalizing college student research to all emerging adults.

  14. Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies of Depression in Mothers of Children with and without Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, George H. S.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from comparative studies of depression in mothers of children with and without developmental disabilities. Effect sizes were determined for 18 studies conducted between 1984 and 2003. A weighted effect size of 0.39 indicated an elevated level of depression in mothers of children with developmental…

  15. The long adventurous journey of rhombic lip cells in jawed vertebrates: a comparative developmental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F Wullimann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes vertebrate rhombic lip and early cerebellar development covering classic approaches up to modern developmental genetics which identifies the relevant differential gene expression domains and their progeny. Most of this information is derived from amniotes. However, progress in anamniotes, particularly in the zebrafish, has recently been made. The current picture suggests that rhombic lip and cerebellar development in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes share many characteristics. Regarding cerebellar development, these include a ptf1a expressing ventral cerebellar proliferation (VCP giving rise to Purkinje cells and other inhibitory cerebellar cell types, and an atoh1 expressing upper rhombic lip giving rise to an external granular layer (EGL, i.e., excitatory granule cells and an early ventral migration into the anterior rhombencephalon (cholinergic nuclei. As for the lower rhombic lip (LRL, gnathostome commonalities likely include the formation of precerebellar nuclei (mossy fiber origins and partially primary auditory nuclei (likely convergently evolved from the atoh1 expressing dorsal zone. The fate of the ptf1a expressing ventral LRL zone which gives rise to (excitatory cells of the inferior olive (climbing fiber origin and (inhibitory cells of cochlear nuclei in amniotes, has not been determined in anamniotes. Special for the zebrafish in comparison to amniotes is the predominant origin of anamniote excitatory deep cerebellar nuclei homologues (i.e., eurydendroid cells from ptf1a expressing VCP cells, the sequential activity of various atoh1 paralogues and the incomplete coverage of the subpial cerebellar plate with proliferative EGL cells. Nevertheless, the conclusion that a rhombic lip and its major derivatives evolved with gnathostome vertebrates only and are thus not an ancestral craniate character complex is supported by the absence of a cerebellum (and likely absence of its afferent and efferent nuclei in jawless

  16. Children's unique experience of depression: Using a developmental approach to predict variation in symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginicola Misty M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current clinical knowledge suggests that children can have different types of depressive symptoms (irritability and aggression, but presents no theoretical basis for these differences. Using a developmental approach, the present study sought to test the relationship between developmental level (mental age and expression of depressive symptoms. The primary hypothesis was that as children's mental age increased, so would the number of internalizing symptoms present. Methods Participants were 252 psychiatric inpatients aged 4 to 16 with a diagnosed depressive disorder. All children were diagnosed by trained clinicians using DSM criteria. Patients were predominantly male (61% with varied ethnic backgrounds (Caucasian 54%; African American 22%; Hispanic 19%; Other 5%. Children were given an IQ test (KBIT or WISC while within the hospital. Mental age was calculated by using the child's IQ score and chronological age. Four trained raters reviewed children's records for depressive symptoms as defined by the DSM-IV TR. Additionally, a ratio score was calculated to indicate the number of internalizing symptoms to total symptoms. Results Mental age positively correlated (r = .51 with an internalizing total symptom ratio score and delineated between several individual symptoms. Mental age also predicted comorbidity with anxiety and conduct disorders. Children of a low mental age were more likely to be comorbid with conduct disorders, whereas children with a higher mental age presented more often with anxiety disorders. Gender was independently related to depressive symptoms, but minority status interacted with mental age. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that a developmental approach is useful in understanding children's depressive symptoms and has implications for both diagnosis and treatment of depression. If children experience depression differently, it follows that treatment options may also differ from that which is

  17. A Theoretical Approach to Understanding Population Dynamics with Seasonal Developmental Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing body of biological investigations to understand impacts of seasonally changing environmental conditions on population dynamics in various research fields such as single population growth and disease transmission. On the other side, understanding the population dynamics subject to seasonally changing weather conditions plays a fundamental role in predicting the trends of population patterns and disease transmission risks under the scenarios of climate change. With the host-macroparasite interaction as a motivating example, we propose a synthesized approach for investigating the population dynamics subject to seasonal environmental variations from theoretical point of view, where the model development, basic reproduction ratio formulation and computation, and rigorous mathematical analysis are involved. The resultant model with periodic delay presents a novel term related to the rate of change of the developmental duration, bringing new challenges to dynamics analysis. By investigating a periodic semiflow on a suitably chosen phase space, the global dynamics of a threshold type is established: all solutions either go to zero when basic reproduction ratio is less than one, or stabilize at a positive periodic state when the reproduction ratio is greater than one. The synthesized approach developed here is applicable to broader contexts of investigating biological systems with seasonal developmental durations.

  18. MBO: A Rational Approach and a Comparative Frameworks Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Considering an organizational phenomenon from more than one theoretical perspective may be more fruitful than using a single rational approach. There is a danger that the restriction of information generation caused by the single approach may produce a false certainty engendered in part through the methodology itself. (Author/WM)

  19. The Theory and Art of Child Psychotherapy: A Corrective Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The history of child psychotherapy is sketched from the psychoanalytic pioneers Anna Freud and Melanie Klein to the popular "nondirective" approach of Virginia Axline. The author's approach to child psychotherapy, based on contemporary psychoanalytic theories, allows the therapist to play any parental role that helps to repair developmental deficiencies and conflicts. These include nurturing, supporting, mirroring, role modeling, challenging, and limit setting. Following Winnicott, psychotherapy is conceived as a play space in which therapist and child are both spontaneous. The value of interpretation and insight in child therapy is discussed. There follows a more detailed discussion of three major problem areas in child psychotherapy: handling anger and hostile aggression; handling issues related to sexuality; and handling narcissistic issues of inferiority and shame.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape Berry in Response to Root Restriction during Developmental Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Leng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Root restriction improved berry quality by being involved in diverse aspects of grapevine life. However, the molecular mechanism driving this process is not understood very well. In this study, the ‘Summer Black’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca under root restriction was investigated, which showed an increase of total soluble solids (TSS, color index of red grapes (CIRG value, anthocyanins accumulation, total phenolics and total procyanidins contents during berry development compared with those in control berries. The transcriptomic changes induced by root restriction in ‘Summer Black’ grape over the course of berry development were analyzed by RNA-Seq method. A total of 29,971 genes were generated in ‘Summer Black’ grape berry during development, among which, 1606 genes were significantly responded to root restriction. Furthermore, 1264, 313, 141, 246 and 19 sequences were significantly changed at S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 sample points, respectively. The gene (VIT_04s0023g02290 predicted as a salicylate O-methyltransferase was differentially expressed in all developmental stages. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment showed that response to organic nitrogen, response to endogenous stimulus, flavonoid metabolic process, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process and cell wall macromolecule metabolic process were the main significant differential categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed plant–pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and glucosinolate biosynthesis were the main significant differential pathways. The results of the present study provided a genetic base for the understanding of grape berry fruit quality improvement under root restriction.

  1. Comparative Approaches to Biobanks and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Harrell, Heather L

    2016-03-01

    Laws in the 20 jurisdictions studied for this project display many similar approaches to protecting privacy in biobank research. Although few have enacted biobank-specific legislation, many countries address biobanking within other laws. All provide for some oversight mechanisms for biobank research, even though the nature of that oversight varies between jurisdictions. Most have some sort of controlled access system in place for research with biobank specimens. While broad consent models facilitate biobanking, countries without national or federated biobanks have been slow to adopt broad consent. International guidelines have facilitated sharing and generally take a proportional risk approach, but many countries have provisions guiding international sharing and a few even limit international sharing. Although privacy laws may not prohibit international collaborations, the multi-prong approach to privacy unique to each jurisdiction can complicate international sharing. These symposium issues can serve as a resource for explaining the sometimes intricate privacy laws in each studied jurisdiction, outlining the key issues with regards to privacy and biobanking, and serving to describe a framework for the process of harmonization of privacy laws. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  2. Pollen developmental defects in ZD-CMS rice line explored by cytological, molecular and proteomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junjie; Tian, Han; Wang, Shuzhen; Shao, Jinzhen; Zheng, Yinzhen; Zhang, Hongyuan; Guo, Lin; Ding, Yi

    2014-08-28

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widely observed phenomenon, which is especially useful in hybrid seed production. Meixiang A (MxA) is a new rice CMS line derived from a pollen-free sterile line named Yunnan ZidaoA (ZD-CMS). In this study, a homologous WA352 gene with variation in two nucleotides was identified in MxA. Cytological analysis revealed that MxA was aborted in the early uninucleate stage. The protein expression profiles of MxA and its maintainer line MeixiangB (MxB) were systematically compared using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics technology using young florets at the early uninucleate stage. A total of 688 proteins were quantified in both rice lines, and 45 of these proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatics analysis indicated a large number of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism or the stress response were downregulated in MxA, suggesting that these metabolic processes had been hindered during pollen development in MxA. The ROS (reactive oxygen species) level was increased in the mitochondrion of MxA, and further ultrastructural analysis showed the mitochondria with disrupted cristae in the rice CMS line MxA. These findings substantially contribute to our knowledge of pollen developmental defects in ZD-CMS rice line. MeixiangA (MxA) is a new type of rice CMS line, which is derived from pollen-free sterile line Yunnan ZidaoA. In this study, the cytological, molecular and proteomic approaches were used to study the characteristics of this new CMS line. Cytological study indicates the CMS line is aborted at the early uninucleate stage. A potential sterile gene ZD352 is identified in MxA, the protein product of which is mainly accumulated at the MMC/Meiotic stage. iTRAQ based proteomic analysis is performed to study the relevant proteins involved in the CMS occurance, 45 proteins are found to be significant differentially expressed and these proteins are involved in many cellular processes such as

  3. Genetic approaches in comparative and evolutionary physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Kelly, Scott A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Whole animal physiological performance is highly polygenic and highly plastic, and the same is generally true for the many subordinate traits that underlie performance capacities. Quantitative genetics, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for the analysis of physiological phenotypes and can be used to infer the microevolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of trait variation within and among species. In cases where specific genes are known to contribute to variation in physiological traits, analyses of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence can reveal molecular mechanisms of functional evolution and can provide insights into the possible adaptive significance of observed sequence changes. In this review, we explain how the tools and theory of quantitative genetics, population genetics, and molecular evolution can inform our understanding of mechanism and process in physiological evolution. For example, lab-based studies of polygenic inheritance can be integrated with field-based studies of trait variation and survivorship to measure selection in the wild, thereby providing direct insights into the adaptive significance of physiological variation. Analyses of quantitative genetic variation in selection experiments can be used to probe interrelationships among traits and the genetic basis of physiological trade-offs and constraints. We review approaches for characterizing the genetic architecture of physiological traits, including linkage mapping and association mapping, and systems approaches for dissecting intermediary steps in the chain of causation between genotype and phenotype. We also discuss the promise and limitations of population genomic approaches for inferring adaptation at specific loci. We end by highlighting the role of organismal physiology in the functional synthesis of evolutionary biology. PMID:26041111

  4. Comparative research and the business system approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    This paper has two distinct aims. First, I would like to present and discuss the nationalbusiness systems (NBS) framework ( Whitley, 1992,1992a,1996,1997). NBS frameworkconcerns how national variations in economic co-ordination and control systemsfacilitate and constrain organisational change....... The NBS is not widely known in the LatinAmerica countries, and this paper intends to shortly present it The second aim is toquestion, based on the NBS approach, some of the assumptions about the diffusion of anew universal template for organising work (Lean Production) and its agent, themultinational...

  5. Comparative approach between nuclear safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    Adopting the definition of nuclear safety and nuclear security as they are specified by IAEA glossaries, this report first outlines that these both notions refer to similar risks but with causes of different nature. They discuss the notions of transparency and confidentiality and outline that security and safety both aims at the protection of population and of the environment. They discuss their organisational principles, notice that both have their own legal and regulatory framework, that authorities have expertise on both, that the responsibility is distributed among operators and the State, and that safety and security cultures are complementary. They analyse the design, exploitation and management principles of security and safety approaches: graded approach, defence-in-depth, synergy between security and safety, same daily monitoring requirement, same necessity to address the return on experience, same need to update a referential, a more constrained exchange of good practices in safety, a necessity to deal with their respective requirements, elaboration of emergency plans, performance of exercises

  6. Metapragmatic Explicitation and Social Attribution in Social Communication Disorder and Developmental Language Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…

  7. An oscillopathic approach to developmental dyslexia: From genes to speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bravo, Miguel; Marrero, Victoria; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio

    2017-06-30

    Developmental dyslexia is a heterogeneous condition entailing problems with reading and spelling. Several genes have been linked or associated to the disease, many of which contribute to the development and function of brain areas important for auditory and phonological processing. Nonetheless, a clear link between genes, the brain, and the symptoms of dyslexia is still pending. The goal of this paper is contributing to bridge this gap. With this aim, we have focused on how the dyslexic brain fails to process speech sounds and reading cues. We have adopted an oscillatory perspective, according to which dyslexia may result from a deficient integration of different brain rhythms during reading/spellings tasks. Moreover, we show that some candidate genes for this condition are related to brain rhythms. This fresh approach is expected to provide a better understanding of the aetiology and the clinical presentation of developmental dyslexia, but also to achieve an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Neuropsychological Approach of Developmental Dyscalculia and a Screening Test Via a Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Christos Zygouris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional definitions of Developmental Dyscalculia state that a child must substantially underachieve on mathematical abilities tests relative to the level expected given age, education and intelligence. However, cognitive developmental neuropsychological studies nowadays suggest that not only core numerical but also cognitive skills of children with developmental dyscalculia present deficits. The main aim of the research protocol was to construct a battery of six tests that can be delivered by computer in order to screen children’s arithmetic and cognitive skills. The hypothesis of the study was that children that are already diagnosed by paper and pencil tests as dyscalculic will present lower scores and larger time latencies not only in arithmetical but also in executive function tasks. A total of 134 right handed children (74 male and 60 female, age range 8 – 12 years participated in this study. The students with disorders in mathematics (N= 67, 37 male and 30 female age range 8 – 12 years M= 10.15 SD=1.10 had a statement of dyscalculia after assessment at a Centre of Diagnosis, Assessment and Support, as it is required by Greek Law. A comparison group without any learning disabilities was individually matched with the dyscalculic group according to age, sex and grade (N=67, 37 male and 30 female, age range 8 – 12 years old, M=10.24 SD=1.12. Statistical analysis revealed that children with dyscalculia had statistically significant lower mean scores of correct answers and larger time latencies in all tasks compared to their average peers that participated in the comparison group.`

  9. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Time to pediatric epilepsy surgery is longer and developmental outcomes lower for government compared with private insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Jason S; Dadour, Andrew; Oh, Taemin; Baca, Christine B; Vickrey, Barbara G; Vassar, Stefanie; Sankar, Raman; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V; Mathern, Gary W

    2013-07-01

    It is unclear if socioeconomic factors like type of insurance influence time to referral and developmental outcomes for pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. This study determined whether private compared with state government insurance was associated with shorter intervals of seizure onset to surgery and better developmental quotients for pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. A consecutive cohort (n = 420) of pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery were retrospectively categorized into those with Medicaid (California Children's Services; n = 91) or private (Preferred Provider Organization, Health Maintenance Organization, Indemnity; n = 329) insurance. Intervals from seizure onset to referral and surgery and Vineland developmental assessments were compared by insurance type with the use of log-rank tests. Compared with private insurance, children with Medicaid had longer intervals from seizure onset to referral for evaluation (log-rank test, P = .034), and from seizure onset to surgery (P = .017). In a subset (25%) that had Vineland assessments, children with Medicaid compared with private insurance had lower Vineland scores presurgery (P = .042) and postsurgery (P = .003). Type of insurance was not associated with seizure severity, types of operations, etiology, postsurgical seizure-free outcomes, and complication rate. Compared with Medicaid, children with private insurance had shorter intervals from seizure onset to referral and to epilepsy surgery, and this was associated with lower Vineland scores before surgery. These findings may reflect delayed access for uninsured children who eventually obtained state insurance. Reasons for the delay and whether longer intervals before epilepsy surgery affect long-term cognitive and developmental outcomes warrant further prospective investigations.

  11. The emergence of psychopathy: implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, I am going to examine the disorder of psychopathy and consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with this disorder. I will argue that genetic anomalies in psychopathy reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic disturbance). I will argue that the ability of the amygdala to form the stimulus-punishment associations necessary for successful socialization is disrupted and that because of this, individuals with psychopathy do not learn to avoid actions that will harm others. It is noted that this model follows the neuropsychological approach to the study of developmental disorders, an approach that has been recently criticized. I will argue that these criticisms are less applicable to psychopathy. Indeed, animal work on the development of the neural systems necessary for emotion, does not support a constructivist approach with respect to affect. Importantly, such work indicates that while environmental effects can alter the responsiveness of the basic neural architecture mediating emotion, environmental effects do not construct this architecture. However, caveats to the neuropsychological approach with reference to this disorder are noted.

  12. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jae-Yoon Chung

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration.

  13. Comparative developmental neurotoxicity of flame-retardants, polybrominated flame-retardants and organophosphorous compounds, in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, P.; Johansson, N.; Viberg, H.; Fischer, C.; Fredriksson, A. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Recently we have reported that certain PBDEs, such as 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 47), 2,2',4,4',5- pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 99), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE153) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 209) can cause developmental neurotoxic effects when given to neonatal mice. The developmental neurotoxic effects after neonatal exposure to PBDE 209 are suggested to be caused by a metabolite (possible de-brominated one). Neonatal exposure HBCDD has also been shown to cause developmental neurotoxic effects. Neonatal exposure to PBDE 99, PBDE 153 and HBCDD was also found to affect learning and memory in the adult animal. The induction of permanent aberration in spontaneous behaviour was induced during limited period of the neonatal brain development. The altered spontaneous behaviour was also seen to worsen with age. In these studies we have also found that the cholinergic system is one target that is affected, observed as changes in the response of the cholinergic system and a decrease in cholinergic receptors, and is one of the mechanisms underlying the observed behavioural changes. BFRs so far studied TBBPA appears not to cause developmental neurotoxic effects when administered at the same dose levels to neonatal mice. In the present studies we have investigated whether neonatal exposure to three highly brominated dipehenyl ethers, 2,2',3,4,4',5',6'-heptabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE183), 2,2',3'4'4',5,5',6- octabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 203) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5',6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 206) can induce developmental neurotoxic effects, such as aberrations in spontaneous behaviour and in learning and memory. Furthermore, neonatal developmental neurotoxicity effects were also studied for two OPs used as FR, triphenyl phosphate and tris(2-chloro-ethyl)phosphate.

  14. Comparative developmental dermal toxicity and mutagenicity of carbazole and benzo[a]carbazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutson, S.M.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Schaalje, G.B.; Castle, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the developmental toxicity of carbazole and benzo[a]carbazole following daily dermal administration to female Sprague-Dawley rats on days 0 through 20 of gestation and (2) to determine the mutagenicity of these two compounds using a modified version of the Ames assay. These chemicals are of concern because they are found in a variety of environmental matrices including crude oil mixtures. No signs of maternal or developmental toxicity were considered to be related to dermal administration of carbazole at does of 2.5, 25.0, and 250.0 mg/kg. Signs of maternal toxicity considered to be related to administration of benzo[a]carbazole included significantly decreased body-weight gain and decreased absolute-food consumption at a dose of 250.0 mg/kg. Signs of developmental toxicity considered to be related to administration of benzo[a]carbazole included significantly decreased number of total (live and dead combined) and live pups on lactation day 0 as well as significantly decreased average pup weight on lactation days 0 and 4 at a dose of 250.0 mg/kg. Because developmental toxicity following benzo[a]carbazole treatment was observed only at a dose at which maternal toxicity was observed, it is likely that the effects on the offspring are secondary to the treatment effects on the dam. Evidence of toxic effects with benzo[a]carbazole in the absence of effects with carbazole suggests that the substituted benzene ring enhances the biological activity of this compound. Carbazole was nonmutagenic with or without S-9 activation, whereas benzo[a]carbazole showed a clear dose-response with S-9 activation. Without S-9 activation, benzo[a]carbazole was nonmutagenic. Apparently benzo[a]carbazole must be enzymatically activated in order to be mutagenic

  15. Developmental stages of an African child and their psychological implications: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    D. Phil. Human development is a universal phenomenon, characterized by various stages. These stages differ from one culture to the other. Furthermore, each developmental stage tends to bring about expectations that are in accordance with a particular culture. In addition, in each culture there exist problems that are specific to a given stage as well as to the manner in which these problems are resolved. Erikson=s stages of human development are generally regarded as universal. The univers...

  16. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies for 379 pharmaceuticals: On systemic dose and developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse ef...

  17. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Intervention With Developmental Approach on Psychosocial Empowerment of Female-Headed Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Torabi Momen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion According to the study results, group social work intervention sessions with psychosocial developmental approach to empowering female-headed households is effective. The wider use of this type of intervention by professionals can empower and improve the lives of this group of people.

  18. Collaborative Action Research in the Context of Developmental Work Research: A Methodological Approach for Science Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Lathouris, Dimitris; Plakitsi, Katerina; Stylianou, Liana

    2015-01-01

    The paper refers to the theoretical establishment and brief presentation of collaborative action research with the characteristics of "developmental work research" as an effective methodological approach so that science teachers develop themselves professionally. A specific case study is presented, in which we aimed to transform the…

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two races of Heterodera glycines at different developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is an important pest of soybeans. Although resistance is available against this nematode, selection for virulent races can occur, allowing the nematode to overcome the resistance of cultivars. There are abundant field populations, however, little is known about their genetic diversity. In order to elucidate the differences between races, we investigated the transcriptional diversity within race 3 and race 4 inbred lines during their compatible interactions with the soybean host Zhonghuang 13. Six different race-enriched cDNA libraries were constructed with limited nematode samples collected from the three sedentary stages, parasitic J2, J3 and J4 female, respectively. Among 689 putative race-enriched genes isolated from the six libraries with functional annotations, 92 were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, including eight putative effector encoding genes. Further race-enriched genes were validated within race 3 and race 4 during development in soybean roots. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of all the race-enriched genes at J3 and J4 female stages showed that most of them functioned in metabolic processes. Relative transcript level analysis of 13 selected race-enriched genes at four developmental stages showed that the differences in their expression abundance took place at either one or more developmental stages. This is the first investigation into the transcript diversity of H. glycines races throughout their sedentary stages, increasing the understanding of the genetic diversity of H. glycines.

  20. Mental health and developmental outcomes for children born after ART: a comparative prospective study on child gender and treatment type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Flykt, Marjo; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Tulppala, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Do children born after assisted reproductive techniques (ART; IVF/ICSI) display more mental health issues or social and cognitive developmental problems at 7-8 years than naturally conceived (NC) controls, and does child gender play a role? ART children do not differ with regard to mental health or social and cognitive developmental problems when compared with controls, but some gender-specific differences do exist. Systematic reviews have not found any evidence of delays in neurocognitive or sensorimotor development in ART children. However findings on the effect of the type of ART treatment (IVF versus ICSI) on the offspring's physical and mental development have not been uniform. Knowledge of the role of child gender in ART research is scarce. This prospective follow-up study compares mental health and social and cognitive developmental problems between 7-8-year-old ART and NC children, controlling for the father's age, length of the parents' partnership, mother's parity, child's gestational age, and the need of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Further, within the ART group, we analysed whether the treatment type (IVF versus ICSI) and the child's gender are associated with the mental health and developmental outcomes. In this study, 255 singleton ART children (IVF and ICSI) were compared with 278 NC children on parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and social (social skills and peer relations) and cognitive development (executive functioning, perception, memory, and language). Within the ART group, 164 IVF and 76 ICSI children were compared on the same outcomes. Statistics included analyses of covariates (ANCOVA) with group main effects, group and gender interaction effects, and Bonferroni post hoc tests. ART and NC children did not differ generally in terms of their internalizing and externalizing symptoms or in the number of social and cognitive developmental problems (Group main effects, P > 0.05), but gender-specific group differences

  1. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  2. A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Developmental Dimensions in Object Permanence and Tracking Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Rosenwein, Linda

    This paper discusses a longitudinal, exploratory study of developmental dimensions related to object permanence theory and explains how multidimensional scaling techniques can be used to identify developmental dimensions. Eighty infants, randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups and one of four counterbalanced orders of stimuli, were…

  3. Applying a developmental approach to quality of life assessment in children and adolescents with psychological disorders: challenges and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Moreira, Helena

    2015-02-01

    Research on the quality of life (QL) of children/adolescents with psychological disorders has flourished over the last few decades. Given the developmental challenges of QL measurements in pediatric populations, the aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which a developmental approach to QL assessment has been applied to pedopsychiatric QL research. A systematic literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX) from 1994 to May 2014. Quantitative studies were included if they assessed the self- or proxy-reported QL of children/adolescents with a psychological disorder. Data were extracted for study design, participants, QL instruments and informants, and statistical approach to age-related specificities. The systematic review revealed widespread utilization of developmentally appropriate QL instruments but less frequent use of both self and proxy reports and an inconsistent approach to age group specificities. Methodological guidelines are discussed to improve the developmental validity of QL research for children/adolescents with mental disorders.

  4. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Barker, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in their ability to impact their children’s communication development but did differ on perceptions of difficulty such that parents of children with Down syndrome perceived their children’s communication difficulties as less severe despite the children exhibiting similar language skills. Finally, after accounting for potential explanatory confounding variables, child diagnosis remained a significant predictor of parent stress and perceptions of language development. Results highlight the importance of considering etiology when assisting families raising a child with a disability. PMID:24753637

  5. Targeting developmental regulators of zebrafish exocrine pancreas as a therapeutic approach in human pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2012-02-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs and RNA polymerase III (POLR3 play vital roles in fundamental cellular processes, and deregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in malignant transformation. Hdacs and Polr3 are required for exocrine pancreatic epithelial proliferation during morphogenesis in zebrafish. We aim to test the hypothesis that Hdacs and Polr3 cooperatively control exocrine pancreatic growth, and combined inhibition of HDACs and POLR3 produces enhanced growth suppression in pancreatic cancer. In zebrafish larvae, combination of a Hdac inhibitor (Trichostatin A and an inhibitor of Polr3 (ML-60218 synergistically prohibited the expansion of exocrine pancreas. In human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, combination of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA and ML-60218 produced augmented suppression of colony formation and proliferation, and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. The enhanced cytotoxicity was associated with supra-additive upregulation of the pro-apoptotic regulator BAX and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21CDKN1A. tRNAs have been shown to have pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic roles, and SAHA-stimulated expression of tRNAs was reversed by ML-60218. These findings demonstrate that chemically targeting developmental regulators of exocrine pancreas can be translated into an approach with potential impact on therapeutic response in pancreatic cancer, and suggest that counteracting the pro-malignant side effect of HDAC inhibitors can enhance their anti-tumor activity.

  6. Multi-parameter machine learning approach to the neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoński, Piotr; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Altarelli, Irene; Monzalvo, Karla; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Heim, Stefan; Marchewka, Artur; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Ramus, Franck; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2017-02-01

    Despite decades of research, the anatomical abnormalities associated with developmental dyslexia are still not fully described. Studies have focused on between-group comparisons in which different neuroanatomical measures were generally explored in isolation, disregarding potential interactions between regions and measures. Here, for the first time a multivariate classification approach was used to investigate grey matter disruptions in children with dyslexia in a large (N = 236) multisite sample. A variety of cortical morphological features, including volumetric (volume, thickness and area) and geometric (folding index and mean curvature) measures were taken into account and generalizability of classification was assessed with both 10-fold and leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) techniques. Classification into control vs. dyslexic subjects achieved above chance accuracy (AUC = 0.66 and ACC = 0.65 in the case of 10-fold CV, and AUC = 0.65 and ACC = 0.64 using LOOCV) after principled feature selection. Features that discriminated between dyslexic and control children were exclusively situated in the left hemisphere including superior and middle temporal gyri, subparietal sulcus and prefrontal areas. They were related to geometric properties of the cortex, with generally higher mean curvature and a greater folding index characterizing the dyslexic group. Our results support the hypothesis that an atypical curvature pattern with extra folds in left hemispheric perisylvian regions characterizes dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:900-908, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Niklasson

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  8. Perception of individualism and collectivism in Dutch society: A developmental approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Within Triandis's (1994) theoretical framework, two studies are reported that deal with the developmental course for subjective perceptions of cultural dimensions in Dutch society (i.e., vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism). While perceptions of society are always subjectively

  9. Adaptive developmental delay in Chagas disease vectors: an evolutionary ecology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Menu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental time of vector insects is important in population dynamics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and in their responses to global climatic change. In the triatomines (Triatominae, Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease, evolutionary ecology concepts, which may allow for a better understanding of their biology, have not been applied. Despite delay in the molting in some individuals observed in triatomines, no effort was made to explain this variability.We applied four methods: (1 an e-mail survey sent to 30 researchers with experience in triatomines, (2 a statistical description of the developmental time of eleven triatomine species, (3 a relationship between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability, (4 a mathematical optimization model of evolution of developmental delay (diapause.85.6% of responses informed on prolonged developmental times in 5(th instar nymphs, with 20 species identified with remarkable developmental delays. The developmental time analysis showed some degree of bi-modal pattern of the development time of the 5(th instars in nine out of eleven species but no trend between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability was observed. Our optimization model predicts that the developmental delays could be due to an adaptive risk-spreading diapause strategy, only if survival throughout the diapause period and the probability of random occurrence of "bad" environmental conditions are sufficiently high.Developmental delay may not be a simple non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity in development time, and could be a form of adaptive diapause associated to a physiological mechanism related to the postponement of the initiation of reproduction, as an adaptation to environmental stochasticity through a spreading of risk (bet-hedging strategy. We identify a series of parameters that can be measured in the field and laboratory to test this hypothesis. The importance of these findings is

  10. Public health approaches to safer cycling for children based on developmental and physiological readiness: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Simon; Finlay, Fiona Olwen

    2018-01-01

    Cyclists have a high mortality and morbidity per mile travelled compared with car occupants, a figure that is likely to increase if campaigns to increase active travel are successful. Concerns about safety is the leading factor limiting cycling for children. This review brings together a paediatric perspective based on the developmental readiness of children and young people and a public health approach to reducing injuries, to produce a practical agenda for improving the safety of cycling for children. Selective literature review. While most sports realise the importance of practice and training to create mastery of the game, similar thinking has not been consistently applied to cycling proficiency, so many children do not have an opportunity to master cycling before riding on the roads. The aim should be to minimise road traffic injuries involving children and young people in ways that create cobenefits for other members of society, increasing opportunities for active travel, reducing air pollution, creating more green space to play and reducing dependence on motor vehicles.Changes in legislation are required now to enable younger children to cycle on pavements while learning to ride and improvements in road design to separate cyclists from motor vehicles especially routes to school for older children.

  11. The Diagnostic Yield of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Is High Regardless of Severity of Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Stefano; Gavazzi, Francesco; Alfei, Enrico; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Montomoli, Cristina; Corso, Barbara; Buzzi, Erika; Sciacca, Francesca L; Bulgheroni, Sara; Riva, Daria; Pantaleoni, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization is a method of molecular analysis that identifies chromosomal anomalies (or copy number variants) that correlate with clinical phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to apply a clinical score previously designated by de Vries to 329 patients with intellectual disability/developmental disorder (intellectual disability/developmental delay) referred to our tertiary center and to see whether the clinical factors are associated with a positive outcome of aCGH analyses. Another goal was to test the association between a positive microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization result and the severity of intellectual disability/developmental delay. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization identified structural chromosomal alterations responsible for the intellectual disability/developmental delay phenotype in 16% of our sample. Our study showed that causative copy number variants are frequently found even in cases of mild intellectual disability (30.77%). We want to emphasize the need to conduct microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization on all individuals with intellectual disability/developmental delay, regardless of the severity, because the degree of intellectual disability/developmental delay does not predict the diagnostic yield of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Vocation, Motivation and Approaches to Learning: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquero, Jose Luis; Fernández-Polvillo, Carmen; Hassall, Trevor; Joyce, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The individual characteristics of students can have a strong influence on the success of the adopted innovations in terms of their transferability and sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to compare the motivations and approaches to learning on degrees with differing vocational components. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

  14. Metabolomics approach reveals metabolic disorders and potential biomarkers associated with the developmental toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guozhu; Chen, Yajie; Wang, Hong-Ou; Ye, Ting; Lin, Yi; Huang, Qiansheng; Chi, Yulang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A are halogenated bisphenol A (H-BPA), and has raised concerns about their adverse effects on the development of fetuses and infants, however, the molecular mechanisms are unclear, and related metabolomics studies are limited. Accordingly, a metabolomics study based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to elucidate the molecular developmental toxicology of H-BPA using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigmas) embryo model. Here, we revealed decreased synthesis of nucleosides, amino acids and lipids, and disruptions in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, glycolysis and lipid metabolism, thus inhibiting the developmental processes of embryos exposed to H-BPA. Unexpectedly, we observed enhanced neural activity accompanied by lactate accumulation and accelerated heart rates due to an increase in dopamine pathway and a decrease in inhibitory neurotransmitters following H-BPA exposure. Notably, disorders of the neural system, and disruptions in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, nucleoside metabolism, lipid metabolism, glutamate and aspartate metabolism induced by H-BPA exposure were heritable. Furthermore, lactate and dopa were identified as potential biomarkers of the developmental toxicity of H-BPA and related genetic effects. This study has demonstrated that the metabolomics approach is a useful tool for obtaining comprehensive and novel insights into the molecular developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants.

  15. Muscle Damage After Total Hip Arthroplasty Through the Direct Anterior Approach for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Okura, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the direct anterior approach (DAA) is known to cause less muscle damage than other surgical approaches. However, more complex primary cases, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), might often cause muscle damage. The objective of the present study was to clarify the muscle damage observed 1 year after THA through the DAA for DDH using magnetic resonance imaging. We prospectively compared the muscle cross-sectional area (M-CSA) and fatty atrophy (FA) in muscles by magnetic resonance imaging and the Harris hip score before and at 1-year follow-up after THA through the DAA in 3 groups: 37 patients with Crowe group 1 DDH (D1), 13 patients with Crowe group 2 and 3 DDH (D2 + 3), and 12 patients with osteonecrosis as a control. THA through the DAA for D1 displayed significantly decreased M-CSA and significantly increased FA in the gluteus minimus (Gmini), the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and the obturator internus (OI). Patients with D2 + 3 group did not have decreased M-CSA in the TFL or increased FA in the Gmini. Postoperatively, a significant negative correlation was observed between the M-CSA and FA for the OI in patients with D1 and D2 + 3. THA through the DAA for DDH caused the damage in the Gmini, the TFL, and the OI; severe damage was observed in the OI, showing increased FA with decreased M-CSA in patients with both D1 and D2 + 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Book Review: Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mcginn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer

  17. Comparative Study of Early Childhood High-Function Autism and Developmental Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchen Yang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal cognitive profile and general social functioning were compared between two groups of children aged 5 to 7 years, one with high-function autism and the other with developmental mixed receptive-expressive language disorders. The two groups, totaling 50 children, were matched for age and non-verbal IQ (mean, 90. Both groups had impaired verbal cognitive profile and social adaptive functioning, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The implications of our findings are discussed. Current preschool and early childhood medical-educational intervention programs in Taiwan must design and implement curricula in which children with language delay, whether autistic or not, can develop essential social skills.

  18. Parental Report of the Diagnostic Process and Outcome: ASD Compared with Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Donald P.; Haworth, Shannon M.; Mackenzie, Bernadette K.; Willis, Janet H.

    2017-01-01

    Parents report that the process of getting an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis is arduous, lengthy, and fraught with difficulties. This analysis of the Pathways survey data set examined the experiences of parents who said, at the time of the survey, that their child currently had ASD compared with parents who said, at the time of the…

  19. Managing boundaries in primary care service improvement: A developmental approach to communities of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kislov Roman

    2012-10-01

    due to historical factors, competition and strong organisational identification. Manipulated emergence of multi-organisational CoPs in the context of primary care may thus be problematic. Conclusions In cases when manipulated emergence of new CoPs is problematic, boundary issues could be addressed by adopting a developmental perspective on CoPs, which provides an alternative to the analytical and instrumental perspectives previously described in the CoP literature. This perspective implies a pragmatic, situational approach to mapping existing CoPs and their characteristics and potentially modifying them in the process of service improvement through the combination of internal and external facilitation.

  20. Managing boundaries in primary care service improvement: a developmental approach to communities of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Roman; Walshe, Kieran; Harvey, Gill

    2012-10-15

    organisational identification. Manipulated emergence of multi-organisational CoPs in the context of primary care may thus be problematic. In cases when manipulated emergence of new CoPs is problematic, boundary issues could be addressed by adopting a developmental perspective on CoPs, which provides an alternative to the analytical and instrumental perspectives previously described in the CoP literature. This perspective implies a pragmatic, situational approach to mapping existing CoPs and their characteristics and potentially modifying them in the process of service improvement through the combination of internal and external facilitation.

  1. Human embryonic stem cell-derived test systems for developmental neurotoxicity: A transcriptomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, A.K.; Kolde, R.; Gaspar, J.A.; Rempel, E.; Balmer, N.V.; Meganathan, K.; Vojnits, K.; Baquié, M.; Waldmann, T.; Ensenat-Waser, R.; Jagtap, S.; Evans, R.M.; Julien, S.; Peterson, H.; Zagoura, D.; Kadereit, S.; Gerhard, D.; Sotiriadou, I.; Heke, M.; Natarajan, K.; Henry, M.; Winkler, J.; Marchan, R.; Stoppini, L.; Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.; Verwei, M.; Vilo, J.; Kortenkamp, A.; Hescheler, J.; Hothorn, L.; Bremer, S.; Thriel, C. van; Krause, K.-H.; Hengstler, J.G.; Rahnenführer, J.; Leist, M.; Sachinidis, A.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) and many forms of reproductive toxicity (RT) often manifest themselves in functional deficits that are not necessarily based on cell death, but rather on minor changes relating to cell differentiation or communication. The fields of DNT/RT would greatly benefit from

  2. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.

    2011-01-01

    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  3. Perception of Individualism and Collectivism in Dutch Society: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Within Triandis's (1994) theoretical framework, two studies are reported that deal with the developmental course for subjective perceptions of cultural dimensions in Dutch society (i.e., vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism). While perceptions of society are always subjectively determined, the perceived dimensions that are…

  4. Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Client-Centered Approach. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie C.

    This guide to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) first provides a review of the literature on defining characteristics of PDD/ASD, causes of PDD, and diagnosis of PDD. Review of intervention and treatment comprises the major portion of the paper. After briefly considering parent education, this section…

  5. Designing Class Activities to Meet Specific Core Training Competencies: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; McDonnell, Kelly A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a developmental model for designing and utilizing class activities to meet specific Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) core training competencies for group workers. A review of the relevant literature about teaching group work and meeting core training standards is provided. The authors suggest a process by…

  6. A Dialectical Approach to Theoretical Integration in Developmental-Contextual Identity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jayson; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Coppens, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Future advances in identity research will depend on integration across major theoretical traditions. Developmental-contextualism has established essential criteria to guide this effort, including specifying the context of identity development, its timing over the life course, and its content. This article assesses 4 major traditions of identity…

  7. Advances in Online Developmental Education: An Accelerated, Synchronous Approach at Rasmussen College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Driven by faculty-based action research, redesigned residential and online courses, and changes to placement testing, Rasmussen College increased its developmental education pass rates by double digits while decreasing the number and percentage of students who require remedial coursework. Like many institutions of higher education, Rasmussen…

  8. The control and prevention of seizures in children, a developmental and environmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of neurophysiological and developmental factors in controlling and preventing seizure mechanisms is detailed. It is shown that as cortical control advances with maturation, it requires increasingly severe environmental adversity to release this residual defensive reflex mechanism. Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is discouraged because of possible undesirable neuronal effects on the very young brain.

  9. Developmental responses of amphibians to solar and artificial UVB sources: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, J.B.; Hoffman, P.D.; Pandelova, Iovanna; Coyle, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Many amphibian species, in widely scattered locations, currently show population declines and/or reductions in range, but other amphibian species show no such declines. There is no known single cause for these declines. Differential sensitivity to UVB radiation among species might be one contributing factor. We have focused on amphibian eggs, potentially the most UVB-sensitive stage, and compared their resistance to UVB components of sunlight with their levels of photolyase, typically the most important enzyme for repair of the major UV photoproducts in DNA, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. (Author)

  10. A comparative psychophysical approach to visual perception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Toyomi; Fujita, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    Studies on the visual processing of primates, which have well developed visual systems, provide essential information about the perceptual bases of their higher-order cognitive abilities. Although the mechanisms underlying visual processing are largely shared between human and nonhuman primates, differences have also been reported. In this article, we review psychophysical investigations comparing the basic visual processing that operates in human and nonhuman species, and discuss the future contributions potentially deriving from such comparative psychophysical approaches to primate minds.

  11. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression analysis to identify developmentally regulated genes in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Stefan; Schindler, Daniel; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-09-01

    Ascomycetes differentiate four major morphological types of fruiting bodies (apothecia, perithecia, pseudothecia and cleistothecia) that are derived from an ancestral fruiting body. Thus, fruiting body differentiation is most likely controlled by a set of common core genes. One way to identify such genes is to search for genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), we selected differentially expressed transcripts in Pyronema confluens (Pezizales) by comparing two cDNA libraries specific for sexual and for vegetative development, respectively. The expression patterns of selected genes from both libraries were verified by quantitative real time PCR. Expression of several corresponding homologous genes was found to be conserved in two members of the Sordariales (Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa), a derived group of ascomycetes that is only distantly related to the Pezizales. Knockout studies with N. crassa orthologues of differentially regulated genes revealed a functional role during fruiting body development for the gene NCU05079, encoding a putative MFS peptide transporter. These data indicate conserved gene expression patterns and a functional role of the corresponding genes during fruiting body development; such genes are candidates of choice for further functional analysis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  13. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  14. Translating Developmental Origins: Improving the Health of Women and Their Children Using a Sustainable Approach to Behaviour Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Barker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of the developmental origins of health and disease imply that optimising the growth and development of babies is an essential route to improving the health of populations. A key factor in the growth of babies is the nutritional status of their mothers. Since women from more disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer quality diets and the worst pregnancy outcomes, they need to be a particular focus. The behavioural sciences have made a substantial contribution to the development of interventions to support dietary changes in disadvantaged women. Translation of such interventions into routine practice is an ideal that is rarely achieved, however. This paper illustrates how re-orientating health and social care services towards an empowerment approach to behaviour change might underpin a new developmental focus to improving long-term health, using learning from a community-based intervention to improve the diets and lifestyles of disadvantaged women. The Southampton Initiative for Health aimed to improve the diets and lifestyles of women of child-bearing age through training health and social care practitioners in skills to support behaviour change. Analysis illustrates the necessary steps in mounting such an intervention: building trust; matching agendas and changing culture. The Southampton Initiative for Health demonstrates that developing sustainable; workable interventions and effective community partnerships; requires commitment beginning long before intervention delivery but is key to the translation of developmental origins research into improvements in human health.

  15. A developmental approach to mentalizing communities: I. A model for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twemlow, Stuart W; Fonagy, Peter; Sacco, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    A developmental model is proposed applying attachment theory to complex social systems to promote social change. The idea of mentalizing communities is outlined with a proposal for three projects testing the model: ways to reduce bullying and create a peaceful climate in schools, projects to promote compassion in cities by a focus of end-of-life care, and a mentalization-based intervention into parenting style of borderline and substance abusing parents.

  16. Comparative analysis of biological effect of corannulene and graphene on developmental and sleep/wake profile of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xu; Feng, DaoFu; Zhang, ShuHui; Zhao, Xin; Chen, DongYan; Zhang, ZhiXiang; Feng, XiZeng

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the biological effect of non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as corannulene on organisms. In this study, we compared the effect of corannulene (non-planar PAH) and graphene (planar PAH) on embryonic development and sleep/wake behaviors of larval zebrafish. First, the toxicity of graded doses of corannulene (1, 10, and 50μg/mL) was tested in developing zebrafish embryos. Corannulene showed minimal developmental toxicity only induced an epiboly delay. Further, a significant decrease in locomotion/increase in sleep was observed in larvae treated with the highest dose (50μg/mL) of corannulene while no significant locomotion alterations were induced by graphene. Finally, the effect of corannulene or graphene on the hypocretin (hcrt) system and sleep/wake regulators such as hcrt, hcrt G-protein coupled receptor (hcrtr), and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (aanat2) was evaluated. Corannulene increased sleep and reduced locomotor activity and the expression of hcrt and hcrtr mRNA while graphene did not obviously disturb the sleep behavior and gene expression patterns. These results suggest that the corannulene has the potential to cause hypnosis-like behavior in larvae and provides a fundamental comparative understanding of the effects of corannulene and graphene on biology systems. Little is known about the biological effect of non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as corannulene on organisms. Here, we compare the effect of corannulene (no-planar PAH) and graphene (planar PAH) on embryonic development and sleep/wake behaviors of larval zebrafish. And we aim to investigate the effect of curvature on biological system. First, toxicity of corannulene over the range of doses (1μg/mL, 10μg/mL and 50μg/mL) was tested in developing zebrafish embryos. Corannulene has minimal developmental toxicity, only incurred epiboly delay. Subsequently, a significant decrease in locomotion/increase in sleep at the highest

  17. A comprehensive comparison of comparative RNA structure prediction approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, P. P.; Giegerich, R.

    2004-01-01

    -finding and multiple-sequence-alignment algorithms. Results Here we evaluate a number of RNA folding algorithms using reliable RNA data-sets and compare their relative performance. Conclusions We conclude that comparative data can enhance structure prediction but structure-prediction-algorithms vary widely in terms......Background An increasing number of researchers have released novel RNA structure analysis and prediction algorithms for comparative approaches to structure prediction. Yet, independent benchmarking of these algorithms is rarely performed as is now common practice for protein-folding, gene...

  18. Subs��dios para uma leitura desenvolvimental do processo de envelhecimento Conceptualizing a developmental approach of the process of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se um conjunto de perspectivas teóricas que encaram o desenvolvimento psicológico como uma sucessão coerente de mudanças sistemáticas e organizadas ao nível do funcionamento e do comportamento individuais, implicando uma adaptação constante dos indivíduos face a transformações ocorridas a nível interno e externo. Inspiradas por uma compreensão contextualista do desenvolvimento, comparam-se os principais aspectos de quatro teorias que procuram explicar o modo como o desenvolvimento se faz no decurso da vida humana: abordagem ecológica, contextualismo desenvolvimental, teoria da acção e do controle, perspectiva desenvolvimental do ciclo de vida. Algumas implicações dos aspectos comuns a estas teorias são finalmente concretizadas em termos do estudo do processo de envelhecimento, salientando a importância cada vez maior de que se reveste o estudo das diferenças inter-individuais em tal processo a partir da análise de percursos individuais de desenvolvimento.Some theoretical approaches that look into human development as a coherent movement of systematic and organized changes in individual functioning and behavior are presented. These changes will demand a constant individual adaptation coping with transformations occurring in internal and external levels. Inspired by a contextualist paradigm of human development, the main aspects of four theories that try to explain the way how development occurs throughout human life are compared: ecological approach, developmental contextualism, theory of action and control, life-span developmental perspective. Some implications of common features of these theories are applied in what concerns the study of the process of aging, focusing the growing importance of the study of inter-individual differences in such process from the analysis of individual developmental pathways.

  19. Improving health and education outcomes for children in remote communities: A cross-sector and developmental evaluation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Maria Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is one of the most influential developmental life stages. Attainments at this stage will have implications for the quality of life children experience as they transition to adulthood. Children residing in remote Australia are exposed to socioeconomic disadvantage that can contribute to developmental delays and resultant poorer education and health outcomes. Complex contributing factors in far west New South Wales have resulted in children with speech and fine motor skill delays experiencing no to limited access to allied health services for a number of decades. More recently, growing awareness that no single policy, government agency, or program could effectively respond to these complexities or ensure appropriate allied health service access for children in these communities has led to the development of the Allied Health in Outback Schools Program, which has been operational since 2009. The program is underpinned by cross-sector partnerships and a shared aspirational aim to improve the developmental outcomes of children to enhance their later life opportunities. It was identified early that the initiative had the potential to deliver mutually beneficial outcomes for communities and participating partner organisations. Over the last five years the program has been the catalyst for partnership consolidation, expansion and diversification. The developmental evaluation approach to continuous program adaptation and refinement has provided valuable insights that have informed health and education policy and enabled the program to be responsive to changing community needs, emerging policy and funding reforms. This article explores the evolution of the program partnerships, their contribution to program success and longevity, and their capacity to respond to an emergent and dynamic environment. The authors propose that a community-centred and developmental approach to program innovation and implementation in remote locations is

  20. "I just had to be flexible and show good patience": management of interactional approaches to enact mentoring roles by peer mentors with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ariel E; Kramer, Jessica M

    2017-06-08

    Peer mentoring may be an effective approach for fostering skill development for mentors and mentees with developmental disabilities. However, little is known about how mentors with developmental disabilities perceive and enact their roles. (1) How do young adults with developmental disabilities describe their role as a peer mentor in the context of instrumental peer mentoring? (2) How do they enact their perceived roles? Thematic analysis of semi-structured reflections completed by six mentors with developmental disabilities (ages 17-35) with multiple mentoring experiences. Mentors perceived themselves as professionals with a primary role of teaching, and for some mentoring relationships, a secondary role of developing an interpersonal relationship. To enact these roles, mentors used a supportive interactional approach characterized by actions such as encouragement and sharing examples and dispositions, such as flexibility and patience. Mentors monitored mentee learning and engagement within the mentoring session and, as needed, adjusted their approach to optimize mentee learning and engagement. To successfully manage their interactional approach, mentors used supports such as peer mentoring scripts, tip sheets, and supervisors. While mentors reported several actions for teaching, they may benefit from training to learn approaches to facilitate more consistent development of interpersonal relationships. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer mentoring may be an effective approach for fostering skill development for young adult mentors and mentees with developmental disabilities. In this study, young adult peer mentors with developmental disabilities perceived themselves as professionals with a primary role of teaching and a secondary role of developing an interpersonal relationship. Peer mentors used actions and dispositions that matched their perceived roles and supported mentees with developmental disabilities to engage in instrumental mentoring. With supports and

  1. A developmental approach to understanding drawings and narratives from children displaced by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Wendy Sue

    2006-01-01

    Using art as a process to help children externalize complex feelings can add another layer of assessment in the primary care setting. In the face of trauma, drawing may help children gain symbolic control over events that are confusing and frightening. Through examples of children who were affected by Hurricane Katrina, this article describes the use of drawings and narratives to understand children's experiences related to traumatic displacement. Recommendations include using a developmental lens to understanding children's art, asking children to talk about their drawings, and considering the significance of place for children who have been traumatically displaced.

  2. Comparative study of approaches to estimate pipe break frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.; Talja, H.; Saarenheimo, A.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The report describes the comparative study of two approaches to estimate pipe leak and rupture frequencies for piping. One method is based on a probabilistic fracture mechanistic (PFM) model while the other one is based on statistical estimation of rupture frequencies from a large database. In order to be able to compare the approaches and their results, the rupture frequencies of some selected welds have been estimated using both of these methods. This paper highlights the differences both in methods, input data, need and use of plant specific information and need of expert judgement. The study focuses on one specific degradation mechanism, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This is the major degradation mechanism in old stainless steel piping in BWR environment, and its growth is influenced by material properties, stresses and water chemistry. (au)

  3. Comparing Case Study and Ethnography as Qualitative Research Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Suryani, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: This article reviews several differences between case study and ethnography in terms of definitions, characteristics, strengths and limitations. It provides current information by comparing these approaches from various social researchers’ perspectives. Although each method has strong points, they both have differences in conducting observation and interview as data collection techniques; choosing the length of time of data gathering and reporting details of a particular reality....

  4. Comparing Case Study and Ethnography as Qualitative Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Suryani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews several differences between case study and ethnography in terms of definitions, characteristics, strengths and limitations. It provides current information by comparing these approaches from various social researchers’ perspectives. Although each method has strong points, they both have differences in conducting observation and interview as data collection techniques; choosing the length of time of data gathering and reporting details of a particular reality.

  5. FEATURES OF COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF THE ACQUIRED COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Romanenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of an assessment of business within the comparative approach based on four consecutive stages is considered in the article. As a result of research the contents and an analysis algorithm of each stage are in detail stated for objectivity of receiving the effective final result. The practical importance of research is that the received conclusions will allow financial managers and investors to raise validity of managing decisions concerning transactions in the market of corporate control.

  6. Radiological and clinical outcomes of medial approach open reduction by using two intervals in developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsar T. Ozkut

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the midterm clinical and radiological outcomes of the medial approach using two intervals for developmental hip dysplasia (DDH. Methods: The study involved 62 hips of 47 patients (41 girls, 6 boys treated with medial approach for DDH from 1999 to 2010. The age of the patients at surgery was 18.7 ± 2.25 months. Follow up of the patients was 11.3 ± 3.07 years. The age of the patients at the last follow up was 12.6 ± 1.74 years. According to the Tönnis classification, 13 hips were grade II, 27 hips were grade III and 22 hips were grade IV. Patients were evaluated according to Omeroglu radiological criteria and modified McKay functional criteria. The presence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the hip was questioned using the KalamchiMacEwen classification. Results: Radiologically, forty eight (77% hips were evaluated as “excellent”, 8 (13% hips as “good” and 5 (8% hips as “fair plus” and 1 (%2 hip as “fair minus”. Two (3% patients had type 1 temporary AVN and one (1% patient had type 4 AVN with coxa magna and overgrowth of the greater trochanter. According to McKay functional criteria, 56 (90% hips had “excellent” and 6 (10% had “good” results. Two (3.2% hips of one patient had to be reoperated with Salter osteotomy and femoral shortening + derotation osteotomy. Conclusion: Medial approach using two separate intervals for tenotomy and capsulotomy does not jeopardize the medial circumflex or the femoral vessels and yields satisfactory midterm results for children 18 months old with dysplasia of the hip. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. Keywords: Developmental hip dysplasia, Safety, Avascular necrosis of the femoral head, Medial approach, Surgical approach

  7. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  8. Comparing Health Status, Health Trajectories and Use of Health and Social Services between Children with and without Developmental Disabilities: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Dik, Natalia; Yu, Dickie C. T.; Chateau, Dan; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little information exists on health of children with developmental disabilities (DDs) in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Method: The present authors linked 12 years of administrative data and compared health status, changes in health and access to health and social services between children with (n = 1877) and without (n = 5661) DDs…

  9. Strong systematicity through sensorimotor conceptual grounding: an unsupervised, developmental approach to connectionist sentence processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A.; Watter, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Connectionist language modelling typically has difficulty with syntactic systematicity, or the ability to generalise language learning to untrained sentences. This work develops an unsupervised connectionist model of infant grammar learning. Following the semantic boostrapping hypothesis, the network distils word category using a developmentally plausible infant-scale database of grounded sensorimotor conceptual representations, as well as a biologically plausible semantic co-occurrence activation function. The network then uses this knowledge to acquire an early benchmark clausal grammar using correlational learning, and further acquires separate conceptual and grammatical category representations. The network displays strongly systematic behaviour indicative of the general acquisition of the combinatorial systematicity present in the grounded infant-scale language stream, outperforms previous contemporary models that contain primarily noun and verb word categories, and successfully generalises broadly to novel untrained sensorimotor grounded sentences composed of unfamiliar nouns and verbs. Limitations as well as implications to later grammar learning are discussed.

  10. Effect of sensory adaptation on anxiety of children with developmental disabilities: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michele; Melmed, Raphael N; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Parush, Shula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a sensory-adapted dental environment (SADE) on anxiety, relaxation, and cooperation of children with developmental disabilities (CDDs). Pharmacological treatment has been widely used to reduce anxiety, but nonpharmacological methods may be similarly effective. The standardized clinical situation chosen was a dental hygiene cleaning. A SADE was structured. Sixteen CDDs participated in an open cross-over intervention trial measuring behavioral and psychophysiological variables. There was a substantial increase in relaxation and cooperation in the SADE as opposed to the regular dental environment (RDE). This was reflected by: mean duration of anxious behaviors (SADE = 9.04 minutes vs. RDE = 23.44 minutes; P RDE = 15.50; P RDE = 1.94; P RDE = 446; P RDE=763; P < .004). The findings indicate the potential importance of considering the sensory-adapted environment as a preferable dental environment for this population.

  11. Comparative approach to capture bacterial diversity in coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na, Hyunsoo; Kim, Ok-Sun; Yoon, Suk-hwan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the revolutionary advancements in DNA sequencing technology and cultivation techniques, few studies have been done to directly compare these methods. In this study, a 16S rRNA gene-based, integrative approach combining culture-independent techniques with culture-dependent methods was taken...... to investigate the bacterial community structure of coastal seawater collected from the Yellow Sea, Korea. For culture-independent studies, we used the latest model pyrosequencer, Roche/454 Genome Sequencer FLX Titanium. Pyrosequencing captured a total of 52 phyla including 27 candidate divisions from the water...

  12. Educating young children about asthma: comparing the effectiveness of a developmentally appropriate asthma education video tape and picture book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzheimer, L; Mohay, H; Masters, I B

    1998-01-01

    Asthma self-management programmes have been shown to increase children's knowledge about asthma and improve their management practices and health status. However, existing programmes have rarely addressed the unique learning needs of very young children. This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a video tape and picture book designed to teach children about the prevention and management of acute episodes of asthma. The information content of the educational resources was determined by analysis of relevant medical information and asthma management skills. Social Learning Theory and consideration of the developmental stage of the target population informed the format and style of presentation of the resources. Eighty children aged between 2 and 5 years who had been diagnosed with asthma by their medical practitioner and who required daily asthma medication participated in a controlled experimental study. The study evaluated the impact of the asthma education resources on children's knowledge about asthma, compliance with medication regimens and health status. Children were randomly allocated to one of three experimental groups. Children in these groups were exposed to either the video tape alone, the book alone or both the video tape and book, or to a control group who viewed materials unrelated to asthma. The results for the three experimental groups were compared with the control group who did not receive exposure to any of the asthma education resources. The results showed that children in each experimental group had significantly greater gains in asthma-related knowledge than children in the control group and children exposed to both resources showed the greatest increases in knowledge. Children in each of the three experimental groups also had better compliance and health than children in the control group. These findings indicate that carefully designed asthma education resources are useful for providing even the youngest children with

  13. Living Wills in Italy: Ethical and Comparative Law Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    In this article, advance directives will be analysed through ethical and comparative law approaches. Their importance, the two different types of advance directives and the so-called three steps hierarchy, will be discussed. Living wills will be treated in detail, considering the criticism they have attracted, as well as their known benefits. A thorough examination of the latest version of Arts. 3 and 4 of Italian Bill No. 2350, as approved by the Italian Senate in March 2009 and then amended by the Chamber of Deputies in July 2011, is included. This bill grants advance directives advisory force, limits their application in time and does not allow the validity of oral declarations. This political decision limits autonomy. Furthermore, there are doubts about the constitutionality of this bill, especially with respect to Arts. 2, 13 and 32 of the Italian Constitution, related to the right of self-determination. Further, this article will include a comparative approach of the legal aspects, with particular attention to the French and German models. To conclude, some ethical principles that the Italian legislator must take into consideration are indicated. In addition, some possible modifications of this Bill are suggested based on the experience of other European legislation.

  14. Discourses of Plagiarism: Moralist, Proceduralist, Developmental and Inter-Textual Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, David; Dell, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs prevalent academic discourses of student plagiarism: moralism, proceduralism, development, and writing/inter-textuality. It approaches the discourses from three aspects: intention, interpretation and the nature of the academic community. It argues that the assumptions of the moralistic approach regarding suspect intention,…

  15. Context, cortex, and associations: a connectionist developmental approach to verbal analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Pavlos; McClelland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a PDP model of binary choice verbal analogy problems (A:B as C:[D1|D2], where D1 and D2 represent choice alternatives). We train a recurrent neural network in item-relation-item triples and use this network to test performance on analogy questions. Without training on analogy problems per se, the model explains the developmental shift from associative to relational responding as an emergent consequence of learning upon the environment's statistics. Such learning allows gradual, item-specific acquisition of relational knowledge to overcome the influence of unbalanced association frequency, accounting for association effects of analogical reasoning seen in cognitive development. The network also captures the overall degradation in performance after anterior temporal damage by deleting a fraction of learned connections, while capturing the return of associative dominance after frontal damage by treating frontal structures as necessary for maintaining activation of A and B while seeking a relation between C and D. While our theory is still far from being complete it provides a unified explanation of findings that need to be considered together in any integrated account of analogical reasoning. PMID:24312068

  16. Context, cortex, and associations: a connectionist developmental approach to verbal analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos eKollias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a PDP model of binary choice verbal analogy problems (A:B as C:[D1|D2], where D1 and D2 represent choice alternatives. We train a recurrent neural network in item-relation- item triples and use this network to test performance on analogy questions. Without training on analogy problems per se, the model explains the developmental shift from associative to relational responding as an emergent consequence of learning upon the environment’s statistics. Such learning allows gradual, item-specific acquisition of relational knowledge to overcome the influence of unbalanced association frequency, accounting for association effects of analogical reasoning seen in cognitive development. The network also captures the overall degradation in performance after anterior temporal damage by deleting a fraction of learned connections, while capturing the return of associative dominance after frontal damage by treating frontal structures as necessary for maintaining activation of A and B while seeking a relation between C and D. While our theory is still far from being complete it provides a unified explanation of findings that need to be considered together in any integrated account of analogical reasoning.

  17. Context, cortex, and associations: a connectionist developmental approach to verbal analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Pavlos; McClelland, James L

    2013-01-01

    We present a PDP model of binary choice verbal analogy problems (A:B as C:[D1|D2], where D1 and D2 represent choice alternatives). We train a recurrent neural network in item-relation-item triples and use this network to test performance on analogy questions. Without training on analogy problems per se, the model explains the developmental shift from associative to relational responding as an emergent consequence of learning upon the environment's statistics. Such learning allows gradual, item-specific acquisition of relational knowledge to overcome the influence of unbalanced association frequency, accounting for association effects of analogical reasoning seen in cognitive development. The network also captures the overall degradation in performance after anterior temporal damage by deleting a fraction of learned connections, while capturing the return of associative dominance after frontal damage by treating frontal structures as necessary for maintaining activation of A and B while seeking a relation between C and D. While our theory is still far from being complete it provides a unified explanation of findings that need to be considered together in any integrated account of analogical reasoning.

  18. [Specific developmental language disorder: a theoretical approach to its diagnosis, aetiology and clinical symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rebolledo, R; Giraldo-Prieto, M; Hincapié-Henao, L; Lopera, F; Pineda, D A

    This article presents an updated review about the definition, diagnostic criteria, classifications, etiology and the evolution of the specific language impairment (SLI). The specific language impairment is characterized by a developmental language delay and an impaired language, that persist over time and it is not explained by sensorial, motor and mental disabilities, neither by psycopathological disorders, socio-emotional deprivation, nor brain injury. The diagnosis is based on exclusional criteria. Some researchers propose different classifications considering the children performance in language comprehension and language production. Genetical linkage to the FOXP2 gen in the SPCH1 region of the chromosome 7 and to the chromosomes 13, 16 y 19 has been reported. The neuroimage studies have shown alterations in the volume and perfusion of some brain structures related to language. The manifestations of SLI may change during the development of the children and may disturb the self-esteem, the academic performance and the social abilities. The variability in the linguistic and cognitive performance, and the variety in the etiological findings in children with SLI, don't allow to settle the affected population as an homogeneous group. Different theoretical positions have emerged as a consequence of this condition.

  19. Comparative Observations of Learning Engagement by Students with Developmental Disabilities Using an iPad and Computer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthanat, Sajay; Curtin, Christine; Knotak, David

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of the Apple iPad for learning by children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those on the autism spectrum. A single case design was used to record the participation of four students with DD when taught with their standard computer at baseline, followed by the introduction of the iPad. A six-component…

  20. Appropriateness of different pedagogical approaches to road safety education for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, C; Romijn, A R

    2017-11-01

    In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative. The present study aimed to test the road crossing accuracy of children with and without DCD in virtual reality tasks that varied the viewpoint to simulate the teaching methods currently used in road safety educational programmes. Twenty-one children with DCD and twenty-one age and gender matched TD peers were required to locate the safest road crossing sites in two conditions: allocentric (aerial viewpoint) and egocentric (first-person viewpoint). All children completed both conditions and were required to navigate either themselves or an avatar across the road using the safest crossing route. The primary outcome was accuracy defined as the number of trials, out of 10, on which the child successfully identified and used the safest crossing route. Children with DCD performed equally poorly in both conditions, while TD children were significantly more accurate in the egocentric condition. This difference cannot be explained by self-reported prior road crossing education, practice or confidence. While TD children may benefit from the development of an egocentric virtual reality road crossing task, multimodal methods may be needed to effectively teach road safety to children with DCD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Can one generate stable hyaline cartilage from adult mesenchymal stem cells? A developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellingman, Catharine A; Koevoet, Wendy; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2012-11-01

    Chondrogenically differentiating bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) display signs of chondrocyte hypertrophy, such as production of collagen type X, MMP13 and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL). For cartilage reconstructions this is undesirable, as terminally differentiated cartilage produced by BMSCs mineralizes when implanted in vivo. Terminal differentiation is not restricted to BMSCs but is also encountered in chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as well as embryonic stem cells, which by definition should be able to generate all types of tissues, including stable cartilage. Therefore, we propose that the currently used culture conditions may drive the cells towards terminal differentiation. In this manuscript we aim to review the literature, supplemented by our own data to answer the question, is it possible to generate stable hyaline cartilage from adult MSCs? We demonstrate that recently published methods for inhibiting terminal differentiation (through PTHrP, MMP13 or blocking phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8) result in cartilage formation with reduction of hypertrophic markers, although this does not reach the low level of stable chondrocytes. A set of hypertrophy markers should be included in future studies to characterize the phenotype more precisely. Finally, we used what is currently known in developmental biology about the differential development of hyaline and terminally differentiated cartilage to provide thought and insights to change current culture models for creating hyaline cartilage. Inhibiting terminal differentiation may not result in stable hyaline cartilage if the right balance of signals has not been created from the start of culture onwards. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Rates of detection of developmental problems at the 18-month well-baby visit by family physicians' using four evidence-based screening tools compared to usual care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R E; Spragins, W; Mazloum, G; Cronkhite, M; Maru, G

    2016-05-01

    Early and regular developmental screening can improve children's development through early intervention but is insufficiently used. Most developmental problems are readily evident at the 18-month well-baby visit. This trial's purpose is to: (1) compare identification rates of developmental problems by GPs/family physicians using four evidence-based tools with non-evidence based screening, and (2) ascertain whether the four tools can be completed in 10-min pre-visit on a computer. We compared two approaches to early identification via random assignment of 54 families to either: 'usual care' (informal judgment including ad-hoc milestones, n = 25); or (2) 'Evidence-based' care (use of four validated, accurate screening tools, n = 29), including: the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), the PEDS-Developmental Milestones (PEDS-DM), the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and PHQ9 (maternal depression). In the 'usual care' group four (16%) and in the evidence-based tools group 18 (62%) were identified as having a possible developmental problem. In the evidence-based tools group three infants were to be recalled at 24 months for language checks (no specialist referrals made). In the 'usual care' group four problems were identified: one child was referred for speech therapy, two to return to check language at 24 months and a mother to discuss depression. All forms were completed on-line within 10 min. Despite higher early detection rates in the evidence-based care group, there were no differences in referral rates between evidence-based and usual-care groups. This suggests that clinicians: (1) override evidence-based screening results with informal judgment; and/or (2) need assistance understanding test results and making referrals. Possible solutions are improve the quality of information obtained from the screening process, improved training of physicians, improved support for individual practices and acceptance by the regional

  3. Comparative evaluation of community detection algorithms: a topological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, Günce Keziban; Labatut, Vincent; Cherifi, Hocine

    2012-01-01

    Community detection is one of the most active fields in complex network analysis, due to its potential value in practical applications. Many works inspired by different paradigms are devoted to the development of algorithmic solutions allowing the network structure in such cohesive subgroups to be revealed. Comparative studies reported in the literature usually rely on a performance measure considering the community structure as a partition (Rand index, normalized mutual information, etc). However, this type of comparison neglects the topological properties of the communities. In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparative study of a representative set of community detection methods, in which we adopt both types of evaluation. Community-oriented topological measures are used to qualify the communities and evaluate their deviation from the reference structure. In order to mimic real-world systems, we use artificially generated realistic networks. It turns out there is no equivalence between the two approaches: a high performance does not necessarily correspond to correct topological properties, and vice versa. They can therefore be considered as complementary, and we recommend applying both of them in order to perform a complete and accurate assessment. (paper)

  4. Mirror neurons, procedural learning, and the positive new experience: a developmental systems self psychology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N S; Gales, M; Shane, E; Shane, M

    2000-01-01

    In summary, we are impressed with the existence of a mirror neuron system in the prefrontal cortex that serves as part of a complex neural network, including afferent and efferent connections to the limbic system, in particular the amygdala, in addition to the premotor and motor cortex. We think it is possible to arrive at an integration that postulates the mirror neuron system and its many types of associated multimodal neurons as contributing significantly to implicit procedural learning, a process that underlies a range of complex nonconscious, unconscious, preconscious and conscious cognitive activities, from playing musical instruments to character formation and traumatic configurations. This type of brain circuitry may establish an external coherence with developmental systems self psychology which implies that positive new experience is meliorative and that the intentional revival of old-old traumatic relational configurations might enhance maladaptive procedural patterns that would lead to the opposite of the intended beneficial change. When analysts revive traumatic transference patterns for the purpose of clarification and interpretation, they may fail to appreciate that such traumatic transference patterns make interpretation ineffective because, as we have stated above, the patient lacks self-reflection under such traumatic conditions. The continued plasticity and immediacy of the mirror neuron system can contribute to positive new experiences that promote the formation of new, adaptive, implicit-procedural patterns. Perhaps this broadened repertoire in the patient of ways of understanding interrelational events through the psychoanalytic process allows the less adaptive patterns ultimately to become vestigial and the newer, more adaptive patterns to emerge as dominant. Finally, as we have stated, we believe that the intentional transferential revival of trauma (i.e., the old-old relational configuration) may not contribute to therapeutic benefit. In

  5. A Developmental Assets Approach in East Africa: Can Swahili Measures Capture Adolescent Strengths and Supports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Christopher F.; Johnson, Laura R.; Kurz, A. Solomon; Scales, Peter C.; Kiliho, Ray P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Assets-based approaches are well-suited to youth living in majority world contexts, such as East Africa. However, positive psychology research with African adolescents is rare. One hindering factor is the lack of translated measures for conducting research. Objective: This study builds capacity for positive youth development research…

  6. Mediated Authentic Video: A Flexible Tool Supporting a Developmental Approach to Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutchbury, Kris; Woodward, Clare

    2017-01-01

    YouTube now has more searches than Google, indicating that video is a motivating and, potentially, powerful learning tool. This paper investigates how we can embrace video to support improvements in teacher education. It will draw on innovative approaches to teacher education, developed by the Open University UK, in order to explore in more depth…

  7. An approach to the developmental and cognitive profile of the child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total scores tend to be less useful than more specific subscales as there are. ARTICLE. An approach to ... of constructive memory. Rote learning is the ability to learn and recall .... Arnold-Chiari-2 malformation and cognitive functioning in spina ...

  8. Comparing three pedagogical approaches to psychomotor skills acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ross E; Richa, Jacqueline; Oppeltz, Richard; Nguyen, Patrick; Wagner, Kelly; Van Sickle, Kent R; Dent, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    We compared traditional pedagogical approaches such as time- and repetition-based methods with proficiency-based training. Laparoscopic novices were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 training conditions. In experiment 1, participants in the time condition practiced for 60 minutes, participants in the repetition condition performed 5 practice trials, and participants in the proficiency condition trained until reaching a predetermined proficiency goal. In experiment 2, practice time and number of trials were equated across conditions. In experiment 1, participants in the proficiency-based training conditions outperformed participants in the other 2 conditions (P < .014); however, these participants trained longer (P < .001) and performed more repetitions (P < .001). In experiment 2, despite training for similar amounts of time and number of repetitions, participants in the proficiency condition outperformed their counterparts (P < .038). In both experiments, the standard deviations for the proficiency condition were smaller than the other conditions. Proficiency-based training results in trainees who perform uniformly and at a higher level than traditional training methodologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  10. Policies for Industrial Learning in China and Mexico: Neo-developmental vs. Neo-liberal approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi; Gallaher, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Previous work has shown that the results of both China and Mexico’s export-led market reforms over the past quarter century have been strikingly different. In contrast to China, Mexico has not managed to increase the value added of its exports of manufactured goods and has subsequently had a difficult time competing with China in world markets. Building on this previous work, in this paper we conduct a comparative analysis of the role of government policies in industrial learnin...

  11. Weight Management in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Dietary Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Saunders, Richard R.; Saunders, Muriel; Washburn, Richard A.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Honas, Jeff J.; Willis, Erik A.; Danon, Jessica C.; Krebill, Ron; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is equal to or greater than the general population. Methods: Overweight/obese adults (BMI =25 kg/m2) with mild-to-moderate intellectual and developmental disabilities were randomized to an enhanced stop light diet…

  12. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  13. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  14. Early interventions for youths at high risk for bipolar disorder: a developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarous, Xavier; Consoli, Angèle; Milhiet, Vanessa; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, ongoing research programmes on primary prevention and early identification of bipolar disorder (BD) have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the principal forms of evidence that support preventive interventions for BD in children and adolescents and the main challenges associated with these programmes. We performed a literature review of the main computerised databases (MEDLINE, PUBMED) and a manual search of the literature relevant to prospective and retrospective studies of prodromal symptoms, premorbid stages, risk factors, and early intervention programmes for BD. Genetic and environmental risk factors of BD were identified. Most of the algorithms used to measure the risk of developing BD and the early interventions programmes focused on the familial risk. The prodromal signs varied greatly and were age dependent. During adolescence, depressive episodes associated with genetic or environmental risk factors predicted the onset of hypomanic/manic episodes over subsequent years. In prepubertal children, the lack of specificity of clinical markers and difficulties in mood assessment were seen as impeding preventive interventions at these ages. Despite encouraging results, biomarkers have not thus far been sufficiently validated in youth samples to serve as screening tools for prevention. Additional longitudinal studies in youths at high risk of developing BD should include repeated measures of putative biomarkers. Staging models have been developed as an integrative approach to specify the individual level of risk based on clinical (e.g. prodromal symptoms and familial history of BD) and non-clinical (e.g. biomarkers and neuroimaging) data. However, there is still a lack of empirically validated studies that measure the benefits of using these models to design preventive intervention programmes.

  15. The meaning of nuclear war to adult men: A developmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the contextual and thematic meaning of nuclear war. Age-related differences were also investigated by sampling 36 male subjects in three age groups (20-27, 40-50, and above 60). Contextual meaning was measured by asking subjects to rate the meaning of nuclear war and three other threats (personal death, earthquake, and economic depression) on two questionnaires designed to explore personal meaning. Thematic meaning was measured by asking subjects to answer two open-ended questions. In terms of contextual meaning, the study found that, when compared to all other threats, nuclear war has a more extreme emotional meaning. In addition, meaning of nuclear war was found to shift across the adult lift span. In terms of thematic meaning, the study identified five themes describing causation and five themes describing effects. Age differences were found in thematic meaning. Oldest subjects emphasized rational causation, while middle-aged and younger subjects emphasized hopelessness and the impact on either inter-generational or intra-generational relationships. Age differences in meaning are discussed in terms of Eriksonian theory of adult development.

  16. The meaning of nuclear war to adult men: A developmental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the contextual and thematic meaning of nuclear war. Age-related differences were also investigated by sampling 36 male subjects in three age groups (20-27, 40-50, and above 60). Contextual meaning was measured by asking subjects to rate the meaning of nuclear war and three other threats (personal death, earthquake, and economic depression) on two questionnaires designed to explore personal meaning. Thematic meaning was measured by asking subjects to answer two open-ended questions. In terms of contextual meaning, the study found that, when compared to all other threats, nuclear war has a more extreme emotional meaning. In addition, meaning of nuclear war was found to shift across the adult lift span. In terms of thematic meaning, the study identified five themes describing causation and five themes describing effects. Age differences were found in thematic meaning. Oldest subjects emphasized rational causation, while middle-aged and younger subjects emphasized hopelessness and the impact on either inter-generational or intra-generational relationships. Age differences in meaning are discussed in terms of Eriksonian theory of adult development

  17. An ontology approach to comparative phenomics in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Oellrich, Anika

    2015-02-25

    Background: Plant phenotype datasets include many different types of data, formats, and terms from specialized vocabularies. Because these datasets were designed for different audiences, they frequently contain language and details tailored to investigators with different research objectives and backgrounds. Although phenotype comparisons across datasets have long been possible on a small scale, comprehensive queries and analyses that span a broad set of reference species, research disciplines, and knowledge domains continue to be severely limited by the absence of a common semantic framework. Results: We developed a workflow to curate and standardize existing phenotype datasets for six plant species, encompassing both model species and crop plants with established genetic resources. Our effort focused on mutant phenotypes associated with genes of known sequence in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), Zea mays L. subsp. mays (maize), Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic or Medicago), Oryza sativa L. (rice), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean), and Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato). We applied the same ontologies, annotation standards, formats, and best practices across all six species, thereby ensuring that the shared dataset could be used for cross-species querying and semantic similarity analyses. Curated phenotypes were first converted into a common format using taxonomically broad ontologies such as the Plant Ontology, Gene Ontology, and Phenotype and Trait Ontology. We then compared ontology-based phenotypic descriptions with an existing classification system for plant phenotypes and evaluated our semantic similarity dataset for its ability to enhance predictions of gene families, protein functions, and shared metabolic pathways that underlie informative plant phenotypes. Conclusions: The use of ontologies, annotation standards, shared formats, and best practices for cross-taxon phenotype data analyses represents a novel approach to plant phenomics

  18. An ontology approach to comparative phenomics in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Oellrich, Anika; Walls, Ramona L; Cannon, Ethalinda KS; Cannon, Steven B; Cooper, Laurel; Gardiner, Jack; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Harper, Lisa; He, Mingze; Hoehndorf, Robert; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kalberer, Scott R; Lloyd, John P; Meinke, David; Menda, Naama; Moore, Laura; Nelson, Rex T; Pujar, Anuradha; Lawrence, Carolyn J; Huala, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant phenotype datasets include many different types of data, formats, and terms from specialized vocabularies. Because these datasets were designed for different audiences, they frequently contain language and details tailored to investigators with different research objectives and backgrounds. Although phenotype comparisons across datasets have long been possible on a small scale, comprehensive queries and analyses that span a broad set of reference species, research disciplines, and knowledge domains continue to be severely limited by the absence of a common semantic framework. Results: We developed a workflow to curate and standardize existing phenotype datasets for six plant species, encompassing both model species and crop plants with established genetic resources. Our effort focused on mutant phenotypes associated with genes of known sequence in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), Zea mays L. subsp. mays (maize), Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic or Medicago), Oryza sativa L. (rice), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean), and Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato). We applied the same ontologies, annotation standards, formats, and best practices across all six species, thereby ensuring that the shared dataset could be used for cross-species querying and semantic similarity analyses. Curated phenotypes were first converted into a common format using taxonomically broad ontologies such as the Plant Ontology, Gene Ontology, and Phenotype and Trait Ontology. We then compared ontology-based phenotypic descriptions with an existing classification system for plant phenotypes and evaluated our semantic similarity dataset for its ability to enhance predictions of gene families, protein functions, and shared metabolic pathways that underlie informative plant phenotypes. Conclusions: The use of ontologies, annotation standards, shared formats, and best practices for cross-taxon phenotype data analyses represents a novel approach to plant phenomics

  19. [Locomotor development in infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip or idiopathic clubfoot undergoing orthopedic treatment. Prospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquijo, J J; Campos, L; Torres-Gómez, A; Allende, V

    2013-10-01

    Several disorders of early childhood, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and clubfoot, requires orthopedic treatment that limits active mobility of the lower extremities for a period of time. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact on locomotor development of the orthopedic treatment in infants less than one year-old. The study included a prospective cohort of consecutive patients diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (Group A, 24 patients), and clubfoot (Group B, 32 patients) treated from January 2007 to June 2009. A third group (Group C) of 50 healthy children was used as control. The variables evaluated were: months with a brace, age to sit without support, age at the start of crawling, and age at the beginning of walking. The results obtained were analyzed. Comparisons between the three groups were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. We chose a value of P<.05 as level of statistical significance. The analysis of independent samples showed that the mean age at which the patients began to sit were similar: 6.12, 6.42 and 6.19 months, respectively (P=.249). The mean age for crawling was similar, although with a slight trend toward statistical significance: 8.84, 9.38 and 9.17 months, respectively (P=.08). The age at which they started walking was different between the three groups: 12.14, 13.21 and 12.41 months, respectively (P<.001). Orthopedic treatment of DDH and clubfoot in children less than one year-old slightly slows down the course of normal locomotor development. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. When left-hemisphere reading is compromised: Comparing reading ability in participants after left cerebral hemispherectomy and participants with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Tami; Christodoulou, Joanna A; de Bode, Stella

    2016-10-01

    We investigated reading skills in individuals who have undergone left cerebral hemispherectomy and in readers with developmental dyslexia to understand diverse characteristics contributing to reading difficulty. Although dyslexia is a developmental disorder, left hemispherectomy requires that patients (re)establish the language process needed to perform the language-based tasks in the nondominant (right) hemisphere to become readers. Participants with developmental dyslexia (DD; n = 11) and participants who had undergone left hemispherectomy (HEMI; n = 11) were matched on age and gender, and were compared on timed and untimed measures of single word and pseudo-word reading. The hemispherectomy group was subdivided into prenatal (in utero) and postnatal (>3 years) insult groups, indicating the timing of the primary lesion that ultimately required surgical intervention. On an untimed reading measure, the readers with DD were comparable to individuals who had undergone left hemispherectomy due to prenatal insult, but both scored higher than the postnatal hemispherectomy group. Timed word reading differed across groups. The hemispherectomy prenatal subgroup had low average scores on both timed and untimed tests. The group with dyslexia had average scores on untimed measures and below average scores on timed reading. The hemispherectomy postnatal group had the lowest scores among the groups by a significant margin, and the most pronounced reading difficulty. Patients with prenatal lesions leading to an isolated right hemisphere (RH) have the potential to develop reading to a degree comparable to that in persons with dyslexia for single word reading. This potential sharply diminishes in individuals who undergo hemispherectomy due to postnatal insult. The higher scores of the prenatal hemispherectomy group on timed reading suggest that under these conditions, individuals with an isolated RH can compensate to a significant degree. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016

  1. Comparative regulatory approaches for groups of new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusser, Maria; Davies, Howard V

    2013-06-25

    This manuscript provides insights into ongoing debates on the regulatory issues surrounding groups of biotechnology-driven 'New Plant Breeding Techniques' (NPBTs). It presents the outcomes of preliminary discussions and in some cases the initial decisions taken by regulators in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Canada, EU, Japan, South Africa and USA. In the light of these discussions we suggest in this manuscript a structured approach to make the evaluation more consistent and efficient. The issue appears to be complex as these groups of new technologies vary widely in both the technologies deployed and their impact on heritable changes in the plant genome. An added complication is that the legislation, definitions and regulatory approaches for biotechnology-derived crops differ significantly between these countries. There are therefore concerns that this situation will lead to non-harmonised regulatory approaches and asynchronous development and marketing of such crops resulting in trade disruptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...

  3. a comparative study of two agricultural extension approaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    each approach are described and their strengths and weaknesses are revealed including the implications of having two extension ... line of technical support and administrative control, b) to change the multi-purpose role ... evaluation and training plots called Management Training Plots (MTPs). According to Quinones et al; ...

  4. A comparative approach to nuclear safety and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The operators in charge of nuclear facilities or activities have to deal with nuclear and radiological risks, which implies implementing two complementary approaches - safety and security - each of which entails specific methods. Targeting the same ultimate purpose, these two approaches must interact to mutually reinforce each other, without compromising one another. In this report, IRSN presents its reflections on the subject, drawing on its expertise in assessing risks on behalf of the French safety and security authorities, together with the lessons learned from sharing experience at international level. Contents: 1 - Purpose and context: Definitions, Similar risks but different causes, Transparency and confidentiality, Synergy in dealing with sabotage, A common purpose: protecting Man and the environment; 2 - Organizational principles: A legislative and regulatory framework relative to safety as well as security, The competent nuclear safety and security authorities, A difference in the distribution of responsibilities between the operators and the State (Prime responsibility of operators, A different involvement of the State), Safety culture and security culture; 3 - Principles for the application of safety and security approaches: Similar design principles (The graded approach, Defence-in-depth, Synergy between safety and security), Similar operating principles (The same requirement regarding constant monitoring, The same need to take account of feedback, The same need to update the baseline, Sharing good practices is more restricted in the area of security, The need to deal with the respective requirements of safety and security), Similar emergency management (Developing emergency and contingency plans, Carrying out exercises), Activities subject to quality requirements; 4 - Conclusion

  5. Politics in a New Key: Breaking the Cycle of U.S. Politics with a Generational/Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken White

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some common, mental models shape how people in the US perceive political changes over time. The one-dimensional pendulum swing model and the two-dimensional cyclical model are prevalent. When generational differences are mapped onto such political change cycles, they orient to cohorts or age groups. This leads to viewing generational cohorts as experiencing one- or two-dimensional cycles without deeper scrutiny. Cohort differences that surface in the Generations Salons that I and others conducted in California suggest a different, three-dimensional model may be more representative of the potential for societal change in the US. Using a musical metaphor, that model is explained in terms of different political “keys” and the value of distinguishing among them as time passes. It also underlies a speculation about a “politics in a new key,” which might prove more useful.Summary-level reporting of the action research conducted with the Generations Salons supports the three-dimensional model. We expect new politics to emerge from the Millennial cohort coming of age now, yet it will not be without the support and wisdom of the cohorts that came of age before it. This must be the case if the burden of expectations we place on the Millennials will indeed pave the way for transformative change in US society. Intergenerational support of Millennials is essential. This initial research and application suggests the potential for the generational/ developmental approach as a wellspring for transformational—and practically successful—political work. It begs the question: What will you do to help?

  6. Politics in a New Key: Breaking the Cycle of U.S. Politics with a Generational/Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken White

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some common, mental models shape how people in the US perceive political changes over time. The one-dimensional pendulum swing model and the two-dimensional cyclical model are prevalent. When generational differences are mapped onto such political change cycles, they orient to cohorts or age groups. This leads to viewing generational cohorts as experiencing one- or two-dimensional cycles without deeper scrutiny. Cohort differences that surface in the Generations Salons that I and others conducted in California suggest a different, three-dimensional model may be more representative of the potential for societal change in the US. Using a musical metaphor, that model is explained in terms of different political “keys” and the value of distinguishing among them as time passes. It also underlies a speculation about a “politics in a new key,” which might prove more useful. Summary-level reporting of the action research conducted with the Generations Salons supports the three-dimensional model. We expect new politics to emerge from the Millennial cohort coming of age now, yet it will not be without the support and wisdom of the cohorts that came of age before it. This must be the case if the burden of expectations we place on the Millennials will indeed pave the way for transformative change in US society. Intergenerational support of Millennials is essential. This initial research and application suggests the potential for the generational/ developmental approach as a wellspring for transformational—and practically successful—political work. It begs the question: What will you do to help?

  7. Comparative approaches to gentrification: Lessons from the rural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin; Smith, Darren P

    2018-03-01

    The epistemologies and politics of comparative research are prominently debated within urban studies, with 'comparative urbanism' emerging as a contemporary lexicon of urban studies. The study of urban gentrification has, after some delay, come to engage with these debates, which can be seen to pose a major challenge to the very concept of gentrification. To date, similar debates or developments have not unfolded within the study of rural gentrification. This article seeks to address some of the challenges posed to gentrification studies through an examination of strategies of comparison and how they might be employed within a comparative study of rural gentrification. Drawing on Tilly ( Big structures Large Processes Huge Comparisons . New York: Russell Sage), examples of four 'strategies of comparison' are identified within studies of urban and rural gentrification, before the paper explores how 'geographies of the concept' and 'geographies of the phenomenon' of rural gentrification in the United Kingdom, United States and France may be investigated using Latour's ( Pandora's Hope . London: Harvard University Press) notion of 'circulatory sociologies of translation'. The aim of our comparative discussion is to open up dialogues on the challenges of comparative studies that employ conceptions of gentrification and also to promote reflections of the metrocentricity of recent discussions of comparative research.

  8. Comparative Effects of Tri-Polar Eclectic Teaching Approach on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an experimental study that examined the comparative effects of Tripolar Interactionist teaching strategy on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School III students of Adeyemi Demonstration secondary School Ondo in social studies. The instrument used for the study includes scheme of work, lesson notes ...

  9. A Bayesian hierarchical approach to comparative audit for carotid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhan, G; Marshall, E C; Abidia, A F; Chetter, I C; McCollum, P T

    2002-12-01

    the aim of this study was to illustrate how a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach can aid the reliable comparison of outcome rates between surgeons. retrospective analysis of prospective and retrospective data. binary outcome data (death/stroke within 30 days), together with information on 15 possible risk factors specific for CEA were available on 836 CEAs performed by four vascular surgeons from 1992-99. The median patient age was 68 (range 38-86) years and 60% were men. the model was developed using the WinBUGS software. After adjusting for patient-level risk factors, a cross-validatory approach was adopted to identify "divergent" performance. A ranking exercise was also carried out. the overall observed 30-day stroke/death rate was 3.9% (33/836). The model found diabetes, stroke and heart disease to be significant risk factors. There was no significant difference between the predicted and observed outcome rates for any surgeon (Bayesian p -value>0.05). Each surgeon had a median rank of 3 with associated 95% CI 1.0-5.0, despite the variability of observed stroke/death rate from 2.9-4.4%. After risk adjustment, there was very little residual between-surgeon variability in outcome rate. Bayesian hierarchical models can help to accurately quantify the uncertainty associated with surgeons' performance and rank.

  10. A comparative approach to closed-loop computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Sponberg, S; Cowan, N J

    2014-04-01

    Neural computation is inescapably closed-loop: the nervous system processes sensory signals to shape motor output, and motor output consequently shapes sensory input. Technological advances have enabled neuroscientists to close, open, and alter feedback loops in a wide range of experimental preparations. The experimental capability of manipulating the topology-that is, how information can flow between subsystems-provides new opportunities to understand the mechanisms and computations underlying behavior. These experiments encompass a spectrum of approaches from fully open-loop, restrained preparations to the fully closed-loop character of free behavior. Control theory and system identification provide a clear computational framework for relating these experimental approaches. We describe recent progress and new directions for translating experiments at one level in this spectrum to predictions at another level. Operating across this spectrum can reveal new understanding of how low-level neural mechanisms relate to high-level function during closed-loop behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Death with dignity and euthanasia: comparative European approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-09-01

    From 1800 to 1960, the average life expectancy doubled making medical activities a fight against death. In doing so, the dying process became medicalized. Some infectious diseases clearly disappeared while new surgical interventions, such as organ transplants, may be viewed as some kinds of human resuscitation. Sociologically, medicine has replaced religion and doctors are the new priests of our techno society. Paradoxically this has created a new fear The artificial process of dying is replacing death but it is transforming the individuals into artificially supported and suffering bodies relying on medical supervision while the family is left away, making social solidarity and compassion a relic of the past. There comes the wish to re appropriate our own death, to give a true meaning to the dying process by making it peaceful and respectful of our human dignity. This evolution takes place in a very controversial context because it is founded on various and contradictory attitudes. A rights based approach will support both the termination of futile treatment and active euthanasia while a duty-based approach will allow the physicians to accept responding positively to death claims that follow some predetermined criteria and refused others.

  12. Comparative evaluation of photovoltaic MPP trackers: A simulated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnam Jyoti Saharia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative assessment of three popular maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms used in photovoltaic power generation. A 120 Wp PV module is taken as reference for the study that is connected to a suitable resistive load by a boost converter. Two profiles of variation of solar insolation at fixed temperature and varying temperature at fixed solar insolation are taken to test the tracking efficiency of three MPPT algorithms based on the perturb and observe (P&O, Fuzzy logic, and Neural Network techniques. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation software is used for assessment, and the results indicate that the fuzzy logic-based tracker presents better tracking effectiveness to variations in both solar insolation and temperature profiles when compared to P&O technique and Neural Network-based technique.

  13. Toward understanding the evolution of vertebrate gene regulatory networks: comparative genomics and epigenomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Morales, Juan R

    2016-07-01

    Vertebrates, as most animal phyla, originated >500 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion, and progressively radiated into the extant classes. Inferring the evolutionary history of the group requires understanding the architecture of the developmental programs that constrain the vertebrate anatomy. Here, I review recent comparative genomic and epigenomic studies, based on ChIP-seq and chromatin accessibility, which focus on the identification of functionally equivalent cis-regulatory modules among species. This pioneer work, primarily centered in the mammalian lineage, has set the groundwork for further studies in representative vertebrate and chordate species. Mapping of active regulatory regions across lineages will shed new light on the evolutionary forces stabilizing ancestral developmental programs, as well as allowing their variation to sustain morphological adaptations on the inherited vertebrate body plan. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Automatic classification of hyperactive children: comparing multiple artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarian, Mona; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Dibajnia, Parvin

    2011-07-12

    Automatic classification of different behavioral disorders with many similarities (e.g. in symptoms) by using an automated approach will help psychiatrists to concentrate on correct disorder and its treatment as soon as possible, to avoid wasting time on diagnosis, and to increase the accuracy of diagnosis. In this study, we tried to differentiate and classify (diagnose) 306 children with many similar symptoms and different behavioral disorders such as ADHD, depression, anxiety, comorbid depression and anxiety and conduct disorder with high accuracy. Classification was based on the symptoms and their severity. With examining 16 different available classifiers, by using "Prtools", we have proposed nearest mean classifier as the most accurate classifier with 96.92% accuracy in this research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A systems biology approach to predictive developmental neurotoxicity of a larvicide used in the prevention of Zika virus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine; Taboureau, Olivier; Grandjean, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex, and a larvi......The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex...... the potential developmental neurotoxicity, and we applied this method to examine the larvicide pyriproxyfen widely used in the prevention of Zika virus transmission. Our computational model covered a wide range of possible pathways providing mechanistic hypotheses between pyriproxyfen and neurological disorders...

  16. Comparing Two Approaches for Point-Like Scatterer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dell’Aversano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many inverse scattering problems concern the detection and localisation of point-like scatterers which are sparsely enclosed within a prescribed investigation domain. Therefore, it looks like a good option to tackle the problem by applying reconstruction methods that are properly tailored for such a type of scatterers or that naturally enforce sparsity in the reconstructions. Accordingly, in this paper we compare the time reversal-MUSIC and the compressed sensing. The study develops through numerical examples and focuses on the role of noise in data and mutual coupling between the scatterers.

  17. Consumer and producer environmental responsibility. Comparing two approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Joao; Domingos, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Two different indicators of 'environmental responsibility' were independently proposed by Rodrigues et al. [Rodrigues, J., Domingos, T., Giljum, S., Schneider, F., 2006. Designing an indicator of environmental responsibility. Ecological Economics, 59 (3): 256-266.] and Lenzen et al. [Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann, T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61: 27-42.]. These indicators are both supposed to reflect the indirect effects of consumer and producer behavior in the generation of environmental pressure. In this paper we compare their mathematical properties and interpretation. We conclude that they have different implications for environmental policy. (author)

  18. Consolidating Data of Global Urban Populations: a Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, B.; Khan, A.; Selod, H.

    2017-12-01

    Global data on city populations are essential for the study of urbanization, city growth and the spatial distribution of human settlements. Such data are either gathered by combining official estimates of urban populations from across countries or extracted from gridded population models that combine these estimates with geospatial data. These data sources provide varying estimates of urban populations and each approach has its advantages and limitations. In particular, official figures suffer from a lack of consistency in defining urban units (across both space and time) and often provide data for jurisdictions rather than the functionally meaningful urban area. On the other hand, gridded population models require a user-imposed definition to identify urban areas and are constrained by the modelling techniques and input data employed. To address these drawbacks, we combine these approaches by consolidating information from three established sources: (i) the Citypopulation.de (Brinkhoff, 2016); (ii) the World Urban Prospects data (United Nations, 2014); and (iii) the Global Human Settlements population grid (GHS-POP) (EC - JRC, 2015). We create urban footprints with GHS-POP and spatially merge georeferenced city points from both UN WUP and Citypopulation.de with these urban footprints to identify city points that belong to a single agglomeration. We create a consolidated dataset by combining population data from the UN WUP and Citypopulation.de. The flexible framework outlined can incorporate information from alternative inputs to identify urban clusters e.g. by using night-time lights, built-up area or alternative gridded population models (e.g WorldPop or Landscan) and the parameters employed (e.g. density thresholds for urban footprints) may also be adjusted, e.g., as a function of city-specific characteristics. Our consolidated dataset provides a wider and more accurate coverage of city populations to support studies of urbanization. We apply the data to re

  19. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years was selected from an existing dataset collected by Gunst et al. containing 2,513 panoramic radiographs with known third molar developmental stages of Belgian Caucasian men and women. This subset was randomly split in a training set to develop a classical regression analysis and a Bayesian model for the multivariate distribution of the third molar developmental stages conditional on age and in a test set to assess the performance of both models. The aim of this study was to verify if the Bayesian approach differentiates the age of maturity more precisely and removes the bias, which disadvantages the systematically overestimated young individuals. The Bayesian model offers the discrimination of subjects being older than 18 years more appropriate and produces more meaningful prediction intervals but does not strongly outperform the classical approaches.

  20. Mood induction in depressive patients: a comparative multidimensional approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falkenberg

    Full Text Available Anhedonia, reduced positive affect and enhanced negative affect are integral characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD. Emotion dysregulation, e.g. in terms of different emotion processing deficits, has consistently been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate mood changes in depressive patients using a multidimensional approach for the measurement of emotional reactivity to mood induction procedures. Experimentally, mood states can be altered using various mood induction procedures. The present study aimed at validating two different positive mood induction procedures in patients with MDD and investigating which procedure is more effective and applicable in detecting dysfunctions in MDD. The first procedure relied on the presentation of happy vs. neutral faces, while the second used funny vs. neutral cartoons. Emotional reactivity was assessed in 16 depressed and 16 healthy subjects using self-report measures, measurements of electrodermal activity and standardized analyses of facial responses. Positive mood induction was successful in both procedures according to subjective ratings in patients and controls. In the cartoon condition, however, a discrepancy between reduced facial activity and concurrently enhanced autonomous reactivity was found in patients. Relying on a multidimensional assessment technique, a more comprehensive estimate of dysfunctions in emotional reactivity in MDD was available than by self-report measures alone and this was unsheathed especially by the mood induction procedure relying on cartoons. The divergent facial and autonomic responses in the presence of unaffected subjective reactivity suggest an underlying deficit in the patients' ability to express the felt arousal to funny cartoons. Our results encourage the application of both procedures in functional imaging studies for investigating the neural substrates of emotion dysregulation in MDD patients. Mood induction via cartoons appears to

  1. Verbal Self-Guidance as a Treatment Approach for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Polatajko, Helene J.

    1998-01-01

    Replicating a 1994 study, four children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were taught a verbal self-guidance strategy (Goal, Plan, Do, Check) by an occupational therapist. All four improved performance in attaining their occupational goals, supporting the possible use of a cognitive strategy with children with DCD. (SK)

  2. Comparing Entrepreneurship Intention: A Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many countries face nowadays. One strategic way to overcome this problem is by fostering entrepreneurship spirit especially for unem ployment graduates. Entrepreneurship is becoming an alternative Job for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship of-fers major benefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the pos-sibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Entrepreneurship is then offered by many universities. This research applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB by incorporating attitude toward success as an antecedent variable of the attitude to examine students’ intention to become an entrepreneur. The objective of this research is to compare entrepreneurship intention between business students and non-business students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by applying the drop-off/pick-up method. A number of 294 by questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Two out of four hypotheses were confirmed. These hypotheses are the relationship between the attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur and the intention to try becoming an entrepreneur, and the relationship perceived behavioral control and intention to try becoming an entrepreneur. This paper also provides a discussion and offers directions for future research.

  3. Comparing Entrepreneurship Intention: A Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many countries face nowadays. One strategic way to overcome this problem is by fostering entrepreneurship spirit especially for unem-ployment graduates. Entrepreneurship is becoming an alternative Job for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship of fers major benefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the pos sibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Entrepreneurship is then offered by many universities. This research applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB by incorporating attitude toward success as an antecedent variable of the attitude to examine students’ intention to become an entrepreneur. The objective of this research is to compare entrepreneurship intention between business students and non-business students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by applying the drop-off/pick-up method. A number of 294 by questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Two out of four hypotheses were confirmed. These hypotheses are the relationship between the attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur and the intention to try becoming an entrepreneur, and the relationship perceived behavioral control and intention to try becoming an entrepreneur. This paper also provides a discussion and offers directions for future research.

  4. Understanding the Osteosarcoma Pathobiology: A Comparative Oncology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Jyotika; Scott, Milcah C.; Largaespada, David A.; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive primary bone tumor in humans and is among the most common cancer afflicting dogs. Despite surgical advancements and intensification of chemo- and targeted therapies, the survival outcome for osteosarcoma patients is, as of yet, suboptimal. The presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis or its recurrence after initial therapy is a major factor for the poor outcomes. It is thought that most human and canine patients have at least microscopic metastatic lesions at diagnosis. Osteosarcoma in dogs occurs naturally with greater frequency and shares many biological and clinical similarities with osteosarcoma in humans. From a genetic perspective, osteosarcoma in both humans and dogs is characterized by complex karyotypes with highly variable structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. Similar molecular abnormalities have been observed in human and canine osteosarcoma. For instance, loss of TP53 and RB regulated pathways are common. While there are several oncogenes that are commonly amplified in both humans and dogs, such as MYC and RAS, no commonly activated proto-oncogene has been identified that could form the basis for targeted therapies. It remains possible that recurrent aberrant gene expression changes due to gene amplification or epigenetic alterations could be uncovered and these could be used for developing new, targeted therapies. However, the remarkably high genomic complexity of osteosarcoma has precluded their definitive identification. Several advantageous murine models of osteosarcoma have been generated. These include spontaneous and genetically engineered mouse models, including a model based on forward genetics and transposon mutagenesis allowing new genes and genetic pathways to be implicated in osteosarcoma development. The proposition of this review is that careful comparative genomic studies between human, canine and mouse models of osteosarcoma may help identify commonly affected and targetable pathways for

  5. Understanding the Osteosarcoma Pathobiology: A Comparative Oncology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Varshney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is an aggressive primary bone tumor in humans and is among the most common cancer afflicting dogs. Despite surgical advancements and intensification of chemo- and targeted therapies, the survival outcome for osteosarcoma patients is, as of yet, suboptimal. The presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis or its recurrence after initial therapy is a major factor for the poor outcomes. It is thought that most human and canine patients have at least microscopic metastatic lesions at diagnosis. Osteosarcoma in dogs occurs naturally with greater frequency and shares many biological and clinical similarities with osteosarcoma in humans. From a genetic perspective, osteosarcoma in both humans and dogs is characterized by complex karyotypes with highly variable structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. Similar molecular abnormalities have been observed in human and canine osteosarcoma. For instance, loss of TP53 and RB regulated pathways are common. While there are several oncogenes that are commonly amplified in both humans and dogs, such as MYC and RAS, no commonly activated proto-oncogene has been identified that could form the basis for targeted therapies. It remains possible that recurrent aberrant gene expression changes due to gene amplification or epigenetic alterations could be uncovered and these could be used for developing new, targeted therapies. However, the remarkably high genomic complexity of osteosarcoma has precluded their definitive identification. Several advantageous murine models of osteosarcoma have been generated. These include spontaneous and genetically engineered mouse models, including a model based on forward genetics and transposon mutagenesis allowing new genes and genetic pathways to be implicated in osteosarcoma development. The proposition of this review is that careful comparative genomic studies between human, canine and mouse models of osteosarcoma may help identify commonly affected and

  6. A comparative transcriptomic approach to understanding the formation of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Pau; Soler, Marçal; Sánchez, Anna; Hoede, Claire; Noirot, Céline; Paiva, Jorge Almiro Pinto; Serra, Olga; Figueras, Mercè

    2018-01-01

    The transcriptome comparison of two oak species reveals possible candidates accounting for the exceptionally thick and pure cork oak phellem, such as those involved in secondary metabolism and phellogen activity. Cork oak, Quercus suber, differs from other Mediterranean oaks such as holm oak (Quercus ilex) by the thickness and organization of the external bark. While holm oak outer bark contains sequential periderms interspersed with dead secondary phloem (rhytidome), the cork oak outer bark only contains thick layers of phellem (cork rings) that accumulate until reaching a thickness that allows industrial uses. Here we compare the cork oak outer bark transcriptome with that of holm oak. Both transcriptomes present similitudes in their complexity, but whereas cork oak external bark is enriched with upregulated genes related to suberin, which is the main polymer responsible for the protective function of periderm, the upregulated categories of holm oak are enriched in abiotic stress and chromatin assembly. Concomitantly with the upregulation of suberin-related genes, there is also induction of regulatory and meristematic genes, whose predicted activities agree with the increased number of phellem layers found in the cork oak sample. Further transcript profiling among different cork oak tissues and conditions suggests that cork and wood share many regulatory mechanisms, probably reflecting similar ontogeny. Moreover, the analysis of transcripts accumulation during the cork growth season showed that most regulatory genes are upregulated early in the season when the cork cambium becomes active. Altogether our work provides the first transcriptome comparison between cork oak and holm oak outer bark, which unveils new regulatory candidate genes of phellem development.

  7. Comparative approach between nuclear safety and security; Approche comparative entre surete et securite nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    Adopting the definition of nuclear safety and nuclear security as they are specified by IAEA glossaries, this report first outlines that these both notions refer to similar risks but with causes of different nature. They discuss the notions of transparency and confidentiality and outline that security and safety both aims at the protection of population and of the environment. They discuss their organisational principles, notice that both have their own legal and regulatory framework, that authorities have expertise on both, that the responsibility is distributed among operators and the State, and that safety and security cultures are complementary. They analyse the design, exploitation and management principles of security and safety approaches: graded approach, defence-in-depth, synergy between security and safety, same daily monitoring requirement, same necessity to address the return on experience, same need to update a referential, a more constrained exchange of good practices in safety, a necessity to deal with their respective requirements, elaboration of emergency plans, performance of exercises

  8. Development of a Combined In Vitro Physiologically Based Kinetic (PBK) and Monte Carlo Modelling Approach to Predict Interindividual Human Variation in Phenol-Induced Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikwold, Marije; Spenkelink, Bert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2017-06-01

    With our recently developed in vitro physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling approach, we could extrapolate in vitro toxicity data to human toxicity values applying PBK-based reverse dosimetry. Ideally information on kinetic differences among human individuals within a population should be considered. In the present study, we demonstrated a modelling approach that integrated in vitro toxicity data, PBK modelling and Monte Carlo simulations to obtain insight in interindividual human kinetic variation and derive chemical specific adjustment factors (CSAFs) for phenol-induced developmental toxicity. The present study revealed that UGT1A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the glucuronidation of phenol in humans followed by UGT1A9. Monte Carlo simulations were performed taking into account interindividual variation in glucuronidation by these specific UGTs and in the oral absorption coefficient. Linking Monte Carlo simulations with PBK modelling, population variability in the maximum plasma concentration of phenol for the human population could be predicted. This approach provided a CSAF for interindividual variation of 2.0 which covers the 99th percentile of the population, which is lower than the default safety factor of 3.16 for interindividual human kinetic differences. Dividing the dose-response curve data obtained with in vitro PBK-based reverse dosimetry, with the CSAF provided a dose-response curve that reflects the consequences of the interindividual variability in phenol kinetics for the developmental toxicity of phenol. The strength of the presented approach is that it provides insight in the effect of interindividual variation in kinetics for phenol-induced developmental toxicity, based on only in vitro and in silico testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaulieu Jeremy M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Results Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. Conclusion By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously

  10. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2009-02-11

    Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae) containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae) with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously required many more genes. These demonstrations

  11. The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stoker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of local governance has been too focused on the institutional arrangements of the Systems of different nation states rather than the more fundamental issue of the societal functions performed by local government. This article focuses attention on four societal roles that local government systems undertake. They can support political identity, underwrite economic development, facilitate social welfare provision or act as a lifestyle co-ordinator through the practice of community governance. Linking our investigation to the embedded societal roles of local government in different systems opens up the opportunity for a more genuinely global comparative perspective. It also helps us to understand the likely forms of politics associated with different systems of local governance. It also enables us to explore the sustainability of different systems of local governance. It is suggested that a strong system of local government is likely to be one that is able to combine societal roles to a substantial degree. A vulnerable local government system is one trapped with one function that in changing societal and economic circumstances could find itself under threat.El estudio comparado de la gobernanza local se ha focalizado excesivamente en los arreglos institucionales de los sistemas de los diferentes Estados-nación en lugar de centrarse en el tema esencial de las funciones sociales que desempeñan los gobiernos locales. Este artículo centra su atención en cuatro roles sociales que desempeñan los sistemas de gobierno local. Pueden proporcionar identidad política, garantizar el desarrollo económico, facilitar la provisión de servicios sociales o actuar como coordinador de la forma de vida mediante la práctica de la gobernanza comunitaria. La vinculación de la investigación a los roles sociales asumidos por los gobiernos locales en los diferentes sistemas proporciona la posibilidad de adoptar una perspectiva global comparada

  12. Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, Margriet; De Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-06-15

    Family-centered care seems promising in preventive pediatrics, but evidence is lacking as to whether this type of care is also valid as a means to identify risks to infants' social-emotional development. We aimed to examine the validity of such a family-centered approach. We conducted a prospective cohort study. During routine well-child visits (2-15 months), Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH) professionals used a family-centered approach, assessing domains as parents' competence, role of the partner, social support, barriers within the care-giving context, and child's wellbeing for 2976 children as protective, indistinct or a risk. If, based on the overall assessment (the families were labeled as "cases", N = 87), an intervention was considered necessary, parents filled in validated questionnaires covering the aforementioned domains. These questionnaires served as gold standards. For each case, two controls, matched by child-age and gender, also filled in questionnaires (N = 172). We compared PCH professionals' assessments with the parent-reported gold standards. Moreover, we evaluated which domain mostly contributed to the overall assessment. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between PCH professionals' assessments and gold standards were overall reasonable (Spearman's rho 0.17-0.39) except for the domain barriers within the care-giving context. Scores on gold standards were significantly higher when PCH assessments were rated as "at risk" (overall and per domain).We found reasonable to excellent agreement regarding the absence of risk factors (negative agreement rate: 0.40-0.98), but lower agreement regarding the presence of risk factors (positive agreement rate: 0.00-0.67). An "at risk" assessment for the domain Barriers or life events within the care-giving context contributed most to being overall at risk, i.e. a case, odds ratio 100.1, 95%-confidence interval: 22.6 - infinity. Findings partially support the convergent validity of a family

  13. Toward an Intersectional Approach in Developmental Science: The Role of Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Immigrant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The classification of motor neuron defects in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) as an animal alternative approach to assess developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Wichmann, Arne; Delov, Vera; Fenske, Martina

    2012-07-01

    Rodents are widely used to test the developmental neurotoxicity potential of chemical substances. The regulatory test procedures are elaborate and the requirement of numerous animals is ethically disputable. Therefore, non-animal alternatives are highly desirable, but appropriate test systems that meet regulatory demands are not yet available. Hence, we have developed a new developmental neurotoxicity assay based on specific whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons (using the monoclonal antibodies znp1 and zn8) in zebrafish embryos. By classifying the motor neuron defects, we evaluated the severity of the neurotoxic damage to individual primary and secondary motor neurons caused by chemical exposure and determined the corresponding effect concentration values (EC₅₀). In a proof-of-principle study, we investigated the effects of three model compounds thiocyclam, cartap and disulfiram, which show some neurotoxicity-indicating effects in vertebrates, and the positive controls ethanol and nicotine and the negative controls 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and triclosan. As a quantitative measure of the neurotoxic potential of the test compounds, we calculated the ratios of the EC₅₀ values for motor neuron defects and the cumulative malformations, as determined in a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (zFET). Based on this index, disulfiram was classified as the most potent and thiocyclam as the least potent developmental neurotoxin. The index also confirmed the control compounds as positive and negative neurotoxicants. Our findings demonstrate that this index can be used to reliably distinguish between neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic chemicals and provide a sound estimate for the neurodevelopmental hazard potential of a chemical. The demonstrated method can be a feasible approach to reduce the number of animals used in developmental neurotoxicity evaluation procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Competence of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells Over Different Homologous Feeder Layers and the Comparative Evaluation with Various Extracellular Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan K; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Kumar, G Sai; Sharma, G Taru

    2013-05-01

    Use of somatic cells as a feeder layer to maintain the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in undifferentiated state limits the stem cell research design, since experimental data may result from a combined ESCs and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the developmental competence of the buffalo ESCs over different homogenous feeders and compare with various extracellular matrices using different concentrations of LIF. Inner cell masses (ICMs) of in vitro hatched blastocysts were cultured onto homologous feeders viz. fetal fibroblast, granulosa and oviductal cell feeder layers and synthetic matrices viz. fibronectin, collagen type I and matrigel in culture medium. Developmental efficiency was found higher for ESCs cultured on fetal fibroblast and granulosa layers (83.33%) followed by fibronectin (77.78%) at 30 ng LIF. Oviductal feeder was found to be the least efficient feeder showing only 11.11% undifferentiated primary ESC colonies at 30 ng LIF. However, neither feeder layer nor synthetic matrix could support the development of primary colonies at 10 ng LIF. Expression of SSEA- 4, TRA-1-60 and Oct-4 were found positive in ESC colonies from all the feeders and synthetic matrices with 20 ng and 30 ng LIF. Fetal fibroblast and granulosa cell while, amongst synthetic matrices, fibronectin were found to be equally efficient to support the growth and maintenance of ESCs pluripotency with 30 ng LIF. This well-defined culture conditions may provide an animal model for culturing human embryonic stem cells in the xeno-free or feeder-free conditions for future clinical applications.

  16. Second Language Listening Instruction: Comparing a Strategies-Based Approach with an Interactive, Strategies/Bottom-Up Skills Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeldham, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a strategies approach to second language listening instruction with an interactive approach, one combining a roughly equal balance of strategies and bottom-up skills. The participants were lower-intermediate-level Taiwanese university EFL learners, who were taught for 22 hours over one and a half semesters.…

  17. A Comparative Assessment of Knowledge Management Leadership Approaches within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP APPROACHES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP APPROACHES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering...KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP APPROACHES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Tommy V. S. Marshall II, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  18. Comparing the functional performance of children and youths with autism, developmental disabilities, and no disability using the revised pediatric evaluation of disability inventory item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ying-Chia; Kramer, Jessica M; Liljenquist, Kendra; Tian, Feng; Coster, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We compared the functional performance of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and without disabilities using the revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) Social/Cognitive, Daily Activities, and Responsibility domains. METHOD. A nationally representative sample of parents of children ages 0-21 without disabilities (n = 2,205), with ASD (n = 108), or with IDD (n = 150) completed an online survey. We obtained predicted PEDI-CAT scaled scores for three reference ages (5, 10, 15) from a modified analysis of covariance model and compared each group's scores using contrasts of the regression parameters. RESULTS. We found no significant differences between the ASD and IDD groups. The group with ASD demonstrated significantly lower performance than the group without disabilities across the three domains at ages 10 and 15. CONCLUSION. Scores on the PEDI-CAT differentiated the group with ASD from the group without disabilities. Children with ASD and IDD did not demonstrate different performance profiles. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  20. Prenatal developmental toxicity testing of petroleum substances: Application of the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) to compare in vitro potencies with potencies observed in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelia, Lenny; Louisse, Jochem; de Haan, Laura; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Boogaard, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) as observed with some petroleum substances (PS) has been associated with the presence of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the applicability of ES-D3 cell differentiation assay of the EST to evaluate in vitro embryotoxicity potencies of PS and gas-to-liquid (GTL) products as compared to their in vivo potencies was investigated. DMSO-extracts of a range of PS, containing different amounts of PAHs, and GTL-products, which are devoid of PAHs, were tested in the ES-D3 cell proliferation and differentiation assays of the EST. The results show that PS inhibited the differentiation of ES-D3 cells into cardiomyocytes in a concentration-dependent manner at non-cytotoxic concentrations, and that their potency was proportional to their PAH content. In contrast, as expected, GTL-products did not inhibit ES-D3 cell viability or differentiation at all. The in vitro PDT potencies were compared to published in vivo PDT studies, and a good correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo results (R 2 =0.97). To conclude, our results support the hypothesis that PAHs are the primary inducers of the PDT in PS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASEAN CURRENCIES USING A COPULA APPROACH AND A DYNAMIC COPULA APPROACH

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    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC will be shaped developing to be a single market and production base in 2015, moving towards regional Economic Integration, 2009. These developments in international financial markets do lead to some adverse cost for AEC country borrowers. The specific objective aims to investigate the dependent measures and the co-movement among selected ASEAN currencies. A Copula Approach was used to examine dependent measures of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. Also, a Dynamic Copula Approach was tested to investigate the co-movement of Thai Baht exchange rate among selected ASEAN currencies during the period of 2008-2011. The results of the study based on a Pearson linear correlation coefficient confirmed that Thai Baht exchange rate and each of selected ASEAN currencies have a linear correlation during the specific period excluding Vietnam exchange rate. Furthermore, based on empirical Copula Approach, Thai Baht exchange rate had a dependent structure with each of the selected in ASEAN currencies including Brunei exchange rate, Singapore exchange rate, Malaysia exchange rate, Indonesia exchange rate, Philippine exchange rate, and Vietnam exchange rate respectively. The results of Dynamic Copula estimation indicated that Thai Baht exchange rate had a co-movement with selected ASEAN currencies. The research results provide an informative and interactive ASEAN financial market to all users, including Global financial market.

  2. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  3. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AND THE PROBLEMS OF THE PARENTS AND CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN SLOVENIA’S PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation between experts, parents and children, based on the respect and with wish for giving the best opportunities for the child's development. The child with developmental difficulties didn't has "transients condition", some of them will be dependent of the adult's help and very often they have to live surrounded by enviromnent which will knew how to look after them. Relation between experts, parents and children is dynamics interaction in whom every activity from one side has influence to the activity of the another side. So, if the expert has influence to child and also to its family, than they will have specific effect to the child. The success depends of the qualities of those relations. These relations have to be linked to eacnothe, and all have to lead to the final target. The child needs help and understanding but: when, how and who will give that help depends of the level and kind of the disabilities and the age of the child.The expert has to keep balance between the active and passive relation with child and its parents. It's very clear that the active relation is the most important condition for successful cooperation, but active and passive relations have to work together. It didn't exist but very easy should happened that the expert could lead the child to longleaf (invalid stick, as well as family.We will be wrong if we put the active relation only in the family. The family is very good partner in developmental and educational process, but the family couldn't be the Institution for education.If the child with developmental disabilities is include in primary school, we have to keep in mind that every parents didn't work with the children on the same way. Many of them couldn't learn how to work with child. The parents are present when the main decision for child have been brought, and they have opportunity to decide where, when and how they are going to cooperate with as.

  4. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Developmental origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a case control study comparing birth weight in women with PCOS and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, Sheda; Painter, Rebecca C; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7  years and 12.8  years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.

  6. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as ...

  7. Testing inferences in developmental evolution: the forensic evidence principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hans C E; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-09-01

    Developmental evolution (DE) examines the influence of developmental mechanisms on biological evolution. Here we consider the question: "what is the evidence that allows us to decide whether a certain developmental scenario for an evolutionary change is in fact "correct" or at least falsifiable?" We argue that the comparative method linked with what we call the "forensic evidence principle" (FEP) is sufficient to conduct rigorous tests of DE scenarios. The FEP states that different genetically mediated developmental causes of an evolutionary transformation will leave different signatures in the development of the derived character. Although similar inference rules have been used in practically every empirical science, we expand this approach here in two ways: (1) we justify the validity of this principle with reference to a well-known result from mathematical physics, known as the symmetry principle, and (2) propose a specific form of the FEP for DE: given two or more developmental explanations for a certain evolutionary event, say an evolutionary novelty, then the evidence discriminating between these hypotheses will be found in the most proximal internal drivers of the derived character. Hence, a detailed description of the ancestral and derived states, and their most proximal developmental drivers are necessary to discriminate between various evolutionary developmental hypotheses. We discuss how this stepwise order of testing is necessary, establishes a formal test, and how skipping this order of examination may violate a more accurate examination of DE. We illustrate the approach with an example from avian digit evolution. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The stress-reward-mentalizing model of depression: An integrative developmental cascade approach to child and adolescent depressive disorder based on the research domain criteria (RDoC) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-10-09

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) propose a much-needed change in approach to the study of vulnerability factors implicated in mental disorders, shifting away from a categorical, disease-oriented model to a dimensional approach that focuses on underlying systems implicated in psychopathology. In this paper we illustrate this approach with a focus on the emergence of depression in childhood and adolescence. Based on evolutionary biological and developmental psychopathology considerations, we present an integrative developmental cascade model of depression that essentially suggests that depression emerges out of a three-pronged series of interacting impairments in the domains of stress regulation, reward, and mentalizing. We discuss the relation of these impairments to the five domains proposed by RDoC. We also focus on how this model may explain in large part the marked comorbidity of depression with other psychiatric disorders, as well as with functional somatic and somatic disorders. Limitations of this theoretical approach are discussed, as well as implications for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of interventions aimed at preventing or treating depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Gait symmetry and hip strength in women with developmental dysplasia following hip arthroplasty compared to healthy subjects: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud A Leijendekkers

    Full Text Available Untreated unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH results in asymmetry of gait and hip strength and may lead to early osteoarthritis, which is commonly treated with a total hip arthroplasty (THA. There is limited knowledge about the obtained symmetry of gait and hip strength after the THA. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to: a identify asymmetries between the operated and non-operated side in kinematics, kinetics and hip strength, b analyze if increased walking speed changed the level of asymmetry in patients c compare these results with those of healthy subjects.Women (18-70 year with unilateral DDH who had undergone unilateral THA were eligible for inclusion. Vicon gait analysis system was used to collect frontal and sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic parameters of the hip joint, pelvis and trunk during walking at comfortable walking speed and increased walking speed. Furthermore, hip abductor and extensor muscle strength was measured.Six patients and eight healthy subjects were included. In the patients, modest asymmetries in lower limb kinematics and kinetics were present during gait, but trunk lateral flexion asymmetry was evident. Patients' trunk lateral flexion also differed compared to healthy subjects. Walking speed did not significantly influence the level of asymmetry. The hip abduction strength asymmetry of 23% was not statistically significant, but the muscle strength of both sides were significantly weaker than those of healthy subjects.In patients with a DDH treated with an IBG THA modest asymmetries in gait kinematics and kinetics were present, with the exception of a substantial asymmetry of the trunk lateral flexion. Increased walking speed did not result in increased asymmetries in gait kinematics and kinetics. Hip muscle strength was symmetrical in patients, but significantly weaker than in healthy subjects. Trunk kinematics should be included as an outcome measure to assess the biomechanical

  11. Meckel's cave access: anatomic study comparing the endoscopic transantral and endonasal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.

  12. A comparative evaluation of deep and shallow approaches to the automatic detection of common grammatical errors

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Joachim; Foster, Jennifer; van Genabith, Josef

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares a deep and a shallow processing approach to the problem of classifying a sentence as grammatically wellformed or ill-formed. The deep processing approach uses the XLE LFG parser and English grammar: two versions are presented, one which uses the XLE directly to perform the classification, and another one which uses a decision tree trained on features consisting of the XLE’s output statistics. The shallow processing approach predicts grammaticality based on n-gram freque...

  13. Noise annoyance caused by continuous descent approaches compared to regular descent procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Arntzen, M.; Walker, F.; Waiyaki, F.M.; Meeter, M.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    During Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) aircraft glide towards the runway resulting in reduced noise and fuel usage. Here, we investigated whether such landings cause less noise annoyance than a regular stepwise approach. Both landing types were compared in a controlled laboratory setting with a

  14. A Comparative Study of Strategic HRD Approaches for Workforce Planning in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth; Johnson, Karen; Schneider, Ingrid E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the outcomes of two often used approaches for strategic HRD planning. Using methods framed within a strategic HRD planning framework the outcomes of a qualitative primary data approach are examined against quantitative labor market projections in a study of the future Minnesota tourism workforce. Results show each planning…

  15. Comparing micro-evidence on rent sharing from three different approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical labor economists have resorted to estimating the responsiveness of workers' wages on firms' ability to pay to assess the extent to which employers share rents with their employees. This paper compares this labor economics approach with two other approaches that rely on standard micro

  16. Government Approaches to Foster Competitive Intelligence Practice in SMEs: A Comparative Study of Eight Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a study examining approaches developed by seven governments to foster competitive intelligence practice in SMEs (small and medium enterprises) and compares them with the approach taken by the government of Quebec. Suggests a need for a better understanding of information needs and uses in SMEs. (Contains 22 references.)…

  17. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  18. Does social desirability influence psychological well-being: perceived physical health and religiosity of Italian elders? A developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2017-04-01

    This study was mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between psychological well-being and lifestyle, religion, perceived physical health and social desirability of Italian elders. Four hundred and six cognitively healthy 65-99 years old participants were recruited from the Italian isle of Sardinia, where a high prevalence of centenarians is registered. Participants were presented with several tools assessing psychological well-being, lifestyle, social desirability, religiosity and subjective physical health. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the social desirability measure is the best predictor of general subjective well-being, whereas further predictors are age, perceived physical health and gardening. A significant but moderate relationship was also found between psychological well-being, subjective physical health and religiosity, while controlling for social desirability. Social desirability seems to contaminate the self-rating of psychological well-being in late adulthood. Moreover, from a developmental perspective, age-related factors, life style and perceived physical health are strictly related to and therefore influence the perception of life quality in the third and fourth age.

  19. Systems Approaches to Predict the Functions of Glycoside Hydrolases during the Life Cycle of Aspergillus niger Using Developmental Mutants ∆brlA and ∆flbA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Munster, Jolanda M.; Nitsche, Benjamin M.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Ram, Arthur F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger encounters carbon starvation in nature as well as during industrial fermentations. In response, regulatory networks initiate and control autolysis and sporulation. Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in these processes, for example by modifying cell walls during spore cell wall biogenesis or in cell wall degradation connected to autolysis. Results In this study, we used developmental mutants (ΔflbA and ΔbrlA) which are characterized by an aconidial phenotype when grown on a plate, but also in bioreactor-controlled submerged cultivations during carbon starvation. By comparing the transcriptomes, proteomes, enzyme activities and the fungal cell wall compositions of a wild type A. niger strain and these developmental mutants during carbon starvation, a global overview of the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes is provided. Seven genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes, including cfcA, were expressed during starvation in all strains; they may encode enzymes involved in cell wall recycling. Genes expressed in the wild-type during starvation, but not in the developmental mutants are likely involved in conidiogenesis. Eighteen of such genes were identified, including characterized sporulation-specific chitinases and An15g02350, member of the recently identified carbohydrate-active enzyme family AA11. Eight of the eighteen genes were also expressed, independent of FlbA or BrlA, in vegetative mycelium, indicating that they also have a role during vegetative growth. The ΔflbA strain had a reduced specific growth rate, an increased chitin content of the cell wall and specific expression of genes that are induced in response to cell wall stress, indicating that integrity of the cell wall of strain ΔflbA is reduced. Conclusion The combination of the developmental mutants ΔflbA and ΔbrlA resulted in the identification of enzymes involved in cell wall recycling and sporulation-specific cell wall

  20. Systems approaches to predict the functions of glycoside hydrolases during the life cycle of Aspergillus niger using developmental mutants ∆brlA and ∆flbA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda M van Munster

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger encounters carbon starvation in nature as well as during industrial fermentations. In response, regulatory networks initiate and control autolysis and sporulation. Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in these processes, for example by modifying cell walls during spore cell wall biogenesis or in cell wall degradation connected to autolysis.In this study, we used developmental mutants (ΔflbA and ΔbrlA which are characterized by an aconidial phenotype when grown on a plate, but also in bioreactor-controlled submerged cultivations during carbon starvation. By comparing the transcriptomes, proteomes, enzyme activities and the fungal cell wall compositions of a wild type A. niger strain and these developmental mutants during carbon starvation, a global overview of the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes is provided. Seven genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes, including cfcA, were expressed during starvation in all strains; they may encode enzymes involved in cell wall recycling. Genes expressed in the wild-type during starvation, but not in the developmental mutants are likely involved in conidiogenesis. Eighteen of such genes were identified, including characterized sporulation-specific chitinases and An15g02350, member of the recently identified carbohydrate-active enzyme family AA11. Eight of the eighteen genes were also expressed, independent of FlbA or BrlA, in vegetative mycelium, indicating that they also have a role during vegetative growth. The ΔflbA strain had a reduced specific growth rate, an increased chitin content of the cell wall and specific expression of genes that are induced in response to cell wall stress, indicating that integrity of the cell wall of strain ΔflbA is reduced.The combination of the developmental mutants ΔflbA and ΔbrlA resulted in the identification of enzymes involved in cell wall recycling and sporulation-specific cell wall modification

  1. Comparative Study of Parametric and Non-parametric Approaches in Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.; Katebi, M.R.

    This report describes a comparative study between two approaches to fault detection and isolation in dynamic systems. The first approach uses a parametric model of the system. The main components of such techniques are residual and signature generation for processing and analyzing. The second...... approach is non-parametric in the sense that the signature analysis is only dependent on the frequency or time domain information extracted directly from the input-output signals. Based on these approaches, two different fault monitoring schemes are developed where the feature extraction and fault decision...

  2. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  3. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  4. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  6. Comparative Effects of Mindfulness and Support and Information Group Interventions for Parents of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Hastings, Richard P.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Palucka, Anna M.; Hutton, Sue; White, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated two community based interventions for parents of adults with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. Parents in the mindfulness group reported significant reductions in psychological distress, while parents in the support and information group did not. Reduced levels of distress in the mindfulness group…

  7. Gait symmetry and hip strength in women with developmental dysplasia following hip arthroplasty compared to healthy subjects : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijendekkers, Ruud A.; Marra, Marco A.; Kolk, Sjoerd; Van Bon, Geert; Schreurs, B. Wim; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Verdonschot, Nico

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Untreated unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) results in asymmetry of gait and hip strength and may lead to early osteoarthritis, which is commonly treated with a total hip arthroplasty (THA). There is limited knowledge about the obtained symmetry of gait and hip

  8. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: A Lifecourse Approach to the Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Baird

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual’s risk of developing these conditions. A lifecourse approach has the potential to prevent NCDs, from before conception through fetal life, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and into older age. In this paper, we describe the origins of the lifecourse concept, the importance of early life influences, for example during pregnancy, examine potential underlying mechanisms in both cell biology and behavior change, and finally describe current efforts to develop interventions that take a lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. Two principal approaches to improving women’s nutritional status are outlined: nutritional supplementation and behavior change.

  9. Fatigue Equivalent Stress State Approach Validation in Non-conservative Criteria: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martial Tsapi Tchoupou

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned with the fatigue prediction models for estimating the multiaxial fatigue limit. An equivalent loading approach with zero out-of-phase angles intended for fatigue limit evaluation under multiaxial loading is used. Based on experimental data found in literatures, the equivalent stress is validated in Crossland and Sines criteria and predictions compared to the predictions of existing multiaxial fatigue; results over 87 experimental items show that the equivalent stress approach is very efficient.

  10. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  11. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  12. Comparing Efficacy of Instructional Approaches to Develop Environmental Awareness Among School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris D’Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare efficacy of self-learning, audiovisual, and fun activity instructional approaches among school students of Patna, the capital city of Bihar state of India, to develop environmental awareness. The study participants include 144 randomly selected students (72 girls and 72 boys from eight different schools of Patna. During a weeklong environmental awareness program, students were instructed using above three approaches of instruction. Data have been analyzed by using linear regression. Regression was carried out to eliminate the effect of general mental ability (GMA scores. The results suggest about overall superiority of fun activity approach over other approaches tested in the present study. However, awareness gain has been significant among the students with high GMA when instructed through audiovisual approach.

  13. Anterior Versus Posterolateral Approach for Total Laparoscopic Splenectomy: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bai; Wang, Yingchao; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guangyi; Liu, Yahui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the anterior approach is normally used for elective laparoscopic splenectomy (LS), the posterolateral approach may be superior. We have retrospectively compared the effectiveness and safety of these approaches in patients with non-severe splenomegaly scheduled for elective total LS. Methods: Patients with surgical spleen disorders scheduled for elective LS between March 2005 and June 2011 underwent laparoscopic splenic mobilization via the posterolateral or anterior approach. Main outcome measures included operation time, intraoperative blood loss, frequency of postoperative pancreatic leakage, and length of hospital stay. Results: During the study period, 203 patients underwent LS, 58 (28.6%) via the posterolateral and 145 (71.4%) via the anterior approach. Three patients (1.5%) required conversion to laparotomy due to extensive perisplenic adhesions. The posterolateral approach was associated with significantly shorter operation time (65.0 ± 12.3 min vs. 95.0 ± 21.3 min, P 0.05) Conclusions: The posterolateral approach is more effective and safer than the anterior approach in patients without severe splenomegaly (< 30 cm). PMID:23372427

  14. Comparative experiments regarding approaches to feedforward hysteresis compensation for piezoceramic actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min

    2014-01-01

    Piezoceramic actuators (PCAs) are desired devices in many micro/nano-positioning applications. The performance of PCA-based applications is severely limited by the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity. To remedy the hysteresis nonlinearity in such systems, feedforward hysteresis compensation is the most common technique. In the literature, many different feedforward hysteresis compensation approaches have been developed, but there are no comparative studies of these approaches. Focusing on the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model (MPIM) for asymmetric hysteresis description of piezoceramic actuators, three feedforward hysteresis compensation approaches—inverse hysteresis compensation (IHC), without inverse hysteresis compensation (WIHC), and direct inverse hysteresis compensation (DIHC)—are developed and compared in this paper. Extensive comparative experiments were conducted on a PCA-actuated stage to verify the effectiveness of the three different feedforward control approaches to hysteresis compensation. The experimental results show that the performances among the three approaches are rather similar, and the main differences among them are due to the specific implementation of each approach. (paper)

  15. Parental Involvement in the Musical Education of Violin Students: Suzuki and "Traditional" Approaches Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates parental involvement in the musical education of violin students and the changing role of the parents' across the learning process. Two contexts were compared, one emphasising the Suzuki methodology and the other a "traditional" approach. Students learning "traditionally" are typically taught note reading from the…

  16. Perceptual Training Methods Compared: The Relative Efficacy of Different Approaches to Enhancing Sport-Specific Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Bruce; Schorer, Jorg; Jackson, Robin C.; Hagemann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of different perceptual training approaches for the improvement of anticipation was examined using a goalkeeping task from European handball that required the rapid prediction of shot direction. Novice participants (N = 60) were assigned equally to four different training groups and two different control groups (a placebo…

  17. Psychiatric Cultures Compared : Psychiatry and Mental Health Care in the Twentieth Century: Comparisons and Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke; Oosterhuis, Harry; Vijselaar, Joost; Freeman, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    The history of mental health care in the twentieth century is a relatively uncharted territory. Exemplifying a new emphasis on the comparative approach, this volume offers overviews of various national psychiatric cultures and explores new research subjects. By confronting Dutch psychiatry with

  18. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  19. Using Data-Mining Approaches for Wind Turbine Power Curve Monitoring: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    are built and their performance compared against literature. Recently developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy-interference system models are set up and their performance compared with the other models, using the same data. Literature models often neglect the influence of the ambient temperature and the wind...... direction. The ambient temperature can influence the power output up to 20%. Nearby obstacles can lower the power output for certain wind directions. The approaches proposed in literature and the ANFIS models are compared by using wind speed only and two additional inputs. The comparison is based...

  20. Toward an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of barnacle larval settlement: A comparative transcriptomic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhang-Fan

    2011-07-29

    Background: The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed biofouler and a model species in intertidal ecology and larval settlement studies. However, a lack of genomic information has hindered the comprehensive elucidation of the molecular mechanisms coordinating its larval settlement. The pyrosequencing-based transcriptomic approach is thought to be useful to identify key molecular changes during larval settlement. Methodology and Principal Findings: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we collected totally 630,845 reads including 215,308 from the larval stages and 415,537 from the adults; 23,451 contigs were generated while 77,785 remained as singletons. We annotated 31,720 of the 92,322 predicted open reading frames, which matched hits in the NCBI NR database, and identified 7,954 putative genes that were differentially expressed between the larval and adult stages. Of these, several genes were further characterized with quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, revealing some key findings: 1) vitellogenin was uniquely expressed in late nauplius stage, suggesting it may be an energy source for the subsequent non-feeding cyprid stage; 2) the locations of mannose receptors suggested they may be involved in the sensory system of cyprids; 3) 20 kDa-cement protein homologues were expressed in the cyprid cement gland and probably function during attachment; and 4) receptor tyrosine kinases were expressed higher in cyprid stage and may be involved in signal perception during larval settlement. Conclusions: Our results provide not only the basis of several new hypotheses about gene functions during larval settlement, but also the availability of this large transcriptome dataset in B. amphitrite for further exploration of larval settlement and developmental pathways in this important marine species. © 2011 Chen et al.

  1. Comparing Approaches for the Integration of Stakeholder Perspectives in Environmental Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Scolobig

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Including stakeholder perspectives in environmental decision making is in many countries a legal requirement and is widely seen as beneficial as it can help increase decision legitimacy, likelihood of implementation, and quality of the outcome. Whereas the theoretical literature on stakeholder engagement is large, less attention has been devoted to comparing and discussing different methodological approaches. Here, we compare three approaches—multi-criteria analysis, plural rationality theory, and scenario construction—that include stakeholders’ perspectives in environmental decision making. We find differences between the approaches concerning the assumptions about stakeholder rationality and whether experts and/or stakeholders are in charge of framing the problem. Further differences concern the type of data input from stakeholders and how it is used by the experts, as well as the role of stakeholders and whether they are involved early—already for identifying options—or later in the process, for evaluating or ranking alternatives analyzed by the experts. The choice of approach thus predetermines the type and depth of stakeholder engagement. No approach is “better” than another, but they are suited for different problems and research aims: the choice of the approach, however, has a large impact on the results.

  2. Tests of the Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime (ADDSTOC): Toward a Differential RDoC Diagnostic and Treatment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Zeid, Dana

    2018-01-01

    The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior. The model also fit a sample of 239 female inmates. The notions of crime addiction, in this context of adverse events and insecure parental attachments, offered newer and more powerful explanations than previously offered by social learning theories on why some individuals are more likely to associate with peers engaging in criminal behavior, and also how these combine to predict degrees of criminal behavior. By moving beyond main effects models, it was found that a focus on systems of interactions was robust in theory and application. However, profile data from the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire showed that individual differences in Research Domain Criteria diagnoses are fundamental to treatment settings. Such approaches to reducing rates of recidivism and substance abuse should also enhance outcomes in many domains, including HIV prevention, costs to health care, and at the same time increase overall public safety.

  3. Developmental aspects of English argument structure constructions for Korean-speaking second language learners: Usage-based constructional approaches to language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates developmental aspects of English Argument Structure Constructions (ASCs for Korean-speaking second language (L2 learners, providing evidence of how they manifest human domain-general cognitive systems during language acquisition via usage-based constructional approaches to language development. Participants were instructed on six English ASC types with their representative verbs for three months. The data from grammaticality preference tasks, writing tests, and free-writing tasks were analysed. Comprehension data from the grammaticality preference tasks showed significant improvement in understanding ASCs after instruction, supporting sentence-level generalisations for language comprehension independent of individual verbs. The production data from the writing tests demonstrated more frequent use of two-argument constructions than three-argument ones, which indicates the internal complexity between ASC types. The results of the writing tests also displayed skewed exploitation of verbs representative of the target ASCs, implying a frequency-sensitive nature of language acquisition. All production data further revealed active use of prefabricated chunks and incorporation of new and old language items. Taken all together, these observations suggest language learners’ merging narrowly stabilised L2 routines with other (non-linguistic resources as necessary, sustaining efficiency in a sentence-building process, under the superintendence of cognitive factors when satisfying communicative intents.

  4. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months. Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  5. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  6. A Comparative Study on Sugeno Integral Approach to Aggregation of Experts' Opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    A multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem of preference ranking of various alternatives is common in science and engineering fields. Usually, the MCDM problem is characterized in terms of two factors: relative importance of each evaluation criterion and appropriateness of each alternative. The ranking is determined by a relative degree of appropriateness of decision alternatives. In reality, there are different grades of interaction among decision criteria. One of well-known approaches to aggregation of those two factors is the weighted arithmetic mean (WAM) approach. Here, importance weights for criteria are viewed as probability measures. The weights are linearly aggregated with appropriateness values. In the present work, the main objective is to study an aggregation model with various grades of interactions among the decision elements. The successful applications of fuzzy integral aggregation operators to subjective MCDM problems have been motivating this work. On the basis of λ-fuzzy measures and Sugeno integral (SI), the SI aggregation approach is proposed. Here, interaction among criteria is dealt with λ-fuzzy measures. Aggregation of these measures and appropriateness values is implemented, especially, by the Sugeno integral as one of fuzzy integrals. Aggregated values obtained by the SI approach are viewed as decision maker's pessimistic (or conservative) attitude towards information aggregation, compared to the WAM approach. Firstly, the concepts of the λ-fuzzy measure and the Sugeno fuzzy integral are introduced. Then, as an application of the SI approach, an illustrative example is given

  7. A developmental and psychoeducational approach to reducing conflict and abuse in little league and youth sports. The sport psychiatrist's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, R L

    1998-10-01

    : Draft Model 1 Public tryouts Previous year rating Coach makes selections Can be very competitive, lacking in "character" Can result in very unequal teams Draft Model 2 Player evaluations placed into a data base Properly programmed computer projects equal teams Draft Model 3 All names placed on a blackboard Relative merits of players discussed Equal team drawn up and placed into a hat Adjustments can be made for coach's child If practical, this author suggests that coaches not pick a name for the team until the first team meeting or practice, when that task can be given to the children. In a symbolic way, this returns some of the sport to them while encouraging social interaction among new teammates, and helping the coach detect who the leaders are. Names of professional teams in the major sports, especially baseball, are to be avoided, as they fuel longstanding unconscious associations and fantasies, and may subtly tilt all participants toward the professional "win at all costs" mentality. No one draft model is perfect for every town, and even the most ethical attempt to achieve balance among teams can be severely tested by parents who request that their athlete be placed on the same team as another child for social or car pool reasons. Such requests are not inviolate, however. For example, they do not usually dictate placement in school classes, and car pools are frequently disrupted when children, in individual sports such as Tae Kwan Do, reach different ability levels, and so attend practices at different times. Baseball is no longer the national pasttime and, as we approach the millennium, American children have too many other attractive, competing interests and time demands to spontaneously organize a pick-up game. One coach shared with the author that his saddest moment in CAP League came when he arrived at 6 PM at a field that had been "reserved" for his team, and found a group of boys who were playing a pick-up game. The coach's impulse was to set his boys fre

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTUM EFFECTS IN NANOSCALE MULTIGATE MOSFETS USING VARIATIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. PALANICHAMY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs is analysed using variational approach including quantum effects. An analytical model is derived to accounting the quantum effects at the silicon (Si/silicon dioxide (SiO2 interface. A general procedure is used for calculating the quantum inversion charge density. Using this inversion charge density, the drain current is obtained. Our model results are compared with the simulation results and its shows very good agreement. Our results highlighted that cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET is a good candidate to obtain the high drain current compared with other two devices.

  9. Lateral Load Capacity of Piles: A Comparative Study Between Indian Standards and Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, P. K.; Arun, K. V.; Oormila, R.; Sreelakshmi, H.

    2018-05-01

    As per Indian Standards, laterally loaded piles are usually analysed using the method adopted by IS 2911-2010 (Part 1/Section 2). But the practising engineers are of the opinion that the IS method is very conservative in design. This work aims at determining the extent to which the conventional IS design approach is conservative. This is done through a comparative study between IS approach and the theoretical model based on Vesic's equation. Bore log details for six different bridges were collected from the Kerala Public Works Department. Cast in situ fixed head piles embedded in three soil conditions both end bearing as well as friction piles were considered and analyzed separately. Piles were also modelled in STAAD.Pro software based on IS approach and the results were validated using Matlock and Reese (In Proceedings of fifth international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 1961) equation. The results were presented as the percentage variation in values of bending moment and deflection obtained by different methods. The results obtained from the mathematical model based on Vesic's equation and that obtained as per the IS approach were compared and the IS method was found to be uneconomical and conservative.

  10. Os enfoques cognitivista e desenvolvimentista no autismo: uma análise preliminar A prelimary analysis of cognitive and developmental approaches in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lampreia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A imprecisão do conceito de autismo pode ser vista pela diversidade de quadros clínicos que entram neste conceito, assim como pelos diferentes enfoques teóricos que procuram explicá-lo. Desde a descrição de Kanner, o autismo tem sido visto ora como um problema afetivo/social, ora como um problema cognitivo. Nas décadas 1970/80, alguns autores consideraram o prejuízo social como primário no autismo enquanto outros defenderam o prejuízo da habilidade cognitiva da linguagem. Este debate mostrou-se inconclusivo. Hoje predominam dois enfoques teóricos: o cognitivista e o desenvolvimentista que resgata a visão de autismo como um problema afetivo/social e dissolve a oposição social x linguagem na medida em que um de seus pressupostos epistemológicos é conceber a linguagem verbal como uma atividade social cujos precursores são encontrados nas comunicações não-verbais mãe-bebê. O objetivo deste artigo é iniciar uma reflexão a respeito da relevância do esclarecimento dos pressupostos epistemológicos e das implicações de diferentes enfoques teóricos do autismo para a busca da etiologia e para a intervenção.The diversity of clinical pictures and different theoretical approaches may explain the blurred boundaries of the concept of autism. Since Kanner, autism has been explained either as a social/affective deficit or a cognitive one. In the fruitless debate of the 1970/80s, some authors argued that the primary deficit was social/affective while others that it was in the cognitive area of language. Today the cognitive and developmental approaches predominate. The latter revives the social/affective approach to autism and dissolves the social x language opposition. One of its epistemological assumptions is to view language as a social activity because its precursors can be found in the mother-infant nonverbal communications. The purpose of this article is to begin a discussion about the importance of the epistemological

  11. Minimally invasive compared to conventional approach for coronary artery bypass grafting improves outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitumoni Baishya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Minimally invasive (MI cardiac surgery is a rapidly gaining popularity, globally as well as in India. We aimed to compare the outcome of MI to the conventional approach for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Methods: This prospective, comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care cardiac surgical center. All patients who underwent CABG surgery via MI approach (MI group from July 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled and were compared against same number of EuroSCORE II matched patients undergoing CABG through conventional mid-sternotomy approach (CON group. Demographic, intra- and post-operative variables were collected. Results: In MI group, duration of the surgery was significantly longer (P = 0.029. Intraoperative blood loss lesser (P = 0.002, shorter duration of ventilation (P = 0.002, shorter Intensive Care Unit stay (P = 0.004, shorter hospital stay (P = 0.003, lesser postoperative analgesic requirements (P = 0.027, and lower visual analog scale scores on day of surgery (P = 0.032 and 1 st postoperative day (P = 0.025. No significant difference in postoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, or duration of inotrope requirement observed. There was no conversion to mid-sternotomy in any patients, 8% of patients had desaturation intraoperatively. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion: MI surgery is associated with lesser intraoperative blood loss, better analgesia, and faster recovery.

  12. Comparing targeted exome and whole exome approaches for genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gorokhova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming a widely used method in genetic diagnostics. However, there is still no clear consensus as to which approach can most efficiently identify the pathogenic mutations carried by a given patient, while avoiding false negative and false positive results. We developed a targeted exome approach (MyoPanel2 in order to optimize genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Using this approach, we were able to analyse 306 genes known to be mutated in myopathies as well as in related disorders, obtaining 98.8% target sequence coverage at 20×. Moreover, MyoPanel2 was able to detect 99.7% of 11,467 known mutations responsible for neuromuscular disorders. We have then used several quality control parameters to compare performance of the targeted exome approach with that of whole exome sequencing. The results of this pilot study of 140 DNA samples suggest that targeted exome sequencing approach is an efficient genetic diagnostic test for most neuromuscular diseases.

  13. Comparative study of the novel and conventional injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiriseth, K; Sirintawat, N; Arunakul, K; Wongsirichat, N

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anesthesia obtained with a novel injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional injection approach. 40 patients in good health, randomly received each of two injection approaches of local anesthetic on each side of the mandible at two separate appointments. A sharp probe and an electric pulp tester were used to test anesthesia before injection, after injection when the patients' sensation changed, and 5 min after injection. This study comprised positive aspiration and intravascular injection 5% and neurovascular bundle injection 7.5% in the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, but without occurrence in the novel injection approach. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment was used during injection and surgery. The significance level used in the statistical analysis was pinferior alveolar nerve block by the novel injection approach provided adequate anesthesia and caused less pain and greater safety during injection. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALISYS BETWEEN THE OBJECTIVE AND THE SUBJECTIVE QUALITY OF LIFE APPROACH - STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Life (QOL can be defined as the degree in which the objective needs of an individual are satisfied in relation with the subjective perspective of his well-being. Thus, there are two different approaches in QOL evaluation: the objective approach (which analyzes the quality of life through economic indicators and the subjective approach (which evaluates quality through the individuals opinion and actions. There isn't a widely accepted view referring to the use of one of those two QOL approaches, each having a series of strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages brought by these two approaches in QOL studies. The objective analysis has a series of strengths (among which we mention the fact that allows valide comparisons and the fact that doesn't depend on individuals perception, but has also a series of weaknesses, starting with the dependence on statistical data, which in many cases has incomplete registrations,and ending with the fact that doesn't reflect the real value of the well-being perceived by population. The motives for which the QOL subjective approach is promoted, therefore its strenghts, refer to the fact that it reflects important experiences for each individual and the fact that it reveals how macroeconomic policies satify the individual's needs. Certainly, this type of QOL analysis has also some weaknesses, like the lack of validity and accuracy in the data collected through surveys. Considering all the above, there is a conclusion with a wide aplication in the present context of the economy: we can't make a clear delineation between the two QOL approaches, moreover we can state the fact that the is a strong correlation between those two. Thus, the most precise systems of quality of life evaluation are those which use both objective, and subjective indicators, reaching a high level of aggregation at the national and international level.

  15. A computational approach to compare regression modelling strategies in prediction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouheshnia, Romin; Pestman, Wiebe R; Teerenstra, Steven; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2016-08-25

    It is often unclear which approach to fit, assess and adjust a model will yield the most accurate prediction model. We present an extension of an approach for comparing modelling strategies in linear regression to the setting of logistic regression and demonstrate its application in clinical prediction research. A framework for comparing logistic regression modelling strategies by their likelihoods was formulated using a wrapper approach. Five different strategies for modelling, including simple shrinkage methods, were compared in four empirical data sets to illustrate the concept of a priori strategy comparison. Simulations were performed in both randomly generated data and empirical data to investigate the influence of data characteristics on strategy performance. We applied the comparison framework in a case study setting. Optimal strategies were selected based on the results of a priori comparisons in a clinical data set and the performance of models built according to each strategy was assessed using the Brier score and calibration plots. The performance of modelling strategies was highly dependent on the characteristics of the development data in both linear and logistic regression settings. A priori comparisons in four empirical data sets found that no strategy consistently outperformed the others. The percentage of times that a model adjustment strategy outperformed a logistic model ranged from 3.9 to 94.9 %, depending on the strategy and data set. However, in our case study setting the a priori selection of optimal methods did not result in detectable improvement in model performance when assessed in an external data set. The performance of prediction modelling strategies is a data-dependent process and can be highly variable between data sets within the same clinical domain. A priori strategy comparison can be used to determine an optimal logistic regression modelling strategy for a given data set before selecting a final modelling approach.

  16. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  17. Alexithymia, depression and anxiety in parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorder: Comparative study of autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, İbrahim; Kara, Koray; Almbaideen, Mahmoud; Karaman, Dursun; Gül, Hesna

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and their relatives have problems expressing and recognizing emotions, but there is a lack of studies on alexithymia, and the relationship between parental alexithymia and depression-anxiety symptoms in these groups. The aim of this study was therefore to measure alexithymia, depression, and anxiety levels in parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and determine whether there is a positive correlation between the child's neurodevelopmental problem severity and parent scores. Parents of 29 autistic disorder (AD), 28 pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and 29 ADHD children were recruited into the study, and completed a demographic information form, as well as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Alexithymia symptoms were higher in parents of children with AD than in others but unexpectedly, also these symptoms were higher in ADHD parents than in PDD-NOS groups. In addition, there were unexpected differences according to alexithymia subtype, while only the difference in maternal TAS-1 scores (difficulty in describing feelings) were statistically significant. Parental depression and state anxiety scores were increased as the child's symptom severity increased, but trait anxiety symptoms were higher in the AD and ADHD group than in the PDD-NOS group. In all groups, maternal depression and anxiety scores were higher than paternal scores, and differences were significant for depression and anxiety types in AD, and for only anxiety types in ADHD parents. The AD group had the strongest correlation between parental depression-anxiety and alexithymia. The possibility of alexithymia, depression and anxiety should be kept in mind when working with parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  19. Accuracy of Digital vs Conventional Implant Impression Approach: A Three-Dimensional Comparative In Vitro Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaki, Kinga; Alkumru, Hasan; De Souza, Grace; Finer, Yoav

    To assess the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy and clinical acceptability of implant definitive casts fabricated using a digital impression approach and to compare the results with those of a conventional impression method in a partially edentulous condition. A mandibular reference model was fabricated with implants in the first premolar and molar positions to simulate a patient with bilateral posterior edentulism. Ten implant-level impressions per method were made using either an intraoral scanner with scanning abutments for the digital approach or an open-tray technique and polyvinylsiloxane material for the conventional approach. 3D analysis and comparison of implant location on resultant definitive casts were performed using laser scanner and quality control software. The inter-implant distances and interimplant angulations for each implant pair were measured for the reference model and for each definitive cast (n = 20 per group); these measurements were compared to calculate the magnitude of error in 3D for each definitive cast. The influence of implant angulation on definitive cast accuracy was evaluated for both digital and conventional approaches. Statistical analysis was performed using t test (α = .05) for implant position and angulation. Clinical qualitative assessment of accuracy was done via the assessment of the passivity of a master verification stent for each implant pair, and significance was analyzed using chi-square test (α = .05). A 3D error of implant positioning was observed for the two impression techniques vs the reference model, with mean ± standard deviation (SD) error of 116 ± 94 μm and 56 ± 29 μm for the digital and conventional approaches, respectively (P = .01). In contrast, the inter-implant angulation errors were not significantly different between the two techniques (P = .83). Implant angulation did not have a significant influence on definitive cast accuracy within either technique (P = .64). The verification stent

  20. Comparing emerging and mature markets during times of crises: A non-extensive statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaki, A.; Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.; Raei, R.; Tehrani, R.

    2013-07-01

    One of the important issues in finance and economics for both scholars and practitioners is to describe the behavior of markets, especially during times of crises. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of some mature and emerging markets with a Tsallis entropy framework that is a non-extensive statistical approach based on non-linear dynamics. During the past decade, this technique has been successfully applied to a considerable number of complex systems such as stock markets in order to describe the non-Gaussian behavior of these systems. In this approach, there is a parameter q, which is a measure of deviation from Gaussianity, that has proved to be a good index for detecting crises. We investigate the behavior of this parameter in different time scales for the market indices. It could be seen that the specified pattern for q differs for mature markets with regard to emerging markets. The findings show the robustness of the stated approach in order to follow the market conditions over time. It is obvious that, in times of crises, q is much greater than in other times. In addition, the response of emerging markets to global events is delayed compared to that of mature markets, and tends to a Gaussian profile on increasing the scale. This approach could be very useful in application to risk and portfolio management in order to detect crises by following the parameter q in different time scales.

  1. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Birth Weight: A Genetically-Informed Approach Comparing Multiple Raters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Smith, Taylor F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is a significant public health concern with adverse consequences to the health and well-being of the fetus. There is considerable debate about the best method of assessing SDP, including birth/medical records, timeline follow-back approaches, multiple reporters, and biological verification (e.g., cotinine). This is particularly salient for genetically-informed approaches where it is not always possible or practical to do a prospective study starting during the prenatal period when concurrent biological specimen samples can be collected with ease. In a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure, we: (1) compare rates of agreement across different types of report—maternal report of SDP, paternal report of maternal SDP, and SDP contained on birth records from the Department of Vital Statistics; (2) examine whether SDP is predictive of birth weight outcomes using our best SDP report as identified via step (1); and (3) use a sibling-comparison approach that controls for genetic and familial influences that siblings share in order to assess the effects of SDP on birth weight. Results show high agreement between reporters and support the utility of retrospective report of SDP. Further, we replicate a causal association between SDP and birth weight, wherein SDP results in reduced birth weight even when accounting for genetic and familial confounding factors via a sibling comparison approach. PMID:26494459

  2. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  3. Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Delre, Antonio; Westerkamp, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could......A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing...... measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured...

  4. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Abduh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  5. Mobile Agent-Based Software Systems Modeling Approaches: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam Belghiat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agent-based applications are special type of software systems which take the advantages of mobile agents in order to provide a new beneficial paradigm to solve multiple complex problems in several fields and areas such as network management, e-commerce, e-learning, etc. Likewise, we notice lack of real applications based on this paradigm and lack of serious evaluations of their modeling approaches. Hence, this paper provides a comparative study of modeling approaches of mobile agent-based software systems. The objective is to give the reader an overview and a thorough understanding of the work that has been done and where the gaps in the research are.

  6. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  7. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  8. Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only

  9. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  10. Comparative analysis of anterior and posterior contrast injection approaches for shoulder MR arthrograms in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, Theodore B.; Cahill, Anne M. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Delgado, Jorge [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Stanford University Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chauvin, Nancy A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    There is no consensus in the literature concerning the optimal approach for performing a fluoroscopically guided shoulder arthrogram injection in a pediatric population. To compare adequacy of capsular injection and radiation doses between fluoroscopically guided anterior and posterior glenohumeral joint contrast injections in adolescents. We evaluated imaging in 67 adolescents (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.7-19.1 years) who underwent an anterior approach glenohumeral contrast injection with subsequent MR imaging, and 67 age- and gender-matched subjects (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.1-19.2 years) who underwent a posterior approach injection during the period June 2010 to September 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated all MR shoulder arthrograms to assess adequacy of capsular distention and degree of contrast extravasation. We recorded total fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK). There were no significant differences in age, gender, height, weight or body mass index between the populations (P-values > 0.6). The amount of contrast extravasation between the groups was not significantly different (P = 0.27). Three anterior injections (4.5%) and one posterior (1.5%) were suboptimal (P = 0.62). Fluoroscopy time was not different: 1.1 min anterior and 1.3 min posterior (P = 0.14). There was a significant difference in CAK (0.7 mGy anterior and 1.1 mGy posterior; P = 0.007) and DAP (5.3 μGym{sup 2} anterior and 9.4 μGym{sup 2} posterior; P = 0.008). Inter-rater agreement was excellent (Cohen kappa >0.81). Both techniques were technically successful. There was no difference in the fluoroscopy time for either approach. The radiation dose was higher with the posterior approach but this is of questionable clinical significance. (orig.)

  11. Identification of Distillation Process Dynamics Comparing Process Knowledge and Black Box Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud H; Nielsen, C. S.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1990-01-01

    A distillation plant equipped with a heat pump separates a mixture of isopropanol and methanol. The mixture contains some water as impurity. The model development aims at dual composition control design, where top and bottom compositions should follow the setpoints, and disturbances should...... obtained in closed loop operation of the distillation plant. In the present work, the two approaches are compared in terms of how well the model fits, and predicts the data, the conditioning of the model parameter estimation, and convenience of usage....

  12. Comparative Admittance-based Analysis for Different Droop Control Approaches in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    difference in control architecture. In this paper, a comparative admittance-based analysis is carried out between these two approaches. State-space models and more general analytical models are established to derive the output admittance of droop-controlled converter in DC microgrids. Simulations......In DC microgrids, virtual resistance based droop control is broadly used as the fundamental coordination method. As the virtual resistance guarantees load sharing effect in steady states, the output admittance determines the dynamic response of converters in transient states, which is critical...

  13. Transoral versus extraoral approach for mandibular angle fractures: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Kumar Devireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mandibular fractures represent approximately two-thirds of all the maxillofacial fractures (nearly 70% out of which fractures of mandibular angle represent for 26-35%. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to compare the transoral and extraoral (submandibular approaches for fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Objectives of Study: The objectives of the following study are to evaluate ease of accessibility, time taken for the procedure, ease of anatomic reduction and complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 30 patients reporting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh during the period of months from November 2011 to August 2013 who were randomly divided in two groups based on computer generated simple randomization chart. Group I patients underwent transoral reduction and fixation and Group II patients underwent extraoral reduction and fixation. The ease of accessibility was analysed by visual analogue scale by the operating surgeon, time taken from incision to closure with digital clock, difficulty level index of surgeon based on the time taken for the procedure and approach related complications. Results: The ease of accessibility in Group I was good in 53.3% while in Group II patients approached extraorally it was good in 86.7%. Group I patients approached transorally showed a mean of 49.7 min while that of Group II patients approached extraorally showed a mean of 73.4 min. Group I had a minimum difficulty level index in 60%, moderate difficulty level in 33.3% and severe difficulty level in 6.7% while Group II had a minimum and moderate difficulty level in 46.7% and severe difficulty level in 6.7%. There was 1 (6.7% complication reported in each group. Conclusion: The statistical analysis of this study concludes that fracture line starting anterior to mandibular third molar and ending at anteroinferior border of

  14. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Exudate Detection between Machine Learning and Traditional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Thomas

    To prevent blindness from diabetic retinopathy, periodic screening and early diagnosis are neccessary. Due to lack of expert ophthalmologists in rural area, automated early exudate (one of visible sign of diabetic retinopathy) detection could help to reduce the number of blindness in diabetic patients. Traditional automatic exudate detection methods are based on specific parameter configuration, while the machine learning approaches which seems more flexible may be computationally high cost. A comparative analysis of traditional and machine learning of exudates detection, namely, mathematical morphology, fuzzy c-means clustering, naive Bayesian classifier, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbor classifier are presented. Detected exudates are validated with expert ophthalmologists' hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and time complexity of each method are also compared.

  15. Comparing different CFD wind turbine modelling approaches with wind tunnel measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvig, Siri; Hjertager, Bjørn; Manger, Eirik

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a model wind turbine is simulated with three different CFD methods: actuator disk, actuator line and a fully resolved rotor. The simulations are compared with each other and with measurements from a wind tunnel experiment. The actuator disk is the least accurate and most cost-efficient, and the fully resolved rotor is the most accurate and least cost-efficient. The actuator line method is believed to lie in between the two ends of the scale. The fully resolved rotor produces superior wake velocity results compared to the actuator models. On average it also produces better results for the force predictions, although the actuator line method had a slightly better match for the design tip speed. The open source CFD tool box, OpenFOAM, was used for the actuator disk and actuator line calculations, whereas the market leading commercial CFD code, ANSYS/FLUENT, was used for the fully resolved rotor approach

  16. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  17. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  18. Comparative studies of social buffering: A consideration of approaches, terminology, and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Hennessy, Michael B

    2018-03-01

    KIYOKAWA, Y. and HENNESSY, M.B. Comparative studies of social buffering: A consideration of approaches, terminology, and pitfalls…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, .- Over the past decades, there has been an increasing number of investigations of the impact of social variables on neural, endocrine, and immune outcomes. Among these are studies of "social buffering"-or the phenomenon by which affiliative social partners mitigate the response to stressors. Yet, as social buffering studies have become more commonplace, the variety of approaches taken, definitions employed, and divergent results obtained in different species can lead to confusion and miscommunication. The aim of the present paper, therefore, is to address terminology and approaches and to highlight potential pitfalls to the study of social buffering across nonhuman species. We review and categorize variables currently being employed in social buffering studies and provide an overview of responses measured, mediating sensory modalities and underlying mechanisms. It is our hope that the paper will be useful to those contemplating examination of social buffering in the context of their own research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  20. Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Delre, Antonio; Westerkamp, Tanja; Holmgren, Magnus A; Liebetrau, Jan; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25kgh -1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6-3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17kgh -1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site's emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparing the Effects of Speech-Generating Device Display Organization on Symbol Comprehension and Use by Three Children With Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Wegner, Jane; Brady, Nancy C; Bunce, Betty H; Sevcik, Rose A

    2017-05-17

    Three children ages 3;6 to 5;3 with developmental and language delays were provided experience with a traditional grid-based display and a contextually organized visual scene display on a speech-generating device to illustrate considerations for practice and future research in augmentative and alternative communication assessment and intervention. Twelve symbols were taught in a grid display and visual scene display using aided input during dramatic play routines. Teaching sessions were 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Symbol comprehension and use was assessed pre and post 3 weeks of experience. Comprehension of symbol vocabulary on both displays increased after 3 weeks of experience. Participants 1 and 2 used both displays largely for initiation. Participant 3 had limited expressive use of either display. The methods used in this study demonstrate one way to inform individual differences in learning and preference for speech-generating device displays when making clinical decisions regarding augmentative and alternative communication supports for a child and their family. Future research should systematically examine the role of extant comprehension, symbol experience, functional communication needs, and the role of vocabulary type in the learning and use of grid displays versus visual scene displays.

  2. Natural Larval Diet Differently Influences the Pattern of Developmental Changes in DNA 5-Methylcytosine Levels in Apis mellifera Queens as Compared with Workers and Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, A; Olszewski, K; Bajda, M; Demetraki-Paleolog, J

    2015-08-01

    The principal mechanism of gene activation/silencing is DNA 5-methylcytosine methylation. This study was aimed at determining global DNA methylation levels in larvae, prepupae, pupae, and 1-day-old adults of Apis mellifera queens, workers and drones. The Imprint Methylated DNA Quantification Kit MDQ1 was used. Percentages of DNA 5-methylcytosine were low and relatively similar in the larvae of all the castes until 4th day of larval development (3-5%). However, they were higher in the drone and worker larvae than in the queen larvae. Generally, the developmental patterns of changes in the DNA methylation levels were different in the queens in comparison with the drones and workers. While methylation increased in the queens, it decreased in the drones and workers. Methylated DNA methylcytosine percentages and weights in the queen prepupae (15%, 9.18 ng) and pupae (21%, 10.74 ng) were, respectively, three and four times higher than in the worker/drone brood of the same age (2.5-4%, 0.03-0.07 ng). Only in the queens, after a substantial increase, did DNA methylation decrease almost twice between the pupal stage and queen emergence (from 21% and 10.74 ng to 12% and 6.78 ng). This finding seems very interesting, particularly for experimental gerontology.

  3. Neurohormones, Brain, and Behavior: A Comparative Approach to Understanding Rapid Neuroendocrine Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Saldanha, Colin J

    2015-08-01

    The definition of a hormone has been in part delineated by its journey to distant receptor targets. Following activation of a receptor, a subsequent reaction facilitates the regulation of physiology and, ultimately, behavior. However, a growing number of studies report that hormones can influence these events at a previously underappreciated high speed. With the potential to act as neurotransmitters, the definition of a hormone and its mechanisms of action are evolving. In this symposium, we united scientists who use contemporary molecular, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches to study aspects of rapid hormone action in a broad array of systems across different levels of biological organization. What emerged was an overwhelming consensus that the use of integrative and comparative approaches fuels discovery and increases our understanding of de novo hormone synthesis, local actions of neurohormones, and subsequent effects on neuroplasticity and behavior. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Value of a Comparative Approach to Understand the Complex Interplay between Microbiota and Host Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma M. Morella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryote immune system evolved and continues to evolve within a microbial world, and as such is critically shaped by—and in some cases even reliant upon—the presence of host-associated microbial species. There are clear examples of adaptations that allow the host to simultaneously tolerate and/or promote growth of symbiotic microbiota while protecting itself against pathogens, but the relationship between immunity and the microbiome reaches far beyond simple recognition and includes complex cross talk between host and microbe as well as direct microbiome-mediated protection against pathogens. Here, we present a broad but brief overview of how the microbiome is controlled by and interacts with diverse immune systems, with the goal of identifying questions that can be better addressed by taking a comparative approach across plants and animals and different types of immunity. As two key examples of such an approach, we focus on data examining the importance of early exposure on microbiome tolerance and immune system development and function, and the importance of transmission among hosts in shaping the potential coevolution between, and long-term stability of, host–microbiome associations. Then, by comparing existing evidence across short-lived plants, mouse model systems and humans, and insects, we highlight areas of microbiome research that are strong in some systems and absent in others with the hope of guiding future research that will allow for broad-scale comparisons moving forward. We argue that such an approach will not only help with identification of generalities in host–microbiome–immune interactions but also improve our understanding of the role of the microbiome in host health.

  5. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  6. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems Methodology and MCDA tools. L Scott. Abstract. This paper presents two different analytical approaches that may be useful in developing an understanding of developmental local government (DLG). DLG implies a significant commitment with respect to ...

  7. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. Using data-driven approach for wind power prediction: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taslimi Renani, Ehsan; Elias, Mohamad Fathi Mohamad; Rahim, Nasrudin Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Double exponential smoothing is the most accurate model in wind speed prediction. • A two-stage feature selection method is proposed to select most important inputs. • Direct prediction illustrates better accuracy than indirect prediction. • Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system outperforms data mining algorithms. • Random forest performs the worst compared to other data mining algorithm. - Abstract: Although wind energy is intermittent and stochastic in nature, it is increasingly important in the power generation due to its sustainability and pollution-free. Increased utilization of wind energy sources calls for more robust and efficient prediction models to mitigate uncertainties associated with wind power. This research compares two different approaches in wind power forecasting which are indirect and direct prediction methods. In indirect method, several times series are applied to forecast the wind speed, whereas the logistic function with five parameters is then used to forecast the wind power. In this study, backtracking search algorithm with novel crossover and mutation operators is employed to find the best parameters of five-parameter logistic function. A new feature selection technique, combining the mutual information and neural network is proposed in this paper to extract the most informative features with a maximum relevancy and minimum redundancy. From the comparative study, the results demonstrate that, in the direct prediction approach where the historical weather data are used to predict the wind power generation directly, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system outperforms five data mining algorithms namely, random forest, M5Rules, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine and multilayer perceptron. Moreover, it is also found that the mean absolute percentage error of the direct prediction method using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system is 1.47% which is approximately less than half of the error obtained with the

  9. Designing and comparing two Scratch-based teaching approaches for students aged 10-12 years — extended version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, Nienke~van; Jeuring, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Programming and computational thinking are becoming more important in primary education. This raises the question of how different approaches to teaching programming in primary schools compare with each other. We designed two approaches to teach programming to primary school students. One approach

  10. Comparative risk assessment: an element for a more rational and ethical approach to radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful nuclear technologies are still perceived by a large fraction of the general public, the media as well as by some decision makers, as more risky than many other 'conventional' technologies. One of the approaches that can help bringing more rationality and ethics into the picture is to present the risk associated with radiation and nuclear technologies in the frame of correctly conducted comparative risk assessments. However, comparing different risks is not so straightforward because quantifying different risks on a comparable scale requires overcoming both conceptual and practical difficulties. Risk (R) can be expressed as the product of the probability (P) that a given undesired event, the risk, will occur, times the consequences of this event (C), i.e. R = P x C. Although in principle risks could be compared by simply ranking them according to the different values of R, this simplistic approach is not always possible because to correctly compare risks all factors, circumstances and assumptions should be mutually equivalent and quantified and the (often large) uncertainties taken into proper account. In the case of radiation risk, ICRP has assumed as valid the LNT model, (probability coefficient of 5 % per Sievert for attributable death from cancer) and selected the present equivalent dose limit of 1 mSv per year for public exposure. This dose corresponds to 50 lethal cancers by 1 million people exposed and is approximately equivalent (in terms of probability of death) to the risk of bicycling for 600 km, driving for 3200 km, crossing a busy road twice a day for 1 year, smoking 2.5 packets of cigarettes or being X-rayed once for kidney metabolism. However, according to many scientists on the basis of both epidemiological and biological results and considerations, the actual risk is far lower than that predicted by the LNT model. Nevertheless, the policies and myths that were created about half a century ago are still persisting and have lead the general

  11. RegPredict: an integrated system for regulon inference in prokaryotes by comparative genomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Stavrovskaya, Elena D.; Novichkova, Elena S.; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Arkin, Adam P.; Mironov, Andrey A.; Dubchak, Inna

    2010-05-26

    RegPredict web server is designed to provide comparative genomics tools for reconstruction and analysis of microbial regulons using comparative genomics approach. The server allows the user to rapidly generate reference sets of regulons and regulatory motif profiles in a group of prokaryotic genomes. The new concept of a cluster of co-regulated orthologous operons allows the user to distribute the analysis of large regulons and to perform the comparative analysis of multiple clusters independently. Two major workflows currently implemented in RegPredict are: (i) regulon reconstruction for a known regulatory motif and (ii) ab initio inference of a novel regulon using several scenarios for the generation of starting gene sets. RegPredict provides a comprehensive collection of manually curated positional weight matrices of regulatory motifs. It is based on genomic sequences, ortholog and operon predictions from the MicrobesOnline. An interactive web interface of RegPredict integrates and presents diverse genomic and functional information about the candidate regulon members from several web resources. RegPredict is freely accessible at http://regpredict.lbl.gov.

  12. Epidemiological aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older Brazilians: a comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Max Fagundes de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare epidemiological aspects of young (15 to 49 years old and older (more than 50 years old AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 511,633 AIDS cases notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in the period of 1980-2008 looking at sex, age ranges, educational level and exposure category. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 15, from 15 to 49 and over 50 years old. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed data with regard to category of exposure, education (expressed in years of schooling, and sex ratio among younger (15-49 and older adults (over 50 years old. Time series data were log-transformed and normalized, and the temporal trend was evaluated. RESULTS: AIDS incidence is increasing among people over 50 years old in Brazil, with those older than 50 being responsible for 9.64 % of AIDS cases. There was no significant difference between educational level and gender (p = 0.468, but there was a significant difference in exposure category with a lower proportion of injecting drug users amongst the older group. CONCLUSION: Based on this analysis over the last 10 years, the percentage of AIDS cases has increased almost three times among people over 50 years old when compared with the 15-49 year-old group. Our findings suggest that public campaigns have to be specially targeted to the older segment of the population, aiming at heterosexual transmission.

  13. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity : Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, Anna; Snel, Cor; Rijkmans, Eke; De Groot, Didima; Bouma, Marga; Hermsen, Sanne; Piersma, Aldert; Menke, Aswin; Wolterbeek, André

    2014-01-01

    To improve the predictability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental (neuro)toxicity screening, we used a multiple-endpoints strategy, including morphology, motor activity (MA), histopathology and kinetics. The model compounds used were antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproic acid

  14. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity: Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, A.; Snel, C.; Rijkmans, E.; Groot, D. de; Bouma, M.; Hermsen, S.; Piersma, A.; Menke, A.; Wolterbeek, A.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the predictability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental (neuro)toxicity screening, we used a multiple-endpoints strategy, including morphology, motor activity (MA), histopathology and kinetics. The model compounds used were antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproic acid

  15. Applying Evolutionary Genetics to Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C. K.; Procter, Andrew C.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Siddall, Mark E.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease. PMID:28267574

  16. Developmental Pathways Are Blueprints for Designing Successful Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Trevaskis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes controlling plant development have been studied in multiple plant systems. This has provided deep insights into conserved genetic pathways controlling core developmental processes including meristem identity, phase transitions, determinacy, stem elongation, and branching. These pathways control plant growth patterns and are fundamentally important to crop biology and agriculture. This review describes the conserved pathways that control plant development, using Arabidopsis as a model. Historical examples of how plant development has been altered through selection to improve crop performance are then presented. These examples, drawn from diverse crops, show how the genetic pathways controlling development have been modified to increase yield or tailor growth patterns to suit local growing environments or specialized crop management practices. Strategies to apply current progress in genomics and developmental biology to future crop improvement are then discussed within the broader context of emerging trends in plant breeding. The ways that knowledge of developmental processes and understanding of gene function can contribute to crop improvement, beyond what can be achieved by selection alone, are emphasized. These include using genome re-sequencing, mutagenesis, and gene editing to identify or generate novel variation in developmental genes. The expanding scope for comparative genomics, the possibility to engineer new developmental traits and new approaches to resolve gene–gene or gene–environment interactions are also discussed. Finally, opportunities to integrate fundamental research and crop breeding are highlighted.

  17. Expert Programmer versus Parallelizing Compiler: A Comparative Study of Two Approaches for Distributed Shared Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. P. O'Boyle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines current parallel programming practice and optimizing compiler development. The general strategies employed by compiler and programmer to optimize a Fortran program are described, and then illustrated for a specific case by applying them to a well-known scientific program, TRED2, using the KSR-1 as the target architecture. Extensive measurement is applied to the resulting versions of the program, which are compared with a version produced by a commercial optimizing compiler, KAP. The compiler strategy significantly outperforms KAP and does not fall far short of the performance achieved by the programmer. Following the experimental section each approach is critiqued by the other. Perceived flaws, advantages, and common ground are outlined, with an eye to improving both schemes.

  18. COMPARABLE VALUATION METHOD A NEW APPROACH. CASE STUDY: A ROMANIAN FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Imola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the valuation scheme of a flexographic printing industry firm. The industry, the technology used and most importantly the firm being young ones, it is not possible to use the classical comparable valuation methods. The new approach in this matter is to use as benchmark financial ratios not those related to the price of the firm (as P/E, P/S, P/BV, P/CF, P/CAPEX, but those related to the structure of the income statement, financial and operating leverage using 13 Romanian and 6 Hungarian reference firms data. Our main contribution to this line of research is to solve the problem of lack of reference data regarding the price, the benchmark companies not being listed on any stock exchange.

  19. Emotional and interactional prosody across animal communication systems: A comparative approach to the emergence of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Filippi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a wide range of animal taxa, prosodic modulation of the voice can express emotional information and is used to coordinate vocal interactions between multiple individuals. Within a comparative approach to animal communication systems, I hypothesize that the ability for emotional and interactional prosody (EIP paved the way for the evolution of linguistic prosody - and perhaps also of music, continuing to play a vital role in the acquisition of language. In support of this hypothesis, I review three research fields: i empirical studies on the adaptive value of EIP in nonhuman primates, mammals, songbirds, anurans and insects; ii the beneficial effects of EIP in scaffolding language learning and social development in human infants; iii the cognitive relationship between linguistic prosody and the ability for music, which has often been identified as the evolutionary precursor of language.

  20. Acculturation attitudes and ethnic prejudice in different education levels: a comparative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Retortillo Osuna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Immigration has important demographic, economic, social and educational consequences in receiving countries. Nowadays international migrations cause essential changes in host countries, both at the macro and micro levels and both as a group and individually. From a mainly psychosocial perspective, the present paper points out the need to research, from a comparative approach, on the way students (at different education levels, both public and private regard newcomers living in their society. In addition, this research focuses on the preferences of the host population about immigrants’ social inclusion, in other words, acculturation attitudes. Because we behave with others according to the way we perceive them, we consider it necessary to try and get to know what image native students have of newcomers.

  1. Comparative approaches to studying strategy: towards an evolutionary account of primate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Price, Sara A; Wilson, Bart J

    2013-07-18

    How do primates, humans included, deal with novel problems that arise in interactions with other group members? Despite much research regarding how animals and humans solve social problems, few studies have utilized comparable procedures, outcomes, or measures across different species. Thus, it is difficult to piece together the evolution of decision making, including the roots from which human economic decision making emerged. Recently, a comparative body of decision making research has emerged, relying largely on the methodology of experimental economics in order to address these questions in a cross-species fashion. Experimental economics is an ideal method of inquiry for this approach. It is a well-developed method for distilling complex decision making involving multiple conspecifics whose decisions are contingent upon one another into a series of simple decision choices. This allows these decisions to be compared across species and contexts. In particular, our group has used this approach to investigate coordination in New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and great apes (including humans), using identical methods. We find that in some cases there are remarkable continuities of outcome, as when some pairs in all species solved a coordination game, the Assurance game. On the other hand, we also find that these similarities in outcomes are likely driven by differences in underlying cognitive mechanisms. New World monkeys required exogenous information about their partners' choices in order to solve the task, indicating that they were using a matching strategy. Old World monkeys, on the other hand, solved the task without exogenous cues, leading to investigations into what mechanisms may be underpinning their responses (e.g., reward maximization, strategy formation, etc.). Great apes showed a strong experience effect, with cognitively enriched apes following what appears to be a strategy. Finally, humans were able to solve the task with or without exogenous cues

  2. A novel approach to evaluate and compare computational snow avalanche simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Fischer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach for the analysis and interpretation of snow avalanche simulation in three dimensional terrain is presented. Snow avalanche simulation software is used as a supporting tool in hazard mapping. When performing a high number of simulation runs the user is confronted with a considerable amount of simulation results. The objective of this work is to establish an objective, model independent framework to evaluate and compare results of different simulation approaches with respect to indicators of practical relevance, providing an answer to the important questions: how far and how destructive does an avalanche move down slope. For this purpose the Automated Indicator based Model Evaluation and Comparison (AIMEC method is introduced. It operates on a coordinate system which follows a given avalanche path. A multitude of simulation runs is performed with the snow avalanche simulation software SamosAT (Snow Avalanche MOdelling and Simulation – Advanced Technology. The variability of pressure-based run out and avalanche destructiveness along the path is investigated for multiple simulation runs, varying release volume and model parameters. With this, results of deterministic simulation software are processed and analysed by means of statistical methods. Uncertainties originating from varying input conditions, model parameters or the different model implementations are assessed. The results show that AIMEC contributes to the interpretation of avalanche simulations with a broad applicability in model evaluation, comparison as well as examination of scenario variations.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  4. Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

    Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We

  5. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  6. The Fate of the Iliopsoas Muscle in Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction With a Medial Approach in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Part 2: Isokinetic Muscle Strength Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Ersoz, Murat; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    The impact on long-term weakness of hip flexion of complete iliopsoas tenotomy during open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia with a medial approach has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) of hip flexor and extensor muscles in these patients and also to analyze the effect of spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas muscle on IMS measurements. The study included 20 patients. Earlier magnetic resonance imaging examination of all the patients revealed spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas in 18 (90%) patients. IMS measurements were performed at 60 and 150 degrees/s. The peak torque, total work (TW), average power (AP), work fatigue, and agonist to antagonist muscle ratio of the operated and nonoperated hips were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. The effect of iliopsoas reattachment on IMS was also evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 16.65±2.16 (13 to 20) years. Total work (P=0.013) and average power (P=0.009) of the flexor muscles and work fatigue of the extensor muscles (P=0.030) of the operated hip were significantly decreased when compared with the nonoperated hips at 150 degrees/s. There was no significant difference between the flexor muscles of the operated and nonoperated hips (Phips. Flexor muscle strength was decreased in the operated hip against low resistance in long-term follow-up after iliopsoas tenotomy. This may reflect that hip muscle strength was decreased after prolonged activities such as sports. However, in forceful activities flexor muscle strength was retained due to iliopsoas reattachment. On the basis of this study we thought that spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas tendon substantially preserves muscle strength. Nonetheless possible efforts should be made to surgically reattach the psoas tendon to preserve strength of the muscle. Therapeutic level IV.

  7. A comparative analysis of machine learning approaches for plant disease identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat ur Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problems to leaf in plants are very severe and they usually shorten the lifespan of plants. Leaf diseases are mainly caused due to three types of attacks including viral, bacterial or fungal. Diseased leaves reduce the crop production and affect the agricultural economy. Since agriculture plays a vital role in the economy, thus effective mechanism is required to detect the problem in early stages. Methods: Traditional approaches used for the identification of diseased plants are based on field visits which is time consuming and tedious. In this paper a comparative analysis of machine learning approaches has been presented for the identification of healthy and non-healthy plant leaves. For experimental purpose three different types of plant leaves have been selected namely, cabbage, citrus and sorghum. In order to classify healthy and non-healthy plant leaves color based features such as pixels, statistical features such as mean, standard deviation, min, max and descriptors such as Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG have been used. Results: 382 images of cabbage, 539 images of citrus and 262 images of sorghum were used as the primary dataset. The 40% data was utilized for testing and 60% were used for training which consisted of both healthy and damaged leaves. The results showed that random forest classifier is the best machine method for classification of healthy and diseased plant leaves. Conclusion: From the extensive experimentation it is concluded that features such as color information, statistical distribution and histogram of gradients provides sufficient clue for the classification of healthy and non-healthy plants.

  8. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Thevissen, P. W.; FIEUWS, Steffen; Willems, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years ...

  9. Comparative approaches from empirical to mechanistic simulation modelling in Land Evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, P.; Basile, A.; Bonfante, A.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Land Evaluation (LE) comprise the evaluation procedures to asses the attitudes of the land to a generic or specific use (e.g. biomass production). From local to regional and national scale the approach to the land use planning should requires a deep knowledge of the processes that drive the functioning of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. According to the classical approaches the assessment of attitudes is the result of a qualitative comparison between the land/soil physical properties and the land use requirements. These approaches have a quick and inexpensive applicability; however, they are based on empirical and qualitative models with a basic knowledge structure specifically built for a specific landscape and for the specific object of the evaluation (e.g. crop). The outcome from this situation is the huge difficulties in the spatial extrapolation of the LE results and the rigidity of the system. Modern techniques instead, rely on the application of mechanistic and quantitative simulation modelling that allow a dynamic characterisation of the interrelated physical and chemical processes taking place in the soil landscape. Moreover, the insertion of physical based rules in the LE procedure may make it less difficult in terms of both extending spatially the results and changing the object (e.g. crop species, nitrate dynamics, etc.) of the evaluation. On the other side these modern approaches require high quality and quantity of input data that cause a significant increase in costs. In this scenario nowadays the LE expert is asked to choose the best LE methodology considering costs, complexity of the procedure and benefits in handling a specific land evaluation. In this work we performed a forage maize land suitability study by comparing 9 different methods having increasing complexity and costs. The study area, of about 2000 ha, is located in North Italy in the Lodi plain (Po valley). The range of the 9 employed methods ranged from standard LE approaches to

  10. 18F-FDG PET radiomics approaches: comparing and clustering features in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Rahman, Tasmiah; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamada, Shizuka; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2017-11-01

    The aims of our study were to find the textural features on 18 F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between 18 F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively. These features were compared between SCC and NSCC using a Bonferroni adjusted P value threshold of 0.0028 (0.05/18). To assess the association between PET features, a heat map analysis with hierarchical clustering, one of the radiomics approaches, was performed. Among 18 PET features, correlation, a second-order textural feature derived from NGLCM, was a stable parameter and it was the only feature which showed a robust trend toward significant difference between SCC and NSCC. Cervical SCC showed a higher correlation (0.70 ± 0.07) than NSCC (0.64 ± 0.07, P = 0.0030). The other PET features did not show any significant differences between SCC and NSCC. A higher correlation in SCC might reflect higher structural integrity and stronger spatial/linear relationship of cancer cells compared with NSCC. A heat map with a PET feature dendrogram clearly showed 5 distinct clusters, where correlation belonged to a cluster including MTV and TLG. However, the association between correlation and MTV/TLG was not strong. Correlation was a relatively independent PET feature in cervical cancer. 18 F-FDG PET textural features might reflect the

  11. A new approach to calculating endurance in electric flight and comparing fuel cells and batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donateo, Teresa; Ficarella, Antonio; Spedicato, Luigi; Arista, Alessandro; Ferraro, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Gross endurance of an UAV calculated with literature correlations. • Net endurance calculated with an innovative mission-based approach. • Three state-of-the-art battery technologies compared to a PEM fuel cell. • Analysis with different values of energy stored on board. • Effect of powertrain mass and volume of aircraft empty mass and wing area. - Abstract: Electric flight is of increasing interest in order to reduce emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases in the aviation field in particular when the takeoff mass is low, as in the case of lightweight cargo transport or remotely controlled drones. The present investigation addresses two key issues in electric flight, namely the correct calculation of the endurance and the comparison between batteries and fuel cells, with a mission-based approach. As a test case, a light Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) powered exclusively by a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell with a gaseous hydrogen tank was compared with the same aircraft powered by different kinds of Lithium batteries sized to match the energy stored in the hydrogen tank. The mass and the volume of each powertrain were calculated with literature data about existing technologies for propellers, motors, batteries and fuel cells. The empty mass and the wing area of the UAV were amended with the mass of the proposed powertrain to explore the range of application of the proposed technologies. To evaluate the efficiency of the whole powertrain a simulation software was used instead of considering only level flight. This software allowed an in-depth analysis on the efficiency of all sub-systems along the flight. The secondary demand of power for auxiliaries was taken into account along with the propulsive power. The main parameter for the comparison was the endurance but the takeoff performance, the volume of the powertrain and the environmental impact were also taken into account. The battery-based powertrain was found to be the most

  12. Public-health and individual approaches to antiretroviral therapy: township South Africa and Switzerland compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Keiser

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are

  13. Comparative analysis of stakeholder experiences with an online approach to prioritizing patient-centered research topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Grant, Sean; Meeker, Daniella; Booth, Marika; Pacheco-Santivanez, Nathaly; Kim, Katherine K

    2017-05-01

    Little evidence exists about effective and scalable methods for meaningful stakeholder engagement in research. We explored patient/caregiver experiences with a high-tech online engagement approach for patient-centered research prioritization, compared their experiences with those of professional stakeholders, and identified factors associated with favorable participant experiences. We conducted 8 online modified-Delphi (OMD) panels. Panelists participated in 2 rating rounds with a statistical feedback/online discussion round in between. Panels focused on weight management/obesity, heart failure, and Kawasaki disease. We recruited a convenience sample of adults with any of the 3 conditions (or parents/guardians of Kawasaki disease patients), clinicians, and researchers. Measures included self-reported willingness to use OMD again, the panelists' study participation and online discussion experiences, the system's perceived ease of use, and active engagement metrics. Out of 349 panelists, 292 (84%) completed the study. Of those, 46% were patients, 36% were clinicians, and 19% were researchers. In multivariate models, patients were not significantly more actively engaged (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-3.05) but had more favorable study participation (β = 0.49; P  ≤ .05) and online discussion (β = 0.18; P  ≤ .05) experiences and were more willing to use OMD again (β = 0.36; P  ≤ .05), compared to professional stakeholders. Positive perceptions of the OMD system's ease of use (β = 0.16; P  ≤ .05) and favorable study participation (β = 0.26; P  ≤ .05) and online discussion (β = 0.57; P  ≤ .05) experiences were also associated with increased willingness to use OMD in the future. Active engagement was not associated with online experience indices or willingness to use OMD again. Online approaches to engaging large numbers of stakeholders are a promising and efficient adjunct

  14. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to characterize the role of genetic recombination in mycobacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silvia E; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Dardenne, Caitlin N; Harpending, Henry H; Martin, Darren P; Beiko, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium encompasses over one hundred named species of environmental and pathogenic organisms, including the causative agents of devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The success of these human pathogens is due in part to their ability to rapidly adapt to their changing environment and host. Recombination is the fastest way for bacterial genomes to acquire genetic material, but conflicting results about the extent of recombination in the genus Mycobacterium have been reported. We examined a data set comprising 18 distinct strains from 13 named species for evidence of recombination. Genomic regions common to all strains (accounting for 10% to 22% of the full genomes of all examined species) were aligned and concatenated in the chromosomal order of one mycobacterial reference species. The concatenated sequence was screened for evidence of recombination using a variety of statistical methods, with each proposed event evaluated by comparing maximum-likelihood phylogenies of the recombinant section with the non-recombinant portion of the dataset. Incongruent phylogenies were identified by comparing the site-wise log-likelihoods of each tree using multiple tests. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify genes that may have been acquired through horizontal transfer from non-mycobacterial sources. The most frequent associated lineages (and potential gene transfer partners) in the Mycobacterium lineage-restricted gene trees are other members of suborder Corynebacterinae, but more-distant partners were identified as well. In two examined cases of potentially frequent and habitat-directed transfer (M. abscessus to Segniliparus and M. smegmatis to Streptomyces), observed sequence distances were small and consistent with a hypothesis of transfer, while in a third case (M. vanbaalenii to Streptomyces) distances were larger. The analyses described here indicate that whereas evidence of recombination in core regions within the genus is

  15. A developmental approach to homology and brain evolution Un enfoque embriológico a la homología y la evolución cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although homology is central to evolutionary interpretations, establishing it has become a highly disputed issue in some instances. Here I argüe for a developmental understanding of evolution, where modifications of the developmental programs are a key source of evolutionary novelty. Although this perspective is not new, in comparative neurobiology it has remained controversial. Specifically, the evolutionary origin of the mammalian neocortex has been a particularly debated point. I propose a perspective that could help reconcile a long standing controversy: either the mammalian neocortex corresponds as a whole to the dorsal hemisphere of reptiles and birds, or alternatively its lateral aspect corresponds to the lateral cerebral hemisphere and is partly homologous to the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR, a brain mass that receives the bulk of sensory input in reptiles and birds. Genetic and embryonic evidence strongly favor a dorsal origin for the whole neocortex, while the DVR derives from the lateral hemisphere. Nevertheless, the phylogenetically new elements of both the neocortex and the avian DVR derive largely from intermediate progenitor cells located in the embryonic subventricular zone (SVZ, a zone of late proliferating activity located deep to the ventral, the lateral and the dorsal hemisphere. I suggest that, despite originating in different embryonic regions (lateral vs. dorsal hemisphere, the evolutionary new cellular elements in both the avian brain and in the mammalian neocortex derive from the activation of a similar genetic pathway, possibly activated by the gene Pax-6, that induces the late proliferation of embryonic neural progenitors. This pathway can be ancestral to amniotes, reflecting genetic homology. In mammals and birds independently, this precursor proliferative activity differentiated into an SVZ, recruiting neuronal precursors from different parts of the cerebral hemisphere in each group, to contribute to brain

  16. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  17. Are There More Bowel Symptoms in Children with Autism Compared to Normal Children and Children with Other Developmental and Neurological Disorders?: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Farnworth, H.; Wright, B.; Allgar, V.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable controversy as to whether there is an association between bowel disorders and autism. Using a bowel symptom questionnaire we compared 51 children with autism spectrum disorder with control groups of 35 children from special school and 112 from mainstream school. There was a significant difference in the reporting of certain…

  18. Comparing the performance of various digital soil mapping approaches to map physical soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Spatial information on physical soil properties is intensely expected, in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. One of the most widely used properties to characterize soils physically is particle size distribution (PSD), which determines soil water management and cultivability. According to their size, different particles can be categorized as clay, silt, or sand. The size intervals are defined by national or international textural classification systems. The relative percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil constitutes textural classes, which are also specified miscellaneously in various national and/or specialty systems. The most commonly used is the classification system of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Soil texture information is essential input data in meteorological, hydrological and agricultural prediction modelling. Although Hungary has a great deal of legacy soil maps and other relevant soil information, it often occurs, that maps do not exist on a certain characteristic with the required thematic and/or spatial representation. The recent developments in digital soil mapping (DSM), however, provide wide opportunities for the elaboration of object specific soil maps (OSSM) with predefined parameters (resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.). Due to the simultaneous richness of available Hungarian legacy soil data, spatial inference methods and auxiliary environmental information, there is a high versatility of possible approaches for the compilation of a given soil map. This suggests the opportunity of optimization. For the creation of an OSSM one might intend to identify the optimum set of soil data, method and auxiliary co-variables optimized for the resources (data costs, computation requirements etc.). We started comprehensive analysis of the effects of the various DSM components on the accuracy of the output maps on pilot areas. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate different

  19. A comparative analysis of alternative approaches for quantifying nonlinear dynamics in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has emerged as an important research topic to evaluate autonomic cardiac function. However, traditional time and frequency-domain analysis characterizes and quantify only linear and stationary phenomena. In the present investigation, we made a comparative analysis of three alternative approaches (i.e., wavelet multifractal analysis, Lyapunov exponents and multiscale entropy analysis) for quantifying nonlinear dynamics in heart rate time series. Note that these extracted nonlinear features provide information about nonlinear scaling behaviors and the complexity of cardiac systems. To evaluate the performance, we used 24-hour HRV recordings from 54 healthy subjects and 29 heart failure patients, available in PhysioNet. Three nonlinear methods are evaluated not only individually but also in combination using three classification algorithms, i.e., linear discriminate analysis, quadratic discriminate analysis and k-nearest neighbors. Experimental results show that three nonlinear methods capture nonlinear dynamics from different perspectives and the combined feature set achieves the best performance, i.e., sensitivity 97.7% and specificity 91.5%. Collectively, nonlinear HRV features are shown to have the promise to identify the disorders in autonomic cardiovascular function.

  20. A comparative approach using ecotoxicological methods from single-species bioassays to model ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerbaeumer, Arne; Höss, Sebastian; Ristau, Kai; Claus, Evelyn; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Heininger, Peter; Traunspurger, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Soft sediments are often hotspots of chemical contamination, and a thorough ecotoxicological assessment of this habitat can help to identify the causes of stress and to improve the health of the respective ecosystems. As an important component of the ecologically relevant meiobenthic fauna, nematodes can be used for sediment assessments, with various assay tools ranging from single-species toxicity tests to field studies. In the present study, microcosms containing sediment were used to investigate direct and indirect effects of zinc on natural nematode assemblages, and acute community toxicity tests considering only direct toxicity were conducted. The responses of the various freshwater nematode species in both approaches were compared with those of Caenorhabditis elegans, determined in standardized tests (ISO 10872). At a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 20 mg Zn/L, C. elegans represented the median susceptibility of 15 examined nematode species examined in the acute community toxicity tests. In the microcosms, Zn affected the nematodes dose-dependently, with changes in species composition first detected at 13 mg Zn/kg to 19 mg Zn/kg sediment dry weight. The observed species sensitivities in the microcosms corresponded better to field observations than to the results of the acute community toxicity tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2987-2997. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Legal aspects of unitization: a comparative approach; Aspectos juridicos da unitizacao: uma abordagem comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Amanda L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is the study of unitization under a comparative approach between the legal system of some of the most important countries in mature production of oil and gas as well of those which represent the new frontier in exploration and production of these natural resources, and also the provisions regarding unitization in the Brazil's legal system. Firstly, concepts and classifications about unitization, the historical context related to it, and the different doctrines regarding unitization will be analyzed. This analysis will be done considering the concepts developed by American jurisprudence, since it was in the United States where the first thesis regarding unitization were developed, such as the rule of capture and the correlative rights doctrines. Afterwards, it will be presented a study of some unitization's provisions found in different countries' statutes, regulations and contracts such as leases, production sharing agreements, concession contracts etc., being pointed the similarities and differences related to Brazil's legal system. Finally, the national legislation in force as well the Model Concession Contract of ANP's Sixth Round will be analyzed. (author)

  2. Comparing clustering models in bank customers: Based on Fuzzy relational clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Hendalianpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is absolutely useful information to explore data structures and has been employed in many places. It organizes a set of objects into similar groups called clusters, and the objects within one cluster are both highly similar and dissimilar with the objects in other clusters. The K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms are the most popular clustering algorithms for their easy implementation and fast work, but in some cases we cannot use these algorithms. Regarding this, in this paper, a hybrid model for customer clustering is presented that is applicable in five banks of Fars Province, Shiraz, Iran. In this way, the fuzzy relation among customers is defined by using their features described in linguistic and quantitative variables. As follows, the customers of banks are grouped according to K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms and the proposed Fuzzy Relation Clustering (FRC algorithm. The aim of this paper is to show how to choose the best clustering algorithms based on density-based clustering and present a new clustering algorithm for both crisp and fuzzy variables. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to five datasets of customer's segmentation in banks. The result of the FCR shows the accuracy and high performance of FRC compared other clustering methods.

  3. THE COST OF PRODUCTION UNDER DIRECT COSTING AND ABSORPTION COSTING – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea-Bontaş Cristina Aurora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Managerial accounting has an important role in strategic management of a company, being designed especially for managers, in order to optimise their decision regarding operating activities. One of the objectives of managerial accounting is the cost calculation, for measuring inventory costs, and the costs and profitability of products and services. Cost calculation systems can vary in terms of which costs are assigned to cost objects, two significant calculation systems being adopted by the costing theory: full cost accounting, which includes all costs of production as product costs, and partial cost accounting, which includes only those costs that vary with output. This article provides a comparative approach regarding the differences between the calculation of the cost of production under direct costing and absorption costing. It also examines the implication of using each of these calculation systems on the financial position and financial performance of the companies reported on the statement of financial position and the income statement. Finally, the advantages of using direct costing for internal reporting are discussed, considering that this method is not acceptable for external reporting to stockholders and other external users.

  4. Multiblock variance partitioning: A new approach for comparing variation in multiple data blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, Thomas [Quality and Technology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)], E-mail: thsk@life.ku.dk; Ballabio, Davide [Milano Chemometrics and QSAR Research Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.za della Scienza, 1-20126 Milano (Italy); Bro, Rasmus [Quality and Technology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2008-05-12

    More than one multi-informative analytical technique is often applied when describing the condition of a set of samples. Often a part of the information found in these data blocks is redundant and can be extracted from more blocks. This study puts forward a method (multiblock variance partitioning-MVP) to compare the information/variation in different data blocks using simple quantitative measures. These measures are the unique part of the variation only found in one data block and the common part that can be found in more data blocks. These different parts are found using PLS models between predictor blocks and a common response. MVP provides a different view on the information in different blocks than normal multiblock analysis. It will be shown that this has many applications in very diverse fields such as process control, assessor performance in sensory analysis, efficiency of preprocessing methods and as complementary information to an interval PLS analysis. Here the ideas of the MVP approach are presented in detail using a study of red wines from different regions measured with GC-MS and FT-IR instruments providing different kinds of data representations.

  5. The taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a Comparative Law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Villanueva Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the definitions of the main taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a comparative approach to thelegislation of different countries (Spain, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In this regard, it analyzes which legislations offer definitions according to the principles of generality, fiscal neutrality and legal certainty for VAT. Moreover, it points out that the VAT systems of those countries do not require as a condition for the configuration of the taxable events that the transactions involve a «value added» or a final consumption. In the specificcase of «supplies of goods», the VAT systems have a similar definition of the taxable event, although there are a few differences. However, in the case of«supplies of services», which is the most important taxable event for VAT, there are important differences at the time each country defines it. This is not a desirable effect for the international trade of services, since the lack of harmonization produces double taxation or double non taxation.

  6. Comparative Metabolomics Approach Detects Stress-Specific Responses during Coral Bleaching in Soft Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Meyer, Achim; Ali, Sara E; Salem, Mohamed A; Giavalisco, Patrick; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic exposure to ocean acidification and elevated sea-surface temperatures pose significant stress to marine ecosystems. This in turn necessitates costly acclimation responses in corals in both the symbiont and host, with a reorganization of cell metabolism and structure. A large-scale untargeted metabolomics approach comprising gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was applied to profile the metabolite composition of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and its dinoflagellate symbiont. Metabolite profiling compared ambient conditions with response to simulated climate change stressors and with the sister species, S. glaucum. Among ∼300 monitored metabolites, 13 metabolites were modulated. Incubation experiments providing four selected upregulated metabolites (alanine, GABA, nicotinic acid, and proline) in the culturing water failed to subside the bleaching response at temperature-induced stress, despite their known ability to mitigate heat stress in plants or animals. Thus, the results hint to metabolite accumulation (marker) during heat stress. This study provides the first detailed map of metabolic pathways transition in corals in response to different environmental stresses, accounting for the superior thermal tolerance of S. ehrenbergi versus S. glaucum, which can ultimately help maintain a viable symbiosis and mitigate against coral bleaching.

  7. CAN THE MUSLIM WORLD BORROW FROM INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM? A Comparative Constitutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analytically examine the possibility of constitutional borrowing for the Muslim world regardless the differences in history, system, culture, language, and cha­racteristics. It discusses this issue by looking at the arguments put forth by the oppo­nents of comparative cons­titutional interpre­tation and their counter arguments. It will consider materials from Canada, USA, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hungary, taking the position that constitutional borrowing can be justified. The paper argues that the 1999-2002 Indonesian constitutional reform should be taken into account by other Muslim countries in undertaking their constitutional reform. The substantive approach of the Shari‘ah that has been used in Indonesia has shown that Muslim world can reform its constitutions without the “assistance” of Western foreign policy. Indo­nesian constitutional reform has demonstrated that Islamic constitutionalism comes from within Islamic teaching and the Islamic community itself; it is a home grown product.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

  9. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  10. The Fate of Iliopsoas Muscle in the Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by Medial Approach. Part 1: MRI Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Duran, Semra; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    There has been little information about the long-term status of the iliopsoas, which is the main flexor of the hip, after iliopsoas tenotomy in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to assess the status of the iliopsoas muscle and other flexors and extensors of the hip in long-term follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging after complete iliopsoas tenotomy in patients with unilateral DDH treated with open reduction with a medial approach. The study included 20 patients who underwent open reduction with a medial approach for unilateral DDH and had long-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of iliopsoas, rectus femoris, tensor fasia lata, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles was applied and the muscles of the hip that was operated on were compared with the unoperated hip. In addition, the iliopsoas muscle was examined for reattachment and the effect of reattachment was evaluated. The mean age at the time of operation was 10.53±3.61 months (range, 5 to 18 mo), and mean follow-up was 16.65±2.16 years (range, 13 to 20 y). Spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas was observed in 18 patients (90%), either in the lesser trochanter (65%) or the superior part of it (25%). There was no significant difference between the hips that were operated on and those that were not with regard to the mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles. The CSA of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles showed no significant difference (P>0.05); however, CSA of iliopsoas muscle was significantly reduced in the operated hip (P<0.001). Although the iliopsoas tendon was atrophied after complete iliopsoas tenotomy, it was reattached in 90% of the patients spontaneously in long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant compensatory hypertrophy in any muscles in response to iliopsoas atrophy. Level IV-Therapeutic.

  11. Carcinogenic risk assessment and management of ionising radiation, asbestos and nickel: a comparative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Oudiz, A.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the similarities as well as the differences of risk assessment and management of ionizing radiation, asbestos and nickel in France. The comparison has been performed at three levels of analysis: concepts, regulation and practices. Ionizing radiation (IR) is compared with asbestos as far as occupational exposure is concerned and to nickel and nickel compounds as far as general population exposure is concerned. The three main stages of risk assessment were considered: hazard identification, exposure-risk relationship, exposure assessment. Alternative risk management policies were reviewed. The main results are the following: At the conceptual level, the risk assessment and management frameworks present many similarities: exposure-risk relationships exist, and low dose extrapolation is considered as legitimate. Comparison of protection strategies can be carried out with reference to the 'optimization' principle developed for IR. At the regulatory level, the status of the IR dose limits differs from the status of the exposure limit values set for asbestos and nickel. For IR, compliance with the dose limit cannot be seen as the final objective of protection: the burden is put on the requirement to maintain the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economical factors being taken into account (ALARA). In most of the situations, actual exposure to IR in industry appear to be significantly lower than the dose limit. In the case of asbestos and nickel, the exposure limit values are very low and compliance with the limits is indeed a quite ambitious objective. At the practical level, some noticeable differences exist as far as the decision aiding procedures are concerned. A process which may be considered as an ALARA approach is applied, in the case of nickel: seeking for the 'best available technologies', defining and implementing with stakeholdes regional plans for air quality. In the case of asbestos, the predictive

  12. What Factors Affect Doctors' Hours Decisions: Comparing Structural Discrete Choice and Reduced-Form Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Kalb, Guyonne; Kühnle, Daniel; Scott, Anthony; Cheng, Terence Chai; Jeon, Sung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Few papers examine the pecuniary and non-pecuniary determinants of doctors' labour supply despite substantial predicted shortages in many OECD countries. We contribute to the literature by applying both a structural discrete choice and a reduced-form approach. Using detailed survey data for Australian physicians, we examine how these different modelling approaches affect estimated wage elasticities at the intensive margin. We show that all modelling approaches predict small negative wage elas...

  13. The comparative analyses of different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ristic

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children presented with symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease.The study design was cross sectional. The study retrospectively included all children who underwent combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH (pH-MII monitoring due to gastrointestinal and/or extraesophageal symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease at University Children's Hospital in Belgrade, from July 2012 to July 2016.A total of 218 (117 boys/101 girls, mean age 6.7 years (range 0.06-18.0 years, met the inclusion criteria. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 128 of 218 children (57.4% by pH-MII and in 76 (34.1% children by pH metry alone. Using pH-MII monitoring as gold standard, sensitivity of pH-metry was lowest in infants (22.9%, with tendency to increase in older age groups (reaching 76.4% in children ≥ 9 years. The sensitivity of pH-metry alone in children with extraesophageal symptoms was 38.1%, while the sensitivity of pH-metry in children with gastrointestinal symptoms was 63.8%. Reflux esophagitis was identified in 31 (26.1% of 119 children who underwent endoscopy. Logistic regression analysis showed that best predictors of endoscopic reflux esophagitis are the longest acid episode (OR = 1.52, p<0.05 and DeMeester reflux composite score (OR = 3.31, p<0.05. The significant cutoff values included DeMeester reflux composite score ≥ 29 (AUC 0.786, CI 0.695-0.877, p<0.01 and duration of longest acid reflux ≥ 18 minutes (AUC 0.784, CI 0.692-0.875, p<0.01.The results of our study suggested that compared with pH-metry alone, pH-MII had significantly higher detection rate of gastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in infants. Our findings also showed that pH-MII parameters correlated significantly with the endoscopically confirmed erosive esophagitis.

  14. Biodiversity, land use and ecosystem services—An organismic and comparative approach to different geographical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Zeller

    2017-04-01

    The approach further focuses on human–wildlife interactions. The emergence of top predators in Europe reveals the value of the experience from Africa, where pastoralists manage to coexist with large predators since millennia. The investigation of African grasslands enables a critical reflection and a thorough understanding of processes, which have occurred a long time ago in Europe. Our approach leads to a revaluation of the significance of Africa in terms of a conservative, relict case scenario that can provide essential insights into the original situation of ecosystems, especially in view of “rewilding” approaches in Europe. Thereby, the approach leads to a careful consideration of the term “wilderness”.

  15. SiteBinder: an improved approach for comparing multiple protein structural motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, David; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Huber, Heinrich J; Geidl, Stanislav; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2012-02-27

    There is a paramount need to develop new techniques and tools that will extract as much information as possible from the ever growing repository of protein 3D structures. We report here on the development of a software tool for the multiple superimposition of large sets of protein structural motifs. Our superimposition methodology performs a systematic search for the atom pairing that provides the best fit. During this search, the RMSD values for all chemically relevant pairings are calculated by quaternion algebra. The number of evaluated pairings is markedly decreased by using PDB annotations for atoms. This approach guarantees that the best fit will be found and can be applied even when sequence similarity is low or does not exist at all. We have implemented this methodology in the Web application SiteBinder, which is able to process up to thousands of protein structural motifs in a very short time, and which provides an intuitive and user-friendly interface. Our benchmarking analysis has shown the robustness, efficiency, and versatility of our methodology and its implementation by the successful superimposition of 1000 experimentally determined structures for each of 32 eukaryotic linear motifs. We also demonstrate the applicability of SiteBinder using three case studies. We first compared the structures of 61 PA-IIL sugar binding sites containing nine different sugars, and we found that the sugar binding sites of PA-IIL and its mutants have a conserved structure despite their binding different sugars. We then superimposed over 300 zinc finger central motifs and revealed that the molecular structure in the vicinity of the Zn atom is highly conserved. Finally, we superimposed 12 BH3 domains from pro-apoptotic proteins. Our findings come to support the hypothesis that there is a structural basis for the functional segregation of BH3-only proteins into activators and enablers.

  16. The comparative analyses of different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Nina; Milovanovic, Ivan; Radusinovic, Milica; Stevic, Marija; Ristic, Milos; Ristic, Maja; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Alempijevic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children presented with symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease. The study design was cross sectional. The study retrospectively included all children who underwent combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH (pH-MII) monitoring due to gastrointestinal and/or extraesophageal symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease at University Children's Hospital in Belgrade, from July 2012 to July 2016. A total of 218 (117 boys/101 girls), mean age 6.7 years (range 0.06-18.0 years), met the inclusion criteria. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 128 of 218 children (57.4%) by pH-MII and in 76 (34.1%) children by pH metry alone. Using pH-MII monitoring as gold standard, sensitivity of pH-metry was lowest in infants (22.9%), with tendency to increase in older age groups (reaching 76.4% in children ≥ 9 years). The sensitivity of pH-metry alone in children with extraesophageal symptoms was 38.1%, while the sensitivity of pH-metry in children with gastrointestinal symptoms was 63.8%. Reflux esophagitis was identified in 31 (26.1%) of 119 children who underwent endoscopy. Logistic regression analysis showed that best predictors of endoscopic reflux esophagitis are the longest acid episode (OR = 1.52, preflux composite score (OR = 3.31, preflux composite score ≥ 29 (AUC 0.786, CI 0.695-0.877, preflux ≥ 18 minutes (AUC 0.784, CI 0.692-0.875, pgastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in infants. Our findings also showed that pH-MII parameters correlated significantly with the endoscopically confirmed erosive esophagitis.

  17. Comparing different approaches to nonequilibrium thermodynamics in the context of warm inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Vicente, Gustavo S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Cosmological inflationary models are usually described by the evolution of a background scalar field, the inflaton. These models can be separated in isentropic (cold) and non isentropic (warm) when regarding the production of radiation. In isentropic or cold inflation, inflaton's dynamics occurs with no interactions, driving the universe to a stage of supercooling. In non isentropic inflation, however, the inflaton is coupled to other fields, which cause its decay into radiation. The radiation produced then compensates the supercooling due to expansion. This work is focused in warm inflation. There is a dissipative term in both inflaton's and radiation fluid's equations, due to inflatons decay. Nevertheless, an additional effect arises due to inner couplings in the radiation fluid, which causes internal decays within it. Therefore, the radiation fluid behaves as a nonideal fluid and viscosity effects must be taken into account. We consider here, in particular, bulk viscosity. The presence of dissipative effects leads the radiation fluid out of equilibrium. Hence, an extended thermodynamics is necessary to handle with this departure from equilibrium. Most theories, like the widely used Israel-Stewart (IS) second order theory, works well only near equilibrium (due to the linearity in the thermodynamic flux). In warm inflation, however, we cannot assure that inflation will happen in near equilibrium regime. For this reason, we consider different thermodynamic approaches of nonequilibrium statistical physics that can properly account for beyond equilibrium systems and apply them in the context of warm inflation. The effect of bulk viscosity, as well as shear viscosity, in the context of density perturbation calculations are also briefly compared in these frameworks. (author)

  18. Comparing different approaches for an effective monitoring of forest fires based on MSG/SEVIRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneve, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The remote sensing sensors on board of geostationary satellite, as consequence of the high frequency of the observations, allow, in principle, the monitoring of these phenomena characterized by a fast dynamics. The only condition for is that the events to be monitored should be enough strong to be recognizable notwithstanding the low spatial resolution of the present geostationary systems (MSG/SEVIRI, GOES Imager, MTSAT). Apart from meteorological phenomena other events, like those associated with forest fires and/or volcanic eruption, are characterized by a very fast dynamics. These events are also associated with a very strong signal that make them observable by geostationary satellite in a quasi-continuous way. However, in order to make possible the detection of small fires by using the low resolution multi-spectral imagery provided by geostationary sensor like SEVIRI (3x3 km2 at the equator) new algorithms, capable to exploit it high observation frequency, has been developed. This paper is devoted to show the results obtained by comparing some of these algorithms trying to highlight their advantages and limits. The algorithms herein considered are these developed by CRPSM (SFIDE®), UNIBAS/CNR (RST-FIRES) and ESA-ESRIN (MDIFRM). In general, the new approaches proposed by each one of them are capable to promptly detect small fires making possible an operational utilization of the satellite based fire detection system in the fire fighting phases. In fact, these algorithms are quite different from these introduced in the past and specifically devoted to fire detection using low resolution multi-spectral imagery on LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. Thanks to these differences they are capable of detecting sub-hectare (0.2 ha) forest fires providing an useful instrument for monitoring quasi-continuously forest fires, estimating the FRP (Fire Radiative Power), evaluating the burned biomass, retrieving the emission in the atmosphere.

  19. Comparative exploration of multidimensional flow cytometry software: a model approach evaluating T cell polyfunctional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Simms, Patricia E

    2017-08-01

    Advancement in flow cytometry reagents and instrumentation has allowed for simultaneous analysis of large numbers of lineage/functional immune cell markers. Highly complex datasets generated by polychromatic flow cytometry require proper analytical software to answer investigators' questions. A problem among many investigators and flow cytometry Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs), including our own, is a lack of access to a flow cytometry-knowledgeable bioinformatics team, making it difficult to learn and choose appropriate analysis tool(s). Here, we comparatively assess various multidimensional flow cytometry software packages for their ability to answer a specific biologic question and provide graphical representation output suitable for publication, as well as their ease of use and cost. We assessed polyfunctional potential of TCR-transduced T cells, serving as a model evaluation, using multidimensional flow cytometry to analyze 6 intracellular cytokines and degranulation on a per-cell basis. Analysis of 7 parameters resulted in 128 possible combinations of positivity/negativity, far too complex for basic flow cytometry software to analyze fully. Various software packages were used, analysis methods used in each described, and representative output displayed. Of the tools investigated, automated classification of cellular expression by nonlinear stochastic embedding (ACCENSE) and coupled analysis in Pestle/simplified presentation of incredibly complex evaluations (SPICE) provided the most user-friendly manipulations and readable output, evaluating effects of altered antigen-specific stimulation on T cell polyfunctionality. This detailed approach may serve as a model for other investigators/SRLs in selecting the most appropriate software to analyze complex flow cytometry datasets. Further development and awareness of available tools will help guide proper data analysis to answer difficult biologic questions arising from incredibly complex datasets. © Society

  20. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Scott M; Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Manoukis, Nicholas C

    2014-10-28

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family of flies, and can be considered an out-group to well-studied members of the family Drosophilidae. Despite their importance as pests and their relatedness to Drosophila, little information is present on B. dorsalis transcripts and proteins. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively characterize the transcripts present throughout the life history of B. dorsalis and functionally annotate and analyse these transcripts relative to the presence, expression, and function of orthologous sequences present in Drosophila melanogaster. We present a detailed transcriptome assembly of B. dorsalis from egg through adult stages containing 20,666 transcripts across 10,799 unigene components. Utilizing data available through Flybase and the modENCODE project, we compared expression patterns of these transcripts to putative orthologs in D. melanogaster in terms of timing, abundance, and function. In addition, temporal expression patterns in B. dorsalis were characterized between stages, to establish the constitutive or stage-specific expression patterns of particular transcripts. A fully annotated transcriptome assembly is made available through NCBI, in addition to corresponding expression data. Through characterizing the transcriptome of B. dorsalis through its life history and comparing the transcriptome of B. dorsalis to the model organism D. melanogaster, a database has been developed that can be used as the foundation to functional genomic research in Bactrocera flies and help identify orthologous genes between B. dorsalis and D. melanogaster. This data provides the foundation for future functional genomic research that will focus on improving our understanding of the physiology and

  1. Comparing Different Approaches to Visualizing Light Waves: An Experimental Study on Teaching Wave Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mešic, Vanes; Hajder, Erna; Neumann, Knut; Erceg, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that students have tremendous difficulties developing a qualitative understanding of wave optics, at all educational levels. In this study, we investigate how three different approaches to visualizing light waves affect students' understanding of wave optics. In the first, the conventional, approach light waves are represented…

  2. Comparative analysis of neural network and regression based condition monitoring approaches for wind turbine fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the research results of a comparison of three different model based approaches for wind turbine fault detection in online SCADA data, by applying developed models to five real measured faults and anomalies. The regression based model as the simplest approach to build a normal...

  3. ROMANIA’S SPECIALIZATION IN TRADE TOWARDS EU-27 - A REVEALED COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Angela Cristina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available "International competitiveness" is a complex topic which raised over time many questions and theories on key factors that underpin it and is still subject to wide debate. Such analysis proves to be necessary under the new requirements raised by the participation of Romanian organizations in the European and global competitive environment in which competiting for new markets can be a platform of economic recovery. As companies compete for markets and resources, national economies compete with each other to achieve performance in a specific activity: for example, we can say that Romania has become less competitive in clothing production, and competitive in cars production. But it makes sense to say that "Romania has become more or less competitive as the economy?". The answer is no."Competitiveness" is a meaningless word when referring to national economies. Deniying Romanian competitiveness in a particular industry does not mean that Romania's economy is less competitive. The decline in these industries may be a manifestation of their change in production factors endowment or necessary reallocation these factors from old activities with comparative advantage to new ones. This paper aims to examine the structural competitiveness of Romania vis-a-vis EU-27. Empirical analysis is based on Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, an indicator often used in international trade analysis. Section II reviews the empirical literature on the comparative advantage and the competitiveness of Romania, highlighting various theories and approaches, alternative measures of RCA indices are presented in the section III, section IV reports empirical results and the final section draws some conclusions based on the findings. In 2009, in terms of orientation of the foreign investors towards the economic sectors, according to NACE Rev. 2 Classification, the direct foreign investments were directed mainly to Manufactured goods (31,1% of total, within its best represented

  4. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparative studies of the induction of somatic eye-color mutations in an unstable strain of Drosophila melanogaster by MMS and X-rays at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, Aa.

    1985-01-01

    The UZ system in Drosophila melanogaster can be used as a screening system for mutagens. This survey is an attempt to correlate the size of the mutated area of the eyes with the age of the larvae at mutagen treatment. X-rays and MMS were used to give an indication of the mechanism of the instability, according to the different kinds of DNA damage induced. The results show that the mean size of red spots decreased with increasing age of larvae at treatment, while the mutation frequencies were increased because of the multiplication of the cells in the eye anlage susceptible to the mutagens. Red spots induced with MMS are smaller in size than X-ray-induced red spots, indicating a delay in the establishment of mutations from chemically-induced lesions compared to irradiation damage. White spots on the other hand were equally large in size, irrespective of inducing agent and about twice the size of the chemically-induced red spots, implying a faster and more direct action for fixation of deletions than for the production of MMS induced shifts in eye color from zeste to red. (Auth.)

  6. Comparative genomics and association mapping approaches for blast resistant genes in finger millet using SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kalyana Babu

    Full Text Available The major limiting factor for production and productivity of finger millet crop is blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea. Since, the genome sequence information available in finger millet crop is scarce, comparative genomics plays a very important role in identification of genes/QTLs linked to the blast resistance genes using SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 58 genic SSRs were developed for use in genetic analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes. The 58 SSRs yielded ninety five scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.186 to 0.677 at an average of 0.385. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.208 to 0.726 with an average of 0.487. Association mapping for blast resistance was done using 104 SSR markers which identified four QTLs for finger blast and one QTL for neck blast resistance. The genomic marker RM262 and genic marker FMBLEST32 were linked to finger blast disease at a P value of 0.007 and explained phenotypic variance (R² of 10% and 8% respectively. The genomic marker UGEP81 was associated to finger blast at a P value of 0.009 and explained 7.5% of R². The QTLs for neck blast was associated with the genomic SSR marker UGEP18 at a P value of 0.01, which explained 11% of R². Three QTLs for blast resistance were found common by using both GLM and MLM approaches. The resistant alleles were found to be present mostly in the exotic genotypes. Among the genotypes of NW Himalayan region of India, VHC3997, VHC3996 and VHC3930 were found highly resistant, which may be effectively used as parents for developing blast resistant cultivars in the NW Himalayan region of India. The markers linked to the QTLs for blast resistance in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of blast resistant alleles into locally adapted cultivars.

  7. Comparative genomics and association mapping approaches for blast resistant genes in finger millet using SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B Kalyana; Dinesh, Pandey; Agrawal, Pawan K; Sood, S; Chandrashekara, C; Bhatt, Jagadish C; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The major limiting factor for production and productivity of finger millet crop is blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea. Since, the genome sequence information available in finger millet crop is scarce, comparative genomics plays a very important role in identification of genes/QTLs linked to the blast resistance genes using SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 58 genic SSRs were developed for use in genetic analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes. The 58 SSRs yielded ninety five scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.186 to 0.677 at an average of 0.385. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.208 to 0.726 with an average of 0.487. Association mapping for blast resistance was done using 104 SSR markers which identified four QTLs for finger blast and one QTL for neck blast resistance. The genomic marker RM262 and genic marker FMBLEST32 were linked to finger blast disease at a P value of 0.007 and explained phenotypic variance (R²) of 10% and 8% respectively. The genomic marker UGEP81 was associated to finger blast at a P value of 0.009 and explained 7.5% of R². The QTLs for neck blast was associated with the genomic SSR marker UGEP18 at a P value of 0.01, which explained 11% of R². Three QTLs for blast resistance were found common by using both GLM and MLM approaches. The resistant alleles were found to be present mostly in the exotic genotypes. Among the genotypes of NW Himalayan region of India, VHC3997, VHC3996 and VHC3930 were found highly resistant, which may be effectively used as parents for developing blast resistant cultivars in the NW Himalayan region of India. The markers linked to the QTLs for blast resistance in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of blast resistant alleles into locally adapted cultivars.

  8. Semantic heterogeneity: comparing new semantic web approaches with those of digital libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate that newer developments in the semantic web community, particularly those based on ontologies (simple knowledge organization system and others) mitigate common arguments from the digital library (DL) community against participation in the Semantic web. The approach is a semantic web discussion focusing on the weak structure of the Web and the lack of consideration given to the semantic content during indexing. The points criticised by the semantic web and ontology approaches ar...

  9. Towards Comparative Educational Administration: Building the Case for a Cross-Cultural School-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    1998-01-01

    Advocates a stronger comparative emphasis in the study of educational administration and management while acknowledging comparative educational administration's weak knowledge base. Clarifies the potential import of a comparative, cross-cultural perspective embracing five societal/cultural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, power…

  10. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Two Approaches of Dynamic Assessment on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Naeini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine and compare the impact of two Dynamic Assessment (DA approaches, that is, Feuerstein’s Mediated Learning Experience (MLE and Brown’s Graduated Prompt (GP on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Therefore, a mixed methods approach consisting of a semi-structured interview, a pretest, an intervention program, a posttest, and a transfer test was applied to assess and compare the efficacy of two DA approaches. One hundred and two EFL learners taking a General English course at Islamic Azad University were assigned to two experimental groups (MLEG and GPG and one comparison group (CG. The participants in the MLEG took part in the MLE, and the participants in the GPG participated in the GP intervention program.  The results of the qualitative as well as the aggregate and disaggregated quantitative data analyses indicated that both intervention approaches of DA were effective in enhancing the learners’ reading comprehension.

  11. Shifting paradigm of maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh: A real time approach to address sustainable developmental goal 3 by 2030 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing maternal and neonatal morality, even though the millennium developmental goal to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality was not achieved. Sustainable Developmental Goal (SDG 3 has already been set for a new target to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by 2030. The country takes this timely initiative to introduce a maternal and perinatal death review system. This review will discuss the shifting paradigm of the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh and its challenges in reaching the SDG on time. This review uses existing literature on the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh, and other systems in similar settings, as well as reports, case studies, news, government letters and meeting minutes. Bangladesh introduced the maternal and perinatal death review system in 2010. Prior to this there was no such comprehensive death review system practiced in Bangladesh. The system was established within the government health system and has brought about positive effects and outcomes. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh gradually scaled up the maternal and perinatal death review system nationwide in 2016 within the government health system. The present death review system highlighted real-time data use, using the district health information software(DHIS-2. Health mangers are able to take remedial action plans and implement strategies based on findings in DHIS-2. Therefore, effective utilization of data can play a pivotal role in the reduction of maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh. Overall, the maternal and perinatal death review system provides a great opportunity to achieve the SDG 3 on time. However, the system needs continuous monitoring at different levels to ensure its quality and validity of information, as well as effective utilization of findings for planning and implementation under a measureable

  12. A Comparative Study of Task-based vs. Task- supported Teaching Approaches in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shafipoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the numerous merits of task-based language instruction as claimed by its supporters in the last few decades, task-supported teaching approach as an alternative was introduced. Since then, there have been controversial debates over the superiority of each of these two approaches. Thus, in the current research project, the purpose was to consider these two teaching approaches in the scope of English language teaching, with the purpose of exploring the most efficient one in an Iranian EFL context. To this end, 120 sophomore students, majoring in English language translation course at Islamic Azad University, Shar-e-Qods branch were selected among 4 intact reading comprehension II classes. Next, they were divided into two experimental groups. The first experimental group received task-based instruction and for the second experimental group, task-trusted teaching approach was applied. The results of the data analyses turned out that task-trusted teaching approach was superior to task-based teaching in teaching reading to EFL learners.

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD): comparative data of right and left hepatic lobe approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    To evaluate the difference in each procedure time and complication rates related to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) via the right and the left hepatic lobe. We performed PTBD in 120 patients with biliary obstruction below both main hepatic ducts. Of the 120 catheters, 54 were introduced via a left lobe approach and 66 through the right lobe. All procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance by the same operator. For each patient, procedure time was recorded prospectively. PTBD related complications were classified as either early(up to 30 days after procedure) or late(after 30 days), and each complication graded as major, or minor according to its intensity. The difference in the mean procedure time(28.8 min, versus 36.2 min, left versus right approach group) and that in complication rates (37% versus 58%) were statistically significant({rho} < 0.05). Concerning major complication(bile peritonitis, sepsis, massive hemobilia, liver abscess, pyothorax), the percentages related to left and right lobe approach were 1.8% and 10.6%, and concerning minor complications(catheter obstruction or dislodgement, transient hemobilia, persistent fever or pain), the percentages were 36% and 51% respectively. PTBD via the left lobe approach was superior with short procedure time and low complication rates than the right approach.

  14. Approaches for Comparative Genomics in Aspergillus and Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian; Brandl, Julian

    2016-01-01

    and applicable for many types of studies. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of comparative genomics in these fungi, along with recommended methods. The chapter describes databases for fungal comparative genomics. Based on experience, we suggest strategies for multiple types...... of comparative genomics, ranging from analysis of single genes, over gene clusters and CaZymes to genome-scale comparative genomics. Furthermore, we have examined published comparative genomics papers to summarize the preferred bioinformatic methods and parameters for a given type of analysis, highly useful...... comparative genomics to the development in bacterial genomics, where the comparison of hundreds of genomes has been performed for a while....

  15. The "Critical" Elements of Illness Management and Recovery: Comparing Methodological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; White, Dominique; White, Laura M; McGrew, John; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-01-01

    This study examined three methodological approaches to defining the critical elements of Illness Management and Recovery (IMR), a curriculum-based approach to recovery. Sixty-seven IMR experts rated the criticality of 16 IMR elements on three dimensions: defining, essential, and impactful. Three elements (Recovery Orientation, Goal Setting and Follow-up, and IMR Curriculum) met all criteria for essential and defining and all but the most stringent criteria for impactful. Practitioners should consider competence in these areas as preeminent. The remaining 13 elements met varying criteria for essential and impactful. Findings suggest that criticality is a multifaceted construct, necessitating judgments about model elements across different criticality dimensions.

  16. Comparative developmental effects of tramadol hydrochloride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekrane T. and Odo P. E.

    2Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, ... weighing balance with sensitivity of 0.000 -1g. ... the suspected cause of death. ... Cases of accidental pyrethroid poisoning at work.

  17. Comparing two developmental applications of speech technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma Grover, A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade applications of speech technologies for development (ST4D) have shown much potential for enabling information access and service delivery. In this paper the authors review two deployed ST4D services and posit a set of dimensions...

  18. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  19. A comparative study of four major approaches to predicting ATES performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    The International Energy Agency test problem involving Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage was solved using four approaches: the numerical model PF (formerly CCC), the simpler numerical model SFM, and two graphical characterization schemes. Each of the four techniques, with the advantages and disadvantages of each, are discussed.

  20. Characterizing and comparing innovation systems by different ‘modes’ of knowledge production: A proximity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, Sjoerd; Frenken, Koen; Nomaler, Önder; Ter Wal, Anne L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Though the concept of innovation systems has become influential in both academia and policymaking, an analytical approach to understanding innovation systems is still lacking. In particular, there is no analytical framework to measure `Mode 1? and `Mode 2? knowledge production. We propose a

  1. Comparing Top-Down with Bottom-Up Approaches: Teaching Data Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsiang-Jui; Kung, LeeAnn; Gardiner, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual database design is a difficult task for novice database designers, such as students, and is also therefore particularly challenging for database educators to teach. In the teaching of database design, two general approaches are frequently emphasized: top-down and bottom-up. In this paper, we present an empirical comparison of students'…

  2. Comparing the economic and health benefits of different approaches to diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Umscheid, Craig A; Nachamkin, Irving; Hamilton, Keith; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is essential to effectively managing patients and preventing transmission. Despite the availability of several diagnostic tests, the optimal strategy is debatable and their economic values are unknown. We modified our previously existing C. difficile simulation model to determine the economic value of different CDI diagnostic approaches from the hospital perspective. We evaluated four diagnostic methods for a patient suspected of having CDI: 1) toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay, 2) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen/toxin AB combined in one test, 3) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), and 4) GDH antigen/toxin AB combination test with NAAT confirmation of indeterminate results. Sensitivity analysis varied the proportion of those tested with clinically significant diarrhoea, the probability of CDI, NAAT cost and CDI treatment delay resulting from a false-negative test, length of stay and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT approach leads to the timeliest treatment with the fewest unnecessary treatments given, resulted in the best bed management and generated the lowest cost. The NAAT-alone approach also leads to timely treatment. The GDH/toxin AB diagnostic (without NAAT confirmation) approach resulted in a large number of delayed treatments, but results in the fewest secondary colonisations. Results were robust to the sensitivity analysis. Choosing the right diagnostic approach is a matter of cost and test accuracy. GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT diagnosis led to the timeliest treatment and was the least costly. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  4. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT -A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cican Simona-Iulia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity, volatility and unpredictability of the current economic environment are a daily reminder that organizations face many risks. The traditional approach, according to which risk is a necessary evil which must be removed, is no longer sufficient and that is why companies nowadays are forced to spend significant resources to manage risks. Risk transparency is what one looks for; therefore, identification and management of risks within an organization become increasingly necessary for success and longevity. Risk approach has a major role in a company’s ability to avoid, reduce and turn risks into opportunities. Enterprise risk management is a new concept that revolutionizes the traditional approach and summarizes risk management in an integrated, comprehensive and strategic system. Studies use several synonyms for enterprise risk management such as integrated risk management, holistic risk management, global risk management and strategic risk management. Enterprise risk management implements at the end of the last century a new way to deal with risks: the holistic approach. This risks approach – i.e. interaction of several types of risks which become increasingly threatening and varied and may cause more damage than individual risk – brings forward the need of risk management and raises issues at the highest level of company management. For a proper view on company risks, each individual risk and the possibility of risk interaction must be understood. This is essential to establish a risk classification according to their impact on the company. Traditional approach on risk management, as a management function, is limited to only threats and losses, so relatively few organizations see risks as potential earning-generated opportunities. However, risk management process is not radically changed. Enterprise risk management is an improved version of the traditional risk management, created by expanding its scope. The new risk

  6. Comparative study of shale-gas production using single- and dual-continuum approaches

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Amir, Sahar Z.; Salama, Amgad; Urozayev, Dias; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    parameters. Several results are discussed such as pressure, production rate and cumulative production. We compare the results of the two models using the same dimensions and physical and computational parameters. We found that the DPDP and the SDFM models

  7. [THE USE AND STORAGE OF STEM CELLS AND CORD BLOOD: FRENCH AND ENGLISH LAW COMPARATIVE APPROACH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanamoothoo, Allane

    2015-07-01

    Becoming parents is one of the greatest wishes of a lot of couples. When their dreams come true, prior to the birth of the child, parents have to face several points: the choice of the name, place of delivery, breast or bottle feeding, etc. Recently, they have to face the issues of cord blood stem cells. Researchers and cord blood banks are also interested in those cells. In many countries a lot of advertising is made around umbilical cord blood stem cells. In France as in England, the use and preservation of cord blood are regulated by the legislators without necessarily having the same approach. The objective of this paper is to present English and French law approaches' on cord blood stem cells.

  8. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  9. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic torque analysis is one of the key issues in the analysis of electric machines. It plays an important role in machine design and control. The common method described in most of the textbooks is to calculate the torque in the machine variables and then transform them to the dq......-frame, through complicated mathematical manipulations. This is a more mathematical approach rather than explaining the physics behind torque production, which even brings a lot of difficulties to specialist. This paper introduces a general and intuitive approach to obtain the dq-frame torque equation of various...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  10. Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Varahram, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

  11. Comparative assessment of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry in Monte Carlo transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinhorst, Bastian; Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei; Qiu, Yuefeng; Wilson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry for Monte Carlo transport calculations. • Comparison with regard to user-friendliness and computation performance. • Three approaches, namely conversion with McCad, unstructured mesh feature of MCN6 and DAGMC. • Installation most complex for DAGMC, model preparation worst for McCad, computation performance worst for MCNP6. • Installation easiest for McCad, model preparation best for MCNP6, computation speed fastest for McCad. - Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is an important industrial way to produce high quality designs. Therefore, CAD geometries are in general used for engineering and the design of complex facilities like the ITER tokamak. Although Monte Carlo codes like MCNP are well suited to handle the complex 3D geometry of ITER for transport calculations, they rely on their own geometry description and are in general not able to directly use the CAD geometry. In this paper, three different approaches for the use of CAD geometries with MCNP calculations are investigated and assessed with regard to calculation performance and user-friendliness. The first method is the conversion of the CAD geometry into MCNP geometry employing the conversion software McCad developed by KIT. The second approach utilizes the MCNP6 mesh geometry feature for the particle tracking and relies on the conversion of the CAD geometry into a mesh model. The third method employs DAGMC, developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for the direct particle tracking on the CAD geometry using a patched version of MCNP. The obtained results show that each method has its advantages depending on the complexity and size of the model, the calculation problem considered, and the expertise of the user.

  12. Comparing two approaches for introgression of germplasm from Aegilops tauschii into common wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Cox

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelic diversity in the wild grass Aegilops tauschii is vastly greater than that in the D genome of common wheat (Triticum aestivum, of which Ae. tauschii is the source. Since the 1980s, there have been numerous efforts to harness a much larger share of Ae. tauschii's extensive and highly variable gene pool for wheat improvement. Those efforts have followed two distinct approaches: production of amphiploids, known as “synthetic hexaploids,” between T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, and direct hybridization between T. aestivum and Ae. tauschii; both approaches then involve backcrossing to T. aestivum. Both synthetic hexaploid production and direct hybridization have led to the transfer of numerous new genes into common wheat that confer improvements in many traits. This work has led to release of improved cultivars in China, the United States, and many other countries. Each approach to D-genome improvement has advantages and disadvantages. For example, production of synthetic hexaploids can incorporate useful germplasm from both T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, thereby enhancing the A, B, and D genomes; on the other hand, direct hybridization rapidly restores the recurrent parent's A and B genomes and avoids incorporation of genes with adverse effects on threshability, hybrid necrosis, vernalization response, milling and baking quality, and other traits, which are often transferred when T. turgidum is used as a parent. Choice of method will depend in part on the type of wheat being developed and the target environment. However, more extensive use of the so-far underexploited direct hybridization approach is especially warranted.

  13. Comparing Solution Approaches for a Complete Model of High School Timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    of these formulations are NP-hard. A heuristic based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search is also applied. Using 100 real-life datasets, comprehensive computational results are provided which show that the ALNS heuristic outperforms the IP approaches. The ALNS heuristic has been incorporated in Lectio......, and is currently available to almost 200 dierent high schools in Denmark. Furthermore, a conversion of the datasets into the XHSTT format is described, and some datasets are made publicly available....

  14. A quantitative approach to choose among multiple mutually exclusive decisions: comparative expected utility theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Pengyu

    2018-01-01

    Mutually exclusive decisions have been studied for decades. Many well-known decision theories have been defined to help people either to make rational decisions or to interpret people's behaviors, such as expected utility theory, regret theory, prospect theory, and so on. The paper argues that none of these decision theories are designed to provide practical, normative and quantitative approaches for multiple mutually exclusive decisions. Different decision-makers should naturally make differ...

  15. Comparative assessment of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry in Monte Carlo transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhorst, Bastian, E-mail: bastian.weinhorst@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei; Qiu, Yuefeng [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Wilson, Paul [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Computational Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry for Monte Carlo transport calculations. • Comparison with regard to user-friendliness and computation performance. • Three approaches, namely conversion with McCad, unstructured mesh feature of MCN6 and DAGMC. • Installation most complex for DAGMC, model preparation worst for McCad, computation performance worst for MCNP6. • Installation easiest for McCad, model preparation best for MCNP6, computation speed fastest for McCad. - Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is an important industrial way to produce high quality designs. Therefore, CAD geometries are in general used for engineering and the design of complex facilities like the ITER tokamak. Although Monte Carlo codes like MCNP are well suited to handle the complex 3D geometry of ITER for transport calculations, they rely on their own geometry description and are in general not able to directly use the CAD geometry. In this paper, three different approaches for the use of CAD geometries with MCNP calculations are investigated and assessed with regard to calculation performance and user-friendliness. The first method is the conversion of the CAD geometry into MCNP geometry employing the conversion software McCad developed by KIT. The second approach utilizes the MCNP6 mesh geometry feature for the particle tracking and relies on the conversion of the CAD geometry into a mesh model. The third method employs DAGMC, developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for the direct particle tracking on the CAD geometry using a patched version of MCNP. The obtained results show that each method has its advantages depending on the complexity and size of the model, the calculation problem considered, and the expertise of the user.

  16. Comparative analysis of alternative co-production approaches to conservation science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Co-production has been suggested as an important tool for reducing the gap between science and management. Although co-production can require substantial investments in time and relationship building, there are a range of possible approaches that can be utilized that honor the focus and intent of co-production. I present here a comparison of three efforts that range from relatively simple, to complex and exhaustive, that illustrate diverse approaches to co-production of conservation science in Alaska. The first example highlights a workshop-based approach to identify long-term environmental monitoring needs in Alaska, while the second example describes stakeholder-driven scenarios that identified stressors to salmon in southcentral Alaska. The third example describes a 2-year cooperative agreement to develop management questions as part of a rapid ecoregional assessment in central Alaska. Results suggest that careful stakeholder selection is essential to successful co-production. Additionally, all three examples highlight the potential disconnect between management questions and specific management decisions, even when working directly with resource managers. As the focus of the Alaska Climate Science Center will be on co-production of climate science over the next 5 years, I conclude with some key pathways forward for successful co-production efforts in the future.

  17. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis of a borehole scenario comparing Latin Hypercube Sampling and deterministic sensitivity approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, W.V.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-10-01

    A computer code was used to study steady-state flow for a hypothetical borehole scenario. The model consists of three coupled equations with only eight parameters and three dependent variables. This study focused on steady-state flow as the performance measure of interest. Two different approaches to sensitivity/uncertainty analysis were used on this code. One approach, based on Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), is a statistical sampling method, whereas, the second approach is based on the deterministic evaluation of sensitivities. The LHS technique is easy to apply and should work well for codes with a moderate number of parameters. Of deterministic techniques, the direct method is preferred when there are many performance measures of interest and a moderate number of parameters. The adjoint method is recommended when there are a limited number of performance measures and an unlimited number of parameters. This unlimited number of parameters capability can be extremely useful for finite element or finite difference codes with a large number of grid blocks. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation will use the technique most appropriate for an individual situation. For example, the adjoint method may be used to reduce the scope to a size that can be readily handled by a technique such as LHS. Other techniques for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, e.g., kriging followed by conditional simulation, will be used also. 15 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  18. The effects of two EFL (English as a foreign language) teaching approaches studied by the cotwin control method: a comparative study of the communicative and the grammatical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, J

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared two different types of English-language teaching approaches, the grammatical approach (GA) and the communicative approach (CA), by the cotwin control method. This study has two purposes: to study the effects of teaching approaches and to estimate genetic influences upon learning aptitudes. Seven pairs of identical twins (MZ) and 4 pairs of fraternal twins (DZ) participated in the experiment along with 68 other nontwin fifth graders. Each cotwin was assigned to the GA and CA respectively and received 20 hours of lessons over a 10-day period. The behavioral similarities between MZ cotwins were statistically and descriptively depicted. No major effect of either teaching approach was noted, but the genetic influence upon individual differences of learning achievement was obvious. Furthermore, an interesting interaction between the teaching approaches and intelligence was found, that is, that the GA capitalises on and CA compensates for intelligence. This interactional pattern could be interpreted as an example of genotype-environment interaction. The relationship between genetic factors and learning aptitudes is discussed.

  19. Making Sense and Nonsense: Comparing Mediated Discourse and Agential Realist Approaches to Materiality in a Preschool Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Karen E.; Peppler, Kylie A.; Keune, Anna; Thompson, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Two approaches to materiality (i.e. mediated discourse and agential realism) are compared to explore their usefulness in tracking literacies in action and artefacts produced during a play and design activity in a preschool makerspace. Mediated discourse analysis has relied on linguistic framing and social semiotics to make sense of multimodality.…

  20. Using feminist, emotion-focused, and developmental approaches to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N

    2008-06-01

    A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique from sexual assault in adulthood are described, specifically its disruption of normal childhood development, its impact on attachment style and interpersonal relationships, its inescapability, and the stigma attached to it. Then, drawing on the developmental, emotion-focused, and feminist literatures, a number of considerations that would enhance the application of cognitive- behavioral trauma therapies to the treatment of women with PTSD related to CSA are delineated. These considerations relate to providing clients with corrective interpersonal experiences, creating new relationship events, enhancing affect regulation skills before initiating exposure therapy, considering the time elapsed since the abuse, addressing themes of power, betrayal, self-blame, stigma, and sex-related cognitions and emotions, and helping clients develop a feminist consciousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reliability and vulnerability analyses of critical infrastructures: Comparing two approaches in the context of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Jonas; Hassel, Henrik; Zio, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Society depends on services provided by critical infrastructures, and hence it is important that they are reliable and robust. Two main approaches for gaining knowledge required for designing and improving critical infrastructures are reliability analysis and vulnerability analysis. The former analyses the ability of the system to perform its intended function; the latter analyses its inability to withstand strains and the effects of the consequent failures. The two approaches have similarities but also some differences with respect to what type of information they generate about the system. In this view, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss and contrast these approaches. To strengthen the discussion and exemplify its findings, a Monte Carlo-based reliability analysis and a vulnerability analysis are considered in their application to a relatively simple, but representative, system the IEEE RTS96 electric power test system. The exemplification reveals that reliability analysis provides a good picture of the system likely behaviour, but fails to capture a large portion of the high consequence scenarios, which are instead captured in the vulnerability analysis. Although these scenarios might be estimated to have small probabilities of occurrence, they should be identified, considered and treated cautiously, as probabilistic analyses should not be the only input to decision-making for the design and protection of critical infrastructures. The general conclusion that can be drawn from the findings of the example is that vulnerability analysis should be used to complement reliability studies, as well as other forms of probabilistic risk analysis. Measures should be sought for reducing both the vulnerability, i.e. improving the system ability to withstand strains and stresses, and the reliability, i.e. improving the likely behaviour

  2. Comparing three different approaches to the measurement of needs concerning fatigue in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify patients having fatigue, it is necessary to assess the patients fatigue systematically. This study investigates three different approaches to the assessment of needs concerning fatigue in patients with advanced cancer and addresses the following questions. METHODS: In a cross......-sectional nationwide survey, patients were asked about their needs concerning fatigue in three different ways: Fatigue intensity was measured with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire, fatigue burden (the extent fatigue was a problem) and fatigue felt need...

  3. Bobath and traditional approaches in post-stroke gait rehabilitation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajewska Emilia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of a study of post-stroke gait reeducation using the Bobath neuro‑developmental treatment (NDT-Bobath method and the traditional approach.

  4. Bobath and traditional approaches in post-stroke gait rehabilitation in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mikołajewska Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Study aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of a study of post-stroke gait reeducation using the Bobath neuro‑developmental treatment (NDT-Bobath) method and the traditional approach.

  5. Comparing Delivery Approaches to Teaching Abnormal Psychology: Investigating Student Perceptions and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goette, William F.; Delello, Julie A.; Schmitt, Andrew L.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Rangel, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the academic performance and perceptions of 114 undergraduate students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Specifically, this study focuses on whether face-to-face (F2F) or blended modalities are associated with student learning outcomes. In this study, data analysis was based upon the examination of end-of-course…

  6. Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Weighted Comparison Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Larner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There are many cognitive screening instruments available to clinicians when assessing patients' cognitive function, but the best way to compare the diagnostic utility of these tests is uncertain. One method is to undertake a weighted comparison which takes into account the difference in sensitivity and specificity of two tests, the relative clinical misclassification costs of true- and false-positive diagnosis, and also disease prevalence. Methods: Data were examined from four pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies from one clinic which compared the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory (TYM test, and the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, respectively. Results: Weighted comparison calculations suggested a net benefit for ACE-R, MoCA, and MMP compared to MMSE, but a net loss for TYM test compared to MMSE. Conclusion: Routine incorporation of weighted comparison or other similar net benefit measures into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration to better inform clinicians of the relative value of cognitive screening instruments.

  7. Case Problems for Problem-Based Pedagogical Approaches: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Dass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of 51 case problems used in five problem-based pedagogical models was conducted to examine whether there are differences in their characteristics and the implications of such differences on the selection and generation of ill-structured case problems. The five pedagogical models were: situated learning, goal-based scenario,…

  8. A comparative study of cellulose nanofibrils disintegrated via multiple processing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Qing; Ronald Sabo; J.Y. Zhu; Umesh Agarwal; Zhiyong Cai; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Various cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) created by refining and microfluidization, in combination withenzymatic or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized pretreatment were compared. Themorphological properties, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity for the obtained nanofibrils, aswell as physical and mechanical properties of the corresponding films...

  9. A model based approach to reference-free straightness measurement at the Nanometer Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, C.; Stavridis, M.; Walzel, M.; Elster, C.; Wiegmann, A.; Schulz, M.; Köning, R.; Flügge, J.; Tutsch, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Nanometer Comparator is the PTB reference length measuring machine for high precision calibrations of line scales and encoder systems. Up to now the Nanometer Comparator allows to measure the position of line structures in one dimension only. For high precision characterisations of masks, scales and incremental encoders, the measurement of the straightness of graduations is a requirement from emerging lithography techniques. Therefore the Nanometer Comparator will be equipped with an additional short range measurement system in the Y-direction, realized as a single path plane mirror interferometer and supposed to achieve sub-nm uncertainties. To compensate the topography of the Y-mirror, the Traceable Multi Sensor (TMS) method will be implemented to achieve a reference-free straightness measurement. Virtual experiments are used to estimate the lower accuracy limit and to determine the sensitive parameters. The virtual experiments contain the influence of the positioning devices, interferometer errors as well as non-perfect adjustment and fabrication of the machine geometry. The whole dynamic measurement process of the Nanometer Comparator including its influence on the TMS analysis, e.g. non-equally spaced measurement points, is simulated. We will present the results of these virtual experiments as well as the most relevant error sources for straightness measurement, incorporating the low uncertainties of the existing and planned measurement systems.

  10. Comparative nonlinear modeling of renal autoregulation in rats: Volterra approach versus artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1998-01-01

    kernel estimation method based on Laguerre expansions. The results for the two types of artificial neural networks and the Volterra models are comparable in terms of normalized mean square error (NMSE) of the respective output prediction for independent testing data. However, the Volterra models obtained...

  11. A Comparative Meta-Analysis of 5E and Traditional Approaches in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Özgür; Batdi, Veli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the 5E learning model with traditional learning methods in terms of their effect on students' academic achievement, retention and attitude scores. In this context, the meta-analytic method known as the "analysis of analyses" was used and a review undertaken of the studies and theses (N = 14) executed…

  12. Comparing Angular and Curved Shapes in Terms of Implicit Associations and Approach/Avoidance Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    Full Text Available Most people prefer smoothly curved shapes over more angular shapes. We investigated the origin of this effect using abstract shapes and implicit measures of semantic association and preference. In Experiment 1 we used a multidimensional Implicit Association Test (IAT to verify the strength of the association of curved and angular polygons with danger (safe vs. danger words, valence (positive vs. negative words and gender (female vs. male names. Results showed that curved polygons were associated with safe and positive concepts and with female names, whereas angular polygons were associated with danger and negative concepts and with male names. Experiment 2 used a different implicit measure, which avoided any need to categorise the stimuli. Using a revised version of the Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC task we tested with a stick figure (i.e., the manikin approach and avoidance reactions to curved and angular polygons. We found that RTs for approaching vs. avoiding angular polygons did not differ, even in the condition where the angles were more pronounced. By contrast participants were faster and more accurate when moving the manikin towards curved shapes. Experiment 2 suggests that preference for curvature cannot derive entirely from an association of angles with threat. We conclude that smoothly curved contours make these abstract shapes more pleasant. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of such a preference.

  13. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  14. Documenting Pornography Use in America: A Comparative Analysis of Methodological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnerus, Mark; Gordon, David; Price, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of pornography use in the United States range widely. We explore the reasons for the variation in such estimates among U.S. adults using data from four different recent nationally representative samples-each of which asked a different type of question about pornography use. We attribute the notable variation in estimates to differences in question wording and answer options, and assert that a survey question asking respondents about their most recent use of pornography minimizes recall bias and is better poised to assess the overall prevalence of pornography in a population than is the more common approach of asking respondents about their historical general-use pattern. When we privileged the most-recent-use approach, survey data from 2014 reveal that 46% of men and 16% of women between the ages of 18 and 39 intentionally viewed pornography in a given week. These numbers are notably higher than most previous population estimates employing different types of questions. The results have ramifications for methods of surveying sensitive self-reported behaviors and for contextualizing scholars' claims as well as popular conversations about the reach and implications of pornography use in the United States.

  15. An in vitro approach for comparative interspecies metabolism of agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Paul M; Bartels, Michael; Bentley, Karin S; Corvaro, Marco; Funk, Dorothee; Himmelstein, Matthew W; Neumann, Birgit; Strupp, Christian; Zhang, Fagen; Mehta, Jyotigna

    2017-08-01

    The metabolism and elimination of a xenobiotic has a direct bearing on its potential to cause toxicity in an organism. The confidence with which data from safety studies can be extrapolated to humans depends, among other factors, upon knowing whether humans are systemically exposed to the same chemical entities (i.e. a parent compound and its metabolites) as the laboratory animals used to study toxicity. Ideally, to understand a metabolite in terms of safety, both the chemical structure and the systemic exposure would need to be determined. However, as systemic exposure data (i.e. blood concentration/time data of test material or metabolites) in humans will not be available for agrochemicals, an in vitro approach must be taken. This paper outlines an in vitro experimental approach for evaluating interspecies metabolic comparisons between humans and animal species used in safety studies. The aim is to ensure, where possible, that all potential human metabolites are also present in the species used in the safety studies. If a metabolite is only observed in human in vitro samples and is not present in a metabolic pathway defined in the toxicological species already, the toxicological relevance of this metabolite must be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multimodality therapy approaches, local and systemic treatment, compared with chemotherapy alone in recurrent glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Navarria, Pierina; Pessina, Federico; Ascolese, Anna Maria; D’Agostino, Giuseppe; Tomatis, Stefano; De Rose, Fiorenza; Villa, Elisa; Maggi, Giulia; Simonelli, Matteo; Clerici, Elena; Soffietti, Riccardo; Santoro, Armando; Cozzi, Luca; Bello, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Long-term local control in Glioblastoma is rarely achieved and nearly all patients relapse. In this study we evaluated the clinical effect of different treatment approaches in recurrent patients. Forty-three patients, with median age of 51 years were evaluated for salvage treatment: re-resection and/or re-irradiation plus chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone. Response was recorded using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. Hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0. Twenty-one patients underwent chemotherapy combined with local treatment, surgery and/or radiation therapy, and 22 underwent chemotherapy only. The median follow up was 7 months (range 3–28 months). The 1 and 2-years Progression Free Survival was 65 and 10 % for combined treatment and 22 and 0 % for chemotherapy alone (p < 0.01). The 1 and 2-years overall survival was 69 and 29 % for combined and 26 and 0 % for chemotherapy alone (p < 0.01). No toxicity greater than grade 2 was recorded. These data showed that in glioblastoma recurrence the combination of several approaches in a limited group of patients is more effective than a single treatment alone. This stress the importance of multimodality treatment whenever clinically feasible

  17. Comparative analysis of methodical approaches to evaluating the efficiency of investment projects in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstooukhov, D.A.; Karkhov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    At present time, a transition is made to market mechanisms of economy functioning based on equilibrium price formation for products of enterprises and their self-financing. Based on long-term forecasts of economic development, electric power industry should not only ensure preservation of the accumulated potential but should also provide for modernization, reconstruction, service life extension of operating power facilities and construction of new ones. Under market conditions, nuclear power installations will have to prove their right to exist and develop in competition with other power technologies. In these conditions, the responsibility is growing for the correctness of investment decisions taken in the power industry and methods on which they are based. This paper analyzes currently used calculation methods for economic efficiency of investment projects. It emphasizes the limitations and drawbacks of the existing methodical approaches, and their inconsistency with market economy and scientific and technological progress (STP). The said drawbacks lead to serious mistakes in evaluating the prospects for the development of nuclear power. The paper describes a methodical approach based on equilibrium price formation that does not have the said drawbacks and may be used as the basis for further work on creation of improved calculation methods for the economic efficiency of investment projects in nuclear power. (authors)

  18. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: impact of sonographic newborn hip screening on the outcome of early treated decentered hip joints-a single center retrospective comparative cohort study based on Graf's method of hip ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, Christian; Fürntrath, Frank; Saba, Yasaman; Berghold, Andrea; Radl, Roman

    2011-12-01

    PURPOSE/BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of neonatal sonographic hip screening using Graf's method for the management and outcome of orthopaedic treatment of decentered hip joints with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), using three decades (1978-2007) of clinical information compiled in a medical database. Three representative cohorts of consecutive cases of decentered hip joints were selected according to different search criteria and inclusion and exclusion parameters: (1) cohort 1 (1978-1982; n = 80), without sonographic screening; (2) cohort 2.1 (1994-1996; n = 91), with nationwide established general sonographic screening according to the Graf-method; (3) cohort 2.2 (2003-2005; n = 91), with sonographic screening including referred cases for open reduction from non-screened populations. These three cohorts were compared for the following parameters: age at initial treatment, successful closed reduction, necessary overhead traction, necessary adductor-tenotomy, rate of open reduction, rate of avascular necrosis (AVN) and rate of secondary acetabuloplasty. The age at initial treatment was reduced from 5.5 months in the first cohort to 2 months in the two subsequent two cohorts and the rate of successful closed reduction increased from 88.7 to 98.9 and 95.6%, respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in six out of seven parameters with sonographic hip screening; only the rate of secondary acetabuloplasty did not improve significantly. Compared to the era before the institution of a sonographic hip screening programme according to the Graf-method in Austria in 1992, ultrasound screening based-treatment of decentered hip joints has become safer, shorter and simpler: "safer" means lower rate of AVN, "shorter" means less treatment time due to earlier onset and "simpler" means that the devices are now less invasive and highly standardized.

  19. Nest predation and reproductive traits in small passerines: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Miguel; Suárez, Francisco

    Nest predation can be a decisive factor in the evolution of bird reproduction strategies. This paper compares several reproductive traits in small passerines on the Iberian Peninsula (n=31) with the probability of daily nest survival from predation. We consider the phylogenetic relationships between species by means of an analysis according to three models of evolutionary change: Brownian, punctuational and GRAFEN'S arbitrary. In this comparative evolutionary scenario, clutch size, egg volume and incubation period appear not to change in relation to nest predation, while the nestling phase duration is a positively-related parameter to daily nest survival from predation. These results are consistent for all models of evolutionary change. Thus, from the perspective of nest predation, the nestling period is the most important evolutionary parameter in small passerines. A hypothetical influence of nest predation on passerine clutch and egg size should only be regarded as an indirect factor, linked to the relationship between these parameters and the duration of the nestling period.

  20. Comparing wall modeled LES and prescribed boundary layer approach in infinite wind farm simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak, Hamid; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    be imposed to study the wake and dynamics of vortices. The methodology is used for simulation of interactions of an infinitely long wind farm with the neutral ABL. Flow statistics are compared with the WMLES computations in terms of mean velocity as well as higher order statistical moments. The results......This paper aims at presenting a simple and computationally fast method for simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and comparing the results with the commonly used wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES). The simple method, called Prescribed Mean Shear and Turbulence (PMST) hereafter......, is based on imposing body forces over the whole domain to maintain a desired unsteady ow, where the ground is modeled as a slip-free boundary which in return hampers the need for grid refinement and/or wall modeling close to the solid walls. Another strength of this method besides being computationally...

  1. A Comparative Approach for Ranking Contaminated Sites Based on the Risk Assessment Paradigm Using Fuzzy PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Kluck, Cheryl; Achari, Gopal

    2009-11-01

    A ranking system for contaminated sites based on comparative risk methodology using fuzzy Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) was developed in this article. It combines the concepts of fuzzy sets to represent uncertain site information with the PROMETHEE, a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. Criteria are identified based on a combination of the attributes (toxicity, exposure, and receptors) associated with the potential human health and ecological risks posed by contaminated sites, chemical properties, site geology and hydrogeology and contaminant transport phenomena. Original site data are directly used avoiding the subjective assignment of scores to site attributes. When the input data are numeric and crisp the PROMETHEE method can be used. The Fuzzy PROMETHEE method is preferred when substantial uncertainties and subjectivities exist in site information. The PROMETHEE and fuzzy PROMETHEE methods are both used in this research to compare the sites. The case study shows that this methodology provides reasonable results.

  2. How Do the Approaches to Accountability Compare for Charities Working in International Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, David

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to accountability vary between charities working to reduce under-five mortality in underdeveloped countries, and healthcare workers and facilities in Canada. Comparison reveals key differences, similarities and trade-offs. For example, while health professionals are governed by legislation and healthcare facilities have a de facto obligation to be accredited, charities and other international organizations are not subject to mandatory international laws or guidelines or to de facto international standards. Charities have policy goals similar to those found in the Canadian substudies, including access, quality, cost control, cost-effectiveness and customer satisfaction. However, the relative absence of external policy tools means that these goals may not be realized. Accountability can be beneficial, but too much or the wrong kind of accountability can divert resources and diminish returns. PMID:25305397

  3. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection

  4. Integrated approach for characterizing and comparing exposure-based impacts with life cycle impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ions that involve burden shifting or that result in only incremental improvement. Focusing in the life cycle impacts on widely accepted and applied impact categories like global warming potential or cumulative energy demand aggregating several impact categories will lead to underestimations of life...... to the environment from product-related processes along the product life cycle. We build on a flexible mass balance-based modeling system yielding cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific Product Intake Fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical...... in a product. When combined chemical masses in products and further with toxicity information, this approach is a resourceful way to inform CAA and minimize human exposure to toxic chemicals in consumer products through both product use and environmental emissions. We use an example of chemicals in consumer...

  5. Comparing Millennials With Their Predecessors Regarding Online Travel Behaviours: A Logistical Regression Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Suzanne; Henriques, Carla; Duarte, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Millennials, also known as Generation Y, are characterized by their use of technology, which is an integral part of their lives. Research has shown that they are different from earlier generations regarding their behaviours and attitudes. This article investigates and compares the behavior of Millennials with those of previous generations using data collected among 1,732 Worldwide Internet users. In order to understand what differentiates Millennials, this study considers several characterist...

  6. Influence of the digit in receipt of information: a comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DROUALLIERE Loïc

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on studying the potential power of influence of an information supported by statistics. The authors seek to explore this proposal from various hypotheses by comparing the relative effect on a group of students of plural formulations containing or not statistics. From this work emerges a new question that sounds against-intuitive, this generation may be more sensitive to the information when the latter is supported by moderated statistics.

  7. Toward a more general approach to political stability in comparative political systems

    OpenAIRE

    Apolte, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a general framework for analyzing political (in)stability in comparative political systems. It distinguishes different subgroups of a society, some of which have a potential for pursuing a redistribution of wealth in its broadest sense via constitutional or non-constitutional government overturns. Political instability implies a cycle of overturns and redistributions with no stable equilibrium. It will be shown that individual incentives for participating in overturn attem...

  8. Creating a "Latino" Artist Identity in-between Sweden and Latin America - A Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lindholm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article engages in a close comparative reading of the creation of a “Latino” artist identity by two Swedish artists – Fredrik FreddeRico Ekelund and Rodrigo Rodde Bernal. By focusing on the theoretical concept of white Swedish masculin- ity, it aims to deepen the understanding of how such identities are created within and against the background of specific historical contexts and locations.

  9. Biomarker responses to environmental contamination in estuaries: A comparative multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Reis-Santos, Patrick; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2017-08-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months. Two sites per estuarine system were selected based on anthropogenic pressures and magnitude of environmental contamination. Antioxidant enzyme activities in fish species suggested a ubiquitous response to oxidative stress, while biotransformation and effect biomarkers exhibited higher spatial and temporal variation. In invertebrate species, biotransformation enzyme activity was clearly less variable than in fish evidencing lower xenobiotic transformation capability. Overall, largest biomarker responses were found in the most contaminated sites (Tejo), yet species-specific patterns were evident. These should be factored in multi-taxa approaches, considering that the differential functional traits of species, such as habitat use, life-stage, feeding or physiology can influence exposure routes and biomarker responses. The Integrated Biomarker Response index highlighted patterns in biomarker responses which were not immediately evident when analyzing biomarkers individually. Overall, results provided insights into the complexity of species responses to contamination in naturally varying estuarine environments. Ultimately, multi-taxa and multi-biomarker approaches provide a comprehensive and complementary view of ecosystem health, encompassing diverse forms of biological integration and exposure routes, and allow the validation of results among markers

  10. Identifying dominant controls on hydrologic parameter transfer from gauged to ungauged catchments: a comparative hydrology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Archfield, S.A.; Wagener, T.

    2014-01-01

    Daily streamflow information is critical for solving various hydrologic problems, though observations of continuous streamflow for model calibration are available at only a small fraction of the world’s rivers. One approach to estimate daily streamflow at an ungauged location is to transfer rainfall–runoff model parameters calibrated at a gauged (donor) catchment to an ungauged (receiver) catchment of interest. Central to this approach is the selection of a hydrologically similar donor. No single metric or set of metrics of hydrologic similarity have been demonstrated to consistently select a suitable donor catchment. We design an experiment to diagnose the dominant controls on successful hydrologic model parameter transfer. We calibrate a lumped rainfall–runoff model to 83 stream gauges across the United States. All locations are USGS reference gauges with minimal human influence. Parameter sets from the calibrated models are then transferred to each of the other catchments and the performance of the transferred parameters is assessed. This transfer experiment is carried out both at the scale of the entire US and then for six geographic regions. We use classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to determine the relationship between catchment similarity and performance of transferred parameters. Similarity is defined using physical/climatic catchment characteristics, as well as streamflow response characteristics (signatures such as baseflow index and runoff ratio). Across the entire US, successful parameter transfer is governed by similarity in elevation and climate, and high similarity in streamflow signatures. Controls vary for different geographic regions though. Geology followed by drainage, topography and climate constitute the dominant similarity metrics in forested eastern mountains and plateaus, whereas agricultural land use relates most strongly with successful parameter transfer in the humid plains.

  11. Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended

  12. Integrating genetic and toxicogenomic information for determining underlying susceptibility to developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua F; Port, Jesse A; Yu, Xiaozhong; Faustman, Elaine M

    2010-10-01

    To understand the complex etiology of developmental disorders, an understanding of both genetic and environmental risk factors is needed. Human and rodent genetic studies have identified a multitude of gene candidates for specific developmental disorders such as neural tube defects (NTDs). With the emergence of toxicogenomic-based assessments, scientists now also have the ability to compare and understand the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously across strain, time, and exposure in developmental models. Using a systems-based approach in which we are able to evaluate information from various parts and levels of the developing organism, we propose a framework for integrating genetic information with toxicogenomic-based studies to better understand gene-environmental interactions critical for developmental disorders. This approach has allowed us to characterize candidate genes in the context of variables critical for determining susceptibility such as strain, time, and exposure. Using a combination of toxicogenomic studies and complementary bioinformatic tools, we characterize NTD candidate genes during normal development by function (gene ontology), linked phenotype (disease outcome), location, and expression (temporally and strain-dependent). In addition, we show how environmental exposures (cadmium, methylmercury) can influence expression of these genes in a strain-dependent manner. Using NTDs as an example of developmental disorder, we show how simple integration of genetic information from previous studies into the standard microarray design can enhance analysis of gene-environment interactions to better define environmental exposure-disease pathways in sensitive and resistant mouse strains. © Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo

    2002-01-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 ±3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 ±3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9±2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8±2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD

  14. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 {+-}3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 {+-}3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9{+-}2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8{+-}2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD.

  15. Methodological approach to the comparative study between digital libraries in Mozambique, Brazil and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the results of a PhD thesis that it intends to investigate the social impact of digital libraries, comparatively in Brazil, Mozambique and Paraguay. The study outlines the integrated systems of the Libraries of the Universities of São Paulo, Eduardo Mondlane and National de Asuncion, trough checking qualitative and quantitative indicators of the impact from digital libraries, uses as methodology the survey and interview applied to its users, students, teachers, librarians, support staff and directors. The results aim to foster the creation of other similar libraries, reduce the digital gap and contribute significantly to the sustainable development of each country.

  16. A Refined Basket of Goods Approach for Comparing Construction Costs between Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most comparisons of construction industry performance requirethat construction costs be converted to a common base. Existingmechanisms for such conversions produce unreliable results.A proposed method for producing industry-specifi c conversionfactors was tested using a single building type. A basket ofmaterials and labour was identifi ed and weighted to refl ect the costshare of each item in a completed project. Prices for the basketwere gathered in three cities and simple construction specifi cconversion indices were calculated based on the constructionpurchasing power of each currency. The construction purchasingpower parities (CPPPs showed marked differences from otheravailable conversion mechanisms such as exchange rates andgeneral purchasing power parities (PPPs that have been used inprevious international comparison studies. While the study waslimited in scope, and is only the fi rst stage of a longer process, thesubstantial differences in comparative costs based on purchasingpower illustrate the problems inherent in international costcomparisons. For example, comparing Singapore and Sydney,Singapore costs appear to be only 40% of those in Sydney (basedon exchange rates about two-thirds the cost of Sydney (usinggeneral PPPs or almost the same (using the preliminary CPPPs.These results illustrate the problems of converting costs fromlocal currencies to a single base currency and suggest that furtherdevelopment is needed to improve the reliability of outcomes.

  17. Recruiting Adolescent Research Participants: In-Person Compared to Social Media Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Waite, Alan; Pumper, Megan; Colburn, Trina; Holm, Matt; Mendoza, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recruiting adolescent participants for research is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional in-person recruitment methods to social media recruitment. We recruited adolescents aged 14-18 years for a pilot physical activity intervention study, including a wearable physical activity tracking device and a Facebook group. Participants were recruited (a) in person from a local high school and an adolescent medicine clinic and (b) through social media, including Facebook targeted ads, sponsored tweets on Twitter, and a blog post. Data collected included total exposure (i.e., reach), engagement (i.e., interaction), and effectiveness. Effectiveness included screening and enrollment for each recruitment method, as well as time and resources spent on each recruitment method. In-person recruitment reached a total of 297 potential participants of which 37 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment reached a total of 34,272 potential participants of which 8 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment methods utilized an average of 1.6 hours of staff time and cost an average of $40.99 per participant enrolled, while in-person recruitment methods utilized an average of 0.75 hours of staff time and cost an average of $19.09 per participant enrolled. Social media recruitment reached more potential participants, but the cost per participant enrolled was higher compared to traditional methods. Studies need to consider benefits and downsides of traditional and social media recruitment methods based on study goals and population.

  18. Pre-Modern Bosom Serpents and Hippocrates' Epidemiae 5: 86: A Comparative and Contextual Folklore Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ermacora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A short Hippocratic passage (Epidemiae 5: 86 might constitute the earliest Western surviving variant of the well-known narrative and experiential theme of snakes or other animals getting into the human body (motif B784, tale-type ATU 285B*. This paper aims: 1 to throw light on this ancient passage through a comparative folkloric analysis and through a philological-contextual study, with reference to modern and contemporary interpretations; and 2 to offer an examination of previous scholarly enquiries on the fantastic intrusion of animals into the human body. In medieval and post-medieval folklore and medicine, sleeping out in the field was dangerous: snakes and similar animals could, it was believed, crawl into the sleeper’s body through the ears, eyes, mouth, nostrils, anus and vagina. Comparative material demonstrates, meanwhile, that the thirsty snake often entered the sleeper’s mouth because of its love of milk and wine. I will argue that while Epidemiae 5: 86 is modelled on this long-standing legendary pattern, for which many interesting literary pre-modern (and modern parallels exist, its relatively precise historical and cultural framework can be efficiently analysed. The story is embedded in a broad set of Graeco-Roman ideas and practices surrounding ancient beliefs about snakes and attitudes to the drinking of unmixed wine.

  19. Diverse Approaches to Implement and Monitor River Restoration: A Comparative Perspective in France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Kail, Jochem; Toedter, Anne; Wolter, Christian; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    River restoration is a main emphasis of river management in European countries. Cross-national comparisons of its implementation are still rare in scientific literature. Based on French and German national censuses, this study compares river restoration practices and monitoring by analysing 102 French and 270 German projects. This comparison aims to draw a spatial and temporal framework of restoration practices in both countries to identify potential drivers of cross-national similarities and differences. The results underline four major trends: (1) a lag of almost 15 years in river restoration implementation between France and Germany, with a consequently higher share of projects in Germany than in France, (2) substantial similarities in restored reach characteristics, short reach length, small rivers, and in "agricultural" areas, (3) good correspondences between stressors identified and restoration measures implemented. Morphological alterations were the most important highlighted stressors. River morphology enhancement, especially instream enhancements, were the most frequently implemented restoration measures. Some differences exist in specific restoration practices, as river continuity restoration were most frequently implemented in French projects, while large wood introduction or channel re-braiding were most frequently implemented in German projects, and (4) some quantitative and qualitative differences in monitoring practices and a significant lack of project monitoring, especially in Germany compared to France. These similarities and differences between Germany and France in restoration application and monitoring possibly result from a complex set of drivers that might be difficult to untangle (e.g., environmental, technical, political, cultural).

  20. Sugar Metabolism of the First Thermophilic Planctomycete Thermogutta terrifontis: Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcheninov, Alexander G.; Menzel, Peter; Gudbergsdottir, Soley R.; Slesarev, Alexei I.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Krogh, Anders; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Peng, Xu; Kublanov, Ilya V.

    2017-01-01

    Xanthan gum, a complex polysaccharide comprising glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid residues, is involved in numerous biotechnological applications in cosmetics, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and petroleum industries. Additionally, its oligosaccharides were shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and few other properties. Yet, despite its extensive usage, little is known about xanthan gum degradation pathways and mechanisms. Thermogutta terrifontis, isolated from a sample of microbial mat developed in a terrestrial hot spring of Kunashir island (Far-East of Russia), was described as the first thermophilic representative of the Planctomycetes phylum. It grows well on xanthan gum either at aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Genomic analysis unraveled the pathways of oligo- and polysaccharides utilization, as well as the mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The combination of genomic and transcriptomic approaches suggested a novel xanthan gum degradation pathway which involves novel glycosidase(s) of DUF1080 family, hydrolyzing xanthan gum backbone beta-glucosidic linkages and beta-mannosidases instead of xanthan lyases, catalyzing cleavage of terminal beta-mannosidic linkages. Surprisingly, the genes coding DUF1080 proteins were abundant in T. terrifontis and in many other Planctomycetes genomes, which, together with our observation that xanthan gum being a selective substrate for many planctomycetes, suggest crucial role of DUF1080 in xanthan gum degradation. Our findings shed light on the metabolism of the first thermophilic planctomycete, capable to degrade a number of polysaccharides, either aerobically or anaerobically, including the biotechnologically important bacterial polysaccharide xanthan gum. PMID:29163426

  1. Developing a More Comprehensive SOA Governance Framework by Using a Comparative Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilat Hojaji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many companies have adopted Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA as an approach to improve agility and increase performance of system development.However, deploying SOA has been encountered to some challenges and problems including difficulties in designing effective decision structures and building a SOA roadmap, lack of service funding and lack of consistent governance processes. Therefore, to address SOA challenges, organizations require a comprehensive and applicable SOA governance framework to implement management and control mechanisms. Study of existing SOA governance frameworks reveals that these frameworks are not expressive enough to cover all important elements of SOA governance and also, the y have very little discussions and clarifications regarding underpinning structures such as SOA processes and activities, governance procedures and measurement metrics. In this paper, in the process of proposing a new SOA governance framework, a set of important elements for a desired SOA governance framework is proposed. Based on these elements, a more comprehensive and expressive framework is developed based on governance structure of COBIT. It focuses on covering SOA governance elements and resolving the shortcomings of the existing frameworks and can delivers an appropriate solution to help enable effective SOA governance.

  2. Sugar Metabolism of the First Thermophilic Planctomycete Thermogutta terrifontis: Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Elcheninov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Xanthan gum, a complex polysaccharide comprising glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid residues, is involved in numerous biotechnological applications in cosmetics, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and petroleum industries. Additionally, its oligosaccharides were shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and few other properties. Yet, despite its extensive usage, little is known about xanthan gum degradation pathways and mechanisms. Thermogutta terrifontis, isolated from a sample of microbial mat developed in a terrestrial hot spring of Kunashir island (Far-East of Russia, was described as the first thermophilic representative of the Planctomycetes phylum. It grows well on xanthan gum either at aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Genomic analysis unraveled the pathways of oligo- and polysaccharides utilization, as well as the mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The combination of genomic and transcriptomic approaches suggested a novel xanthan gum degradation pathway which involves novel glycosidase(s of DUF1080 family, hydrolyzing xanthan gum backbone beta-glucosidic linkages and beta-mannosidases instead of xanthan lyases, catalyzing cleavage of terminal beta-mannosidic linkages. Surprisingly, the genes coding DUF1080 proteins were abundant in T. terrifontis and in many other Planctomycetes genomes, which, together with our observation that xanthan gum being a selective substrate for many planctomycetes, suggest crucial role of DUF1080 in xanthan gum degradation. Our findings shed light on the metabolism of the first thermophilic planctomycete, capable to degrade a number of polysaccharides, either aerobically or anaerobically, including the biotechnologically important bacterial polysaccharide xanthan gum.

  3. Children with speech sound disorder: Comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMurphy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder. A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with speech sound disorder were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2 or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2. The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production and phonological awareness skills. The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (eg. backward masking and frequency discrimination, whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (eg. phonological organisation and awareness. Both interventions consisted of twelve 45-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of nine hours. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

  4. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  5. Comparing Kriging and Regression Approaches for Mapping Soil Clay Content in a diverse Danish Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2013-01-01

    Information on the spatial variability of soil texture including soil clay content in a landscape is very important for agricultural and environmental use. Different prediction techniques are available to assess and map spatial variability of soil properties, but selecting the most suitable techn...... the prediction in OKst compared with that in OK, whereas RT showed the lowest performance of all (R2 = 0.52; RMSE = 0.52; and RPD = 1.17). We found RKrr to be an effective prediction method and recommend this method for any future soil mapping activities in Denmark....... technique at a given site has always been a major issue in all soil mapping applications. We studied the prediction performance of ordinary kriging (OK), stratified OK (OKst), regression trees (RT), and rule-based regression kriging (RKrr) for digital mapping of soil clay content at 30.4-m grid size using 6...

  6. An Evolutionary Approach to Water Innovation: Comparing the Water Innovation Systems in China and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moro, Mariú Abritta

    The recent rise of the ‘green economy’ agenda has increased the attention to eco-innovations globally, with issues related to water stress identified as one of the major bottlenecks for sustainable economic growth. Water being a critical resource, more and more countries worldwide are recognizing...... the need for increasing their innovative capacity within the water sector. Using evolutionary economic theory, this thesis undertakes a longitudinal and comparative analysis of the water innovation dynamics in Europe and China, representing respectively a developed, green early mover economy......, and a centrally-planned economy and green late mover. The thesis aims to assess the similarities and differences in the mechanisms applied across these two regions, with a focus on outlining what drives eco-innovation development in the water sector. The thesis builds more specifically on the innovation system...

  7. Comparative study of flare control laws. [optimal control of b-737 aircraft approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, A. A.; Breedlove, W. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A digital 3-D automatic control law was developed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between various initial glid slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition. A discrete, time-invariant, optimal, closed-loop control law presented for a linear regulator problem, was extended to include a system being acted upon by a constant disturbance. Two forms of control laws were derived to solve this problem. One method utilized the feedback of integral states defined appropriately and augmented with the original system equations. The second method formulated the problem as a control variable constraint, and the control variables were augmented with the original system. The control variable constraint control law yielded a better performance compared to feedback control law for the integral states chosen.

  8. Reexamining the domain of hypochondriasis: comparing the Illness Attitudes Scale to other approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined utility of the Illness Attitudes Scale (IAS; [Kellner, R. (1986). Somatization and hypochondriasis. New York: Praeger Publishers]) in a non-clinical college sample (N=235). Relationships among five recently identified IAS dimensions (fear of illness and pain, symptom effects, treatment experience, disease conviction, and health habits) and self-report measures of several anxiety-related constructs (health anxiety, body vigilance, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, and non-specific anxiety symptoms) were examined. In addition, this study investigated the incremental validity of the IAS dimensions in predicting medical utilization. The fear of illness and pain dimension and the symptom effects dimension consistently shared stronger relations with the anxiety-related constructs compared to the other three IAS dimensions. The symptom effects dimension, the disease conviction dimension, and the health habits dimension showed incremental validity over the anxiety-related constructs in predicting medical utilization. Implications for the IAS and future conceptualizations of HC are discussed.

  9. WRONGFUL TRADING: COMPARATIVE APPROACH (ENGLAND AND WALES, RUSSIA AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Konstantinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed to discover legal rules addressing insolvency trading in three jurisdictions: England and Wales, Russia and the USA. Originally it was a master’s dissertation written under supervision of Ms. Sarah Paterson, who was extremely helpful and patient. The key jurisdiction for the research is England and Wales, whose wrongful trading provision apparently was the very first insolvency regulation in the field. Here, we will give particular attention to the factual circumstances of insolvency trading and research how the concept of wrongful trading addresses them. The next question will be how the American concept of deepening insolvency and the Russian concept of subsidiary liability are comparable with wrongful trading. Later, we will focus on the functions that should be performed by the regulations. Also, the effectiveness of wrongful trading and similar overseas provisions will be examined. Finally, this paper attempts to find obstacles to the wide application of wrongful trading provision.

  10. "Unnatural Fornication" Cases Under State-Socialism: A Hungarian-Slovenian Comparative Social-Historical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Judit; Kuhar, Roman; Tóth, Tamás P

    2017-01-01

    This comparative social-historical study examines different versions of state-socialist body politics manifested in Hungary and Slovenia mainly during the 1950s by using archive material of "unnatural fornication" court cases. By analyzing the available Hungarian "természet elleni fajtalanság" and Slovenian "nenaravno občevanje" court cases, we can shed light on how the defendants were treated by the police and the judiciary. On the basis of these archive data that have never been examined before from these angles, we can construct an at least partial picture of the practices and consequences of state surveillance of same-sex-attracted men during state-socialism. The article explores the functioning of state-socialist social control mechanisms directed at nonnormative sexualities that had long-lasting consequences on the social representation of homosexuality in both countries.

  11. Antibiotic Resistances in Livestock: A Comparative Approach to Identify an Appropriate Regression Model for Count Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Hüls

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance in livestock is a matter of general concern. To develop hygiene measures and methods for resistance prevention and control, epidemiological studies on a population level are needed to detect factors associated with antimicrobial resistance in livestock holdings. In general, regression models are used to describe these relationships between environmental factors and resistance outcome. Besides the study design, the correlation structures of the different outcomes of antibiotic resistance and structural zero measurements on the resistance outcome as well as on the exposure side are challenges for the epidemiological model building process. The use of appropriate regression models that acknowledge these complexities is essential to assure valid epidemiological interpretations. The aims of this paper are (i to explain the model building process comparing several competing models for count data (negative binomial model, quasi-Poisson model, zero-inflated model, and hurdle model and (ii to compare these models using data from a cross-sectional study on antibiotic resistance in animal husbandry. These goals are essential to evaluate which model is most suitable to identify potential prevention measures. The dataset used as an example in our analyses was generated initially to study the prevalence and associated factors for the appearance of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli in 48 German fattening pig farms. For each farm, the outcome was the count of samples with resistant bacteria. There was almost no overdispersion and only moderate evidence of excess zeros in the data. Our analyses show that it is essential to evaluate regression models in studies analyzing the relationship between environmental factors and antibiotic resistances in livestock. After model comparison based on evaluation of model predictions, Akaike information criterion, and Pearson residuals, here the hurdle model was judged to be the most appropriate

  12. Comparative study of shale-gas production using single- and dual-continuum approaches

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-07-06

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of specifying the ideal hypothetical positions of matrices blocks and fractures in fractured porous media as a single-continuum reservoir model in a way that mimics the dual-porosity dual-permeability (DPDP) configuration. In order to get an ideal mimic, we use the typical configuration and geometrical hypotheses of the DPDP model for the SDFM. Unlike the DPDP model which consists of two equations for the two-continuum coupled by a transfer term, the proposed single-domain fracture model (SDFM) model consists of a single equation for the single-continuum. Each one of the two models includes slippage effect, adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, geomechanics, and thermodynamics deviation factor. For the thermodynamics calculations, the cubic Peng-Robinson equation of state is employed. The diffusion model is verified by calculating the total mass flux through a nanopore by combination of slip flow and Knudsen diffusion and compared with experimental data. A semi-implicit scheme is used for the time discretization while the thermodynamics equations are updated explicitly. The spatial discretization is done using the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method. Finally, numerical experiments are performed under variations of the physical parameters. Several results are discussed such as pressure, production rate and cumulative production. We compare the results of the two models using the same dimensions and physical and computational parameters. We found that the DPDP and the SDFM models production rate and cumulative production behave similarly with approximately the same slope but with some differences in values. Moreover, we found that the poroelasticity effect reduces the production rate and consequently the cumulative production rate but in the SDFM model the reservoir takes more time to achieve depletion than the DPDP model. The normal fracture factor which appears in the transfer term of the DPDP model is adjusted against

  13. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee Erickson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1,347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK and psbA-trnH and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot (Phylogenetic Distance [PD], Mean Phylogenetic Distance [MPD], and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance [MNTD]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for

  14. Numerical study comparing RANS and LES approaches on a circulation control airfoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Nishino, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → RANS compared with LES for circulation control airfoil. → RANS turbulence models need to account for streamline curvature. → RANS models yield higher lift than LES in spite of predicting similar jet separation. - Abstract: A numerical study over a nominally two-dimensional circulation control airfoil is performed using a large-eddy simulation code and two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes. Different Coanda jet blowing conditions are investigated. In addition to investigating the influence of grid density, a comparison is made between incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The incompressible equations are found to yield negligible differences from the compressible equations up to at least a jet exit Mach number of 0.64. The effects of different turbulence models are also studied. Models that do not account for streamline curvature effects tend to predict jet separation from the Coanda surface too late, and can produce non-physical solutions at high blowing rates. Three different turbulence models that account for streamline curvature are compared with each other and with large eddy simulation solutions. All three models are found to predict the Coanda jet separation location reasonably well, but one of the models predicts specific flow field details near the Coanda surface prior to separation much better than the other two. All Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations produce higher circulation than large eddy simulation computations, with different stagnation point location and greater flow acceleration around the nose onto the upper surface. The precise reasons for the higher circulation are not clear, although it is not solely a function of predicting the jet separation location correctly.

  15. Numerical study comparing RANS and LES approaches on a circulation control airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumsey, Christopher L., E-mail: c.l.rumsey@nasa.gov [Computational AeroSciences Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States); Nishino, Takafumi [Advanced Supercomputing Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > RANS compared with LES for circulation control airfoil. > RANS turbulence models need to account for streamline curvature. > RANS models yield higher lift than LES in spite of predicting similar jet separation. - Abstract: A numerical study over a nominally two-dimensional circulation control airfoil is performed using a large-eddy simulation code and two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes. Different Coanda jet blowing conditions are investigated. In addition to investigating the influence of grid density, a comparison is made between incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The incompressible equations are found to yield negligible differences from the compressible equations up to at least a jet exit Mach number of 0.64. The effects of different turbulence models are also studied. Models that do not account for streamline curvature effects tend to predict jet separation from the Coanda surface too late, and can produce non-physical solutions at high blowing rates. Three different turbulence models that account for streamline curvature are compared with each other and with large eddy simulation solutions. All three models are found to predict the Coanda jet separation location reasonably well, but one of the models predicts specific flow field details near the Coanda surface prior to separation much better than the other two. All Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations produce higher circulation than large eddy simulation computations, with different stagnation point location and greater flow acceleration around the nose onto the upper surface. The precise reasons for the higher circulation are not clear, although it is not solely a function of predicting the jet separation location correctly.

  16. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...... with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge...

  17. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge......Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...

  18. Comparing Two Different Approaches to the Modeling of the Common Cause Failures in Fault Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, I.; Mikulicic, V.; Vrbanic, I.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for common cause failures in systems that perform critical functions has been recognized as very important contributor to risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants. Consequentially, modeling of common cause failures (CCF) in fault trees has become one among the essential elements in any probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Detailed and realistic representation of CCF potential in fault tree structure is sometimes very challenging task. This is especially so in the cases where a common cause group involves more than two components. During the last ten years the difficulties associated with this kind of modeling have been overcome to some degree by development of integral PSA tools with high capabilities. Some of them allow for the definition of CCF groups and their automated expanding in the process of Boolean resolution and generation of minimal cutsets. On the other hand, in PSA models developed and run by more traditional tools, CCF-potential had to be modeled in the fault trees explicitly. With explicit CCF modeling, fault trees can grow very large, especially in the cases when they involve CCF groups with 3 or more members, which can become an issue for the management of fault trees and basic events with traditional non-integral PSA models. For these reasons various simplifications had to be made. Speaking in terms of an overall PSA model, there are also some other issues that need to be considered, such as maintainability and accessibility of the model. In this paper a comparison is made between the two approaches to CCF modeling. Analysis is based on a full-scope Level 1 PSA model for internal initiating events that had originally been developed by a traditional PSA tool and later transferred to a new-generation PSA tool with automated CCF modeling capabilities. Related aspects and issues mentioned above are discussed in the paper. (author)

  19. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  20. Facial emotion recognition in Williams syndrome and Down syndrome: A matching and developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Burt, Michael; Borgatti, Renato; Gagliardi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    In this study both the matching and developmental trajectories approaches were used to clarify questions that remain open in the literature on facial emotion recognition in Williams syndrome (WS) and Down syndrome (DS). The matching approach showed that individuals with WS or DS exhibit neither proficiency for the expression of happiness nor specific impairments for negative emotions. Instead, they present the same pattern of emotion recognition as typically developing (TD) individuals. Thus, the better performance on the recognition of positive compared to negative emotions usually reported in WS and DS is not specific of these populations but seems to represent a typical pattern. Prior studies based on the matching approach suggested that the development of facial emotion recognition is delayed in WS and atypical in DS. Nevertheless, and even though performance levels were lower in DS than in WS, the developmental trajectories approach used in this study evidenced that not only individuals with DS but also those with WS present atypical development in facial emotion recognition. Unlike in the TD participants, where developmental changes were observed along with age, in the WS and DS groups, the development of facial emotion recognition was static. Both individuals with WS and those with DS reached an early maximum developmental level due to cognitive constraints.

  1. The Profile of Functional Emotional Development of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders from the Perspective of Developmental, Individual Differences(DIR, Relationship-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanoo Aali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dominant approach in the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a behavioral approach. Proponents of the behavioral model believe that children with autism in access to capabilities in achieving love, empathy, language and creative thinking, have significant fundamental defects.  Instead model-based development of individual differences relationship offers a new approach in the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. According to this approach, early signs of autism and the major differences between these children with normal children, is the difference in capability development , nor behavioral symptoms. Methods and Materials:This study was a descriptive survey. Our research society were Children 4 to 6 years with ASD at official training centers for autism in Mashhad-Iran and  among them 40 children with available sampling, were selected according to the study entry criteria. 40 normal children that were matched with autistic children in sample group were selected as a comparison group. Data were analyzed using of spss16 with descriptive statistics, ANOVA and  chi square test. Results: Autistic Children at the ability to regulate attention, attraction and interest in human relations; exchange of desires, intentions and thoughts with others, shaping ideas and the ability to think logically, have a lower mean  and no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P

  2. Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Margriet; De Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-centered care seems promising in preventive pediatrics, but evidence is lacking as to whether this type of care is also valid as a means to identify risks to infants' social-emotional development. We aimed to examine the validity of such a family-centered approach. Methods: We

  3. A comparative analysis of ecosystem services valuation approaches for application at the local scale and in data scarce regions

    OpenAIRE

    Pandeya, B.; Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Mao, F.; Hannah, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of the ecosystem services concept across the science and policy arenas, the valuation of ecosystem services to guide sustainable development remains challenging, especially at a local scale and in data scarce regions. In this paper, we review and compare major past and current valuation approaches and discuss their key strengths and weaknesses for guiding policy decisions. To deal with the complexity of methods used in different valuation approa...

  4. Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): A comparative hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S.; Peters, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds within a 20 000 km2 region in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia: In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of the southeastern USA. Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers were also evaluated. Data were analysed for seven US Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauges, 17 National Weather Service rain gauges, and five USGS monitoring wells. Annual runoff coefficients (RCs; runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek) were not significantly greater than for the less-urbanized watersheds. The RCs for some streams were similar to others and the similar streams were grouped according to location. The RCs decreased from the higher elevation and higher relief watersheds to the lower elevation and lower relief watersheds: Values were 0.54 for the two Blue Ridge streams. 0.37 for the four middle Piedmont streams (near Atlanta), and 0.28 for a southern Piedmont stream. For the 25 largest stormflows, the peak flows for Peachtree Creek were 30% to 100% greater then peak flows for the other stream. The storm recession period for the urban stream was 1-2 days less than that for the other streams and the recession was characterized by a 2-day storm recession constant that was, on average, 40 to 100% greater, i.e. streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Baseflow recession constants ranged from 35 to 40% lower for Peachtree Creek than for the other streams; this is attributed to lower evapotranspiration losses, which result in a smaller change in groundwater storage than in the less-urbanized watersheds. Low flow of Peachtree Creek ranged from 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of stormwater and the paving of groundwater

  5. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Jones, Frank A.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A.; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J.; Ge, Xue-jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W.; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J.; Lum, Shawn K. Y.; Lutz, James A.; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D.; Fang-Sun, I.; Wright, S. Joseph; Wolf, Amy T.; Ye, W.; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of

  6. The importance of social-cognitive development and the developmental context for group dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killen, Melanie; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2017-01-01

    A developmental approach provides a unique vantage point for understanding the origins, acquisition, and nature of change regarding intergroup attitudes and behavior. Developmental research has focused predominantly on understanding and addressing negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors. We

  7. Towards a systematic approach to comparing distributions used in flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobée, B.; Cavadias, G.; Ashkar, F.; Bernier, J.; Rasmussen, P.

    1993-02-01

    The estimation of flood quantiles from available streamflow records has been a topic of extensive research in this century. However, the large number of distributions and estimation methods proposed in the scientific literature has led to a state of confusion, and a gap prevails between theory and practice. This concerns both at-site and regional flood frequency estimation. To facilitate the work of "hydrologists, designers of hydraulic structures, irrigation engineers and planners of water resources", the World Meteorological Organization recently published a report which surveys and compares current methodologies, and recommends a number of statistical distributions and estimation procedures. This report is an important step towards the clarification of this difficult topic, but we think that it does not effectively satisfy the needs of practitioners as intended, because it contains some statements which are not statistically justified and which require further discussion. In the present paper we review commonly used procedures for flood frequency estimation, point out some of the reasons for the present state of confusion concerning the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods, and propose the broad lines of a possible comparison strategy. We recommend that the results of such comparisons be discussed in an international forum of experts, with the purpose of attaining a more coherent and broadly accepted strategy for estimating floods.

  8. The perceived health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines: a comparative multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Cox, Patrick; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2008-02-01

    Radon and overhead powerlines are two radiation risk cases that have raised varying levels of concern among the general public and experts. Despite both involving radiation-a typically feared and unseen health hazard-individuals' perceptions of the two risk cases may invoke rather different factors. We examined individual and geographic-contextual factors influencing public perceptions of the health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines in a comparative research design, utilizing a postal questionnaire with 1,528 members of the general public (response rate 28%) and multilevel modeling techniques. This study found that beliefs about the two risk cases mainly differed according to the level of "exposure"-defined here in terms of spatial proximity. We argue that there are two alternative explanations for this pattern of findings: that risk perception itself varies directly with proximity, or that risk is more salient to concerned people in the exposed areas. We also found that while people living in high radon areas are more concerned about the risks of indoor radon gas, they find these risks more acceptable and have more trust in authorities. These results might reflect the positive effects of successive radon campaigns in high radon areas, which may have raised awareness and concern, and at the same time may have helped to increase trust by showing that the government takes the health risks of indoor radon gas seriously, suggesting that genuine risk communication initiatives may have positive impacts on trust in risk management institutions.

  9. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  10. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2011-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers. Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic characteristics of these two diseases are compared.

  11. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B StrickerInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers. Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic characteristics of these two diseases are compared.Keywords: Digital dermatitis, Morgellons disease, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  12. Comparing approaches to screening for angle closure in older Chinese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Chang, D S; Jiang, Y; He, M; Foster, P J; Munoz, B; Kashiwagi, K; Friedman, D S

    2012-01-01

    Aims Primary angle-closure glaucoma is expected to account for nearly 50% of bilateral glaucoma blindness by 2020. This study was conducted to assess the performance of the scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) and limbal anterior chamber depth (LACD) as screening methods for angle closure. Methods This study assessed two clinical populations to compare SPAC, LACD, and gonioscopy: the Zhongshan Angle-closure Prevention Trial, from which 370 patients were eligible as closed-angle participants and the Liwan Eye Study, from which 72 patients were selected as open-angle controls. Eligible participants were assessed by SPAC, LACD, and gonioscopy. Results Angle status was defined by gonioscopy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for SPAC was 0.92 (0.89–0.95) whereas AUROC for LACD was 0.94 (0.92–0.97). Using conventional cutoff points, sensitivity/specificity was 93.0%/70.8% for SPAC and 94.1%/87.5% for LACD. Sequential testing using both SPAC and LACD increased the specificity to 94.4% and decreased the sensitivity to 87.0%. Conclusion SPAC has significantly lower specificity than LACD measurement using conventional cutoffs but interpretation of the findings can be performed by modestly trained personnel. PMID:21997356

  13. Taking a comparative approach: analysing personality as a multivariate behavioural response across species.

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    Alecia J Carter

    Full Text Available Animal personality, repeatable behaviour through time and across contexts, is ecologically and evolutionarily important as it can account for the exhibition of sub-optimal behaviours. Interspecific comparisons have been suggested as important for understanding the evolution of animal personality; however, these are seldom accomplished due, in part, to the lack of statistical tools for quantifying differences and similarities in behaviour between groups of individuals. We used nine species of closely-related coral reef fishes to investigate the usefulness of ecological community analyses for the analysis of between-species behavioural differences and behavioural heterogeneity. We first documented behavioural carryover across species by observing the fishes' behaviour and measuring their response to a threatening stimulus to quantify boldness. Bold fish spent more time away from the reef and fed more than shy fish. We then used ecological community analysis tools (canonical variate analysis, multi-response permutation procedure, and permutational analysis of multivariate dispersion and identified four 'clusters' of behaviourally similar fishes, and found that the species differ in the behavioural variation expressed; some species are more behaviourally heterogeneous than others. We found that ecological community analysis tools are easily and fruitfully applied to comparative studies of personality and encourage their use by future studies.

  14. The feasibility of single-port laparoscopic appendectomy using a solo approach: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say-June; Choi, Byung-Jo; Jeong, Wonjun; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of solo surgery with single-port laparoscopic appendectomy, which is termed herein solo-SPLA (solo-single-port laparoscopic appendectomy). This study prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed data from patients who had undergone either non-solo-SPLA (n = 150) or solo-SPLA (n = 150). Several devices were utilized for complete, skin-to-skin solo-SPSA, including a Lone Star Retractor System and an adjustable mechanical camera holder. Operating times were not significantly different between solo- and non-solo-SPLA (45.0 ± 21.0 minutes vs. 46.7 ± 26.1 minutes, P = 0.646). Most postoperative variables were also comparable between groups, including the necessity for intravenous analgesics (0.7 ± 1.2 ampules [solo-SPLA] vs. 0.9 ± 1.5 ampules [non-solo-SPLA], P = 0.092), time interval to gas passing (1.3 ± 1.0 days vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 days, P = 0.182), and the incidence of postoperative complications (4.0% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.153). Moreover, solo-SPLA effectively lowered the operating cost by reducing surgical personnel expenses. Solo-SPLA economized staff numbers and thus lowered hospital costs without lengthening of operating time. Therefore, solo-SPLA could be considered a safe and feasible alternative to non-solo-SPLA.

  15. Comparative study of the Peach Bottom turbine trip experiment using two different coupled codes approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambara, M.; Bousbia-Salah, A.; D'Auria, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the last years a great concern about the neutron-3D/thermal-hydraulic codes coupling took place. Owing to the improved computational technology, 'best estimate' analyses are today a common tool to assess safety features, and they are necessary if an asymmetric behaviour in the core region exists, or if strong interactions between the core neutronics and reactor thermal-hydraulic occur. In order to validate the coupled codes performances, several international programmes were issued. Among these activities, the OECD/NEA BWR Turbine Trip (TT) was chosen for further sensitivity analyses. It consists of a turbine trip (TT) experiment carried out at the Peach Bottom 2 BWR. In this paper, the results of two different coupled codes systems are summarized and compared. The BWR TT simulations were carried out coupling the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5/mode 3.2 to the 3D neutron kinetics code Parcs/2.3, and also the system code ATHLET to the neutronics code QUABOX-CUBBOX. An exhaustive overview of the main features is given, and those aspects, which need further developments and experiences, are pointed out. (authors)

  16. Comparing bona fide psychotherapies of depression in adults with two meta-analytical approaches.

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    Sarah R Braun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous investigations, the question whether all bona fide treatments of depression are equally efficacious in adults has not been sufficiently answered. METHOD: We applied two different meta-analytical techniques (conventional meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparisons. Overall, 53 studies with 3,965 patients, which directly compared two or more bona fide psychotherapies in a randomized trial, were included. Meta-analyses were conducted regarding five different types of outcome measures. Additionally, the influence of possible moderators was examined. RESULTS: Direct comparisons of cognitive behavior therapy, behavior activation therapy, psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapies versus all other respective treatments indicated that at the end of treatment all treatments but supportive therapies were equally efficacious whereas there was some evidence that supportive therapies were somewhat less efficacious than all other treatments according to patient self-ratings and clinical significance. At follow-up no significant differences were present. Age, gender, comorbid mental disorders, and length of therapy session were found to moderate efficacy. Cognitive behavior therapy was superior in studies where therapy sessions lasted 90 minutes or longer, behavior activation therapy was more efficacious when therapy sessions lasted less than 90 minutes. Mixed treatment comparisons indicated no statistically significant differences in treatment efficacy but some interesting trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there might be differential effects of bona fide psychotherapies which should be examined in detail.

  17. Comparing two non-equilibrium approaches to modelling of a free-burning arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeva, M; Uhrlandt, D; Benilov, M S; Cunha, M D

    2013-01-01

    Two models of high-pressure arc discharges are compared with each other and with experimental data for an atmospheric-pressure free-burning arc in argon for arc currents of 20–200 A. The models account for space-charge effects and thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in somewhat different ways. One model considers space-charge effects, thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in the near-cathode region and thermal non-equilibrium in the bulk plasma. The other model considers thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in the entire arc plasma and space-charge effects in the near-cathode region. Both models are capable of predicting the arc voltage in fair agreement with experimental data. Differences are observed in the arc attachment to the cathode, which do not strongly affect the near-cathode voltage drop and the total arc voltage for arc currents exceeding 75 A. For lower arc currents the difference is significant but the arc column structure is quite similar and the predicted bulk plasma characteristics are relatively close to each other. (paper)

  18. Connective tissue graft vs. emdogain: A new approach to compare the outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ferena; Akhundi, Nasrin; Gholami, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this clinical trial study was to clinically evaluate the use of enamel matrix protein derivative combined with the coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession compared to the subepithelial connective tissue graft by a new method to obtain denuded root surface area. Thirteen patients, each with two or more similar bilateral Miller class I or II gingival recession (40 recessions) were randomly assigned to the test (enamel matrix protein derivative + coronally positioned flap) or control group (subepithelial connective tissue graft). Recession depth, width, probing depth, keratinized gingival, and plaque index were recorded at baseline and at one, three, and six months after treatment. A stent was used to measure the denuded root surface area at each examination session. Results were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Wilcoxon, Friedman, paired-sample t test. The average percentages of root coverage for control and test groups were 63.3% and 55%, respectively. Both groups showed significant keratinized gingival increase (P 0.05). The results of Friedman test were significant for clinical indices (P < 0.05), except for probing depth in control group (P = 0.166). Enamel matrix protein derivative showed the same results as subepithelial connective tissue graft with relatively easy procedure to perform and low patient morbidity.

  19. Comparing the dynamic performance of wastewater treatment systems: A metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-09-15

    The assessment of productivity change of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to improve the performance over time of the facilities evaluated. This study assessed and compared the productivity growth of WWTPs operating with non-homogeneous technologies. The metafrontier Malmquist productivity index (MMPI) was computed for a sample of 99 WWTPs encompassing 4 alternative technologies: activated sludge (AS), aerated lagoon (AL), trickling filter (TF) and rotating biological contactor (BD). The results indicated that, on average, WWTPs with AS and BD exhibited better performance over time than WWTPs with AL and TF. The MMPI indicates that, over the period 2007-2009, the productivity rose by 0.9% and 0.3% for AS and BD technologies, respectively, whilst for the AL and TF processes, the productivity decreased by 0.5% and 2.2%, respectively. The decomposition of the MMPI into efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC) illustrated that EC was a positive driver of productivity change for WWTPs that use AS, whilst TC contributed positively to the productivity growth of WWTPs using AL and BD. Several policy implications to help managers make informed decisions were drawn from our empirical analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

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    Rachel eBlaser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models.

  1. An approach to comparative anatomy of the acetabulum from amphibians to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canillas, F; Delgado-Martos, M J; Touza, A; Escario, A; Martos-Rodriguez, A; Delgado-Baeza, E

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy, both macroscopic and microscopic, of the soft tissue internal structures of the hip joint in animal species and in three human hips (an adult and two fetuses). We dissected the hip joints of 16 species and compared the anatomical features of the soft tissue from the respective acetabula. In addition, a histological study was made of the specimens studied. In amphibians, we found a meniscus in the acetabulum, which was not observed in any of the other species studied. The isolated round ligament is observed from birds onwards. In the group of mammals analysed, including the human specimens, we found a meniscoid structure in the acetabular hip joint. Furthermore, we found that the meniscoid structure forms an anatomo-functional unit with the round ligament and the transverse ligament of the coxofemoral joint. These discoveries suggest the participation of the soft tissue anatomy in adaptative changes of species. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Biodiversity mediates top-down control in eelgrass ecosystems: a global comparative-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Reynolds, Pamela L; Boström, Christoffer; Coyer, James A; Cusson, Mathieu; Donadi, Serena; Douglass, James G; Eklöf, Johan S; Engelen, Aschwin H; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksen, Stein; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gustafsson, Camilla; Hoarau, Galice; Hori, Masakazu; Hovel, Kevin; Iken, Katrin; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Nakaoka, Masahiro; O'Connor, Mary I; Olsen, Jeanine L; Richardson, J Paul; Ruesink, Jennifer L; Sotka, Erik E; Thormar, Jonas; Whalen, Matthew A; Stachowicz, John J

    2015-07-01

    Nutrient pollution and reduced grazing each can stimulate algal blooms as shown by numerous experiments. But because experiments rarely incorporate natural variation in environmental factors and biodiversity, conditions determining the relative strength of bottom-up and top-down forcing remain unresolved. We factorially added nutrients and reduced grazing at 15 sites across the range of the marine foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) to quantify how top-down and bottom-up control interact with natural gradients in biodiversity and environmental forcing. Experiments confirmed modest top-down control of algae, whereas fertilisation had no general effect. Unexpectedly, grazer and algal biomass were better predicted by cross-site variation in grazer and eelgrass diversity than by global environmental gradients. Moreover, these large-scale patterns corresponded strikingly with prior small-scale experiments. Our results link global and local evidence that biodiversity and top-down control strongly influence functioning of threatened seagrass ecosystems, and suggest that biodiversity is comparably important to global change stressors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. A Multigene Approach for Comparing Genealogy of Betacoronavirus from Cattle and Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema N. Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young and newborn animals and is often caused by multiple intestinal infections, with rotavirus and bovine coronavirus (BCoV being the main viral causes in cattle. Given that BCoV is better studied than equine coronaviruses and given the possibility of interspecies transmission of these viruses, this research was designed to compare the partial sequences of the spike glycoprotein (S, hemagglutinin-esterase protein (HE, and nucleoprotein (N genes from coronaviruses from adult cattle with winter dysentery, calves with neonatal diarrhea, and horses. To achieve this, eleven fecal samples from dairy cows with winter dysentery, three from calves, and two from horses, all from Brazil, were analysed. It could be concluded that the enteric BCoV genealogy from newborn and adult cattle is directly associated with geographic distribution patterns, when S and HE genes are taken into account. A less-resolved genealogy exists for the HE and N genes in cattle, with a trend for an age-related segregation pattern. The coronavirus strains from horses revealed Betacoronavirus sequences indistinguishable from those found in cattle, a fact previously unknown.

  4. Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Bleda, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative assessment of the innovation effects of instruments which support the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies with a functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. The paper provides a link between two major streams of the literature: the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. We show that, when a functional perspective is adopted, feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other policy instruments (quotas with tradable green certificates and tendering), although they still need to be complemented with other instruments, most importantly, direct R and D support. Furthermore, those innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of the instruments chosen. - Highlights: ► A comparison of the innovation effects of instruments for the diffusion of renewable technologies. ► A functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. ► A link between the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. ► Feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other instruments. ► Innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of instruments.

  5. BRIEF DEPICTION OF THE LOCAL RECREATION LABOUR MARKET. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH BETWEEN FRANCE AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVA ANA-MARIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreation fulfils two functions in terms of labour economics: (1 as a commodity, it participates in the formation of national wealth by creating jobs, and (2 through its purpose, it boosts the workforce “re-creation” in all economic sectors by having a major contribution to people’s recovery, therefore reducing the psychosocial risks and creating premises for improvement of labour productivity. The present paper focuses on the first topic regarding the labour economics of recreation, namely the workforce operating within the sector and puts into comparative perspective two European Union member states: France and Romania. While in France the enterprises specialised in providing artistic, cultural, sports, entertainment or gambling and betting activities form a well-established and efficient economic sector, in Romania they make for an emerging and fast growing industry. Results will show that the local recreation sectors in the two countries have rather different development orientations at macroeconomic level - while in France the tendency seems to be increasing the number of workers per business, Romania rather shows an orientation towards creating numerous scattered micro businesses. With respect to employment, the local recreation sector reveals to be highly unusual in terms of working hours, heterogeneity and variety of professions, and lack of formalised job offer. However, these abnormalities are overridden by the superior intrinsic working conditions and the prolonged work sustainability.

  6. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

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    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  7. A decision analysis approach to climate adaptation: comparing multiple pathways for multi-decadal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. B.; Little, L.

    2013-12-01

    Policy planners around the world are required to consider the implications of adapting to climatic change across spatial contexts and decadal timeframes. However, local level information for planning is often poorly defined, even though climate adaptation decision-making is made at this scale. This is especially true when considering sea level rise and coastal impacts of climate change. We present a simple approach using sea level rise simulations paired with adaptation scenarios to assess a range of adaptation options available to local councils dealing with issues of beach recession under present and future sea level rise and storm surge. Erosion and beach recession pose a large socioeconomic risk to coastal communities because of the loss of key coastal infrastructure. We examine the well-known adaptation technique of beach nourishment and assess various timings and amounts of beach nourishment at decadal time spans in relation to beach recession impacts. The objective was to identify an adaptation strategy that would allow for a low frequency of management interventions, the maintenance of beach width, and the ability to minimize variation in beach width over the 2010 to 2100 simulation period. 1000 replications of each adaptation option were produced against the 90 year simulation in order to model the ability each adaptation option to achieve the three key objectives. Three sets of adaptation scenarios were identified. Within each scenario, a number of adaptation options were tested. The three scenarios were: 1) Fixed periodic beach replenishment of specific amounts at 20 and 50 year intervals, 2) Beach replenishment to the initial beach width based on trigger levels of recession (5m, 10m, 20m), and 3) Fixed period beach replenishment of a variable amount at decadal intervals (every 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 years). For each adaptation option, we show the effectiveness of each beach replenishment scenario to maintain beach width and consider the implications of more

  8. A comparative analysis of 9 multi-model averaging approaches in hydrological continuous streamflow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Richard; Gatien, Philippe; Renaud, Benoit; Brissette, François; Martel, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to test whether a weighted combination of several hydrological models can simulate flows more accurately than the models taken individually. In addition, the project attempts to identify the most efficient model averaging method and the optimal number of models to include in the weighting scheme. In order to address the first objective, streamflow was simulated using four lumped hydrological models (HSAMI, HMETS, MOHYSE and GR4J-6), each of which were calibrated with three different objective functions on 429 watersheds. The resulting 12 hydrographs (4 models × 3 metrics) were weighted and combined with the help of 9 averaging methods which are the simple arithmetic mean (SAM), Akaike information criterion (AICA), Bates-Granger (BGA), Bayes information criterion (BICA), Bayesian model averaging (BMA), Granger-Ramanathan average variant A, B and C (GRA, GRB and GRC) and the average by SCE-UA optimization (SCA). The same weights were then applied to the hydrographs in validation mode, and the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency metric was measured between the averaged and observed hydrographs. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the accuracy of weighted methods to that of individual models. A Kruskal-Wallis test and a multi-objective optimization algorithm were then used to identify the most efficient weighted method and the optimal number of models to integrate. Results suggest that the GRA, GRB, GRC and SCA weighted methods perform better than the individual members. Model averaging from these four methods were superior to the best of the individual members in 76% of the cases. Optimal combinations on all watersheds included at least one of each of the four hydrological models. None of the optimal combinations included all members of the ensemble of 12 hydrographs. The Granger-Ramanathan average variant C (GRC) is recommended as the best compromise between accuracy, speed of execution, and simplicity.

  9. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2) to 30 cm(2), whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  10. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheda Arman Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2 to 30 cm(2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  11. Comparative study of computational intelligence approaches for NOx reduction of coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Lijun; Cheng, Yanting

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on NO x emission prediction and operating parameters optimization for coal-fired boilers. Support Vector Regression (SVR) model based on CGA (Conventional Genetic Algorithm) was proposed to model the relationship between the operating parameters and the concentration of NO x emission. Then CGA and two modified algorithms, the Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and SAGA (Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm), were employed to optimize the operating parameters of the coal-fired boiler to reduce NO x emission. The results showed that the proposed SVR model was more accurate than the widely used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model when employed to predict the concentration of NO x emission. The mean relative error and correlation coefficient calculated by the proposed SVR model were 2.08% and 0.95, respectively. Among the three optimization algorithms implemented in this paper, the SAGA showed superiority to the other two algorithms considering the quality of solution within a given computing time. The SVR plus SAGA method was preferable to predict the concentration of NO x emission and further to optimize the operating parameters to achieve low NO x emission for coal-fired boilers. - Highlights: • The CGA based SVR model is proposed to predict the concentration of NO x emission. • The CGA based SVR model performs better than the widely used ANN model. • CGA and two modified algorithms are compared to optimize the parameters. • The SAGA is preferable for its high quality of solution and low computing time. • The SVR plus SAGA is successfully employed to optimize the operating parameters

  12. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO MALE URINARY INCONTINENCE: A CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. I. Elgohary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence UI is an involuntary leakage of urine due to loss of bladder control which is a common and often embarrassing problem that may cause tremendous emotional distress. Prevalence and risk factors depend on baseline physiological mechanisms, including weakness of pelvic floor muscles, hyperactive bladder that may result in urge UI, poor urethral sphincter function associated with stress UI, and impaired structural and functional integrity of pudendal nerve activity, associated with Pelvic floor muscle weakness plays an important role in UI etiology. Pelvic floor muscles work to support the bladder neck in the intra- abdominal cavity and maintain urinary continence. Weakness of these muscles leads the bladder to shift to the extra-abdominal cavity and thus a change in the urethra-vesicle angle occurs. Methods: Group (A twenty participants who received behavioral training (BT pelvic floor exercises (PFE and interferential current, group (B twenty participants who received BT, PFE and posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and group (C twenty participants who received BT, PFE and placebo interferential current. Urodynamic and cystometric measures including bladder volume at first desire to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and pressure at maximum flow rate were measured before and after intervention. Results: Results of this study revealed that there was a statistical significant difference in bladder volume at first desire to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and pressure at maximum flow rate in favor of participants who received a combination of BT, PFE and interferential current compared with those who received a combination of BH and PFE with either posterior tibial nerve stimulation or placebo interferential current. Conclusion: Interferential current is better than posterior tibial nerve stimulation in the rehabilitation of urinary incontinence.

  13. Upstream petroleum licensing: a comparative approach on regulatory frameworks and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Amanda L. [Felsberg e Associados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent discoveries hit in the pre-salt area, such as Tupi, Jupiter, Bem-te-vi and Carioca may place Brazil amongst the largest oil producers in the world. As a result, the Brazilian regulatory framework, which was originally envisaged in a scenario of higher exploration risk, has been under heavy public scrutiny. The Brazilian Government has already taken the first steps towards substantial changes in the country's contracting model for upstream activities. By means of Resolution No. 6/2007, the National Council for Energy Policy ('CNPE') not only determined the removal of 41 blocks with sub-salt geology from the ANP 9 Th Bid Round, but also stressed the need for a different regime for E and P activities in the country's continental shelf. At this moment, there is a great deal of controversy on the contracting model to be adopted, mainly whether the concession model should be maintained, but subject to higher levels of government take, or a production sharing model should apply. This paper goes through the evolution of international oil agreements, from early concessions to modern agreements. A special emphasis is placed on concession/license regimes as well as on production sharing agreements (PSAs). Besides drawing a comparative line between such models, this article assesses their economic impacts and whether the regulatory framework currently in force in Brazil is suitable for a scenario of lower risk, showing that any desired level of regulation may be achieved in the context of a PSA as easily as in a exclusive concession. (author)

  14. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  15. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  16. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  17. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  18. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  19. Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research for cancer diagnostics using a regional stakeholder approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gregory; Gold, Laura S; Sullivan, Sean D; Buist, Diana S M; Ramsey, Scott; Kreizenbeck, Karma; Snell, Kyle; Loggers, Elizabeth Trice; Gifford, Joseph; Watkins, John B; Kessler, Larry

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes our process to engage regional stakeholders for prioritizing comparative effectiveness research (CER) in cancer diagnostics. We also describe a novel methodology for incorporating stakeholder data and input to inform the objectives of selected CER studies. As an integrated component to establishing the infrastructure for community-based CER on diagnostic technologies, we have assembled a regional stakeholder group composed of local payers, clinicians and state healthcare representatives to not only identify and prioritize CER topics most important to the western Washington State region, but also to inform the study design of selected research areas. A landscape analysis process combining literature searches, expert consultations and stakeholder discussions was used to identify possible CER topics in cancer diagnostics. Stakeholders prioritized the top topics using a modified Delphi/group-nominal method and a standardized evaluation criteria framework to determine a final selected CER study area. Implementation of the selected study was immediate due to a unique American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding structure involving the same researchers and stakeholders in both the prioritization and execution phases of the project. Stakeholder engagement was enhanced after study selection via a rapid analysis of a subset of payers' internal claims, coordinated by the research team, to obtain summary data of imaging patterns of use. Results of this preliminary analysis, which we termed an 'internal analysis,' were used to determine with the stakeholders the most important and feasible study objectives. Stakeholders identified PET and MRI in cancers including breast, lung, lymphoma and colorectal as top priorities. In an internal analysis of breast cancer imaging, summary data from three payers demonstrated utilization rates of advanced imaging increased between 2002 and 2009 in the study population, with a great deal of variability in use between

  20. Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research for cancer diagnostics using a regional stakeholder approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gregory; Gold, Laura S; Sullivan, Sean D; Buist, Diana SM; Ramsey, Scott; Kreizenbeck, Karma; Snell, Kyle; Loggers, Elizabeth Trice; Gifford, Joseph; Watkins, John B; Kessler, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper describes our process to engage regional stakeholders for prioritizing comparative effectiveness research (CER) in cancer diagnostics. We also describe a novel methodology for incorporating stakeholder data and input to inform the objectives of selected CER studies. Materials & methods As an integrated component to establishing the infrastructure for community-based CER on diagnostic technologies, we have assembled a regional stakeholder group composed of local payers, clinicians and state healthcare representatives to not only identify and prioritize CER topics most important to the western Washington State region, but also to inform the study design of selected research areas. A landscape analysis process combining literature searches, expert consultations and stakeholder discussions was used to identify possible CER topics in cancer diagnostics. Stakeholders prioritized the top topics using a modified Delphi/group-nominal method and a standardized evaluation criteria framework to determine a final selected CER study area. Implementation of the selected study was immediate due to a unique American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding structure involving the same researchers and stakeholders in both the prioritization and execution phases of the project. Stakeholder engagement was enhanced after study selection via a rapid analysis of a subset of payers’ internal claims, coordinated by the research team, to obtain summary data of imaging patterns of use. Results of this preliminary analysis, which we termed an ‘internal analysis,’ were used to determine with the stakeholders the most important and feasible study objectives. Results Stakeholders identified PET and MRI in cancers including breast, lung, lymphoma and colorectal as top priorities. In an internal analysis of breast cancer imaging, summary data from three payers demonstrated utilization rates of advanced imaging increased between 2002 and 2009 in the study population, with a great