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Sample records for comparative design study

  1. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  2. Nuclear-powered Hysat spacecraft: comparative design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.

    1975-08-01

    The study shows that the all-nuclear spacecraft can have a substantial weight advantage over a hybrid (nuclear/solar) or all-solar spacecraft, owing to a further reduction in power requirement, and to the elimination of such equipment as the sensor gimbal and rotating joint assemblies. Because the need for a sun-oriented section is eliminated, the all-nuclear spacecraft can be designed as a monolithic structure, with the sensor and other payload firmly secured in a fixed position on the structure. This enhances attitude stability while minimizing structural weight and eliminating the need for flexible fluid lines. Sensor motion can be produced, varied, and controlled within the limits specified by the study contractors by moving the entire spacecraft in the prescribed pattern. A simple attitude control system using available hardware suffices to meet all requirements

  3. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find

  4. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    OpenAIRE

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find out if decision viewpoints from van Heesch et al. (2012, in press) can provide such a support. The case study was conducted with four teams of software engineering students working in industrial s...

  5. Comparative analysis study for piping seismic design criteria. Part 1: Methodology and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Branch, E.B.; Landers, D.F.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First of a Kind Engineering effort for the Advanced Light Water Reactor the Advanced Reactor Corporation formed a Piping Technical Core Group to develop a set of improved ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III design rules and approaches for ALWR plant piping and support design. In developing this proposed criteria the Technical Core Group conducted an extensive Comparative Analysis Study of many of the eighteen proposals for new or alternative seismic piping design criteria under consideration by The ASME Code Committee. As part of this comparative study the Technical Core Group also devised a process for determining the relative conservatism of each design criteria studied. In addition a method to relate these relative margins to EPRI/USNRC piping component test margins was developed which allows an assessment of the minimum margin to failure that could be expected from each set of design rules and criteria studied. The study was conducted in two phases and the methodology for each of these phases is presented. Phase 1 was done to develop the relative margins and relate these margins to the actual EPRI/USNRC test data. Phase 2 was done to study the optimized support configurations which could be created using each of the different criteria reviewed. Also, presented in this paper is a discussion of the different criteria selected for study, Analysis Methods/Criteria applied, the piping models for the study, and the specific inputs for the comparative analyses

  6. Design and Comparative Study of Three Photovoltaic Battery Charge Control Algorithms in MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the design of a three stage solar battery charge controller and a comparative study of this charge control technique with three conventional solar battery charge control techniques such as 1. Constant Current (CC) charging, 2. Two stage constant current constant voltage (CC-CV) charging technique. The analysis and the comparative study of the aforesaid charging techniques are done in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Here the practical data used to simulate the charge control a...

  7. Teacher Design Using Online Learning Resources: A Comparative Case Study of Science and Mathematics Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Recker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a comparative case study design, this paper explores the impacts of a technology-related professional development (TTPD design aimed at helping science and mathematics teachers design classroom activities using the wealth of resources available on the Internet. Using the lens of curricular adaption and the notion of teachers’ varying pedagogical design capacity, we analyzed the experiences of four teachers in terms of the kinds of instructional activities teachers designed, how these were supported with online resources, and teachers’ perceptions of impacts on student learning. Findings suggested that participants used a variety of personally relevant design strategies when applying TTPD concepts to their contexts. In particular, the teachers discussed how they tailored instruction to fit their students’ needs and interests, and how they incorporated instructional games, simulations, and interactive resources to enhance motivation and provide self-paced instruction.

  8. Comparative Studies of Core Thermal Hydraulic Design Methods for the Prototype Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Rock; Lim, Jae Yong; Kim, Sang Ji

    2013-01-01

    In this work, various core thermal-hydraulic design methods, which have arisen during the development of a prototype SFR, are compared to establish a proper design procedure. Comparative studies have been performed to determine the appropriate design method for the prototype SFR. The results show that the minimization method show a lower cladding midwall temperature than the fixed outlet temperature methods and superior thermal safety margin with the same coolant flow. The Korea Atomic energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed a conceptual SFR design with the final goal of constructing a prototype plant by 2028. The main objective of the SFR prototype plant is to verify the TRU metal fuel performance, reactor operation, and transmutation ability of high-level wastes. The core thermal-hydraulic design is used to ensure the safe fuel performance during the whole plant operation. Compared to the critical heat flux in typical light water reactors, nuclear fuel damages in SFR subassemblies are arisen from a creep induced failure. The creep limit is evaluated based on both the maximum cladding temperature and the uncertainties of the design parameters. Therefore, the core thermalhydraulic design method, which eventually determines the cladding temperature, is highly important to assure a safe and reliable operation of the reactor systems

  9. Design of near-perfect-reconstructed transmultiplexer using different modulation techniques: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vishwakarma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient iterative method for design of near-perfect reconstructed transmultiplexer (NPR TMUX is proposed for the prescribed roll-off factor (RF and stop band attenuation (As. In this method, windowing technique has been used for the design of prototype filter, and different modulation techniques have been exploited for designing multi-channel transmultiplexer (TMUX. In this method, inter-channel interference (ICI is iteratively minimized so that it approximately reduces to ideal value zero. Design example is given to illustrate the superiority of the proposed method over earlier reported work. A comparative study of the performance of different modulation techniques for designing TMUX is also presented.

  10. A comparative study on the customized design of mandibular reconstruction plates using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandible defects and its deformities are serious complications and its precise reconstruction is one of the most challenging tasks in oral maxillofacial surgery. The commercially available standard mandible implants are manually bended before surgery to custom fit the patient’s jaw. A slight mismatch in the plate and bone alignment may result in the implant failure. However, with the integration of computer-aided design, rapid prototyping, and advanced imaging systems (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, it is possible to produce a customized mandible implant that can precisely fit the patient’s jaw. The aim of this article is to compare a new design of customized mandible implant (sinewave plate and compare it with the commonly used straight implant design. The finite element–simulated results reveal that the commonly used straight reconstruction plates are more prone to loosening of the screws due to its higher strain concentration on the screw hole when compared to newly designed sinewave reconstruction plate. Moreover, the straight plate is more sensitive to the chewing load variations and develops almost 20% increase in the stresses when compared to sinewave plate. The study reveals that the sinewave reconstruction plate can significantly enhance the stability and safety of the mandible implant.

  11. Performance of swarm based optimization techniques for designing digital FIR filter: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear phase FIR filter is designed through recently proposed nature inspired optimization algorithm known as Cuckoo search (CS. A comparative study of Cuckoo search (CS, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony (ABC nature inspired optimization methods in the field of linear phase FIR filter design is also presented. For this purpose, an improved L1 weighted error function is formulated in frequency domain, and minimized through CS, PSO and ABC respectively. The error or objective function has a controlling parameter wt which controls the amount of ripple in the desired band of frequency. The performance of FIR filter is examined through three key parameters; Maximum Pass Band Ripple (MPR, Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR and Stopband Attenuation (As. Comparative study and the simulation results reveal that the designed filter with CS gives better performance in terms of Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR, and Stopband Attenuation (As for low order filter design, and for higher order it also gives better performance in term of Maximum Passband Ripple (MPR. Superiority of the proposed technique is also shown through comparison with other recently proposed methods.

  12. Printed advertisement and web advertisement : a comparative study on design characteristics of both media

    OpenAIRE

    Çuhadar, Gökçe

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis compares two forms of media advertising; printed advertising and advertising designed for the web, and covers the elements of design, the principles of design, and the experimental design aspects of the two mediums by means of the question “Do the principles of printed advertising design apply to web advertising?” Çuhadar, Gökçe M.S.

  13. Comparative study of electromagnetic compatibility methods in printed circuit board design tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, Galia

    2002-01-01

    The paper considers the state-of-the art in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) oriented printed circuit board (PCB) design. A general methodology of EMC oriented PCB design is synthesized. The main CAD tools available today are estimated and compared for their abilities to treat EMC oriented design. To help non experts a knowledge-base containing more than 50 basic rules for EMC-oriented PCB design is proposed. It can be applied in the PCB design CAD tools that possess rule-builders or it can help interactive design. Trends in this area of EMC-oriented PCB design are deduced. (Author)

  14. Development of wideband spectral dispersers for exoplanetary science: comparative study of material, design, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, Keigo; Fujishiro, Naofumi

    2014-09-01

    We present the development of wideband spectral dispersers of which the primary scientific objective is the characterization of the atmospheres of exoplanets, including the challenge of detecting biomarkers. A disperser comprising a prism with a grating pattern on its surface provides simultaneous wideband coverage with low spectral resolution (R ≥ 300). The optics is simple, compact, and contains no moving parts. A comparative study of 21 materials for the disperser was carried out for use in the optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared wavelength regions. KRS-5, CdZnTe, ZnS LiF, Sapphire, and S-TIH11 were selected, and designs of the optics for single-channel wideband spectrometers using the selected six materials were considered. Then, trial designs of the multi-channel spectrometers were carried out taking the properties of the detectors into consideration. The 3-channel design covers the wavelength region of ˜0.2-23 μm using a CCD detector, an InSb detector, and a Si:As detector. The 2-channel design covers ˜0.4-23 μm using a HgCdTe detector and a Si:As detector. A fabricated ZnS disperser is shown together with a CsI subprism which compensates for the optical axis. The application of defocusing, high dispersion spectroscopy, extension to the UV wavelength region, and the combination of the disperser with future space telescopes are discussed.

  15. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD–CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures. (paper)

  16. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD-CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures.

  17. Comparative study on fashion & textile design higher education system, Pakistan vs UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Umer; Umer, Saima

    2017-10-01

    of higher education and it also highlight the different pathway that leads to the different type of man power in this domain. Presented research will focus on the study of different modules of textile & Apparel Design Higher Education in Pakistan & UK. Its relation and comparison will be an important area of study. Research work document the Educational modules, its implementation and impact on industry. Afterwards this data was used for comparative study between higher education systems in Textile & Fashion Design

  18. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H. A.; Abido, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed. PMID:25960738

  19. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H A; Abido, M A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  20. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO system (TRMS considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC, and differential evolution (DE. In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  1. Comparative EMP design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A large amount of effort is devoted to the hardening of systems against various effects. The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) creates potentially severe protection problems in hardening against electromagnetic effects. Each hardening effort is usually supported through development or application of sets of rules, practices, constraints, etc., which aid in decision-making throughout the design process. Several excerpts from a few sets of EMP design rules and practices taken from relatively independent sources are presented for comparison of essential features and mode of expression. A general objective is to clarify some of the EMP practices present in general EMC work and to encourage further interchange of relevant information. (auth)

  2. Permutation Test Approach for Ordered Alternatives in Randomized Complete Block Design: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    GOKPINAR, Esra; GUL, Hasan; GOKPINAR, Fikri; BAYRAK, Hülya; OZONUR, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Randomized complete block design is one of the most used experimental designs in statistical analysis. For testing ordered alternatives in randomized complete block design, parametric tests are used if random sample are drawn from Normal distribution. If normality assumption is not provide, nonparametric methods are used. In this study, we are interested nonparametric tests and we introduce briefly the nonparametric tests, such as Page, Modified Page and Hollander tests. We also give Permutat...

  3. comparative study of bs 8110 and eurocode 2 in structural design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Izuchukwu Ugwu

    This code is meant to unify design philosophies and make civil engineers productive across all of Europe. Nigeria as a commonwealth country and without a code of .... ultimate load is use the section design. 3.3 Model. The model adopted for this study is a modest medium rise building; the Faculty of Engineering building,.

  4. Speech-generating devices: effectiveness of interface design-a comparative study of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hsu; Wang, Chuan-Po; Lee, I-Jui; Su, Chris Chun-Chin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the efficacy of the interface design of speech generating devices on three non-verbal adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in hopes of improving their on-campus communication and cognitive disability. The intervention program was created based on their social and communication needs in school. Two operating interfaces were designed and compared: the Hierarchical Relating Menu and the Pie Abbreviation-Expansion Menu. The experiment used the ABCACB multiple-treatment reversal design. The test items included: (1) accuracy of operating identification; (2) interface operation in response to questions; (3) degree of independent completion. Each of these three items improved with both intervention interfaces. The children were able to operate the interfaces skillfully and respond to questions accurately, which evidenced the effectiveness of the interfaces. We conclude that both interfaces are efficacious enough to help nonverbal children with ASD at different levels.

  5. Design characteristics of the CORRONA CERTAIN study: a comparative effectiveness study of biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis patients”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research has recently attracted considerable attention. The Comparative Effectiveness Registry to study Therapies for Arthritis and Inflammatory Conditions (CERTAIN) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of adult patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Methods/Design CERTAIN uses the existing Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) network of participating private and academic sites in order to recruit patients fulfilling the 1987 ACR criteria that have at least moderate disease activity. Patients starting or switching biologic agents either anti-TNF therapy or a non anti-TNF biologic are eligible for enrollment, depending on the treatment selected by their physician. Enrollment is expected to be completed by March of 2014, and 2711 patients will participate in the study. As of October 7th 2013, 2234 patients have been enrolled. Patient visits and laboratory blood work are mandated every three months for one year. Safety data is collected through one year and beyond. The primary comparative effectiveness endpoint is attainment of low RA disease activity at one year among patients who have been exposed to at least one prior TNF-α inhibitor agent prior to enrollment. Multiple secondary effectiveness and safety endpoints will be addressed by investigating the entire population enrolled (naïve and biologic experienced). Discussion The unique design features of CERTAIN will inform comparative effectiveness and safety questions for choosing biologic agents for the management of RA. PMID:24690143

  6. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  7. Comparative Study on the Design of Square,Rectangular and Circular Concrete Water Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    S.Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy; S.Raja shekar

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete overhead water tanks are used to store and supply safe drinking water. Design and cost estimation of overhead water tanks is a time consuming task, which requires a great deal of expertise. This study therefore examines the efficiency of Rectangular and Circular tanks. Tanks of 30m3, 90m3, 140m3 and 170m3 capacities were used in order to draw reasonable inferences on tank‟s shape design effectiveness, relative cost implications of tank types and structural capa...

  8. Comparative analysis of the conceptual design studies of potential early commercial MHD power plants (CSPEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovie, R. J.; Winter, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.; Berg, R. D.

    A conceptual design study of the MHD/steam plant that incorporates the use of oxygen enriched air preheated in a metallic heat exchanger as the combustor oxidant showed that this plant is the most attractive for early commercial applications. The variation of performance and cost was investigated as a function of plant size. The contractors' results for the overall efficiencies are in reasonable agreement considering the slight differences in their plant designs. NASA LeRC is reviewing cost and performance results for consistency with those of previous studies, including studies of conventional steam plants. LeRC in house efforts show that there are still many tradeoffs to be considered for these oxygen enriched plants and considerable variations can be made in channel length and level of oxygen enrichment with little change in overall plant efficiency.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NONGSHIM INSTANT NOODLE PACKAGING DESIGN IN SOUTH KOREA AND IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available These days due to the global market development, there are many products that are marketed outside the local area. I found that there are differences between local and export design in Nongshim instant noodle packaging, marketed in South Korea and in Indonesia. This study, discusses the differences between packaging design elements of the famous instant noodle brand in South Korea. Hopefully, through this study, we can have a description of what kind of design elements should be kept and what kind of information should be added or changed for the export product. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Saat ini dikarenakan perkembangan pasar global, banyak produk yang dipasarkan di luar area lokal. Penulis menemukan perbedaan yang menarik anmtara desain lokal dan desain yang diperuntukan untuk eksport pada kemasan mie instant merek Nohngshim yang dipasarkan di Korea Selatan dan di Indonesia. Pada studi ini, penulis ingin membahas perbedaan apa sajakah yang terdapat pada elemen-elemen desain kemasan sebuah merek mie instant yang terkenal di Korea Selatan. Diharapkan melalui studi ini, kita bisa mendapatkan sebuah gambaran elemen-elemen desain apa saja yang harus dipertahankan dan informasi apa saja yang harus ditambahkan atau dirubah untuk produk ekspor. Kata kunci: mie instant Nongshim, Korea Selatan, Indonesia, desain kemasan.

  10. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  11. Designing online audiovisual heritage services: an empirical study of two comparable online video services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to seek input for a new online audiovisual heritage service. In doing so, we assess comparable online video services to gain insights into the motivations and perceptual innovation characteristics of the video services. The research is based on data from a Dutch survey

  12. A comparative study of various electric propulsion systems and their impact on a nominal ship design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James C.

    1987-06-01

    Computer programs which model synchronous, permanent magnet, and induction machines incorporate an optimization algorithm which converges on lowest weight, volume, and inefficiency. Machine designs for high and low rmps are performed, with a varying number of pole-pairs. The machine designs are analyzed to find the optimum combination of generator and motor for inclusion in a naval ship propulsion system. The three ships used for the study are: a baseline mechanical transmission ship, a ship retaining the same sub-division as the baseline but with the electric machinery, and an electric transmission ship with subdivision and machinery box arrangement chosen to benefit from the inherent arrangeability of electric transmission. The two generator/motor combinations used in the final ship analysis, both employ a 3600 rpm, six-pole synchronous generator, which turns at the shaft speed of the prime mover. One combination uses a 180 rpm, direct-drive, 16-pole synchronous motor, and the other an 1800 rpm, geared, 8-pole synchronous motor. Power converters are used in both combinations to control motor speed. The geared combination in the rearranged ship demonstrated the best endurance speed efficiency, reducing the endurance fuel load by 18 percent, while maintaining the maximum and sustained speed of the baseline ship. The savings in ship volume translated to an additional twenty Tomahawk missile cells in the rearranged ship. When the fuel load was held at the tonnage of the baseline ship, endurance range increased as much as 25 percent.

  13. Compared education study: curriculum design for the development of competences (Tiradentes University — University of Deusto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Soares de Vasconcelos Sampaio Suñé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative education analysis between the competence-based curriculum deployed at the Deusto University and the Tiradentes University was done. The analysis has focused on the following aspects: Educational theories; Curriculum design; Psycho-pedagogical guidelines; Teaching, learning and evaluation methodologies; Planning of execution; Results/Impacts. The set of information of the Tiradentes University was coming from a pilot project on the implementation of competence-based education, which was conducted by the authors of this article during 2012 and 2013. The data and information from the Deusto University were collected from: reading of institutional and course documents (Administration and Company Direction; Monitoring of classes; and interviews. The results indicated broad convergence of methodologies used and the contribution of both to the improvement of the quality indicators of the courses in these institutions. Moreover, in certain respects each institution has effective contributions of teaching-learning methodologies that can be embraced by the mutual enrichment of competence-based education as practiced by the two universities.

  14. Design and comparative study of discrete and module-based IGBT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Venkatramanan

    put RMS voltage and RMS current, respectively. This value may be chosen to be 10% of nominal dc bus voltage. All the above constraints must be considered appropri- ately for dc-link capacitor design. 3. Module versus discrete design. Designs of module-based and discrete component power converter differ in a few ways ...

  15. Design, comparative study and analysis of CDMA for different modulation techni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have design a MIMO–CDMA using 4 ∗ 8 antennas with the combination of MMSE (Minimum Mean square Error Equalizer for BPSK (Binary Phase shift Keying, QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation modulation schemes. The analysis is built on the basis of transmit–received signal, constellation and MMSE plot simulated on a MatLab/Simulink. On the basis of BER (Bit-Error-Rate, it is also concluded that this work is mostly suitable for high order modulation schemes as the BER of 16-qam, 64-QAM and 256-QAM is zero. The proposed study has increased the quality of the wireless link and Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI is likewise cut by applying a combination of MMSE and MIMO (Multiple In and Multiple Out with OSTBC (Orthogonal space Time Block Code encoder and combiner.

  16. A Comparative Study of Soviet versus Western Helicopters. Part 1. General Comparison of Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Marat Tishchenko who is the new chief designer and head of the Moscow he’icopter plant MIL because he replaced Mr. Mil as Chief Designer upon Mr. Mil’s...From the USSR: Mr. Marat N. Tishchenko.................. Chief of the M.L. Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant Mr. B. A. Koloshenko

  17. Design and comparative study of discrete and module-based IGBT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper discusses concepts of a 20 kVA power converter design and key differences between discrete IGBT and module-based design approaches. Module-based power converters have been typically employed in academic and research institutes for power levels of 10 kVA and more. However, with advancement in ...

  18. Negative chromatography of hepatitis B virus-like particle: Comparative study of different adsorbent designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Micky Fu Xiang; Chan, Eng Seng; Tan, Wen Siang; Tam, Kam Chiu; Tey, Beng Ti

    2016-05-06

    Purification of virus-like particles (VLPs) in bind-and-elute mode has reached a bottleneck. Negative chromatography has emerged as the alternative solution; however, benchmark of negative chromatography media and their respective optimized conditions are absent. Hence, this study was carried out to compare the performance of different negative chromatography media for the purification of hepatitis B VLPs (HB-VLPs) from clarified Escherichia coli feedstock. The modified anion exchange media, core-shell adsorbents (InertShell and InertLayer 1000) and polymer grafted adsorbents (SQ) were compared. The results of chromatography from packed bed column of core-shell adsorbents showed that there is a trade-off between the purity and recovery of HB-VLPs in the flowthrough fraction due to the shell thickness. Atomic force microscopic analysis revealed funnel-shaped pore channels in the shell layer which may contribute to the entrapment of HB-VLPs. A longer residence time at a lower feed flow rate (0.5ml/min) improved slightly the HB-VLPs purity in all modified adsorbents, but the recovery in InertShell reduced substantially. The preheat-treatment is not recommended for the negative chromatography as the thermal-induced co-aggregation of HCPs and HB-VLPs would flow along with HB-VLPs and thus reduced the HB-VLPs purity in the flowthrough. Further reduction in the feedstock concentration enhanced the purity of HB-VLPs especially in InertLayer 1000 but reduced substantially the recovery of HB-VLPs. In general, the polymer grafted adsorbent, SQ, performed better than the core-shell adsorbents in handling a higher feedstock concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  20. Implementation Fidelity of a Program Designed to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility through Physical Education: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Carmina; Escarti, Amparo; Llopis, Ramon; Gutierrez, Melchor; Marin, Diana; Wright, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative comparative case study was to examine the implementation fidelity of a program designed to deliver the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 2003) through physical education and its relationship with short-term outcomes for elementary school students. The research questions were: (a)…

  1. Comparative Study Between the Two Experimental Design Approaches Taguchi and Traditional in Presence of Control by Control Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Nava Elías Heriberto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments plays an important role in the field of creating and innovating process and products directly in manufacturing and improving areas. There are several areas into designs of experiments; robust design is one of them. Robust parameter design is a principle that emphasize in products creation through a correct selection of values called “control” which make a product robust to the variability by the noise introducing by another factors known as “noise” factors. This article aims for a comparative study between two well-known robust design methodologies, making a special emphasis in the control by control interaction effects over optimal operating conditions. The results showed that Taguchi´s crossed arrays are unable to estimate all significant terms in a model. The optimizations result concludes that the Taguchi´s approach is less efficient than the traditional approach in both; maximization and minimization.

  2. Comparative study of design of piping supports class 1, 2 and 3 considering german code KTA and ASME III - NF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faloppa, Altair A.; Fainer, Gerson; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Elias, Marcos V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is developing a comparative study of the design criteria for class 1, 2, 3 piping supports considering the American Code ASME Section III - NF and the German Code KTA 3205.1 to the Primary Circuit, KTA 3205.2 to the others systems and KTA 3205.3 series-production standards supports of a PWR nuclear power plant. An additional purpose of the paper is a general analysis of the main design concepts of the American Code ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1 and German Nuclear Design Code KTA that was performed in order to aid the comparative study proposed. The relevance of this study is to show the differences between codes ASME and KTA since they were applied in the design of the Nuclear Power Plants Angra 1 and Angra 2, and to the design of Angra 3, which is at the moment under construction. It is also considered their use in the design of nuclear installations such as RMB - Reator MultiProposito Brasileiro and LABGENE - Laboratorio de Geracao Nucleoeletrica. (author)

  3. Comparative Study On The Ethical Perceptions Of Contractors And Designers In The China Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Gyoo; Long, Kaiwen; Zhang, Cheng; Li Hao, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Ethics is becoming one of the most important requirements for successful business in the 21st century. The construction industry cannot be exceptional from this trend. However construction ethics management requires different approaches from other industries, as the products of the industry are construction projects which are completely different from mass production. Contractors and designers are two major participants in construction projects. The roles and responsibilities of these two project stakeholders decisively influence all aspects of construction project. Practically ethical perceptions of contractors and designers are one of main aspects to be considered for the effective and efficient management of ethics for the construction industry. This research has investigated the ethical perceptions of contractors and designers in the China construction industry. A questionnaire survey which contains 15 ethical issues and 6 demographic factors has been conducted. 170 construction professionals from construction companies and consulting companies have been participated in this survey. These 15 ethical issues are ranked in terms of seriousness, frequency and importance for both contractors and designers as a single group to understand the overall perceptions in the industry. The analysis has also been conducted for contractors and designers respectively to make comparisons between them. The top three serious ethical issues in the industry are ‘Bribery and corruption’, ‘Failure to practice whistle-blowing’ and ‘Improper bidding practices’. Contractors and designers showed similar outcomes for the top five important ethical issues. But for the middle ranged ethical issues, they showed some differences. Further researches are required to identify the causes of the similarity and differences.

  4. Comparative study of adhesive joint designs for composite trusses based on numerical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavalette, N.P.; Bergsma, O.K.; Zarouchas, D.; Benedictus, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of lightweight structure design for the transportation and robotics industries, new types of composite structures are being developed, in the form of trusses made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite members of small diameter (a few millimeters thick at most). Some concepts of

  5. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  6. Comparative Study of FinFETs versus 22nm Bulk CMOSs: SRAM Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkhani, Hooman; Peiravi, Ali; Madsen, Jens Kargaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, FinFET devices are compared to bulk CMOS technology by looking at the characteristics of both devices and their challenges in nano-scale regimes. The effects of process variations on these devices along with the effect of device parameters on their characteristics are explored. Both...... FinFET and CMOS devices are used in 6T and 8T-SRAM cells. Simulation results show significant improvements for FinFET-based SRAMs compared to bulk CMOS-based SRAM cells. FinFET based 6T-SRAM cell shows 39% improvement in read static noise margin, 54% higher write margin, 54% smaller minimum supply...... voltage applicable, and 7.3X less leakage power compared to its CMOS counterpart. 8T-SRAM using FinFET improved read static noise margin, write margin, minimum supply voltage and leakage power consumption by 7%, 64%, 50%, and 3.1X compared to bulk-CMOS 8T-SRAM, respectively....

  7. Data-driven soft sensor design with multiple-rate sampled data: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Schmidt, Torben M.

    2009-01-01

    , including the numerical interpolation, polynomial transformation, data lifting, and weighted partial least squares (WPLS). Two modifications to the original data lifting approach are proposed in this paper: reformulating the extraction of a fast model as an optimization problem and ensuring the desired......Multirate systems are common in industrial processes where quality measurements have slower sampling rates than other process variables. Since intersample information is desirable for effective quality control, different approaches have been reported to estimate the quality between samples...... model properties through Tikhonov Regularization. A comparative investigation of the four approaches is performed. Their applicability, accuracy, and robustness to process noise are evaluated with a single-input single-output (SISO) system. The modified data lifting and WPLS approaches are implemented...

  8. Study to compare the performance of two designs to prevent river bend erosion in Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Messing with Mother Nature takes knowledge and work, and she is hard to outfox, especially when it comes to redirecting rivers. To : protect infrastructure, however, sometimes river flow must be altered. This study focuses on two erosion-control proj...

  9. The flap recovery on the impacted lower third molar surgery comparing 3 different flap designs: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottria, L; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Alagna, A M; Arcuri, C; Bartuli, F N

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower first and second molars periodontium, after the surgical extraction of the contiguous impacted third molar, comparing 3 mucoperiosteal flap designs. 150 patients which had to undergo a impacted lower third molar surgery were enrolled in this study. They were checked from day 0 to day 90, in order to focus on the recovery quality of the soft tissues around the lower second molar, comparing 3 different flap designs. No intraoperatory incident happened. The complete recovery of the periodontium around the second molar has been shown in each patient after 90 days from surgery and each adverse reaction happened within the sixth week after surgery. Only 2 slight gengival recessions 0,5 mm have been find out. The impacted third molar surgery is an operation that, if rightly programmed and performed, is relatively safe. Besides, the correct handling and management of periodontium around the second molar and the choice of the flap type to be used support a correct recovery on the second molar periodontium, avoiding any long-term damage. This study wanted to analyze the healing of the deep and superficial lower second molar periodontium, after the impacted lower third molar surgery. In order to improve the surgical technique used for lower third molar germectomies, we wanted to compare 3 different kind of flap designs.

  10. Comparison of two incision designs for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar: A randomized comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of flap design on visibility and accessibility during removal of impacted third molar and hematoma formation, wound gaping and healing of flap post-operatively. Study Design: The randomized prospective comparative study included 30 patients with impacted mandibular third molars. Two flap designs namely "envelope flap" (Koener′s incision and ′triangular flap′ (Ward′s incision were used. After 7 days, sutures were removed and status of wound, periodontal health, and progress of healing was assessed. Patients were followed through 15 days to judge the incidence of post-operative complications in both groups. Results: No statistical differences were noted between the groups in terms of visibility, accessibility, excessive bleeding during surgery, healing of flap, sensitivity of adjacent teeth, and dry socket. A statistically significant difference was observed in post-operative hematoma, wound gaping, and distal pocket in adjacent tooth, which was significant in Ward′s triangular incision group in comparison to Koeiner′s envelope incision group. Conclusion: The selection of the flap design is dependent on needs of the case and preference of the operating surgeon and does not seem to have a significant influence on the health of tissues. In order to avoid wide area of exposure of bone, the operating surgeon should clinically and radiographically assess the designing of incision and mucoperiosteal flap, the clinical relevance is still debatable.

  11. A Comparative Study on Recently-Introduced Nature-Based Global Optimization Methods in Complex Mechanical System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaset El Hadi Saad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The often implicit, multimodal, and ill-shaped objective and constraint functions in high-dimensional and “black-box” forms demand the search to be carried out using low number of function evaluations with high search efficiency and good robustness. This work investigates the performance of six recently introduced, nature-inspired global optimization methods: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, Firefly Algorithm (FFA, Cuckoo Search (CS, Bat Algorithm (BA, Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. These approaches are compared in terms of search efficiency and robustness in solving a set of representative benchmark problems in smooth-unimodal, non-smooth unimodal, smooth multimodal, and non-smooth multimodal function forms. In addition, four classic engineering optimization examples and a real-life complex mechanical system design optimization problem, floating offshore wind turbines design optimization, are used as additional test cases representing computationally-expensive black-box global optimization problems. Results from this comparative study show that the ability of these global optimization methods to obtain a good solution diminishes as the dimension of the problem, or number of design variables increases. Although none of these methods is universally capable, the study finds that GWO and ABC are more efficient on average than the other four in obtaining high quality solutions efficiently and consistently, solving 86% and 80% of the tested benchmark problems, respectively. The research contributes to future improvements of global optimization methods.

  12. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  13. Does Feedback Design Matter? A Neurofeedback Study Comparing Immersive Virtual Reality and Traditional Training Screens in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI application, in which the brain activity is fed back to the user in real-time enabling voluntary brain control. In this context, the significance of the feedback design is mainly unexplored. Highly immersive feedback scenarios using virtual reality (VR technique are available. However, their effects on subjective user experience as well as on objective outcome measures remain open. In the present article, we discuss the general pros and cons of using VR as feedback modality in BCI applications. Furthermore, we report on the results of an empirical study, in which the effects of traditional two-dimensional and three-dimensional VR based feedback scenarios on NF training performance and user experience in healthy older individuals and neurologic patients were compared. In conclusion, we suggest indications and contraindications of immersive VR feedback designs in BCI applications. Our results show that findings in healthy individuals are not always transferable to patient populations having an impact on serious game and feedback design.

  14. A comparative study of the efficacy of four different bristle designs of tooth brushes in plaque removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripriya N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of four most commonly used bristle designs of toothbrushes in plaque removal. Materials and Methods : The study was a randomized 4 cell, examiner blind cross-over design assessing the plaque removal efficacy of all four brushes on a single occasion. Sixteen subjects aged 14-15 years participated in the study. On day 1 of each test period, the subjects were rendered plaque free and were asked to suspend oral hygiene practices for 24 hours. On day 2, the subjects were scored for plaque prior to brushing using the Turesky-Gilmore modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index. The subjects then brushed with the allocated toothbrush for 2 minutes and the post-brushing plaque scores were assessed. A wash-out period of 4 days was allowed between the test periods. Results : All the brushes showed a significant reduction in the post-brushing plaque scores ( p < 0.001. The mean reduction in the plaque scores for all the brushes was around 53%. The percentage plaque reduction was greater in the anterior surface than the posterior surface (59.6 ± 7.45% vs. 49.83 ± 4.35%. The percentage plaque reductions in the upper, lower, buccal and lingual surfaces were similar. No significant difference in the reduction of plaque scores between the four brushes was seen. Conclusion : The data derived from the study supports the contention of many researchers that there is no single superior design of manual toothbrush. Though minor and some site differences in favor of the brushes were seen, they were not statistically significant.

  15. The cost effectiveness of an early transition from hospital to nursing home for stroke patients: design of a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Ron W H; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Weijden, Trudy D E M; Limburg, Martien; Schols, Jos M G A

    2010-05-26

    As the incidence of stroke has increased, its impact on society has increased accordingly, while it continues to have a major impact on the individual. New strategies to further improve the quality, efficiency and logistics of stroke services are necessary. Early discharge from hospital to a nursing home with an adequate rehabilitation programme could help to optimise integrated care for stroke patients.The objective is to describe the design of a non-randomised comparative study evaluating early admission to a nursing home, with multidisciplinary assessment, for stroke patients. The study is comprised of an effect evaluation, an economic evaluation and a process evaluation. The design involves a non-randomised comparative trial for two groups. Participants are followed for 6 months from the time of stroke. The intervention consists of a redesigned care pathway for stroke patients. In this care pathway, patients are discharged from hospital to a nursing home within 5 days, in comparison with 12 days in the usual situation. In the nursing home a structured assessment takes place, aimed at planning adequate rehabilitation. People in the control group receive the usual care. The main outcome measures of the effect evaluation are quality of life and daily functioning. In addition, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. A process evaluation will be carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention as well as the experiences and opinions of patients and professionals. The results of this study will provide information about the cost effectiveness of the intervention and its effects on clinical outcomes and quality of life. Relevant strengths and weaknesses of the study are addressed in this article. Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN58135104.

  16. Transgender Health Disparities: Comparing Full Cohort and Nested Matched-Pair Study Designs in a Community Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White, Jaclyn M; Bradford, Judith B; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-09-01

    U.S. health surveillance systems infrequently include measures to identify transgender respondents or monitor the health of this underserved and marginalized population. From 2001-2002, transgender and non-transgender adults were sampled at a Massachusetts clinic. Health differences were formatively examined by transgender identity using a cross-sectional, clinic-based sample (n=2,653); and a nested matched-pair subsample (n=155). Both designs produced virtually identical findings: (1) the prevalence of HIV, substance abuse, and smoking did not differ significantly for transgender and non-transgender patients; (2) transgender patients were more likely to endorse a lifetime suicide attempt and ideation compared to non-transgender patients ( p <0.05); (3) transgender patients disproportionately reported social stressors (violence, discrimination, childhood abuse) relative to non-transgender patients ( p <0.05). Findings suggest that a nested design may provide an effective methodology for using clinical data to study transgender health, and underscore the need for routine collection of gender identity in clinical settings.

  17. A new cervical implant design compared with standard design in order to increase peri-implant hard and soft tissue behavior: histomorphometric and histological study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José E; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Fernández Domínguez, Manuel; Orlato Rossetti, Paulo Henrique; Gehrke, Sergio A

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new design of the cervical portion of dental implant with the objective to increase the volume of peri-implant tissues in the crestal area. Forty-eight tapered dental titanium implants with internal conical connection were implanted in healed alveolar sites of six dogs. Twenty-four conventional implants design (C1 implant) formed the control group, and 24 new implant design (V3 implant) formed the test group. The groups were randomized. Histological, histomorphometric, and implant stability quotient were performed. After 12 weeks of healing period, histomorphometric analyses of the specimens were carried out to measure the crestal bone level values and the tissue thickness in the cervical implant portion. The data were compared using statistical tests (α = 5%). The mean of the measurements in the buccal and lingual aspects measured of crestal bone level was 0.31 ± 0.24 mm and 0.30 ± 0.19 mm in the control group, respectively, and 0.71 ± 0.28 and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm in the test group, respectively, whereas the mean of the tissue thickness was 1.63 ± 0.33 mm and 2.04 ± 0.23 mm in the control group, respectively, and 2.11 ± 0.35 mm and 2.51 ± 0.41 mm in the test group. Within the limitations of this study, our findings suggest that more thickness of peri-implant hard and soft tissues may be expected in this new implant design. However, the control group with traditional implant design was found to have more height values of the crestal bone compared with new V3 implants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparing Dutch Case management care models for people with dementia and their caregivers: The design of the COMPAS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacNeil Vroomen Janet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia care in the Netherlands is shifting from fragmented, ad hoc care to more coordinated and personalised care. Case management contributes to this shift. The linkage model and a combination of intensive case management and joint agency care models were selected based on their emerging prominence in the Netherlands. It is unclear if these different forms of case management are more effective than usual care in improving or preserving the functioning and well-being at the patient and caregiver level and at the societal cost. The objective of this article is to describe the design of a study comparing these two case management care models against usual care. Clinical and cost outcomes are investigated while care processes and the facilitators and barriers for implementation of these models are considered. Design Mixed methods include a prospective, observational, controlled, cohort study among persons with dementia and their primary informal caregiver in regions of the Netherlands with and without case management including a qualitative process evaluation. Inclusion criteria for the cohort study are: community-dwelling individuals with a dementia diagnosis who are not terminally-ill or anticipate admission to a nursing home within 6 months and with an informal caregiver who speaks fluent Dutch. Person with dementia-informal caregiver dyads are followed for two years. The primary outcome measure is the Neuropsychiatric Inventory for the people with dementia and the General Health Questionnaire for their caregivers. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life and needs assessment in both persons with dementia and caregivers, activity of daily living, competence of care, and number of crises. Costs are measured from a societal perspective using cost diaries. Process indicators measure the quality of care from the participant’s perspective. The qualitative study uses purposive sampling methods to ensure a wide variation of

  19. Comparative evaluation of the stability of two different dental implant designs and surgical protocols-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David E; Maney, Pooja; Teitelbaum, Austin G; Billiot, Susan; Popat, Lomesh J; Palaiologou, A Archontia

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a parallel wall design implant to a tapered apex design implant when placed in the posterior maxilla using two different surgical protocols. Twenty-seven patients (30 implants) were divided into three groups. All implants were 4 mm wide in diameter and 8 mm long. Group A received 10 tapered implants (OSPTX) (Astra Tech OsseoSpeed TX™) using the soft bone surgical protocol (TXSoft). Group B received 10 tapered implants (OSPTX) (AstraTech OsseoSpeedTX™) using the standard surgical protocol (TXStd). Group C received 10 parallel wall implants (OSP) (AstraTech OsseoSpeed™) using the standard surgical protocol (OStd). All implants were placed in the posterior maxilla in areas with a minimum of 8-mm crestal bone height. Resonance frequency measurements (implant stability quotient (ISQ)) and torque values were recorded to determine initial implant stability. All implants were uncovered 6 weeks after placement and restored with a functionally loaded resin provisional screw-retained crown. Resonance frequency measurements were recorded at the time of implant placement, at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months. Twelve months after implant placement, the stability of the implants was recorded and the final restorations were placed using custom CAD/CAM fabricated abutments and cement-retained PFM DSIGN porcelain crowns. After implant restoration, bone levels were measured at 6 and 12 months with standardized radiographs. Radiographic mean bone loss was less than 0.5 mm in all groups, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Implant survival rate at 1 year was 93.3%, with 2/30 implants failing to integrate prior to functional loading at 6 weeks. No statistically significant difference was found between ISQ measurements between the three groups at all time intervals measured. Strong positive correlations were found between overall bone loss at 6 months and insertion torque at time of placement. A very weak

  20. Comparative design of structures concepts and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shaopei

    2016-01-01

    This book presents comparative design as an approach to the conceptual design of structures. Primarily focusing on reasonable structural performance, sustainable development and architectural aesthetics, it features detailed studies of structural performance through the composition and de-composition of these elements for a variety of structures, such as high-rise buildings, long-span crossings and spatial structures. The latter part of the book addresses the theoretical basis and practical implementation of knowledge engineering in structural design, and a case-based fuzzy reasoning method is introduced to illustrate the concept and method of intelligent design. The book is intended for civil engineers, structural designers and architects, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students in civil engineering and architecture. Shaopei Lin and Zhen Huang are both Professors at the Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.

  1. A Biomechanical Study Comparing Helical Blade with Screw Design for Sliding Hip Fixations of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic hip screw (DHS is a well-established conventional implant for treating intertrochanteric fracture. However, revision surgery sometimes still occurs due to the cutting out of implants. A helical blade instead of threaded screw (DHS blade was designed to improve the fixation power of the osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture. In this study, the biomechanical properties of DHS blade compared to the conventional DHS were evaluated using an unstable AO/OTA 31-A2 intertrochanteric fracture model. Fifty synthetic proximal femoral bone models with such configuration were fixed with DHS and DHS blade in five different positions: centre-centre (CC, superior-centre (SC, inferior-center (IC, centre-anterior (CA, and centre-posterior (CP. All models had undergone mechanical compression test, and the vertical and rotational displacements were recorded. The results showed that DHS blade had less vertical or rotational displacement than the conventional DHS in CC, CA, and IC positions. The greatest vertical and rotational displacements were found at CP position in both groups. Overall speaking, DHS blade was superior in resisting vertical or rotational displacement in comparison to conventional DHS, and the centre-posterior position had the poorest performance in both groups.

  2. Sources of variability and comparability between salmonid stomach contents and isotopic analyses: study design lessons and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    We compared sources of variability and cost in paired stomach content and stable isotope samples from three salmonid species collected in September 2001–2005 and describe the relative information provided by each method in terms of measuring diet overlap and food web study design. Based on diet analyses, diet overlap among brown trout, rainbow trout, and mountain whitefish was high, and we observed little variation in diets among years. In contrast, for sample sizes n ≥ 25, 95% confidence interval (CI) around mean δ15Ν and δ13C for the three target species did not overlap, and species, year, and fish size effects were significantly different, implying that these species likely consumed similar prey but in different proportions. Stable isotope processing costs were US$12 per sample, while stomach content analysis costs averaged US$25.49 ± $2.91 (95% CI) and ranged from US$1.50 for an empty stomach to US$291.50 for a sample with 2330 items. Precision in both δ15Ν and δ13C and mean diet overlap values based on stomach contents increased considerably up to a sample size of n = 10 and plateaued around n = 25, with little further increase in precision.

  3. Fracture resistance of three ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial denture designs. An in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Cherif A

    2010-10-01

    The fracture resistance of ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (CIRFPDs) was studied. Thirty CIRFPDs were constructed using ice zircon milled ceramic material. Specimens were divided into three groups, 10 specimens each, according to the abutment preparation: inlay-shaped (occluso-proximal inlay + proximal box), tub-shaped (occluso-proximal inlay), and proximal box-shaped preparations. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups of five specimens each, according to the span of the edentulous area representing a missing premolar or molar. All specimens were subjected to a fracture resistance test. CIRFPDs with inlay-shaped retainers showed the highest fracture resistance values for missing premolars and molars. CIRFPDs with box-shaped retainers showed lower fracture resistance values. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the three tested CIRFPD designs. There was a statistically significant difference between CIRFPDs constructed for the replacement of molars and those constructed for the replacement of premolars. The CIRFPD constructed for the replacement of molars gave lower fracture resistance values with the three tested designs. All the fracture resistance values obtained in this study were superior to the assumed maximum mastication forces. Failure mode was delamination and chipping of the veneering material. There was a statistically significant difference between the three designs of CIRPFDs tested. There was a statistically significant difference between CIRFPDs constructed for the replacement of molars than those constructed for the replacement of premolars. The CIRFPDs constructed for the replacement of molars gave lower fracture resistance values with the three tested designs. All fracture resistance values obtained in this study were superior to the assumed maximum mastication forces. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Comparative Environmental Benefits of Lightweight Design in the Automotive Sector: The Case Study of Recycled Magnesium Against CFRP and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Ranza, Luigi

    A LCA feasibility study was undertaken to determine the environmental impact of an Eco-magnesium process route by recycled chips to manufacture panel for the automotive sector to be compared with comparative scenarios, a non-recycled carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and a baseline steel-made component scenario. The objective of this LCA study was to assess the actual benefits of a lightweight solution considering the whole life cycle, including the dirty-phase (i.e. the "cradle-to-exit gate" stage) that impacts differently for the different materials. For this reason the analysis has regarded the net "cradle-to-grave" scenario. Different automotive floor pans were then compared considering the rate of fuel consumption during vehicle operation — i.e. the fuel-mass correlation factor — and the different material substitution factors allowed by the different materials selected.

  5. Comparative Amino Acids Studies on Phac Synthases and Proteases as Well as Establishing a New Trend in Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A question addressed in this study is: why similar enzymes are classified into different subclasses? As an example, PhaC synthases are classified according to four different classes (I, II, III and IV. To answer this question we proposed that besides the catalytic residues, the overall amino acids (AAs present are responsible for the differences observed. The AAs’ composition affects the structure/function/substrate specificity (SFS of these enzymes. The differences between the classes in various PhaC synthases and proteases were analysed to support our argument. Homology and phylogenic tree of some selected PhaC synthases of different strains (representing the four classes were demonstrated. The properties of a specific class of enzyme could not be changed into those of another by changing the catalytic residues. Moreover, these differences could not be detected from the proteins’ 3D structures, despite clear differences at the AAs level. Another question was also addressed: could we benefit from the various existing protein databases in the field of biotechnology? To answer this, we introduced a model for an Experimental Design based on the information in the protein database (for strains available in our lab regarding their ability to degrade castor oil. Two enzymes in the phenol degradation pathway, phenol 2-monooxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and a lipase enzyme were analysed. These enzymes were screened and analysed according to the BLAST-protein database and BRENDA. The comprehensive enzyme information system compared six strains against each other, including: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Only P. aeruginosa proved to have the three required enzymes and was suitable for the production of lipases from castor oil (crude castor oil is usually contaminated with phenol as indicated by the databases. In

  6. Collaboration between Industrial Designers and Design Engineers - Comparing the Understanding of Design Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Esben Skov; Møller, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case study comparing the understanding of design intent between industrial designers and design engineers. The study is based on the hypothesis that it is not all aspects of the design intent that are equally difficult to share between industrial designers and design engineers in the product development process. The study builds on five semi-structured interviews, where two industrial designers and three design engineers were interviewed about different aspects of the design intent. Based on our results, there seem to be indications that the more complex and abstract elements of industrial design knowledge such as the meaning, semantics, values, emotions and social aspects of the product are less shared by the design engineers. Moreover, the results also indicate that the different aspects of the design intent are perceived separately, rather than as part of a whole by the design engineers. The connection between the different aspects of the design intent is not shared between the industrial designer and design engineer making the shared knowledge less meaningful to the design engineers. The results of this study cannot be claimed to be conclusive due to the limited empirical material. Further investigation and analytically richer data are required in order to verify and broaden the findings. More case studies have therefore been planned in order to understand the area better.

  7. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    course (1948, the first, credit units, eligibility, number of year offer, type of graduation (from major to doctorate and professional. Concluding, the end of the sixties can be the mark of a well-established body of literature in comparative education and sports studies published in several scientific journals. What about the XXIst century? Is it still important to compare sports and education throughout the world? Only with qualitative methods? Mixed methods? We think so. That is why, after a certain decline and fuzzy goal definition in research motivations within ISCPES we decided to innovate and reorganize people from physical education and sports around this important theme of comparative studies. Important because we observe an increasing concern on the contradictions across different results in publications under the same subject. How can we infer? What about good research questions which get no statistically significant results? New times are coming, and we want to be on that frontline of this move as said by Elsevier “With RMR (results masked review articles, you don’t need to worry about what editors or reviewers might think about your results. As long as you have asked an important question and performed a rigorous study, your paper will be treated the same as any other. You do not need to have null results to submit an RMR article; there are many reasons why it can be helpful to have the results blinded at initial review”.https://www.elsevier.com/connect/reviewers-update/results-masked-review-peer-review-without-publication-bias. This is a very different and challenging time. Our future strategy will comprehend more cooperation between researchers, institutions and scientific societies as an instrument to leverage our understanding of physical activity and sports through different continents and countries and be useful for policy designs. Next 2018, on the occasion of the UE initiative Sofia – European Capital of Sport 2018 we - Bulgarian Comparative

  8. Solid lipid nanoparticles with and without hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: a comparative study of nanoparticles designed for colonic drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Gianpiera; Gavini, Elisabetta; Cossu, Massimo; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    New solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), composed of Compritol ATO888 (C) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP), were developed in order to study a new colon-specific formulation for diclofenac sodium (D) delivery. The prepared batches differ from each other by the molecular ratio between HP and D and by the composition of the matrix. Nanoparticles composed of an exclusively lipid matrix and nanoparticles with an oligomeric and lipid matrix were compared in order to establish the effect of both components on the drug delivery tests performed. The SLN preparation method was based on the oil/water hot homogenization process. Emulsions produced were cooled at room temperature and lyophilized in order to obtain dried nanoparticles; possible damage to nanoparticle shape and size was avoided by the addition of cryoprotectants to the aqueous dispersion of nanoparticles before exsiccation. An in vitro toxicity study was performed using CaCo2 cells to establish the safety of the prepared SLN. Data obtained showed that production method studied guarantees emulsions composed of nanosized drops which can be dried by lyophilization into SLN with a size range of 300-600 nm. In vitro and ex vivo tests demonstrated that dried SLN can be considered as colon delivery systems; however, the matrix composition as well as the presence of cryoprotectant on their surface influences the release and permeation rate of D. The in vitro toxicity studies indicated that the SLN are well tolerated.

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles with and without hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: a comparative study of nanoparticles designed for colonic drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spada, Gianpiera; Gavini, Elisabetta; Cossu, Massimo; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    New solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), composed of Compritol ATO888 (C) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP), were developed in order to study a new colon-specific formulation for diclofenac sodium (D) delivery. The prepared batches differ from each other by the molecular ratio between HP and D and by the composition of the matrix. Nanoparticles composed of an exclusively lipid matrix and nanoparticles with an oligomeric and lipid matrix were compared in order to establish the effect of both components on the drug delivery tests performed. The SLN preparation method was based on the oil/water hot homogenization process. Emulsions produced were cooled at room temperature and lyophilized in order to obtain dried nanoparticles; possible damage to nanoparticle shape and size was avoided by the addition of cryoprotectants to the aqueous dispersion of nanoparticles before exsiccation. An in vitro toxicity study was performed using CaCo 2 cells to establish the safety of the prepared SLN. Data obtained showed that production method studied guarantees emulsions composed of nanosized drops which can be dried by lyophilization into SLN with a size range of 300–600 nm. In vitro and ex vivo tests demonstrated that dried SLN can be considered as colon delivery systems; however, the matrix composition as well as the presence of cryoprotectant on their surface influences the release and permeation rate of D. The in vitro toxicity studies indicated that the SLN are well tolerated. (paper)

  10. Design and comparative study of vertical LEDs with graphene, ITO and Ni/Au as contact/current spreading layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sumitra; Mahala, Pramila; Pal, Suchandan

    2018-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of graphene, indium tin oxide (ITO) and Ni/Au as contact/current spreading layer/current spreading layer for GaN vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). In this simulation study, the effect of these contact/current spreading layers on different performance parameters of GaN V-LEDs has been studied. By using these three different types of contact/current spreading layers, we have comparatively studied the effect on light extraction efficiency (LEE), optical output power, wall plug efficiency and radiant intensity of V-LEDs. As per the simulation results, it shows that using graphene contact/current spreading layers, it is possible to achieve better performance than using ITO and Ni/Au contact/current spreading layers. For graphene/(Ni/Au) contact/current spreading layers, the LEE is improved by 36.77% whereas for ITO/(Ni/Au) contact/current spreading layers it is improved by 13.74%. Also, by using graphene/(Ni/Au) contact/current spreading layers, the optical output power of LEDs improved by 11.11% whereas for ITO/(Ni/Au) contact/current spreading layers shown 4.16% improvement. The radiant intensity is enhanced by 37.65% for graphene/(Ni/Au) contact/current spreading layers and 13.5% for ITO/(Ni/Au) contact/current spreading layers. In this report, we have given a detailed analysis of the obtained simulation results. The simulation was carried out in SimuLED tool.

  11. Green Building between Tradition and Modernity Study Comparative Analysis between Conventional Methods and Updated Styles of Design and Architecture Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Elshimy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green house   concept appeared from the ancient to the modern age ages and there is a tendency to use a traditional architecture with a pristine ecological environment areas and through sophisticated systems arrived to modern systems of the upgraded systems by Treatment architectural achieve environmental   sustainability   in   recent   years,   sustainability concept has become the common interest of numerous disciplines. The reason for this popularity is to perform the sustainable development. The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as "sustainable architecture” or “green house,” is the theory, science and style of buildings designed and constructed in accordance   with environmentally   friendly   principles.   Green house strives to minimize the number of resources consumed in the   building's  construction,   use   and   operation,   as  well  as curtailing  the  harm  done  to  the  environment  through  the emission, pollution and waste of its components.To design, construct, operate and maintain buildings energy, water and new materials are utilized as well as amounts of waste causing negative effects to health and environment is generated. In order to limit these effects and design environmentally sound and resource efficient buildings; "green building systems" must be introduced, clarified, understood and practiced.This paper aims at highlighting these difficult and complex issues of sustainability which encompass the scope of almost every aspect of human life.

  12. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  13. Comparative study of visual function and ocular aberrations of two different one-piece designed hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxin; Wang, Zhaoxia; Tian, Xia; Wang, Xuehong; Gao, Xining

    2017-05-30

    To determine whether the aspherical IOL, Tecnis ZCB00, can improve the visual quality by measuring visual acuity, wavefront aberrations, and contrast sensitivity. It was a retrospective case series. Patients who underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery were divided into two groups. One group (Group TC) was implanted with one-piece aspherical acrylic IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, AMO); the other (Group SA) was implanted with one-piece spherical acrylic IOL (Sensar AAB00, AMO). Eighty-eight eyes were selected into this study, among them 43 eyes in 26 male cases and 45 eyes in 29 female cases. Thirty-six eyes in 23 cases were in Group TC, and 52 eyes in 32 cases were in Group SA. Three months postoperatively, aberrations were analyzed with i-Trace visual function analyzer (Tracy Technologies, USA). Contrast sensitivities were measured with Takaci-CGT-1000 contrast glare tester (Seiko, Japan). All the 88 eyes underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, without complications during or after surgery. Three months postoperatively, the uncorrected vision acuity in Group TC was significantly better than in Group SA (P = 0.007). At the pupil size of 5.0 mm, higher-order aberrations in Group TC were significantly higher than in Group SA (P = 0.02), especially the spherical aberration (Z 4 0 ) (P < 0.001); at the pupil size of 4.0 mm, Z 4 0 in Group SA was statistically higher than in Group TC (P < 0.001); at the pupil size of 3.0 mm, higher-order aberrations such as coma (Z 3 -1,1 ) and trefoil aberration (Z 3 -3,3 ) in Group SA were obviously higher than in Group TC (P = 0.01). In the low spatial frequency, the contrast sensitivity and the glare sensitivity in Group TC were significantly higher than in Group SA (P < 0.05). By the short-term follow-up (3 months), the aspherical acrylic IOL can reduce the higher-order aberrations (especially the spherical aberration) and increase the contrast sensitivity to improve the visual performance.

  14. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  15. Design of the PROCON trial: a prospective, randomized multi – center study comparing cervical anterior discectomy without fusion, with fusion or with arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotenhuis J André

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PROCON was designed to assess the clinical outcome, development of adjacent disc disease and costs of cervical anterior discectomy without fusion, with fusion using a stand alone cage and implantation of a Bryan's disc prosthesis. Description of rationale and design of PROCON trial and discussion of its strengths and limitations. Methods/Design Since proof justifying the use of implants or arthroplasty after cervical anterior discectomy is lacking, PROCON was designed. PROCON is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing cervical anterior discectomy without fusion, with fusion with a stand alone cage or with implantation of a disc. The study population will be enrolled from patients with a single level cervical disc disease without myelopathic signs. Each treatment arm will need 90 patients. The patients will be followed for a minimum of five years, with visits scheduled at 6 weeks, 3 months, 12 months, and then yearly. At one year postoperatively, clinical outcome and self reported outcomes will be evaluated. At five years, the development of adjacent disc disease will be investigated. Discussion The results of this study will contribute to the discussion whether additional fusion or arthroplasty is needed and cost effective. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41681847

  16. Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazami, Fariborz; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Jahedi, Farzad; Moattari, Marzieh

    2014-03-05

    The importance of using technologies such as e-learning in different disciplines is discussed in the literature. Researchers have measured the effectiveness of e-learning in a number of fields.Considering the lack of research on the effectiveness of online learning in dental education particularly in Iran, the advantages of these learning methods and the positive university atmosphere regarding the use of online learning. This study, therefore, aims to compare the effects of two methods of teaching (virtual versus traditional) on student learning. This post-test only design study approached 40, fifth year dental students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. From this group, 35 students agreed to participate. These students were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental (virtual learning) and comparison (traditional learning). To ensure similarity between groups, we compared GPAs of all participants by the Mann-Whitney U test (P > 0.05). The experimental group received a virtual learning environment courseware package specifically designed for this study, whereas the control group received the same module structured in a traditional lecture form. The virtual learning environment consisted of online and offline materials. Two identical valid, reliable post-tests that consisted of 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 4 essay questions were administered immediately (15 min) after the last session and two months later to assess for knowledge retention. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. A comparison of the mean knowledge score of both groups showed that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning (effect size = 0.69). The newly designed virtual learning package is feasible and will result in more effective learning in comparison with lecture-based training. However further studies are needed to generalize the findings of this study.

  17. Comparative evaluation of stresses in tooth implant connected fixed partial denture by varying the implant design and position: A 3D finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Pratheep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims at evaluating stresses generated in a fixed tooth to implant connected fixed partial denture (FPD by finite element method by varying implant design and position, in unilateral distal extension cases, i.e. for replacing mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars. Materials and Methods: Four models were created, Model 1-A finite element model (FEA model of a crestal implant-tooth connected metal ceramic FPD with pontic in 36 region. The 35 region simulated the second premolar. Model 2-A FEA model of a basal implant-tooth connected metal ceramic FPD. Model 3-A FEA model of a crestal implant in 36 region connected to tooth 35 and cantilevered posteriorly with pontic in 37 region, made of metal ceramic. Model 4-A FEA model of a basal implant in 36 region connected to tooth 35 and cantilevered posteriorly with pontic in 37 region, made of metal ceramic. A vertical force of 100N directed evenly on the nodes on the occlusal surface of each of the three crowns. The models displayed stress both numerically and by color coding. Results: On comparing models 1 and 2, the model 1 showed comparatively more stresses in crestal bone area of the implant. On comparing models 3 and 4, model 3 showed lesser von misses stress values. Conclusion: In case of tooth implant connected FPDs without any cantilevers, basal implants show better stress distribution when compared to crestal implants. In case of cantilever designs, crestal implant design showed lower stress values, but the difference in stresses were less.

  18. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  19. Advanced Propulsor Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Report No. CG-D-1-86 ADVANCED PROPULSOR DESIGN STUDIES BY WALTER S. GEARHART 00 DTIC ;00 ELECTE MAR 4 S86 B II This document is available to the U;S...Organization Code Advanced Propulsor Design Studies _.__________ 0. Performing Orgoni ation Report No.7. A’jthoart g) Walter S. Gearhart 9. Performing...USCG Hulls Considered in the Preliminary Design Studies . . . . . . * 2 Preliminary Design Investigation . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 3

  20. Design and Rationale of a Comparative Effectiveness Study to Evaluate Two Acupuncture Methods for the Treatment of Headaches Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtney; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Duncan, Alaine; York, Alexandra; Hollifield, Michael; Niemtzow, Richard C.; Burns, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to deployment and battle can induce a constellation of physical, cognitive, psychological, and behavioral symptoms, also referred to as war-related Trauma Spectrum Response (wrTSR). One prevalent cause of this response is traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its ensuing sequelae, such as pain and suffering caused by post-traumatic headache. Current pharmacologic treatment of these headaches is often inadequate and complicated by the multi-component nature of wrTSR. Acupuncture has been found to reduce pain, improve health-related quality of life, prevent migraine headaches, and reduce tension-type and chronic daily headaches. Objective An ongoing study is endeavoring to advance understanding of the speed and depth of healing induced by two acupuncture approaches, compared to current standard practice and with the aim of providing insights to guide future implementation of acupuncture treatment in the military. Design A comparative effectiveness study protocol will be used to determine if auricular acupuncture (AA) or semi-standardized traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA) alleviates headaches and reduces associated comorbidities more effectively than usual care alone in a cohort of active duty military personnel with mild-to-moderate TBI. Summary Given that the study is currently underway, no results or conclusions can be reported at present. While current evidence from acupuncture research demonstrates its promising healing impact across the wrTSR, a number of unanswered questions and information gaps remain. It is hoped that the proposed study will address some of these questions and gaps.

  1. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  2. A comparative reliability and performance study of different stent designs in terms of mechanical properties: foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Bin; Choi, Hyuk; Joo, Sang Min; Kim, Han Ki; Shin, Jae Hee; Hwang, Min Ho; Choi, Jaesoon; Kim, Dong-Gon; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lim, Chun Hak; Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Heung-Man; Sun, Kyung

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to improve the mechanical performance of stents by conducting reliability performance testing and finite element method (FEM)-based simulations for coronary stents. Three commercially available stent designs and our own new design were tested to measure the factors affecting performance, specifically foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility. The stents used in the present experiments were 3 mm in working diameter and 18 mm of working length. The results of the experiments indicate that the foreshortening of stents A, B, C, and our new design, D, was equivalent to 2.25, 0.67, 0.46, and 0.41%, respectively. The recoil of stents A, B, C, and D was 6.00, 4.35, 3.50, and 4.36%, respectively. Parallel plate radial force measurements were A, 3.72 ± 0.28 N; B, 3.81 ± 0.32 N; C, 4.35 ± 0.18 N; and D, 4.02 ± 0.24 N. Radial forces determined by applying uniform pressure in the circumferential direction were A, 28.749 ± 0.81 N; B, 32.231 ± 1.80 N; C, 34.522 ± 3.06 N; and D, 42.183 ± 2.84 N. The maximum force of crimped stent at 2.2-mm deflection was 1.01 ± 0.08 N, 0.82 ± 0.08 N, 0.92 ± 0.12 N, and 0.68 ± 0.07 N for each of stents A, B, C and D. The results of this study enabled us to identify several factors to enhance the performance of stents. In comparing these stents, we found that our design, stent D, which was designed by a collaborative team from seven universities, performed better than the commercial stents across all parameter of foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative Canadian-American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Macel D.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines topics for comparative study of Canada and the United States. Includes geography, politics, settlement patterns, economics, education, religion, and sports. Suggests materials to aid teachers in formulating comparative approaches to Canadian and U.S. studies. (DB)

  4. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  5. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Tautphäus, Yannick; Scherer, Martin; Voltmer, Edgar

    2014-07-04

    The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental health compared to STEM students. The annual

  6. The TOPSHOCK study: Effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy compared to focused shockwave therapy for treating patellar tendinopath - design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diercks Ron L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon that is especially prevalent in people who are involved in jumping activities. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy is a relatively new treatment modality for tendinopathies. It seems to be a safe and promising part of the rehabilitation program for patellar tendinopathy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy originally used focused shockwaves. Several years ago a new kind of shockwave therapy was introduced: radial shockwave therapy. Studies that investigate the effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy as treatment for patellar tendinopathy are scarce. Therefore the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy as treatments for patellar tendinopathy. Methods/design The TOPSHOCK study (Tendinopathy Of Patella SHOCKwave is a two-armed randomised controlled trial in which the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy are directly compared. Outcome assessors and patients are blinded as to which treatment is given. Patients undergo three sessions of either focused shockwave therapy or radial shockwave therapy at 1-week intervals, both in combination with eccentric decline squat training. Follow-up measurements are scheduled just before treatments 2 and 3, and 1, 4, 7 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. The main outcome measure is the Dutch VISA-P questionnaire, which asks for pain, function and sports participation in subjects with patellar tendinopathy. Secondary outcome measures are pain determined with a VAS during ADL, sports and decline squats, rating of subjective improvement and overall satisfaction with the treatment. Patients will also record their sports activities, pain during and after these activities, and concurrent medical treatment on a weekly basis in a web-based diary. Results will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion

  7. Comparative analysis of nuclear reactor control system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are vital to the safe operation of nuclear reactors. Their seismic design requirements are some of the most important criteria governing reactor system design evaluation. Consequently, the seismic analysis for nuclear reactors is directed to include not only the mechanical and structural seismic capabilities of a reactor, but the control system functional requirements as well. In the study described an alternate conceptual design of a safety rod system was compared with a prototypic system design to assess their relative functional reliabilities under design seismic conditions. The comparative methods utilized standard success tree and decision tree techniques to determine the relative figures of merit. The study showed: (1) The methodology utilized can provide both qualitative and quantitative bases for design decisions regarding seismic functional capabilities of two systems under comparison, (2) the process emphasizes the visibility of particular design features that are subject to common mode failure while under seismic loading, and (3) minimal improvement was shown to be available in overall system seismic performance of an independent conceptual design, however, it also showed the system would be subject to a new set of operational uncertainties which would have to be resolved by extensive development programs

  8. Comparing dedicated and designated models of integrating mental health into chronic disease care: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Lund, Crick; Lombard, Carl; Joska, John; Levitt, Naomi; Butler, Christopher; Cleary, Susan; Naledi, Tracey; Milligan, Peter; Stein, Dan J; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2018-03-16

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), it is uncertain whether a "dedicated" approach to integrating mental health care (wherein a community health worker (CHW) has the sole responsibility of delivering mental health care) or a "designated" approach (wherein a CHW provides this service in addition to usual responsibilities) is most effective and cost-effective. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these two models of service integration relative to treatment as usual (TAU) for improving mental health and chronic disease outcomes among patients with HIV or diabetes. This is a cluster randomised trial. We will randomise 24 primary health care facilities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa to one of three study arms. Within each cluster, we will recruit 25 patients from HIV and 25 from diabetes services for a total sample of 1200 participants. Eligible patients will be aged 18 years or older, take medication for HIV or diabetes, and screen positive on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test for hazardous/harmful alcohol use or depression on the Centre for Epidemiology Scale on Depression. Participants recruited in clinics assigned to the designated or dedicated approach will receive three sessions of motivational interviewing and problem-solving therapy, while those recruited at TAU-assigned clinics will be referred for further assessment. Participants will complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months post-enrolment to assess change in self-reported outcomes. At these end points, we will test HIV RNA viral load for participants with HIV and HbA1c levels for participants with diabetes. Primary outcomes are reductions in self-reported hazardous/harmful alcohol use and risk of depression. Secondary outcomes are improvements in adherence to chronic disease treatment, biomarkers of chronic disease outcomes, and health-related quality of life. Mixed-effect linear regression models

  9. The Role of Engineering Design in Technological and 21st Century Competencies Capacity Building: Comparative Case Study in the Middle East, Asia, and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdulwahed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design is considered an effective means for developing engineering technical skills. Normally, engineering design is conducted in teams and is a collaborative open-ended approach under constraints. This nature of engineering design involves engagement of several interpersonal, cognitive, and management skills or competencies such as teamwork, communications, decision making, problem solving, etc. While modern engineers are supposed to be technically competent, they need to posses a wide set of interpersonal, cognitive, and management competencies to function effectively in the workplace. Increasingly there has been more deployment of engineering design competitions (EDCs in engineering education to address some gaps in current curricula system. In this study, the impact of a complex engineering design competition on developing 21st century competencies of engineering and technology talent is investigated. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods in the approach to self-reporting perceptions were utilized. Data was collected through interviews from students and faculty, and through surveys from students. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from students and faculty indicate that the investigated EDC have positive impact on a large set of 21st century engineering and technology competencies, this has been consistent across groups of students from the EU, Middle East, and Asia, as well as across genders. This is one of the few available investigations that sheds light in further depth on the impact of engineering design on non-technical skills.

  10. COMPARATION STUDY OF INSTANT NOODLE NONG SHIM KOREA AND INDOMIE INDONESIA AS THE FEFFECT OF PACKAGING DESIGN POINT OF INTEREST TO THE CONSUMER BRAND PREFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudah sejak lama%2C masyarakat mengkonsumsi mie instant. Di Korea mi instan yang disebut Ramyon%2C adalah salah satu makanan yang popular dan banyak dijual di toko-toko kecil%2C supermarket%2C restoran dan kantin. Mi instan yang terkenal di Korea diproduksi oleh Nong Shim Co.%2C Ltd. Di Indonesia%2C kebanyakan orang mengkonsumsi mi instan dengan alasan praktis%2C cepat saji dan lain sebagainya. Indomie%2C yang diproduksi oleh PT. Indofood adalah merk nomor satu dan menjadi pemimpin pasar pada pasar mi instan. Dalam studi komparasi antara dua merk terkenal ini%2C perlu diketahui seberapa jauh peran desain kemasan dalam menarik minat konsumen terhadap pilihan merk. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : For a long time%2C people have consumed the instant noodle. In Korea%2C instant noodle%2C which is called Ramyon%2C is one of popular food and it is often seen in the retail shop%2C supermarket%2C restaurant and cafeteria. Instant noodle that has a famous brand in Korea is produce by Nong Shim Co.%2C Ltd. In Indonesia%2C many people have consumed the instant noodle with practice reason%2C fast serving%2C and etc. Indomie%2C produced by PT. Indofood%2C is the number one brand and become the market leader of instant noodle. Comparing at two famous brand of instant noodle%2C it is needed to be known how far the effect of packaging design can attract the consumer brand preference. desain kemasan%2C pilihan merk%2C mi instan.

  11. Electrospinning/electrospraying vs. electrospinning: A comparative study on the design of poly(L-lactide)/zinc oxide non-woven textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virovska, Daniela; Paneva, Dilyana; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Karashanova, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    New hybrid fibrous materials from the biocompatible and biodegradable aliphatic polyester poly(L-lactide) (PLA) and pristine or surface-functionalized nanosized zinc oxide were prepared. The application of the techniques: (i) electrospinning of a suspension of ZnO in PLA solution, or (ii) simultaneous electrospinning of PLA solution and electrospraying of a ZnO suspension in PLA solution (at low PLA concentration) enabled the fabrication of hybrid materials of diverse design: non-woven textile consisting of fibers in which ZnO was deposited on the fibers' surface (designated as type "on") or was mainly in the fibers' bulk (designated as type "in"). The photocatalytic activity of the new fibrous materials was estimated in respect to Methylene Blue (MB) and Reactive Red (RR) dyes. Type "on" hybrid materials had higher photocatalytic activity as compared to type "in" materials. It was shown that type "on" materials preserved their photocatalytic activity in respect to MB even after three repeated uses, while for the RR dye the same held true for ZnO-on-PLA mats only. The type "on" materials exhibited antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus as evidenced by the performed microbiological tests.

  12. Application of Taguchi L16 design method for comparative study of ability of 3A zeolite in removal of Rhodamine B and Malachite green from environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mashaallah; Kaykhaii, Massoud; Sasani, Mojtaba

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of 3A zeolite as a novel adsorbent for removal of Rhodamine B and Malachite green dyes from water samples. To increase the removal efficiency, effecting parameters on adsorption process were investigated and optimized by adopting Taguchi design of experiments approach. The percentage contribution of each parameter on the removal of Rhodamine B and Malachite green dyes determined using ANOVA and showed that the most effective parameters in removal of RhB and MG by 3A zeolite are initial concentration of dye and pH, respectively. Under optimized condition, the amount predicted by Taguchi design method and the value obtained experimentally, showed good closeness (more than 94.86%). Good adsorption efficiency obtained for proposed methods indicates that, the 3A zeolite is capable to remove the significant amounts of Rhodamine B and Malachite green from environmental water samples.

  13. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  14. Comparative analysis of design models for concrete corbels

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, D. L.; Silva Neto, A. P.; Lobo, F. A.; Debs, M. K. El

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The main objective of this paper is performing a comparative analysis of some design models for precast concrete corbels. For this, it was analyzed design models from Brazilian (NBR 9062) and European (EUROCODE 2) Codes and a US design handbook (PCI). Moreover, three analytical models showed in the literature are analyzed. The objective of this comparative is identifying the best design models to represent the failure load of concrete corbels by the tie yields or by the concrete crus...

  15. Quality of Diagnosis and Treatment Plans After Using the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and Challenging Behaviours' in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Multiple Case Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijssers, Addy; van Meijel, Berno; Maaskant, Marian; Keeman, Noortje; van Achterberg, Theo

    2016-07-01

    People with intellectual disabilities often have a multitude of concurrent problems due to the combination of cognitive impairments, psychiatric disorders (particularly anxiety) and related challenging behaviours. Diagnoses in people with intellectual disabilities are complicated. This study evaluates the quality of the diagnoses and treatment plans after using a guideline that was developed to support professionals in their diagnostic tasks. A comparative multiple case study with an experimental and control condition, applying deductive analyses of diagnoses and treatment plans. The analyses revealed that the number of diagnostic statements and planned treatment actions in the experimental group was significantly larger and more differentiated than in the control condition. In the control group, consequential harm and protective factors were hardly mentioned in diagnoses and treatment plans. Working with the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and CB' leads to improved diagnoses and treatment plans compared with care as usual. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Time in internationally comparative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Luyten, Johannes W.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Scheerens, J

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, illustrative internationally comparative data about time at school, time spent in out-of-school programs, and homework/ individual study time are presented. In the first section this is done in a more descriptive way, while in the second and third sections, the association between

  17. Comparative study of mountain sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Cuba Caparó, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In order to make a comparative study of Mountain Sickness affecting humans and cattle and sheep has been reviewed briefly the clinical, hematologic and pathologic aspects found in the literature. The anatomic correlation of clinical symptoms and major injuries in the bovine and ovine, emphasizing, among other things, the similarity of symptoms and lesions observed in the myocardium and the adrenal cortex does. Mountain Sickness In the three species considered in this study polycythemia is one...

  18. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. The TOPSHOCK study: effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy compared to focused shockwave therapy for treating patellar tendinopath - design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, Henk; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ron L

    2011-10-11

    Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon that is especially prevalent in people who are involved in jumping activities. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy is a relatively new treatment modality for tendinopathies. It seems to be a safe and promising part of the rehabilitation program for patellar tendinopathy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy originally used focused shockwaves. Several years ago a new kind of shockwave therapy was introduced: radial shockwave therapy. Studies that investigate the effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy as treatment for patellar tendinopathy are scarce. Therefore the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy as treatments for patellar tendinopathy. The TOPSHOCK study (Tendinopathy Of Patella SHOCKwave) is a two-armed randomised controlled trial in which the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy are directly compared. Outcome assessors and patients are blinded as to which treatment is given. Patients undergo three sessions of either focused shockwave therapy or radial shockwave therapy at 1-week intervals, both in combination with eccentric decline squat training. Follow-up measurements are scheduled just before treatments 2 and 3, and 1, 4, 7 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. The main outcome measure is the Dutch VISA-P questionnaire, which asks for pain, function and sports participation in subjects with patellar tendinopathy. Secondary outcome measures are pain determined with a VAS during ADL, sports and decline squats, rating of subjective improvement and overall satisfaction with the treatment. Patients will also record their sports activities, pain during and after these activities, and concurrent medical treatment on a weekly basis in a web-based diary. Results will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The TOPSHOCK study is the first randomised controlled trial that

  20. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  1. Comparative Design, Scaling, and Control of Appendages for Inertial Reorientation

    OpenAIRE

    Libby, Thomas; Johnson, Aaron M.; Chang-Siu, Evan; Full, Robert J.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a comparative framework for the design of actuated inertial appendages for planar, aerial reorientation. We define the Inertial Reorientation template, the simplest model of this behavior, and leverage its linear dynamics to reveal the design constraints linking a task with the body designs capable of completing it. As practicable inertial appendage designs lead to morphology that is generally more complex, we advance a notion of "anchoring" whereby a judicious choice of p...

  2. EVIDENCE trial: design of a phase 2, randomized, controlled, multicenter study comparing flow diversion and traditional endovascular strategy in unruptured saccular wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjman, Francis; Levrier, Olivier; Combaz, Xavier; Bonafé, Alain; Biondi, Alessandra; Desal, Hubert; Bracard, Serge; Mounayer, Charbel; Riva, Roberto; Chapuis, Francois; Huot, Laure; Armoiry, Xavier; Gory, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of large, wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with coils is associated with low rates of initial angiographic occlusion and high rates of recurrence. The Pipeline™ Embolization Device has shown high rates of complete occlusion in uncontrolled clinical series. The study is a prospective, controlled, randomized, multicenter, phase 2 open-label trial. Intention-to-treat population includes age ≥18, unruptured saccular aneurysm located in the intra-dural area, neck diameter ≥4 and ≤10 mm, sac diameter ≥7 mm and ≤20 mm, "dome/neck" ratio is ≥1, diameter of the parent artery ≥2 mm and ≤5 mm, and no prior treatment of the aneurysm. Site can only participate if five patients have been previously treated with the Pipeline device. The primary end point of the study is complete occlusion of the aneurysm on angiogram performed 12 months after the endovascular procedure. Complete aneurysm occlusion is defined as the absence of visible blood flow, grade 1 according to the Raymond scale for the standard procedure group and grade 4 according to the grading scale of Kamran for the flow diverter group. The trial is currently enrolling and results of the data are pending the completion of enrollment and follow-up. This paper details the trial design of the French EVIDENCE phase 2 trial, a blinded, controlled randomized trial of wide-neck intra-dural aneurysms amenable to either traditional endovascular strategy or flow diversion with Pipeline device.

  3. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  4. CEPC booster design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tianjian; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Chuang; Cui, Xiao-Hao; Wang, Yi-Wei; Bai, Sha; Su, Feng; Wang, Dou; Cai, Yun-Hai; Koratzinos, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In September 2012, Chinese scientists proposed a Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) in China at 240 GeV center-of-mass energy for Higgs studies. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams to the CEPC collider for top-up injection at 0.1 Hz. The design of the full energy booster ring of the CEPC is a challenge. The ejected beam energy is 120 GeV and the injected beam energy is 6 GeV. In this paper we describe two alternative schemes, the wiggler bend scheme and the normal bend scheme. For the wiggler bend scheme, we propose to operate the booster ring as a large wiggler at low energy and as a normal ring at high energy to avoid the problem of very low dipole magnet fields. For the normal bend scheme, we implement the orbit correction to correct the earth field.

  5. BWID System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness

  6. Comparative performance of conventional OPC concrete and HPC designed by densified mixture design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trong-Phuoc; Hwang, Chao-Lung; Yang, Shu-Ti

    2017-12-01

    This experimental study evaluated the performance of normal ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC) that were designed by the conventional method (ACI) and densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA) method, respectively. Engineering properties and durability performance of both the OPC and HPC samples were studied using the tests of workability, compressive strength, water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and electrical surface resistivity. Test results show that the HPC performed good fresh property and further showed better performance in terms of strength and durability as compared to the OPC.

  7. Comparative Simulation Study of Glucose Control Methods Designed for Use in the Intensive Care Unit Setting via a Novel Controller Scoring Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJournett, Jeremy; DeJournett, Leon

    2017-11-01

    Effective glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting has the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality rates and thereby decrease health care expenditures. To evaluate what constitutes effective glucose control, typically several metrics are reported, including time in range, time in mild and severe hypoglycemia, coefficient of variation, and others. To date, there is no one metric that combines all of these individual metrics to give a number indicative of overall performance. We proposed a composite metric that combines 5 commonly reported metrics, and we used this composite metric to compare 6 glucose controllers. We evaluated the following controllers: Ideal Medical Technologies (IMT) artificial-intelligence-based controller, Yale protocol, Glucommander, Wintergerst et al PID controller, GRIP, and NICE-SUGAR. We evaluated each controller across 80 simulated patients, 4 clinically relevant exogenous dextrose infusions, and one nonclinical infusion as a test of the controller's ability to handle difficult situations. This gave a total of 2400 5-day simulations, and 585 604 individual glucose values for analysis. We used a random walk sensor error model that gave a 10% MARD. For each controller, we calculated severe hypoglycemia (140 mg/dL), and coefficient of variation (CV), as well as our novel controller metric. For the controllers tested, we achieved the following median values for our novel controller scoring metric: IMT: 88.1, YALE: 46.7, GLUC: 47.2, PID: 50, GRIP: 48.2, NICE: 46.4. The novel scoring metric employed in this study shows promise as a means for evaluating new and existing ICU-based glucose controllers, and it could be used in the future to compare results of glucose control studies in critical care. The IMT AI-based glucose controller demonstrated the most consistent performance results based on this new metric.

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an in-home respite care program in supporting informal caregivers of people with dementia: design of a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandepitte, Sophie; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Putman, Koen; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Annemans, Lieven

    2016-12-02

    Frequent hospitalization and permanent nursing home placement not only affect the well-being of persons with dementia, but also place great financial strain on society. Therefore, it is important to create effective strategies to support informal caregivers so that they can continue to perform their demanding role. Preliminary qualitative evidence suggests that community-based respite services can actually be important for caregivers, and that the level of evidence should be further established in terms of effectiveness. Therefore, a comparative study to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an in-home respite care program will be initiated. This manuscript described a quasi-experimental study to assess (cost)-effectiveness of an in-home respite care program to support informal caregivers of persons with dementia. 124 informal caregivers and persons with dementia will be included in the intervention group and will receive an in-home respite care program by an organization called Baluchon Alzheimer. 248 dyads will be included in the control group and will receive standard dementia care. The primary outcome is caregiver burden. Secondary outcomes are: quality of life of caregivers, frequency of behavioral problems of persons with dementia and the reactions of caregivers to those problems, intention to institutionalize the care-recipient, time to nursing home placement, resource use of the care-recipient, and willingness to pay for in-home respite care. When the trial demonstrates a difference in outcomes between both groups, within-trial and modeled cost-effectiveness analyses will be conducted in a separate economic evaluation plan to evaluate possible cost-effectiveness of the in-home respite care program compared to the control group receiving standard dementia care. Finally, the model based cost-effectiveness analyses will allow to extrapolate effects over a longer time horizon than the duration of the trial. This study will have great added value

  9. Comparative analysis of design models for concrete corbels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main objective of this paper is performing a comparative analysis of some design models for precast concrete corbels. For this, it was analyzed design models from Brazilian (NBR 9062 and European (EUROCODE 2 Codes and a US design handbook (PCI. Moreover, three analytical models showed in the literature are analyzed. The objective of this comparative is identifying the best design models to represent the failure load of concrete corbels by the tie yields or by the concrete crushing. Moreover, it is intended to evaluate the contribution of horizontal stirrups to resistance of concrete corbels. For this, a database was assembled from test results of concrete corbels carried out by several researchers and they are showed in the literature. The design models were applied to this database and from statistical tools, adjustments coefficients are recommended to be applied on these design models to take into account the results dispersion found in the analysis.

  10. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of two different abutment designs on soft tissue healing and stability of mucosal margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; van Brakel, Ralph; Iyer, Kavita; Huddleston Slater, James; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco

    Aim To evaluate the effect of two different abutment designs on soft tissue healing and the stability of the mucosal margin in vivo. Materials and methods Twenty-nine subjects received two, non-adjacent endosseous implants in the esthetic zone. Subsequently, conventional (control) and curved

  11. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  12. Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

  13. Design of China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP) for equipment and appliances and comparative study of international experience on super-efficient products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuying; Zhu, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    With rising global emphasizes on climate change and sustainable development, how to accelerate the transformation of energy efficiency has become an important question. Designing and implementing energy-efficiency policies for super-efficient products represents an important direction to achieve breakthroughs in the field of energy conservation. On December 31, 2014, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) jointly six other ministerial agencies launched China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP), which identifies top efficiency models for selected product categories. LEP sets the highest energy efficiency benchmark. Design of LEP took into consideration of how to best motivate manufacturers to accelerate technical innovation, promote high efficiency products. This paper explains core elements of LEP, such as objectives, selection criteria, implementation method and supportive policies. It also proposes recommendations to further improve LEP through international policy comparison with Japan’s Top Runner Program, U.S. Energy Star Most Efficient, and SEAD Global Efficiency Medal.

  14. Effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for women with menstrual pain compared to usual care alone: using stakeholder engagement to design a pragmatic randomized trial and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödt, Susanne; Schützler, Lena; Huang, Wenjing; Pach, Daniel; Brinkhaus, Benno; Hummelsberger, Josef; Kirschbaum, Barbara; Kuhlmann, Kirsten; Lao, Lixing; Liang, Fanrong; Mietzner, Anna; Mittring, Nadine; Müller, Sabine; Paul, Anna; Pimpao-Niederle, Carolina; Roll, Stephanie; Wu, Huangan; Zhu, Jiang; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-04-11

    Self-care acupressure might be successful in treating menstrual pain, which is common among young women. There is a need for comparative effectiveness research with stakeholder engagement in all phases seeking to address the needs of decision-makers. Our aim was to design a study on the effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for menstrual pain comparing usual care alone using different methods of stakeholder engagement. The study was designed using multiple mixed methods for stakeholder engagement. Based on the results of a survey and focus group discussion, a stakeholder advisory group developed the study design. Stakeholder engagement resulted in a two-arm pragmatic randomized trial. Two hundred and twenty women aged 18 to 25 years with menstrual pain will be included in the study. Outcome measurement will be done using electronic questionnaires provided by a study specific mobile application (App). Primary outcome will be the mean pain intensity at the days of pain during the third menstruation after therapy start. Stakeholder engagement helped to develop a study design that better serves the needs of decision makers, including an App as a modern tool for both intervention and data collection in a young target group. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier http://NCT01582724.

  15. Architecture as Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  16. Audit on the Use of Dangerous Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations in Paper Compared to Electronic Medication Orders: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie; Hoi, Sannifer; Fernandes, Olavo; Huh, Jin; Kynicos, Sara; Murphy, Laura; Lowe, Donna

    2018-04-01

    Dangerous abbreviations on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada's "Do Not Use" list have resulted in medication errors leading to harm. Data comparing rates of use of dangerous abbreviations in paper and electronic medication orders are limited. To compare rates of use of dangerous abbreviations from the "Do Not Use" list, in paper and electronic medication orders. Secondary objectives include determining the proportion of patients at risk for medication errors due to dangerous abbreviations and the most commonly used dangerous abbreviations. One-day cross-sectional audits of medication orders were conducted at a 6-site hospital network in Toronto, Canada, between December 2013 and January 2014. Proportions of paper and electronic medication orders containing dangerous abbreviation(s) were compared using a χ 2 test. The proportion of patients with at least 1 medication order containing dangerous abbreviation(s) and the top 5 dangerous abbreviations used were described. Overall, 255 patient charts were reviewed. The proportions of paper and electronic medication orders containing dangerous abbreviation(s) were 172/714 (24.1%) and 9/2207 (0.4%), respectively ( P abbreviation(s). The proportions of patients with at least 1 medication order during the audit period containing dangerous abbreviation(s) for patients with paper only, electronic only, or a hybrid of paper and electronic medication orders were 50.5%, 5%, and 47.2%, respectively. Those most commonly used were "D/C", drug name abbreviations, "OD," "cc," and "U." Electronic medication orders have significantly lower rates of dangerous abbreviation use compared to paper medication orders.

  17. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    -349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding......., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H......., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schroder, M., Poulsen, M...

  18. Comparative Study of Approximate Multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Masadeh, Mahmoud; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiene

    2018-01-01

    Approximate multipliers are widely being advocated for energy-efficient computing in applications that exhibit an inherent tolerance to inaccuracy. However, the inclusion of accuracy as a key design parameter, besides the performance, area and power, makes the identification of the most suitable approximate multiplier quite challenging. In this paper, we identify three major decision making factors for the selection of an approximate multipliers circuit: (1) the type of approximate full adder...

  19. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  20. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  1. Comparative studies of the pressure - and temperature temporal behavior in the Angra I containment when submitted to the design basic accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    A computer code - CONDRU 4 - was brought from Germany, that is being used for the determination of pressure - and temperature temporal behavior that occurs inside the metallic containment of PWR type reactors before the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Simulation for Angra-1 reactor was made, considering the ocurrence of the worst postulated accident for the containment integrity. The results obtained with CONDRU 4 computer code were compared with those obtained by the CONTEMPT-LT-and COCO computer code for the same nuclear power plant. The discrepancy found among the results were due mainly to the different modes adopted in the several codes for the steam-water separation of coolant injected in the containment. (Author) [pt

  2. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  3. Influence of implant neck design on facial bone crest dimensions in the esthetic zone analyzed by cone beam CT: a comparative study with a 5-to-9-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Vivianne; Bornstein, Michael M; Buser, Daniel; Belser, Urs

    2016-09-01

    To examine the influence of two different neck designs on facial bone crest dimensions in esthetic single implant sites after a 5-to-9-year follow-up analyzed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Sixty-one patients with an implant-borne single crown following early implant placement in the esthetic zone were enrolled. The test group consisted of a bone level (BL) neck design exhibiting a hydrophilic micro-rough surface combined with a platform-switching interface (PS) (n = 20). The control group comprised a soft tissue level (STL) neck design exhibiting a hydrophobic machined surface with a matching butt-joint interface (n = 41). Standardized clinical, radiologic, and esthetic parameters were applied. The facial bone crest dimensions were assessed by CBCT. Soft tissue parameters and pink esthetic scores yielded no significant differences between the two designs. Major differences were only observed at the implant shoulder level. The height of the facial bone crest for the BL design was located 0.2 mm above the implant shoulder level, whereas for the STL design, its location was 1.6 mm below. The width of the peri-implant saucer-like bone defect was reduced by 40% for the BL implant design. No differences were observed 2 mm below the shoulder level. The results of this comparative study suggest better crestal bone stability on the facial aspect of single implant sites in the esthetic zone for a BL design with a platform-switching concept when compared with STL implants with a butt-joint interface. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008. Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs.

  5. Design of asymmetric particles containing a charged interior and a neutral surface charge: comparative study on in vivo circulation of polyelectrolyte microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Jing; Luft, J Christopher; Tian, Shaomin; Raval, Jay S; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-07-16

    Lowering the modulus of hydrogel particles could enable them to bypass in vivo physical barriers that would otherwise filter particles with similar size but higher modulus. Incorporation of electrolyte moieties into the polymer network of hydrogel particles to increase the swelling ratio is a straightforward and quite efficient way to decrease the modulus. In addition, charged groups in hydrogel particles can also help secure cargoes. However, the distribution of charged groups on the surface of a particle can accelerate the clearance of particles. Herein, we developed a method to synthesize highly swollen microgels of precise size with near-neutral surface charge while retaining interior charged groups. A strategy was employed to enable a particle to be highly cross-linked with very small mesh size, and subsequently PEGylated to quench the exterior amines only without affecting the internal amines. Acidic degradation of the cross-linker allows for swelling of the particles to microgels with a desired size and deformability. The microgels fabricated demonstrated extended circulation in vivo compared to their counterparts with a charged surface, and could potentially be utilized in in vivo applications including as oxygen carriers or nucleic acid scavengers.

  6. Comparative Studies of Acculturative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studies of acculturative stress are reported from Canada. The reduction in health status among people undergoing acculturation has psychological, somatic, and social aspects. The stress varies across types of groups and individual differences. Further study is needed to determine variations across host societies. (VM)

  7. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  9. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  10. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  11. Comparing novelty of designs from biological-inspiration with those from brainstorming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshwani, Sonal; Lenau, Torben Anker; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand the significance of biological-analogies in fostering novelty by comparing biological-analogies with other design methods for idea generation. Among other design methods, brainstorming was chosen here as benchmark. Four studies were conducted to compare: (i) the l...... reasons behind the results. The results demonstrate that the design methods substantially influence the novelty of concepts generated, while indicating the need for better training in effective use of biological-analogies.......This research aims to understand the significance of biological-analogies in fostering novelty by comparing biological-analogies with other design methods for idea generation. Among other design methods, brainstorming was chosen here as benchmark. Four studies were conducted to compare: (i......) the levels of abstraction at which concepts were ideated using biological inspiration (represented using biocards) with that using traditional brainstorming; and (ii) the novelty of concepts produced by using these two design methods. Concepts produced in these studies were evaluated for levels...

  12. Comparative analysis of design codes for timber bridges in Canada, the United States, and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; James (Scott) Groenier

    2010-01-01

    The United States recently completed its transition from the allowable stress design code to the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) reliability-based code for the design of most highway bridges. For an international perspective on the LRFD-based bridge codes, a comparative analysis is presented: a study addressed national codes of the United States, Canada, and...

  13. Comparative study of different fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado-Flores, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fuel cells generate electricity and heat during electrochemical reaction which happens between the oxygen and hydrogen to form the water. Fuel cell technology is a promising way to provide energy for rural areas where there is no access to the public grid or where there is a huge cost of wiring and transferring electricity. In addition, applications with essential secure electrical energy requirement such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), power generation stations and distributed systems can employ fuel cells as their source of energy. The current paper includes a comparative study of basic design, working principle, applications, advantages and disadvantages of various technologies available for fuel cells. In addition, techno-economic features of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) are compared. The results indicate that fuel cell systems have simple design, high reliability, noiseless operation, high efficiency and less environmental impact. The aim of this paper is to serve as a convenient reference for fuel cell power generation reviews. (Author)

  14. Design and rationale of the Paliperidone Palmitate Research in Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) study: a novel comparative trial of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate versus daily oral antipsychotic treatment for delaying time to treatment failure in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphs, Larry; Mao, Lian; Rodriguez, Stephen C; Hulihan, Joe; Starr, H Lynn

    2014-12-01

    Public health considerations require that clinical trials address the complex "real-world" needs of patients with chronic illnesses. This is particularly true for persons with schizophrenia, whose management is frequently complicated by factors such as comorbid substance abuse, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system. In addition, barriers to obtaining health care in the United States often prevent successful community reentry and optimal patient management. Further, nonadherence to treatment is common, and this reinforces cycles of relapse and recidivism. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapy may facilitate continuity of treatment and support better outcomes, particularly in patients who face these challenges. Clinical trials with classical explanatory designs may not be the best approaches for evaluating these considerations. We describe the design and rationale of a novel trial that combines both explanatory and pragmatic design features and studies persons with schizophrenia who face these challenges. The Paliperidone Palmitate Research in Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) study is a prospective, open-label, randomized, 15-month study conducted between May 5, 2010, and December 9, 2013, comparing long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate and oral antipsychotic medications in subjects with schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV criteria). Investigators and subjects had broad flexibility for treatment decision-making, thus making it a model that better reflects real-world practice. The primary end point was time to treatment failure, defined as arrest/incarceration psychiatric hospitalization; suicide; treatment discontinuation or supplementation due to inadequate efficacy, safety, or tolerability; or increased psychiatric services to prevent hospitalization. This end point was adjudicated by a blinded event monitoring board. Patients were followed to the 15-month end point, regardless of whether they were maintained on their initial

  15. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  16. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. From 1998-2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving complementary analyses addressing different questions several years

  17. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  18. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  19. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  20. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  1. Comparing Personal Characteristic Factors of Imagination between Expert and Novice Designers within Different Product Design Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinghsiu; Li, Jianyou

    2015-01-01

    Imagination plays a key role in various domains in helping to create innovative ideas, drawings, poems, movies, products, etc. In product design domain, the personal characteristics of imagination are crucial abilities for conceiving novel ideas during design processes. This study focuses on personal characteristic differences and similarities…

  2. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  3. Optimal design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode

    2010-03-01

    Experimental design is fundamental to successful scientific investigation. Poorly designed experiments lead to the loss of information, which is costly and potentially unethical. Experiments can be designed in an optimal fashion to maximize the amount of information they provide. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. In the case of population pharmacokinetic experiments, this involves the selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors, including the number and location of measurement times and the number of subjects to include in the study. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development. This MiniReview provides an introduction to optimal design using examples taken from different pharmacokinetic experiments.

  4. Longitudinal data driven study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Fegeler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for processing EHR data into a longitudinal data model and examples for using this model to identify patients cross-sectionally and longitudinally as well as testing study designs retrospectively. Our data model describes measurements on four dimensions: the associated patient, observed feature, data source and time of survey. The transformation of structured source data into our model is defined by rules written in XML. To showcase the flexibility of the proposed longitudinal data model, we present an evolution of a retrospective study design as well as an example for interpreting biomarkers in emergency situations. With the proposed longitudinal data model complex queries can be performed, study designs tested and optimized.

  5. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  6. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango, orange and pineapple peels as carbon sources.

  8. Quality of life of residents with dementia in long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium: design of a longitudinal comparative study in traditional nursing homes and small-scale living facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luijkx Katrien G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the number of people with dementia will lead to greater demand for residential care. Currently, large nursing homes are trying to transform their traditional care for residents with dementia to a more home-like approach, by developing small-scale living facilities. It is often assumed that small-scale living will improve the quality of life of residents with dementia. However, little scientific evidence is currently available to test this. The following research question is addressed in this study: Which (combination of changes in elements affects (different dimensions of the quality of life of elderly residents with dementia in long-term care settings over the course of one year? Methods/design A longitudinal comparative study in traditional and small-scale long-term care settings, which follows a quasi-experimental design, will be carried out in Belgium and the Netherlands. To answer the research question, a model has been developed which incorporates relevant elements influencing quality of life in long-term care settings. Validated instruments will be used to evaluate the role of these elements, divided into environmental characteristics (country, type of ward, group size and nursing staff; basic personal characteristics (age, sex, cognitive decline, weight and activities of daily living; behavioural characteristics (behavioural problems and depression; behavioural interventions (use of restraints and use of psychotropic medication; and social interaction (social engagement and visiting frequency of relatives. The main outcome measure for residents in the model is quality of life. Data are collected at baseline, after six and twelve months, from residents living in either small-scale or traditional care settings. Discussion The results of this study will provide an insight into the determinants of quality of life for people with dementia living in traditional and small-scale long-term care settings in

  9. Learning physics: A comparative analysis between instructional design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Easow

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p academic performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in the control

  10. Compact ignition tokamak design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Viewgraphs are given on the following objectives of the design study: (1) develop core module concept, (2) develop a method to apply preload, (3) perform sufficient analysis to demonstrate total concept is structurally sound, (4) develop component fit-up and assembly scheme, and (5) minimize size and cost

  11. Study designs may influence results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena

    2017-01-01

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed...

  12. Treatment Rationale and Design for J-AXEL: A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing Nab-Paclitaxel With Docetaxel in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Morita, Satoshi; Ando, Masahiko; Miura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Abe, Tetsuya; Kato, Terufumi; Kondo, Masashi; Hosomi, Yukio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is a promising new therapeutic agent for all histologic types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We recently performed a phase 2 study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC, finding promising activity and acceptable toxicity for this regimen. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 intergroup study (J-AXEL, UMIN000017487) to examine the clinical benefit and safety of nab-paclitaxel compared to docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Patients are randomized to receive either docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, control arm) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks, experimental arm), with each drug being administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study will evaluate the noninferiority of nab-paclitaxel relative to docetaxel for the primary end point of overall survival. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide evidence for a new alternative treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. LCFI vertex detector design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.

    2005-12-01

    A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  14. A Monte Carlo simulation study comparing linear regression, beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression at recovering average difference measures in a two sample design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim

    2014-01-24

    In biomedical research, response variables are often encountered which have bounded support on the open unit interval--(0,1). Traditionally, researchers have attempted to estimate covariate effects on these types of response data using linear regression. Alternative modelling strategies may include: beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. This study employs a Monte Carlo simulation design to compare the statistical properties of the linear regression model to that of the more novel beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. In the Monte Carlo experiment we assume a simple two sample design. We assume observations are realizations of independent draws from their respective probability models. The randomly simulated draws from the various probability models are chosen to emulate average proportion/percentage/rate differences of pre-specified magnitudes. Following simulation of the experimental data we estimate average proportion/percentage/rate differences. We compare the estimators in terms of bias, variance, type-1 error and power. Estimates of Monte Carlo error associated with these quantities are provided. If response data are beta distributed with constant dispersion parameters across the two samples, then all models are unbiased and have reasonable type-1 error rates and power profiles. If the response data in the two samples have different dispersion parameters, then the simple beta regression model is biased. When the sample size is small (N0 = N1 = 25) linear regression has superior type-1 error rates compared to the other models. Small sample type-1 error rates can be improved in beta regression models using bias correction/reduction methods. In the power experiments, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression models have slightly elevated power compared to linear regression models. Similar results were observed if the

  15. Comparative Analysis of Master of Industrial Design Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkarslan, Onder; Imamogullari, Beril

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the masters degree programme in industrial design (ID), which is research and practice oriented in the light of current themes and design principles. It argued that a masters degree in industrial design would help graduates specialise in the related field and improve their skills. Therefore, institutional and academic…

  16. Comparative study of casual and regular workers' job satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the comparative study of regular and casual workers' job satisfaction and commitment in two selected banks in Lagos State, A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 145 respondents were selected for the study using proportionate stratified sampling technique.

  17. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  18. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    of the grammatical errors with using comparative sentences is developed, which include comparative item-related errors, comparative result-related errors and blend errors. The results further indicate that these errors could attribute to negative L1 transfer and overgeneralization of grammatical rule and structures......Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  20. Comparative study between Federer and Gomez method for number of replication in complete randomized design using simulation: study of Areca Palm (Areca catechu) as organic waste for producing handicraft paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwah, A.; Deoranto, P.; Wijana, S.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The part of Areca Palm (Areca catechu) that economical is the seed. It is commercially available in dried, cured and fresh forms, while the fibre is usually thrown away. Cellulose fibers from agricultural waste can be utilized as raw material for handicraft paper. Laboratory research showed that Areca palm fibre contained 70.2% of cellulose, 10.92% of water, and 6.02% of ash. This indicated that Areca palm fibre is very potential to be processed as handicraft paper. Handicraft paper is made of wastepaper or plants which cointain celluloce to produce rough-textured paper. In order to obtain preferred sensory quality of handicraft paper such as color, fiber appearance and texture as well as good physical quantity such as tensile strength, tear resistance and grammage, the addition of wastepaper to provide secondary fibre and sometimes adhesive are needed in making handicraft paper. Handicraft paper making was one alternative to treat the solid waste and to reduce the use of wood fiber as paper raw material. The aim of this study is to compare the two most famous method, i.e. Federer and Gomez Method, for calculate the number of replications. This study is preliminary research before do the research in order to get the best treatment to produce handicraft paper. The Gomez method calculates fewer replications than the Federer method. Based on data simulation the error generated using 3 replicates of 0.0876 while using 2 replicates of 0.1032.

  1. Comparative Study of Internal Efficiency in Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...

  2. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  3. Comparable Systems Analysis: Design and Operation of Advanced Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This research explored lessons that have been learned involving human factors in the design and operation of control centers that were similar to a generic, intelligent vehicle highway system (IVHS) class traffic management center (TMC). During an in...

  4. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  5. Comparative study of connectivity in telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Indra Pratap; Kapoor, Lily; Daman, Repu; Mishra, Saroj Kanta

    2008-10-01

    Communication links are the lifelines for telemedicine practice. Various terrestrial and satellite media can be used; however, each has its own plus and minus side. The current study was designed to evaluate three types of telecommunication media used for telemedical videoconference at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow Telemedicine program over a period of 20 months. The evaluation was based on analysis of technical parameters recorded in a prescribed proforma designed for the study purpose and maintained prospectively after completion of each event. Only technical issues were addressed. At the end of the study period, analysis of data revealed that leased line-based terrestrial Internet Protocol (IP) was better than Sky IP. Integrated Services Digital Network media were found technically less acceptable for telemedical videoconference.

  6. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  7. Comparative studies in Chelicerata III. Opilionida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study is made of the three groups (Cyphophthalmi, Laniatores and Palpatores) into which Opilionida are currently subdivided. Methods, principles and terminology, adopted in this paper, correspond with those of parts I and II of the present series of studies in Chelicerata. Special

  8. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence characteristics around translation initiation codon in four eukaryotes. Qingpo Liu and Qingzhong Xue. J. Genet. 84, 317–322. Table 1. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 39 base positions around the AUG codon in the four eukaryotic species studied. – 30.

  9. New-design dental implants: a 1-year prospective clinical study of 344 consecutively placed implants comparing immediate loading versus delayed loading and flapless versus full-thickness flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meizi, Eliezer; Meir, Mamraev; Laster, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the 1-year success rates of immediately loaded dental implants to delayed loaded implants, regardless of the surgical technique (flapless or conventional full-thickness flap) and regardless of extraction time. It also examined whether the surgical technique had an influence on the success rate of the immediately loaded implants. A total of 344 dental implants, some with a new expanded winged-thread design, were placed in 155 patients; 53% of the implants were immediately loaded. Of the immediately loaded implants, 68.9% were placed with a flapless surgical technique and 88% were placed in extraction sites. Pocket depth, mobility, bleeding on probing, presence of erythema, pain, or radiolucency around the implants, as well as clinical findings, were recorded. Implants were followed from placement through definitive restoration. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate analyses using clustered marginal approach of the Cox proportional hazards model were applied. Of the 344 implants in the study, 10 (2.9%) failures were recorded, 7 of which were immediately loaded; however, there was no significant difference in failure rates between the immediate and delayed loading groups. Seven of the implants that failed were placed with a flapless (extraction site) technique; however, there was no significant difference in the failure rates between the flapless versus full-thickness flap technique in immediately loaded implants. The clinical success of immediately loaded implants after 1 year showed no difference from the success rate of delayed loaded implants. The implantation procedure (flapless versus conventional flap) or extraction time also had no influence on the success rate of the immediately loaded implants.

  10. Comparing Synchronous Virtual Classrooms: Student, Instructor and Course Designer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavolette, Elizabeth; Venable, Melissa A.; Gose, Eddie; Huang, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The synchronous tool that is right for developing an online course depends on the context, needs and priorities. This report compares synchronous, virtual classroom systems Elluminate Live! v. 9 and Dimdim v. 4.5. The researchers compared the features of each system in terms of facilitation of communication, presentation of course content and…

  11. Comparative study of ICT use by researchers in selected private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to compare ICT use by researchers in private universities and research institutes and also to determine to what extent to which the use of ICT facilities ha s impacted their research works. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Questionnaire was the research instrument used to ...

  12. A comparative study of organizational citizenship behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the degree of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), OCB-Organization (OCB-O) and OCB-Individual (OCB-I) in service and manufacturing organizations. Design of this study was cross-sectional survey and data were collected with a standardized scale that was presented in questionnaire form.

  13. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Possible Designs for Flexible Distribution System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jeremy; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    for achieving the most efficient utilization of these resources while meeting the forecasted load. In this paper, we present possible system design frameworks proposed for flexible distribution system operation. Critical evaluations and comparison of these models are made based on a number of key attributes...

  15. Comparing infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in an event monitoring design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    , to what extent infants rely on spatiotemporal or featural object information when individuating objects is currently under debate. Hitherto, infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural object information has only been compared directly using the rather cognitively demanding event mapping design....... The results obtained using this design reveal that infants are more successful using spatiotemporal object information than when using featural information. However, recent studies using the less cognitively demanding event monitoring design have revealed that even younger infants are capable of object...... in the present series of experiments in which infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural information is compared directly using the less demanding event monitoring design. The results are discussed in relation to existing empirical evidence....

  16. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  17. Comparative Design, Modeling, and Control Analysis of Robotic Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    design. Thesis Supervisor : Dr. Dana Yoerger Tide : Associate Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 4 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This labour of 99... harassment and support all along the way. Being placed in such an environment you quickly learn the difference between the lab and the real world. I highly...Tasmania Lamont-Doherty Geological AUSTRALIA 7001 Observatory Colombia University Library Palisades, NY 10964 Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory

  18. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  19. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engageme......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  20. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  1. A Comparative Study of Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.; Overmars, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic roadmap approach is one of the leading motion planning techniques. Over the past eight years the technique has been studied by many different researchers. This has led to a large number of variants of the approach, each with its own merits. It is difficult to compare the different

  2. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  3. Clinical methods of goniometry: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J; Clark, C; Deakes, J; Burdon, D; Lawrence, C

    1992-01-01

    This investigation compared the reliability and interchangeable use of three currently available goniometers--a universal goniometer, a fluid goniometer, and an electrogoniometer. Three consecutive readings of the active range of movement of the right elbow joint were taken from each of 23 healthy female volunteers; three experienced observers each used each type of goniometer on two occasions. A balanced experimental design was used to eliminate order effects with respect to subject, tester, or goniometer, and a rigid protocol was employed to reduce error due to diurnal or methodological variations. The results show that there are significant differences between the goniometers used, the testers, and the replications. Significant interaction effects also exist between the goniometers and the occasion, the goniometers and the testers, and the testers and replications. The data suggest that the interchangeable use of different types of goniometer in a clinical setting is inadvisable.

  4. Design of thermolabile bacteriophage repressor mutants by comparative molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A; vandenBurg, B; Karsens, H; Venema, G; Kok, J; Burg, Bertus van den

    1997-01-01

    Comparative molecular modeling was performed with repressor protein Rro of the temperate Lactococcus lactis bacteriophage r1t using the known 3D-structures of related repressors in order to obtain thermolabile derivatives of Rro. Rro residues presumed to stabilize a nonhomologous but structurally

  5. Comparing Cost Of New Supply Chain Designs Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Kristensen, Jesper; Asmussen, Jesper Normann

    2016-01-01

    Accounting, Operational Modelling and SCM inform decision making for new SCDs. Through four embedded cases, a gap is found between the practice of a global OEM and literature. Results shows complications when assessing SCDs due to limited understanding of the internal activity costs, supply chain dynamics......Companies pursuing improvements to their global supply chain (SC) are challenged with unravelling the true cost of operating with their supply chain design (SCD). This challenge is further intensified as SCs are faced with increasing uncertainty. To rectify this it is investigated how Cost...... and how uncertainties affects the SC cost performance....

  6. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  7. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomin Batnyam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors.

  8. Comparative and Interactive Studies of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Lamiaceae), vitamin C and vitamin E on the basal serum phosphatases- alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (ACPT) and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) of the male guinea-pig.

  9. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  10. A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication Systems in Ata Igala Coronation and Ofala Festival, 2013. ... I adopted particpant observation as an instrument of ethnographic design of fact finding, hence, my physical presence at both ceremonies. Pictoral description was also adopted to bring home ...

  11. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  12. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-03-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.

  13. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations

  14. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer [Department of Theoretical Ecology, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Spedding, Geoffrey R [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90098-1191 (United States)], E-mail: anders.hedenstrom@teorekol.lu.se

    2009-03-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.

  15. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  16. Developing a new dental implant design and comparing its biomechanical features with four designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rismanchian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As various implant geometries present different biomechanical behaviors, the purpose of this work was to study stress distribution around tapered and cylindrical threaded implant geometries using three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Methods : Seven implant models were constructed using Computer Assisted Designing system. After digitized models of mandibular section, the crowns were created. They were combined with implant models, which were previously imported into CATIA software. The combined solid model was transferred to ABAQOUS to create a finite element meshed model which was later analyzed regarding the highest maximum and minimum principal stresses of bone. Results: For all models, the highest stresses of cortical bone were located at the crestal cortical bone around the implant. Threaded implants, triangular thread form and taper body form showed a higher peak of tensile and compressive stress than non-threaded implants, square thread form and straight body form, respectively. A taper implant with triangular threads, which is doubled in the cervical portion of the body, had a significantly lower peak of tensile and compressive stress in the cortical bone than straight/taper triangular or square threaded implant forms. Conclusion: For the investigation of bone implant interfacial stress, the non-bonded state should be studied too. Confirmative clinical and biological studies are required in order to benefit from the results of this study.

  17. Comparative Effect of Orthosis Design on Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    stride length, ankle power, and range of motion in small series of patients27-30. These studies have addressed children with cerebral palsy ...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Motor-vehicle collision 4 Fall from height 2 Iatrogenic 1 Sports injury 1 Injury characteristics Peroneal nerve palsy 5 Tibial fracture (closed) 4 Tibial

  18. Design characteristics and case study of KALIMER reactor support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; You, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, six design alternatives to the preliminary design concept of the reactor support structure of which shape is support arm type were presented and the comparative study has been carried out considering design adequacy, simplicity, in-service-inspection, and interface requirements qualitatively. The structural analyses using ANSYS code have been performed with respect to three different design concepts selected from qualitative comparison study. It is concluded that the support ring attached to the reactor head(6th design alternative) is the most appropriate conceptual design shape considering both design characteristics and structural integrity

  19. Energy Efficiency and Universal Design in Home Renovations - A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapedani, Ermal; Herssens, Jasmien; Verbeeck, Griet

    2016-01-01

    Policy and societal objectives indicate a large need for housing renovations that both accommodate lifelong living and significantly increase energy efficiency. However, these two areas of research are not yet examined in conjunction and this paper hypothesizes this as a missed opportunity to create better renovation concepts. The paper outlines a comparative review on research in Energy Efficiency and Universal Design in order to find the similarities and differences in both depth and breadth of knowledge. Scientific literature in the two fields reveals a disparate depth of knowledge in areas of theory, research approach, and degree of implementation in society. Universal Design and Energy Efficiency are part of a trajectory of expanding scope towards greater sustainability and, although social urgency has been a driver of the research intensity and approach in both fields, in energy efficiency there is an engineering, problem solving approach while Universal Design has a more sociological, user-focused one. These different approaches are reflected in the way home owners in Energy Efficiency research are viewed as consumers and decision makers whose drivers are studied, while Universal Design treats home owners as informants in the design process and studies their needs. There is an inherent difficulty in directly merging Universal Design and Energy Efficiency at a conceptual level because Energy Efficiency is understood as a set of measures, i.e. a product, while Universal Design is part of a (design) process. The conceptual difference is apparent in their implementation as well. Internationally energy efficiency in housing has been largely imposed through legislation, while legislation directly mandating Universal Design is either non-existent or it has an explicit focus on accessibility. However, Energy Efficiency and Universal Design can be complementary concepts and, even though it is more complex than expected, the combination offers possibilities to advance

  20. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D; Roundy, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance

  1. Fully automatic CAD design of the occlusal morphology of partial crowns compared to dental technicians' design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzenburger, Andreas P; Hickel, Reinhard; Richter, Maria J; Mehl, Albert C; Probst, Florian A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the occlusal morphology of partial crown reconstructions made by dental technicians with reconstructions made by a fully automatic software process (biogeneric tooth model) in relation to the original natural tooth shape. Stone replicas of natural teeth were measured three-dimensionally before preparing inlay and onlay cavities for ceramic restorations (n = 5). For each preparation, five reconstructions (in total n = 25) were made by five dental technicians. Additionally, reconstructions were calculated automatically by a software based on the biogeneric tooth model (Cerec 3D). In order to compare the two different kinds of reconstruction, an objective metrical similarity measure (shape similarity value, SSV) based on calculated volumes between compared datasets was used. In 22 of 25 cases, the reconstructions made by the CAD software were closer to the original situation than the reconstructions made by the technicians. Mean average SSV of reconstructions made by the technicians (310.2 ± 78.8 μm) was significantly higher (p dental technicians. The adjustment of a dental restoration to fit the morphology of surrounding tooth structures, still presents challenges for the dentist.

  2. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Don [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  3. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.

  4. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  5. Comparing conVEntional RadioTherapy with stereotactIC body radiotherapy in patients with spinAL metastases: study protocol for an randomized controlled trial following the cohort multiple randomized controlled trial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Joanne M. van der; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Seravalli, Enrica; Hes, Jochem; Gerlich, A. Sophie; Kasperts, Nicolien; Eppinga, Wietse S. C.; Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Vulpen, Marco van

    2016-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy is the treatment of first choice in patients with symptomatic spinal metastases, but is only moderately effective. Stereotactic body radiation therapy is increasingly used to treat spinal metastases, without randomized evidence of superiority over standard radiotherapy. The VERTICAL study aims to quantify the effect of stereotactic radiation therapy in patients with metastatic spinal disease. This study follows the ‘cohort multiple Randomized Controlled Trial’ design. The VERTICAL study is conducted within the PRESENT cohort. In PRESENT, all patients with bone metastases referred for radiation therapy are enrolled. For each patient, clinical and patient-reported outcomes are captured at baseline and at regular intervals during follow-up. In addition, patients give informed consent to be offered experimental interventions. Within PRESENT, 110 patients are identified as a sub cohort of eligible patients (i.e. patients with unirradiated painful, mechanically stable spinal metastases who are able to undergo stereotactic radiation therapy). After a protocol amendment, also patients with non-spinal bony metastases are eligible. From the sub cohort, a random selection of patients is offered stereotactic radiation therapy (n = 55), which patients may accept or refuse. Only patients accepting stereotactic radiation therapy sign informed consent for the VERTICAL trial. Non-selected patients (n = 55) receive standard radiotherapy, and are not aware of them serving as controls. Primary endpoint is pain response after three months. Data will be analyzed by intention to treat, complemented by instrumental variable analysis in case of substantial refusal of the stereotactic radiation therapy in the intervention arm. This study is designed to quantify the treatment response after (stereotactic) radiation therapy in patients with symptomatic spinal metastases. This is the first randomized study in palliative care following the cohort multiple Randomized

  6. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-06-16

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfil science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed.

  7. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfill science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed

  8. A Comparative Study of Clinical Outcomes and Second-Look Arthroscopic Findings between Remnant-Preserving Tibialis Tendon Allograft and Hamstring Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Matched-Pair Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Keun; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Yoo, Jae Doo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare stability, functional outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft and remnant-sacrificing hamstring tendon autograft. We matched two groups (remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group and hamstring tendon autograft group) in terms of demographic characteristics, associated injury, and knee characteristics. Each group consisted of 25 patients. Operation time was longer in the remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group, but there was no significant intergroup difference in stability, clinical outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings. When an autograft is not feasible in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the remnant-preserving technique can produce comparable results in terms of restoration of function, stability of the knee, and degree of synovium coverage at second-look arthroscopy compared to remnant-sacrificing hamstring autograft.

  9. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...

  10. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  11. Design and rationale of a randomized study to compare amiodarone and Class IC anti-arrhythmic drugs in terms of atrial fibrillation treatment efficacy in patients paced for sinus node disease: the PITAGORA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulizia, Michele; Mangiameli, Salvatore; Chiarandà, Giacomo; Spadola, Vincenzo; Di Giovanni, Nicolò; Colletti, Andrea; Bulla, Vincenzo; Circo, Antonio; Pensabene, Orazio; Vasquez, Ludovico; Vaccaro, Ignazio; Grammatico, Andrea

    2006-04-01

    Many sinus node disease (SND) patients suffer from atrial fibrillation (AF). Anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) are the therapeutic mainstay for AF prophylaxis. The PITAGORA trial has a multicentre, prospective, randomized, single blind design to compare amiodarone with Class IC AADs in patients who have an AF history and are paced for SND. Starting from January 2001, 176 patients received a Medtronic AT500 pacemaker. AADs were randomly assigned with a 3 : 2 ratio between Class III and Class IC. Randomization was stratified in order to assign two patients to amiodarone and one patient to sotalol every three Class III AAD patients. After a 5-month observational period, Ramp or Burst+ ATP therapies were enabled in a randomized way, maintained for 4 months, and then crossed over. Total follow-up period is 21 months. The primary long-term objective is to show the non-inferiority of IC AADs compared with amiodarone in terms of time to first occurrence of a composite endpoint (death, atrial cardioversion, hospitalizations due to AF or heart failure, or change of AADs). Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary short-term objective is to compare Ramp vs. Burst+ efficacy in terminating atrial tachyarrhythmias treated by the device. Secondary endpoints are major clinical events, medication toxicity, symptoms, AF burden, and quality-of-life. Given the high morbidity and healthcare costs associated with AF, new therapeutic strategies are needed. The results of the PITAGORA trial may help in guiding AADs therapy and ATP programming in SND patients suffering from AF.

  12. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors in febrile neutropenia prophylaxis: how results are affected by research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henk, Henry J; Li, Xiaoyan; Becker, Laura K; Xu, Hairong; Gong, Qi; Deeter, Robert G; Barron, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of research design on results in two published comparative effectiveness studies. Guidelines for comparative effectiveness research have recommended incorporating disease process in study design. Based on the recommendations, we develop a checklist of considerations and apply the checklist in review of two published studies on comparative effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors. Both studies used similar administrative claims data, but different methods, which resulted in directionally different estimates. Major design differences between the two studies include: whether the timing of intervention in disease process was identified and whether study cohort and outcome assessment period were defined based on this temporal relationship. Disease process and timing of intervention should be incorporated into the design of comparative effectiveness studies.

  14. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  15. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  16. Is there a clinical benefit with a smooth compensator design compared with a plunged compensator design for passive scattered protons?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabibian, Art A., E-mail: art.tabibian@gmail.com [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Powers, Adam; Dolormente, Keith; Oommen, Sneha; Tiwari, Akhil [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matt [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Li, Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Wisdom, Paul [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Velasco, Kyle [Radiation Oncology Resources, Goshen, IN (United States); Erhart, Kevin; Stanley, Henry [Decimal, Inc, Sanford, FL (United States); Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc T. [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In proton therapy, passive scattered proton plans use compensators to conform the dose to the distal surface of the planning volume. These devices are custom made from acrylic or wax for each treatment field using either a plunge-drilled or smooth-milled compensator design. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a clinical benefit of generating passive scattered proton radiation treatment plans with the smooth compensator design. We generated 4 plans with different techniques using the smooth compensators. We chose 5 sites and 5 patients for each site for the range of dosimetric effects to show adequate sample. The plans were compared and evaluated using multicriteria (MCA) plan quality metrics for plan assessment and comparison using the Quality Reports [EMR] technology by Canis Lupus LLC. The average absolute difference for dosimetric metrics from the plunged-depth plan ranged from −4.7 to +3.0 and the average absolute performance results ranged from −6.6% to +3%. The manually edited smooth compensator plan yielded the best dosimetric metric, +3.0, and performance, + 3.0% compared to the plunged-depth plan. It was also superior to the other smooth compensator plans. Our results indicate that there are multiple approaches to achieve plans with smooth compensators similar to the plunged-depth plans. The smooth compensators with manual compensator edits yielded equal or better target coverage and normal tissue (NT) doses compared with the other smooth compensator techniques. Further studies are under investigation to evaluate the robustness of the smooth compensator design.

  17. [Anxiety in eating disorders: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Pinto, Natalia; Cano Vindel, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature shows that anxiety is an important factor in eating disorders. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the anxiety manifestations obtained by means of the Anxiety Situations and Responses Inventory of in a clinical sample of 74 females (46, anorexia nervosa; 28, bulimia) to those obtained by a control group (130 girls without disorders). The between-group ANOVA results showed higher anxiety scores in the clinical group with a medium effect size for the anxiety trait, finding a flat profile (within-group ANOVA) for the three response systems (cognitive, physiological and motor) and the four specific anxiety traits (test, interpersonal, phobic, and daily life situations). Moreover, high scores in anxiety involved a greater risk of being diagnosed with an eating disorder in the 8 bivariate comparisons. The estimations were more precise for cognitive anxiety and for the specific interpersonal anxiety trait.

  18. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  19. Diseño de ejercicio docente basado en el estudio comparativo de metodologías de optimización del mantenimiento // Design of docent exercise based on comparative study between maintenance optimization methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torres - Valle

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza basada en problemas constituye un paso importante en la educación de losingenieros. Partiendo del desarrollo de la enseñanza activa, el artículo presenta el diseño de unejercicio docente basado en el estudio comparativo de dos métodos de optimización delmantenimiento: categorización de equipos y mantenimiento centrado en la confiabilidad (RCM eninglés. La aplicación concluye con referencias comparativas de carácter técnico donde sedemuestra la superioridad del segundo método. Finalmente, se establecen recomendaciones para eldiseño técnico metodológico del ejercicio.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, optimización, categorización de equipos, mantenimiento centrado enla confiabilidad, enseñanza basada en problemas, ejercicio docente, recomendaciones metodológicas.__________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe problem based learning is an important step in the education of the engineers. Beginning fromthe development of the active learning the paper presents the design of docent exercise based oncomparative study between two maintenance optimization methodologies: Equipment Categorizationand Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM. The application concluded with technical comparativereferences, where demonstrates the superiority of the second one. Some recommendations for thetechnical methodological design of exercise are establishes.Key words: maintenance, optimization, equipment categorization, reliability centered maintenanceproblem based learning, docent exercise, methodological recommendations.

  20. Simulação humana digital na concepção de postos de trabalho: estudo comparativo de casos Digital human simulation for ergonomic workplace design: comparative study of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braatz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta como a ferramenta computacional de Modelagem e Simulação Humana contextualizada pela Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET e pela análise da Atividade Futura Possível pode auxiliar nos processos de projeto de postos de trabalho. São analisados dois estudos de caso nos quais a Simulação Humana foi empregada com auxílio do software Jack. O primeiro estudo aborda a concepção de um balcão de atendimento em uma empresa pública de serviços postais. O segundo apresenta o desenvolvimento de uma estação de trabalho de abastecimento de agulhas cirúrgicas em uma empresa de manufatura de produtos relacionados às áreas de saúde e higiene. A partir dos resultados dos estudos de caso, são explicitadas as contribuições e desafios da utilização dessa tecnologia em projetos visando equacionar as questões de saúde e produtividade. O uso da simulação integrada ao processo de intervenção da AET permitiu melhorar a antecipação das futuras atividades prováveis das novas situações de trabalho e auxiliou a integração e comunicação dos atores envolvidos nesses processos sociais.This paper investigates a computational tool for Human Modeling and Simulation contextualized by Ergonomic Analysis of Work (EAW and future work activity forecasting that can assist in the design processes of workplaces. Two case studies using Human Simulation was employed and the software Jack were analyzed. The first study presents the design of a counter in a public post office. The second shows the development of a workstation for the supply of surgical needles in a company that manufactures hygiene and healthcare products. The results of the case studies show the contributions and challenges of using this design technology aiming to solve problems related to health and productivity. The use of simulation combined with EAW helped to improve future work activity forecasting of new work situations and helped the integration and

  1. Parametric tools in architecture: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, R

    2012-01-01

    Parametric tools have recently increased in eminence in\\ud architectural practice with several claims made about their potential as a creative design iteration tool to enhance design decision making and problem solving. This paper carried out a survey of two types of architectural practices: one that predominantly uses non-parametric CAD tools and another that primarily employs parametric CAD. The results from the survey were analysed statistically. The findings show that parametric tools did...

  2. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Chevtsov, Pavel; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hutton, M.; Krafft, Geoffrey; Li, Rui; Merminga, Nikolitsa; Musson, John; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Yuhong; Qiang, Yi; Sayed Abdalghaffar, Hisham

    2008-07-01

    An electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams highly polarized is essential for exploring the new QCD frontier of strong color fields in nuclear and precisely imaging the sea-quarks and gluons in the nucleon. A conceptual design of a ring-ring collider based on CEBAF (ELIC) with energies up to 9 GeV for electrons/positrons and up to 225 GeV for protons and 100 GeV/u for ions has been proposed to fulfill the science desire and to serve as the next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. Here, we summarize recent design progress for the ELIC complex with four interaction points (IP); including interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation scheme and complete lattices for the Figure-8 collider rings. Further optimization of crab crossing angles at the IPs, simulations of beam-beam interactions and electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring and its matching at

  3. Comparative analysis of INTOR-like designs: Status and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, P.K.M.; Reid, R.L.; Strickler, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    This document provides an interim status report on the INTOR tasks related to the critical analysis of INTOR-like designs. At the INTOR Workshop in December 1986, and updated at the INTOR related Specialists' Meeting in March 1987, a series of comparative analysis studies was established. Initial results were targeted for completion for the July INTOR meeting and final results completed for the November INTOR meeting. The goal of the analytic comparisons is to evaluate and determine the specific impact of how different choices affect the design. The results of such an analytic determination should allow the international community to identify and agree upon which aspects of choice have what influence on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design

  4. Comparative availability and reliability assessment of design options for the secondary sodium loops of the EFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.

    1989-01-01

    The EFR (European Fast Reactor) project has entered a conceptual study period where different design alternatives are compared concerning feasibility, safety and economic aspects. This paper describes a comparative probabilistic availability and reliability assessment of alternative design options for the secondary sodium loops. These loops will provide heat transfer from the reactor pool to the water-steam (power generating) side. So a high operational availability of the secondary loops during plant lifetime is essential for economic power generation. Additionally a high reliability is required to fulfill the operational decay heat removal function in case of a reactor trip. Availabilities and reliabilities of the different options were assessed using failure mode and effect analysis and the fault tree method. (orig.)

  5. S-shaped versus conventional straight skin incision: Impact on primary functional maturation, stenosis and thrombosis of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula: Impact of incision on maturation, stenosis & failure of RCAVF. Study design: Prospective observational comparative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordzadeh, Ali; Panayiotopolous, Yiannis

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to test the null hypothesis that an S-shaped surgical incision versus conventional (straight) skin incision in the creation of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas (RCAVFs) have no impact on the primary end-point of primary functional maturation and secondary end points of stenosis and thrombosis. A prospective observational comparative consecutive study with intention-to-treat on individuals undergoing only radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVFs) over a period of 12 months was conducted. Variables on patient's demographics, comorbidities, anesthesia type, mean arterial blood pressure, thrill, laterality, cephalic vein and radial artery diameter were collated. The test of probability was assessed through Chi-Square, Kaplan-Meier survival estimator and Log-Rank analysis. Total of n = 83 individuals with median age of 67 years (IQR, 20-89) and male predominance 83% during this period were subjected to RCAVF formation. Total of n = 45 patients in straight skin incision were compared to n = 38 individuals in S-shaped group. Despite equal prevalence of demographics, comorbidities, anesthesia type, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), thrill, laterality, cephalic vein and radial artery diameter ( p  > 0.05) higher incidence of juxta-anastomotic stenosis was noted in the straight skin incision group ( p  = 0.029) in comparative and survival analysis (Log-Rank, p  = 0.036). The maturation of the entire cohort was 69% (S-shaped 76% vs. straight group 62%) (p > 0.05). The outcome of this study demonstrates that S-shaped surgical skin incision is associated with a lower incidence of stenosis in comparison to straight incision type in RCAVF formation.

  6. A design study of VOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, P. P.; Vickery, Anette; Andersen, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2m moderator to sample......, and provides instantaneous access to a broad dynamic range, 1-120 meV within each ESS period. The short instrument length combined with the long ESS pulse width enables a quadratic flux increase, even at longer wavelengths, by relaxing energy resolution from ΔE/E = 1% up to ΔE/E = 7%. This is impossible both...... with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering....

  7. Collective design in 3D printing: A large scale empirical study of designs, designers and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study of a collective design platform (Thingiverse); with the aim of understanding the phenomenon and investigating how designs concurrently evolve through the large and complex network of designers. The case study is based on the meta-data collected from 158 489...... designs and 247 768 users; and it reveals that (i) Designs can be shared and quickly evolved into other designs through a distributed network of designers, (ii) only a small portion of the users are designers and (iv) collective design has deep and strong evolutionary roots. Better understanding...... of collective design platforms can help design practitioners to identify lead users in their respective domains and to discover latent needs that stem from different sub-communities or geographic regions....

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  9. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  10. Cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial to compare supplement consumption and adherence to different dosing regimens for antenatal calcium and iron-folic acid supplementation to prevent preeclampsia and anaemia: rationale and design of the Micronutrient Initiative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood O. Omotayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC. WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. Design and methods: This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill with IFA taken as above. Measurements: Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Statistical analyses: Unit of randomization is the health-care facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. Expected public health impact: If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources.

  11. A comparative study on worldwide genetic diversity and population structure analysis of Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PvTRAP) and its implications for the vivax vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Saeed; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Zakeri, Sedigheh

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (PvTRAP) is a promising malaria vaccine candidate; however, it exhibits sequence heterogeneity. Therefore, to design a broadly protective vivax vaccine, it is essential to have adequate information on signatures of selection and geospatial genetic diversity of global PvTRAP. For this purpose, 50 Iranian pvtrap were sequenced and compared with related available global sequences in GenBank. The nucleotide sequence analysis of Iranian pvtrap in comparison with the Sal-1 sequence showed the occurrence of 15 SNPs, and all sites were dimorphic. In total, 12 amino acid substitutions were detected and 2 of which were novel, resulting in 10 haplotypes that 8 of them were not reported in any other geographic regions. In comparison with global population, haplotype and nucleotide diversities were lowest in South Korean populations while higher levels of diversities were observed in Thai and Brazilian P. vivax populations. All 12 amino acid replacements in ectodomain of Iranian PvTRAP were distributed in predicted either B- or T-cells epitope as well as intrinsically unstructured/disordered regions (IURs). The present results revealed that observing the relatively low-level diversity in PvTRAP protein might actually be selected by immune response. In summary, the present analysis in parallel to the limited available published data has shown that genetic diversity in the global pvtrap exhibits low-level diversity and geographic variation. These results are of practical significance for the strategic development and deployment of control measures in particular for development of PvTRAP-based malaria vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Levantine and Egyptian Arabic. Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret K.

    The purpose of this booklet is to describe the major differences between the Levantine (Palestinian and Lebanese) and Egyptian (Cairene) dialects of Arabic, with some references to other geographical varieties of these dialects. It is designed to provide help to persons who have learned either one dialect or the other and need to transfer to the…

  13. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  14. Rationale and design of the PLACID study: a randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of inhaled loxapine versus IM aripiprazole in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, L; Estrada, G; Oudovenko, N; Vieta, E

    2017-04-04

    The management of acute agitation manifesting in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder requires swift pharmacological intervention to provide rapid symptomatic relief and prevent escalation to aggression and violence. Antipsychotic medications are widely used in this setting and the availability of an inhaled formulation with deep lung absorption of the antipsychotic loxapine has the potential to deliver a faster onset of therapeutic effect than the available intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics. The efficacy of inhaled loxapine and the alternative antipsychotic aripiprazole delivered via intramuscular (IM) injection will be compared in the Phase IIIb PLACID study. Adults (18-65 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder presenting with acute agitation will be randomly assigned to open-label treatment in a 1:1 ratio. Clinical evaluation will be conducted by raters blinded to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint is time to response (defined as a Clinical Global Impression of Improvement [CGI-I] score of 1 [very much improved] or 2 [much improved]). Secondary endpoints will include the percentage of responders at different time points after dosing; the proportion of patients who receive 1 or 2 doses of study drug; time to second dose; time to rescue medication; satisfaction with study drug (evaluated using Item 14 of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication); and safety and tolerability. Approximately 360 patients will be recruited with an interim analysis conducted once 180 patients have completed the study to decide whether to stop for futility or continue with or without an increase in the sample size up to additional 288 patients. The PLACID trial will assess the efficacy and safety of inhaled loxapine with deep lung absorption compared with the IM antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In the event that the median time to

  15. The PRICE study (Protection Rest Ice Compression Elevation: design of a randomised controlled trial comparing standard versus cryokinetic ice applications in the management of acute ankle sprain [ISRCTN13903946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocke Laurence G

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy (the application of ice for therapeutic purposes is one of the most common treatment modalities employed in the immediate management of acute soft tissue injury. Despite its widespread clinical use, the precise physiological responses to therapeutic cooling have not been fully elucidated, and effective evidence-based treatment protocols are yet to be established. Intermittent ice applications are thought to exert a significant analgesic effect. This could facilitate earlier therapeutic exercise after injury, potentially allowing for a quicker return to activity. The primary aim of the forthcoming study is therefore to examine the safety and effectiveness of combining intermittent ice applications with periods of therapeutic exercise in the first week after an acute ankle sprain. Methods/Design The study is a randomised controlled trial. 120 subjects with an acute grade I or grade II ankle sprain will be recruited from Accident & Emergency and a University based Sports Injury Clinic. Subjects will be randomised under strict double-blind conditions to either a standard cryotherapy (intermittent ice applications with compression or cryokinetic treatment group (intermittent ice applications with compression and therapeutic exercise. After the first week, treatment will be standardised across groups. Assessor blinding will be maintained throughout the trial. Primary outcome will be function, assessed using the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. Additional outcomes will include pain (10 cm Visual Analogue Scale, swelling (modified figure-of-eight method and activity levels (activPAL™ physical activity monitor, PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK. Diagnostic Ultrasound (Episcan-1-200 high frequency ultrasound scanning system, Longport International Ltd, PA will also be used to assess the degree of soft tissue injury. After baseline assessment subjects will be followed up at 1, 2, 3 & 4 weeks post injury. All data will

  16. Conceptual Design Studies of Composite AMST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    TR-74-164 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF COMPOSITE AMST MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION _ DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA 90846 OCTOBER...COVERED Final Technical Report of Work Pet orTied CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF COMPOSITE AMST between 29 May 1973 and 23 May 1974 4 PERFORMING ORG...bases for the composite design studies , structural analyses, and cost estimating. The latter airplane was initially rusized to meet the basic

  17. TLEP design study forges ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Alain Blondel & Mike Koratzinos

    2013-01-01

    As the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is launched, one of its component parts, TLEP, enjoys a successful workshop at CERN. The FCC study looks at all options for a future circular collider with the emphasis on a hadron machine with TLEP as a possible intermediate step.   The poster of the sixth TLEP workshop that took place at CERN. Japanese artist Kazuya Akimoto kindly agreed to the use of one of his works as the basis for the poster’s backdrop. October 16 to 18 saw a three-day workshop on TLEP, the sixth in the series. The workshop took place at CERN and was well attended, informative and stimulating. To name just one of the influential people present, Herwig Schopper, ex-Director General of CERN and instrumental in the approval, construction and success of LEP, was among the participants. But what exactly is TLEP? The name was, somehow serendipitously, coined from future lepton collider option studies and stands for triple-LEP, a machine three times the size of LEP. But th...

  18. Old people in pain : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Ulf; Klevsgård, Rosemarie; Westergren, Albert; Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of pain in older people (75+), compare those in pain to those without regarding demographics, social network, functional limitations, fatigue, sleeping problems, depressed mood and quality of life (QOL), and identify variables associated with pain, a cross-sectional, prospective survey was conducted in an age-stratified sample of 4,093 people aged 75-105 years old. Those reporting pain (n=1,654) were compared with those who did not (n=2,439). Pain was more common...

  19. Improved StrongARM latch comparator: Design, analysis and performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed

    2017-07-13

    This paper presents an improved StrongARM latch comparator, designed and simulated in 90nm and 32nm CMOS technologies. The proposed design provides an improvement of 7% in energy efficiency, 14% in speed and an average reduction of 41% in the clock feedthrough, compared to the conventional design. The new architecture also minimizes the area by reducing the required transistors needed for the enhanced performance.

  20. Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of the Utopia Trial for Preventing Diabetic Atherosclerosis Using an SGLT2 Inhibitor: A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label, Parallel-Group Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakami, Naoto; Mita, Tomoya; Yoshii, Hidenori; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Okada, Yosuke; Umayahara, Yutaka; Kaneto, Hideaki; Osonoi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tsunehiko; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Kosugi, Keisuke; Ohtoshi, Kentaro; Hayashi, Isao; Sumitani, Satoru; Tsugawa, Mamiko; Ohashi, Makoto; Taki, Hideki; Nakamura, Tadashi; Kawashima, Satoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Watada, Hirotaka; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-10-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia and ameliorate a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the ongoing study described herein is to investigate the preventive effects of tofogliflozin, a potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitor, on the progression of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an established marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as a marker. The Study of Using Tofogliflozin for Possible better Intervention against Atherosclerosis for type 2 diabetes patients (UTOPIA) trial is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, multicenter, and parallel-group comparative study. The aim was to recruit a total of 340 subjects with T2DM but no history of apparent CVD at 24 clinical sites and randomly allocate these to a tofogliflozin treatment group or a conventional treatment group using drugs other than SGLT2 inhibitors. As primary outcomes, changes in mean and maximum IMT of the common carotid artery during a 104-week treatment period will be measured by carotid echography. Secondary outcomes include changes in glycemic control, parameters related to β-cell function and diabetic nephropathy, the occurrence of CVD and adverse events, and biochemical measurements reflecting vascular function. This is the first study to address the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the progression of carotid IMT in subjects with T2DM without a history of CVD. The results will be available in the very near future, and these findings are expected to provide clinical data that will be helpful in the prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. Kowa Co., Ltd. UMIN000017607.

  1. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of the reasoning involved in justifying a decision chain from a given design brief (of an architectural competition on site planning) to a given solution (the winning entry). A logical method of analysis is presented and applied to the case data; the resulting findings include var...

  2. Comparative studies on organoleptic and nutritional characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low consumption of meat is associated with high poverty level, and protein deficiency in Nigeria. Meat analogue (Texturized Vegetable Protein – TVP) was processed from protein concentrate and defatted soybean flour, and was flavoured as beef and compared to beef from animal source. The nutritional composition of ...

  3. Comparative Studies on Some Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils. The percentage ...

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE STARCH PASTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past~ng properties (gelatinization temperature, gelatinization time, viscosity, ease of cooking and starch stat;ility) of cassava, plantain and banana flours have been found to be affected by processing. Roasting and boiling, reduced peak .... and compare the effect of the afore mentioned processing methods on the pasting ...

  5. Energy band offset extraction - a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.P.J.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Structural quantum confinement in thin silicon double-gate MOSFETs has been quantified using the temperature dependence of the subthreshold current. The results were compared with the shifts in threshold voltage. Data was obtained from simulations after initial verification with experimental data.

  6. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... components (in the construction or operation of the pro- ject). iv) Lack of unity. v) Lack of consideration of the comparative impacts of the components result from the changes happened in the environment. vi) Lack of possibility of benefiting from aggregative opi- nions of experts. In fact, there is no unity ...

  7. Comparative Studies on Some Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils.

  8. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  9. A Comparative Study of Navigation Meshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toll, W.G.; Triesscheijn, Roy; Kallmann, Marcelo; Oliva, Ramon; Pelechano, Nuria; Pettré, Julien; Geraerts, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A navigation mesh is a representation of a 2D or 3D virtual environment that enables path planning and crowd simulation for walking characters. Various state-of-the-art navigation meshes exist, but there is no standardized way of evaluating or comparing them. Each implementation is in a different

  10. Characterizing Design Cognition of High School Students: Initial Analyses Comparing Those with and without Pre-Engineering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John; Lammi, Matthew; Gero, John; Grubbs, Michael E.; Paretti, Marie; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this article are initial results from of a longitudinal study to characterize the design cognition and cognitive design styles of high school students with and without pre-engineering course experience over a 2-year period, and to compare them with undergraduate engineering students. The research followed a verbal protocol analysis…

  11. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimami, K.S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (W PP ) and peak-to-peak signal height (H PP ). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic. - Highlights: ► Several EPR dosimeters were suggested based on SO 3 − radical. ► Taurine, homotaurine, sulfanilic, and sulfamic acid all possess simple EPR spectra. ► Dosimeters were compared to each other in terms of the dosimetric point of view. ► Energy dependence curves of the selected dosimeters were compared to eachother

  12. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides in addition to fore and back movement.

  13. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Mustafa; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  14. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  15. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  16. Ethics in psychiatric research: study design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    To identify and discuss ethical aspects of study design issues in psychiatric research. We conducted a literature review and conceptual analysis of study design in psychiatric research focusing on placebo, medication tapering and withdrawal (washout), and symptom provocation (challenge) designs. While advances in the care and treatment of persons with psychiatric disorders are crucial to the improved well-being of this stigmatized and often forgotten population, past abuses demonstrate the importance of the thoughtful application of ethical principles in the conduct of research. Some ethical issues have particular relevance to psychiatric research arising primarily from the specific vulnerabilities of those with mental illness and the risks posed by some research methodologies. Accordingly, sensitivity is required in the design of psychiatric research. Placebo, challenge, and washout study designs can present particular risks in the population of persons with mental illness. These issues are described and suggestions offered to promote the ethical design of psychiatric research.

  17. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzimami, K. S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (WPP) and peak-to-peak signal height (HPP). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic.

  18. Comparative transport studies of ''1212'' superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapud, Albert; Wu, Judy; Yan, Shaolin; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Kang, Byeongwon; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6+δ (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7-δ (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density

  19. Comparative study of emphathy in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racu Iulia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of empathy is an important one in modern psychology. Empathy is reliving states, thoughts and actions of others like yours. The present research is focused on empathy at adolescents. So we can mention that 23,3 % of adolescents presents low level of empathy, 66,7% - moderate level of empathy and 10% - high level of empathy. Comparative analyzes permit to establish that high school adolescents and adolescent in conflict with laws are characterized by different levels of empathy. Adolescents in conflict with laws present a lower level of empathetic tendencies than high school adolescents.

  20. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  1. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  2. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...

  3. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals for maintenance dialysis treatment are to improve patient survival, reduce patient morbidity, and improve patient quality of life. This is the first randomized prospective study comparing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD......) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included...... were assessed at baseline and after 6 months by the self-administered short-form SF-36 generic health survey questionnaire supplemented with disease- and treatment-specific questions. Therapy costs were compared by evaluating dialysis-related expenses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life parameters...

  4. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIGHT SOURCES FOR HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej PAWLAK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes test results that provided the ground to define and evaluate basic photometric, colorimetric and electric parameters of selected, widely available light sources, which are equivalent to a traditional incandescent 60-Watt light bulb. Overall, one halogen light bulb, three compact fluorescent lamps and eleven LED light sources were tested. In general, it was concluded that in most cases (branded products, in particular the measured and calculated parameters differ from the values declared by manufacturers only to a small degree. LED sources prove to be the most beneficial substitute for traditional light bulbs, considering both their operational parameters and their price, which is comparable with the price of compact fluorescent lamps or, in some instances, even lower.

  6. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  7. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented

  8. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  9. A Comparative Study : Microprogrammed Vs Risc Architectures For Symbolic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudin, J. C.; Metivier, C.; Demigny, D.; Maurin, T.; Zavidovique, B.; Devos, F.

    1987-05-01

    It is oftenclaimed that conventional computers are not well suited for human-like tasks : Vision (Image Processing), Intelligence (Symbolic Processing) ... In the particular case of Artificial Intelligence, dynamic type-checking is one example of basic task that must be improved. The solution implemented in most Lisp work-stations consists in a microprogrammed architecture with a tagged memory. Another way to gain efficiency is to design a well suited instruction set for symbolic processing, which reduces the semantic gap between the high level language and the machine code. In this framework, the RISC concept provides a convenient approach to study new architectures for symbolic processing. This paper compares both approaches and describes our projectof designing a compact symbolic processor for Artificial Intelligence applications.

  10. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  11. A Comparative Study of Orthodontic Coil Springs

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Agarwal; Anup Razdan; Abhishek Agarwal; Preeti Bhattacharya; Ankur Gupta; D N Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Several types of force delivering system are used to carry out tooth movement in orthodontics. Coil springs being one of them are used for the same thus requiring minimal operator manipulation. Aims and objectives : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wire diameter, lumen size and length of coil spring on the load produced as a function of displacement of SS and NiTi coil spring. Materials and methods : The study consisted of 60 samples of open and closed coil sprin...

  12. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  13. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.

  14. Comparative study on software development methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.

  15. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC, namely (+-cis-EC, (−-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+ and (−-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+ and (−-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+-cis-EC and (+-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes.

  16. Bilingual Language Proficiency : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-01-01

    his book investigates the role native language plays in the process of acquiring a second language within a bilingual educational model. The research presented is based on a 2 year longitudinal study of students in a bilingual school. Particular attention is paid to the development of academic

  17. Comparative study of two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study of the comparison of the clinical dosimetry between planners can deduce that the differences are in the majority of the cases below 3%, and only in cases where the field size is small, we found significant discrepancies, although justifiable. On the one hand it is different calculation algorithm and implementation on the other, the modeling of the accelerator. (Author)

  18. Comparative study of different Schlieren diffracting elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Kumar et al test studies on transparent objects such as depicting deviations in light beams in- duced by density, temperature or refractive index gradients in combustion research, laminar and turbulent fluid .... The results presented in this paper have been captured using a Canon S-50 Power Shot digital camera (1024.

  19. A Comparative Study of Pycnodysostosis, Cleidocranial Dysostosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A radiological study of cases of pycnodysostosis, osteopetrosis, cleidocranial dysostosis and acro-osteolysis revealed an interwoven relationship as regards the X-ray findings with numerous identical signs that these conditions had in common. Open fontanelles and sutures as well as metopic sutures were found in all 4 ...

  20. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  1. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  2. Comparative study on diagonal equivalent methods of masonry infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Aniendhita Rizki; Iranata, Data

    2017-06-01

    ratio of height to width of 1 to 1.5. Load used in the experiment was based on Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1991. Every method compared was calculated first to get equivalent diagonal strut width. The second step was modelling method using structure analysis software as a frame with a diagonal in a linear mode. The linear mode was chosen based on structure analysis commonly used by structure designers. The frame was loaded and for every model, its load and deformation values were identified. The values of load - deformation of every method were compared to those of experimental test specimen by Mehrabi and open frame. From comparative study performed, Holmes' and Bazan-Meli's equations gave results the closest to the experimental test specimen by Mehrabi. Other equations that gave close values within the limit (by comparing it to the open frame) are Saneinejad-Hobbs, Stafford-Smith, Bazan-Meli, Liauw Kwan, Paulay and Priestley, FEMA 356, Durani Luo, Hendry, Papia and Chen-Iranata.

  3. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  4. Comparative biochemical studies of type 3 poliovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Minor, P D

    1980-01-01

    A study of the biochemistry of type 3 poliovirus strains which involves the examination of the virus-coded polypeptides in infected cells and the preparation of oligonucleotide maps is reported. The polypeptide patterns were shown to be a relatively stable property of virus strains and distinguished Sabin vaccine strains from wild strains of poliovirus type 3. This approach may be of value in deciding the origin (vaccine or nonvaccine) of field isolates of poliovirus. Oligonucleotide maps wer...

  5. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)

  6. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  7. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  8. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design

  9. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  10. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  11. Optimal designs for one- and two-color microarrays using mixed models: a comparative evaluation of their efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Passos, Valéria; Tan, Frans E S; Winkens, Bjorn; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies between the one- and two-color microarrays provide supportive evidence for similarities of results on differential gene expression. So far, no design comparisons between the two platforms have been undertaken. With the objective of comparing optimal designs of one- and two-color microarrays in their statistical efficiencies, techniques of design optimization were applied within a mixed model framework. A- and D-optimal designs for the one- and two-color platforms were sought for a 3 x 3 factorial experiment. The results suggest that the choice of the platform will not affect the "subjects to groups" allocation, being concordant in the two designs. However, under financial constraints, the two-color arrays are expected to have a slight upper hand in terms of efficiency of model parameters estimates, once the price of arrays is more expensive than that of subjects. This statement is especially valid for microarray studies envisaging class comparisons.

  12. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...... and processing in design, discusses important issues on the selection of a research strategy and sums up the important variables that need to be controlled for....

  13. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  14. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  15. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  16. Comparative study on dermatoglyphics in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devcić, Sanja; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Silić, Ante

    2009-12-01

    According to the world's prevalence rate, alcoholism is in the third place after heart and blood vessel diseases and malignant tumors. With the development of neuroscience, the causes of alcoholism's biological etiologic sources are still being studied. Considering that dermatoglyphics are highly determined by heritage, we contemplated the possibilities of their discrimination in alcoholic patients in relation to phenotypically healthy subjects. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphics properties of 100 alcoholic patients without psychiatric comorbidity, who have been cured in the Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan two or more times, and those of 100 phenotypically healthy men. Through the t-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the examined groups. Results showed a statistically significant difference on five examined variables. In the calculation of fluctuating asymmetry measure, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlation of values of the right and the left hand on the tested variables, beside one. Chi-square tests showed that there is no relation between the dermatoglyphic qualitative properties of alcoholic patients and those of the examinees from the comparison group. Despite the indisputable genetic role in the genesis of alcoholism, the analysis of the dermatoglyphics carried out in our study did not show any etiological connection between the results of the test on dermatoglyphics and the appearance of alcoholism.

  17. A study of a fast breader reactor core without box-type elements on the basis of neutron physical core design calculation and a comparative evaluation of the resultung properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The essential physical properties and effects of the setup without box-type elements are as follows: a reduction of parasitic neutron absorption, which does not contribute to the fission or breeding yield, an increase of the breeding capture probability in U-238 due to a higher fuel volume and a simultaneous reduction of fission material, and a shift of the neutron spectrum to lower energies due to stronger moderation. Additional improvements particularly of the sodium density reactivity effects can be expected by a reduction of the sodium content and a heterogeneous Core design. (orig./RW) [de

  18. A comparative study of seven human cochlear filter models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Amin; Beutelmann, Rainer; Dietz, Mathias; Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Verhulst, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Auditory models have been developed for decades to simulate characteristics of the human auditory system, but it is often unknown how well auditory models compare to each other or perform in tasks they were not primarily designed for. This study systematically analyzes predictions of seven publicly-available cochlear filter models in response to a fixed set of stimuli to assess their capabilities of reproducing key aspects of human cochlear mechanics. The following features were assessed at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz: cochlear excitation patterns, nonlinear response growth, frequency selectivity, group delays, signal-in-noise processing, and amplitude modulation representation. For each task, the simulations were compared to available physiological data recorded in guinea pigs and gerbils as well as to human psychoacoustics data. The presented results provide application-oriented users with comprehensive information on the advantages, limitations and computation costs of these seven mainstream cochlear filter models.

  19. Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Silva Penna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

  20. Replacement fluids in plasmapheresis: cross-over comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, P; Nicolas, F; Adjou, C; N'Guyen, J M; Billaud, E; Moreau, P

    1997-03-01

    To compare the tolerance and the cost of three replacement fluids in plasmapheresis: albumin 4% alone, albumin 4% + dextran 40, or albumin 4% + hydroxyethylstarch 6%. A one center randomized, cross-over, comparative study designed to explore the tolerance and the colloid oncotic pressure in patients undergoing plasmapheresis. 225 plasmapheresis procedures were performed in 27 patients. Hemodynamic tolerance was good in the three treatment groups. Serum protein concentration after plasmapheresis was significantly lower in the albumin + hydroxyethylstarch group, followed by albumin + dextran 40, versus albumin alone. Colloid oncotic pressure before and after exchange was similar in the three groups. The clinical use of 25-30% of hydroxyethylstarch 6% or dextran 40 with albumin 4% was clinically well tolerated and associated with a 12% decrease of the cost of substitution solutions.

  1. A Comparative Study in Communication Texts & Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mohsenian Rad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in new communication theories. Accordingly, as the abovementioned authorities’ viewpoint of audiences exposed to media messages keeps distance from the true nature of media activities, media‐message receivers and their current position in the booming market of media, as termed by Mohsenyan Rad as “Message Bazaar”, there will possibly be disastrous social, cultural, political, and even economic consequences with regard to media uses.Then the history and definitions of “audience”, "uses & gratifications theory" and the concept of "Audience Phantasm" is described. After that, based on those and the increased options as well as the right of selecting of today-audience in the situation of message bazaar, as a result the characteristics of them are explained.

  2. A hingeless rotor XV-15 design integration feasibility study. Volume 1: Engineering design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    A design integration feasibility study was carried out to investigate what modifications to the basic XV-15 were necessary to accomplish a flight demonstration of the XV-15 with a Boeing hingeless rotor. Also investigated were additional modifications which would exploit the full capability provided by the combination of the new rotor and the existing T53 engine. An evaluation of the aircraft is presented and the data indicate improved air vehicle performance, acceptable aeroelastic margins, lower noise levels and improved flying qualities compared with the XV-15 aircraft. Inspection of the rotor system data provided shows an essentially unlimited life rotor for the flight spectrum anticipated for the XV-15.

  3. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.; Muller, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The new IPhreeqc module provides an application programming interface (API) to facilitate coupling of other codes with the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical model PHREEQC. Traditionally, loose coupling of PHREEQC with other applications required methods to create PHREEQC input files, start external PHREEQC processes, and process PHREEQC output files. IPhreeqc eliminates most of this effort by providing direct access to PHREEQC capabilities through a component object model (COM), a library, or a dynamically linked library (DLL). Input and calculations can be specified through internally programmed strings, and all data exchange between an application and the module can occur in computer memory. This study compares simulations programmed in C++ and Python that are tightly coupled with IPhreeqc modules to the traditional simulations that are loosely coupled to PHREEQC. The study compares performance, quantifies effort, and evaluates lines of code and the complexity of the design. The comparisons show that IPhreeqc offers a more powerful and simpler approach for incorporating PHREEQC calculations into transport models and other applications that need to perform PHREEQC calculations. The IPhreeqc module facilitates the design of coupled applications and significantly reduces run times. Even a moderate knowledge of one of the supported programming languages allows more efficient use of PHREEQC than the traditional loosely coupled approach.

  5. Nacelle design studies for advanced transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Gunnarson, D. W.; Edwards, P.

    1972-01-01

    Results are given of several analytical studies of nacelles suitable for advanced subsonic commercial transport aircraft. The impact on the nacelle of reduced aircraft noise and increased cruise Mach number is emphasized and initially developed in terms of the individual nacelle components: inlet, fan cowl, nozzle, etc. This is achieved by relating the noise and cruise speed constraints to which the aircraft system must be designed to specific limitations on the individual nacelle components. Performance assessments are then made (separately for each nacelle component) of competitive design concepts. Overall nacelle designs, synthesized on the basis of the individual component studies, are briefly discussed.

  6. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  7. Design, recruitment outcomes, and sample characteristics of the Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Erin E; Jensen, Agnes C; Nugent, Sean; DeRonne, Beth; Rutks, Indulis; Leverty, David; Gravely, Amy; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Bair, Matthew J; Kroenke, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript describes the study protocol, recruitment outcomes, and baseline participant characteristics for the Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial. SPACE is a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial conducted in multiple VA primary care clinics within one VA health care system. The objective was to compare benefits and harms of opioid therapy versus non-opioid medication therapy over 12months among patients with moderate-to-severe chronic back pain or hip/knee osteoarthritis pain despite analgesic therapy; patients already receiving regular opioid therapy were excluded. Key design features include comparing two clinically-relevant medication interventions, pragmatic eligibility criteria, and flexible treat-to-target interventions. Screening, recruitment and study enrollment were conducted over 31months. A total of 4491 patients were contacted for eligibility screening; 53.1% were ineligible, 41.0% refused, and 5.9% enrolled. The most common reasons for ineligibility were not meeting pain location and severity criteria. The most common study-specific reasons for refusal were preference for no opioid use and preference for no pain medications. Of 265 enrolled patients, 25 withdrew before randomization. Of 240 randomized patients, 87.9% were male, 84.1% were white, and age range was 21-80years. Past-year mental health diagnoses were 28.3% depression, 17% anxiety, 9.4% PTSD, 7.9% alcohol use disorder, and 2.6% drug use disorder. In conclusion, although recruitment for this trial was challenging, characteristics of enrolled participants suggest we were successful in recruiting patients similar to those prescribed opioid therapy in usual care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Cluster-Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial to Compare Supplement Consumption and Adherence to Different Dosing Regimens for Antenatal Calcium and Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia and Anaemia: Rationale and Design of the Micronutrient Initiative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; Chapleau, Gina M; Martin, Stephanie L; Chang, Christopher; Mwanga, Erick O; Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-11-17

    To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca) intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC). WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose) regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill) and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 µg folic acid) taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill) with IFA taken as above. Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Unit of randomization is the healthcare facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources. Significance for public healthPre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Based on clinical evidence of significant reduction in risk of pre-eclampsia, the WHO recommends including calcium (Ca) supplementation in antenatal care services in settings with inadequate dietary Ca intakes. A

  9. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  10. Comparative professional plaque removal study using 8 branded toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, N; Addy, M; Scratcher, C; Ley, F; Newcombe, R

    2002-04-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the plaque removal properties of modern toothbrush designs. The primary aim of the study was to compare the plaque removal properties of 8 relatively recent designs of manual toothbrush using a professional tooth brusher and within a commonly used time frame. A secondary aim was established to utilise the data to observationally appraise plaque accumulation together with the patterns of removal as a consequence of using the timed professional tooth brusher. The method was an 8-period, single-examiner, randomized, blind cross-over study involving 24 healthy volunteers, balanced for residual effects. Subjects accumulated plaque over a 4 day no oral hygiene period. On day 4, the accumulated plaque was scored by plaque index at the mesial, mid and distal sites of each of the buccal and lingual surfaces of the assessed teeth. Subjects were then removed from the assessment area where they received a professional brushing timed to last 48 s. Brushing was completed according to pre-study training without toothpaste and was followed by a re-scoring of the remaining plaque. A washout period of 3 days was then allowed prior to the next period during which normal oral hygiene was resumed. Similar quantities of plaque accumulated in each arch, although the difference between the buccal and lingual surfaces was of the order of 30%. The professional toothbrusher removed approximately 40% of the accumulated plaque in the 48 s allocated. The buccal surfaces were most effectively cleaned (approximately 45%) compared with the lingual (approximately 25%), with the plaque removal in the mesial and mid sections approaching 40% and 60% respectively. The difference in performance between the test brushes corresponded to 5% of the residual plaque values with none being significantly more efficient overall. Pair wise site comparisons did produce differences of the order of 10% (p=0.004) at the mesio-buccal, and 8% (p=0.030) at the mid-buccal sites

  11. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  12. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  13. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  14. Comparative study of heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.

  15. Extrap conceptual fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eninger, J.E; Lehnert, B.

    1987-12-01

    A study has recently been initiated to asses the fusion reactor potential of the Extrap concept. A reactor model is defined that fulfills certain economic and environmental criteria. This model is applied to Extrap and a reference reactor is outlined. The design is optimized by varying parameters subject to both physics and engineering constraints. Several design options are examined and key engineering issues are identified and addressed. Some preliminary results and conclusions of this work are summarized. (authors)

  16. Rhetorical Design Studies: The Art of Making Design Choices Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per L.

    2017-01-01

    . However, these are predominantly concerned with the phases to go through in a design process and the steps to take rather than informing design practitioners of how to explore their arguments of why. Concepts and theories from rhetoric are employed here to explain how designers can develop a process where......Design has the potential to affect the situations we are in, the choices we make and the beliefs we live by. Being such an affective field, one might expect that canonized design thinking models and methods would be much concerned with how designers can discover arguments for their design choices...... choices, which is concerned with not only the making of things but with affecting of situations, actions and systems. In area one, the designers reframe the problem by means of epideictic topoi—meaning that they look for values to celebrate. This leads to deliberation about values to praise...

  17. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  18. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong.

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs

  19. Evolution versus "intelligent design": comparing the topology of protein-protein interaction networks to the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Siganos, G; Faloutsos, M; Lonardi, S

    2006-01-01

    Recent research efforts have made available genome-wide, high-throughput protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps for several model organisms. This has enabled the systematic analysis of PPI networks, which has become one of the primary challenges for the system biology community. In this study, we attempt to understand better the topological structure of PPI networks by comparing them against man-made communication networks, and more specifically, the Internet. Our comparative study is based on a comprehensive set of graph metrics. Our results exhibit an interesting dichotomy. On the one hand, both networks share several macroscopic properties such as scale-free and small-world properties. On the other hand, the two networks exhibit significant topological differences, such as the cliqueishness of the highest degree nodes. We attribute these differences to the distinct design principles and constraints that both networks are assumed to satisfy. We speculate that the evolutionary constraints that favor the survivability and diversification are behind the building process of PPI networks, whereas the leading force in shaping the Internet topology is a decentralized optimization process geared towards efficient node communication.

  20. Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: a prospective study with comparative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Camelia; Abedi, Heidar-Ali; Omranipour, Ramesh; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-03-28

    There is disagreement among studies of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes in breast cancer patients over time. Reportedly, assessment of HRQoL prior to diagnosis may be crucial to provide a clear point of comparison for later measurements. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate changes in HRQoL, sense of coherence (SOC), spirituality and religious coping in a group of women with breast cancer from the pre-diagnosis phase to 6 months later in comparison with a control group, and (2) to explore the predictor role of SOC, spirituality, and religious coping within the breast cancer group at the 6-month follow-up. A sample of women with breast cancer (n = 162) and a matched control group (n = 210) responded to the following instruments on both occasions: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, the SOC Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale and the Brief Religious Coping Scale. A series of General Linear Model (GLM) Repeated Measures was used to determine changes between the groups over time. Also, Multiple Linear Regression analyses were applied to each of the HRQoL dimensions, as dependent variable at the 6 months follow-up. Physical and role function, fatigue, and financial difficulties were rated worse by the women with breast cancer during the first 6 months in comparison to the controls, which was both a statistically (p < 0.001) and clinically significant difference. Women had better scores for global quality of life (p < 0.001), and emotional functioning (p < 0.01) during the same period of time. The degree of SOC (p < 0.01) and baseline ratings of several dimensions of HRQoL (p < 0.05) were the most important predictors of HRQoL changes. Collecting HRQoL data before a final diagnosis of breast cancer is important to identify women at risk of deterioration in HRQoL during and after treatment. Special attention should be paid to physical and role functioning impairment, fatigue, and

  1. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150 degrees C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases

  2. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  3. A blended design in acute care training: similar learning results, less training costs compared with a traditional format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary E W; Storm, Diana J; Teeuwen, Irene C; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2014-09-01

    Introduction There is a demand for more attractive and efficient training programmes in postgraduate health care training. This retrospective study aims to show the effectiveness of a blended versus traditional face-to-face training design. For nurses in postgraduate Acute and Intensive Care training, the effectiveness of a blended course design was compared with a traditional design. Methods In a first pilot study 57 students took a traditional course (2-h lecture and 2-h workshop) and 46 students took a blended course (2-h lecture and 2-h online self-study material). Test results were compared for both groups. After positive results in the pilot study, the design was replicated for the complete programme in Acute and Intensive Care. Now 16 students followed the traditional programme (11 days face-to-face education) and 31 students did the blended programme (7 days face-to-face and 40 h online self-study). An evaluation was done after the pilot and course costs were calculated. Results Results show that the traditional and blended groups were similar regarding the main characteristics and did not differ in learning results for both the pilot and the complete programme. Student evaluations of both designs were positive; however, the blended group were more confident that they had achieved the learning objectives. Training costs were reduced substantially. Conclusion The blended training design offers an effective and attractive training solution, leading to a significant reduction in costs.

  4. EFFECTIVELY SELECTING A TARGET POPULATION FOR A FUTURE COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihui; Tian, Lu; Cai, Tianxi; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2013-01-01

    When comparing a new treatment with a control in a randomized clinical study, the treatment effect is generally assessed by evaluating a summary measure over a specific study population. The success of the trial heavily depends on the choice of such a population. In this paper, we show a systematic, effective way to identify a promising population, for which the new treatment is expected to have a desired benefit, utilizing the data from a current study involving similar comparator treatments. Specifically, using the existing data, we first create a parametric scoring system as a function of multiple multiple baseline covariates to estimate subject-specific treatment differences. Based on this scoring system, we specify a desired level of treatment difference and obtain a subgroup of patients, defined as those whose estimated scores exceed this threshold. An empirically calibrated threshold-specific treatment difference curve across a range of score values is constructed. The subpopulation of patients satisfying any given level of treatment benefit can then be identified accordingly. To avoid bias due to overoptimism, we utilize a cross-training-evaluation method for implementing the above two-step procedure. We then show how to select the best scoring system among all competing models. Furthermore, for cases in which only a single pre-specified working model is involved, inference procedures are proposed for the average treatment difference over a range of score values using the entire data set, and are justified theoretically and numerically. Lastly, the proposals are illustrated with the data from two clinical trials in treating HIV and cardiovascular diseases. Note that if we are not interested in designing a new study for comparing similar treatments, the new procedure can also be quite useful for the management of future patients, so that treatment may be targeted towards those who would receive nontrivial benefits to compensate for the risk or cost of the

  5. Comparative investigation on designs of light absorption enhancement of ultrathin crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Pan, Wu; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Xinyu; Yan, Wensheng

    2016-10-01

    Ultrathin crystalline silicon wafers for photovoltaic applications have attracted intensive attention because of potential benefits in cost-effectiveness. Structural design with high light absorption is important for photovoltaics because planar ultrathin silicon is poor in absorption. We conduct a comparative investigation on designs of light absorption enhancement for 2-μm-thick ultrathin crystalline silicon, where the front texture is a nanopyramidal structure and the rear adopts several designs. Our calculation results show that both of the ultrathin silicon with front nanopyramids and rear silver nanoarrays and the ultrathin silicon with two-sided nanopyramids are promising for photovoltaic applications. For the latter design, the calculated photocurrent achieves the highest value of 35.1 mA/cm2 when a perfect electric conductor layer is applied at the bottom. In contrast, the former design has a lower photocurrent value of 31.2 mA/cm2. But, this design is of practical significance because the majority of experimental reports on ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells are single-sided front-textured at present and the fabrication techniques of plasmonic Ag nanoarrays are matured. Compared with previous reports, the present work offers a multiple option of structural designs for ultrathin crystalline silicon to enhance the light absorption for photovoltaic applications.

  6. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    ) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included....... With larger patient samples, it is possible, however, that a significant difference might have been achieved. The running costs for APD treatment were US $75 per day and for CAPD treatment US $61 per day. CONCLUSION: If APD treatment can help to keep selected patients vocationally or socially active, paying...... were assessed at baseline and after 6 months by the self-administered short-form SF-36 generic health survey questionnaire supplemented with disease- and treatment-specific questions. Therapy costs were compared by evaluating dialysis-related expenses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life parameters...

  7. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M; Cottenden, A; Getliffe, K; Gage, H; Clarke-O'Neill, S; Jamieson, K; Green, N; Williams, P; Brooks, R; Malone-Lee, J

    2008-07-01

    To compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the key absorbent product designs to provide a more solid basis for guiding selection and purchase. Also to carry out the first stage in the development of a quality of life (QoL) instrument for measuring the impact of absorbent product use on users' lives. Three clinical trials focused on the three biggest market sectors. Each trial had a similar crossover design in which each participant tested all products within their group in random order. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: In Trial 1, 85 women with light urinary incontinence living in the community tested three products from each of the four design categories available (total of 12 test products): disposable inserts (pads); menstrual pads; washable pants with integral pad; and washable inserts. In Trial 2a, 85 moderate/heavily incontinent adults (urinary or urinary/faecal) living in the community (49 men and 36 women) tested three (or two) products from each of the five design categories available (total of 14 test products): disposable inserts (with mesh pants); disposable diapers (nappies); disposable pull-ups (similar to toddlers' trainer pants); disposable T-shaped diapers (nappies with waist-band); and washable diapers. All products were provided in a daytime and a (mostly more absorbent) night-time variant. In these first two trials, the test products were selected on the basis of data from pilot studies. In Trial 2b, 100 moderate/heavily incontinent adults (urinary or urinary/faecal) living in 10 nursing homes (27 men and 73 women) evaluated one product from each of the four disposable design categories from Trial 2a. Products were selected on the basis of product performance in Trial 2a and, again, day time and night-time variants were provided. The first phase of developing a QoL tool for measuring the impact of using different pad designs was carried out by interviewing participants from Trials 1 and 2a. Product performance (e.g. comfort

  8. Comparative study of chemotherapeutic protocols for advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, S.; Ilyas, N.; Shahid, M.A.; Asgar, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of epirubicin the two-dose levels with combination of standard chemotherapy drugs. Design: A single center trial conducted under the sponsorship of Pakistan oncology co-operative group (POCG). Place and Duration of Study: The trial was conducted at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Lahore (INMOL). The study started in October 1995 and patient accrual was completed in June 1997. Patients and Methods: Breast cancer patients presenting with distant metastases were randomized to receive either single agent epirubicin, 120 mg/ m/sup 2/ weekly (arm A), epirubicin 40 mg/m/sup 2/, (Arm B), standard CMF regimen (Arm C) or standard FEC regimen (Arm D). Efficacy of each regimen, its toxicity and the quality of life of the patients were the factors compared. Results: FEC showed a response rate of 68% with median duration of 14 months, CMF showed 57% response rate with median duration of 8 months. High dose epirubicin 120 mg/m/sup 2/ showed a response rate of 31% with response duration of 2.5 months, while epirubicin 40 mg/m/sup 2/ showed partial response (pr) in 17% of patients with response duration of 1.7 months. Both FEC and CMF arms were found to be more effective (p<0.05) than the epirubicin regimens. Conclusion: FEC regimen was most effective in producing long lasting palliation. Single agent regimens produced low response rare and intolerable toxicity amongst metastatic breast cancer patients. (author)

  9. Comparative planning study for proton radiotherapy of benign brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, L.; Nicolini, G.; Fogliata, A. [Medical Physics, Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E. [Medical Physics, Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Medical Physics Specialization School, Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: a comparative study of different systems for proton-based radiotherapy was conducted. Material and methods: the Paul Scherrer Institute method for spot scanning was compared with the systems for passive scattering from the helax-TMS and the varian eclipse. Twelve cases of ''benign'' brain tumors were considered (meningiomas, neurinomas, and hypophyseal adenomas). Organs at risk included chiasm, brainstem, eyes and optic nerves as well as the not otherwise specified healthy brain tissue in view of long-term toxicity. Results: the results showed that high target coverage was achievable (V{sub 90} > 98% for all systems). Plans designed with the spot-scanning technique presented the minimum involvement of healthy tissue (e.g., the lowest maximum significant dose to healthy brain [25.6 Gy] or the lowest conformity index [CI{sub 95} = 1.3], between 38% and 46% lower than for the other techniques). Conclusion: in this study, no definitive indication of superiority of any technique can be drawn but spot scanning can better conform dose distributions and minimize the irradiation of healthy volumes at medium to low dose levels, a factor of interest when long life expectancy is considered. (orig.)

  10. Designs for mechanical circulatory support device studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaton, James D; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Gelijns, Annetine; Starling, Randall C; Mann, Douglas L; Konstam, Marvin A

    2007-02-01

    There is increased interest in mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs), such as implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), as "destination" therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. Because patient availability to evaluate these devices is limited and randomized trials have been slow in enrolling patients, a workshop was convened to consider designs for MCSD development including alternatives to randomized trials. A workshop was jointly planned by the Heart Failure Society of America and the US Food and Drug Administration and was convened in March 2006. One of the panels was asked to review different designs for evaluating new MCSDs. Randomized trials have many advantages over studies with no controls or with nonrandomized concurrent or historical controls. These advantages include the elimination of bias in the assignment of treatments and the balancing, on average, of known and unknown baseline covariates that influence response. These advantages of randomization are particularly important for studies in which the treatments may not differ from one another by a large amount (eg, a head-to-head study of an approved LVAD with a new LVAD). However, researchers have found it difficult to recruit patients to randomized studies because the number of clinical sites that can carry out the studies is not large. Also, there is a reluctance to randomize patients when the control device is considered technologically inferior. Thus ways of improving the design of randomized trials were discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of alternative designs were considered. The panel concluded that designs should include a randomized component. Randomized designs might be improved by allowing the control device to be chosen before randomization, by first conducting smaller vanguard studies, and by allowing crossovers in trials with optimal medical management controls. With use of data from completed trials, other databases, and registries, alternative

  11. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New concepts…

  12. Evidence-Based Design and Research-Informed Design: What's the Difference? Conceptual Definitions and Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavey, Erin; Vander Wyst, Kiley B

    2017-10-01

    This article provides critical examination and comparison of the conceptual meaning and underlying assumptions of the concepts evidence-based design (EBD) and research-informed design (RID) in order to facilitate practical use and theoretical development. In recent years, EBD has experienced broad adoption, yet it has been simultaneously critiqued for rigidity and misapplication. Many practitioners are gravitating to the term RID to describe their method of integrating knowledge into the design process. However, the term RID lacks a clear definition and the blurring of terms has the potential to weaken advances made integrating research into practice. Concept analysis methods from Walker and Avant were used to define the concepts for comparison. Conceptual definitions, process descriptions, examples (i.e., model cases), and methods of evaluation are offered for EBD and RID. Although EBD and RID share similarities in meaning, the two terms are distinct. When comparing evidence based (EB) and research informed, EB is a broad base of information types (evidence) that are narrowly applied (based), while the latter references a narrow slice of information (research) that is broadly applied (informed) to create an end product of design. Much of the confusion between the use of the concepts EBD and RID arises out of differing perspectives between the way practitioners and academics understand the underlying terms. The authors hope this article serves to generate thoughtful dialogue, which is essential to the development of a discipline, and look forward to the contribution of the readership.

  13. Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  14. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  15. ARTS III/Parallel Processor Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    It was the purpose of this design study to investigate the feasibility, suitability, and cost-effectiveness of augmenting the ARTS III failsafe/failsoft multiprocessor system with a form of parallel processor to accomodate a large growth in air traff...

  16. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  17. Planar Millimeter-Wave Antennas: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pitra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design and the experimental verification of three types of wideband antennas. Attention is turned to the bow-tie antenna, the Vivaldi antenna and the spiral antenna designed for the operation at millimeter waves. Bandwidth, input impedance, gain, and directivity pattern are the investigated parameters. Antennas are compared considering computer simulations in CST Microwave Studio and measured data.

  18. Clinical comparative observation of SMILE operation design of different thickness of corneal cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Mu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the impact of different thickness of corneal cap design on small incision lenticule extraction(SMILEoperation. METHODS: Forty-six cases of myopia patients(92 eyesintends to SMILE operation in our hospital were collected, and were randomly divided into 2 groups: corneal cap thickness design for 110μm in group A and 120μm in group B. Other operation parameters designs were consistent. All patients were surgeried by the same surgeon. The incidence of opaque bubble layer(OBL, the ratio of difficult separation of lens, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAof each time points, and spherical equivalent(SEwere compared. RESULTS: Intraoperative OBL incidence rate of 110μm group was higher than that of 120μm group with significant difference between the two group(PPP>0.05. SE were compared at 7d and 6mo after operation, showed no significant difference(P>0.05CONCLUSION: Compared with 120μm group, corneal cap design SMILE operation in 110μm group are more prone to OBL and difficult separation of lens, thus affects UCVA and postoperative recovery rate. There is no significant difference in long-term UCVA.

  19. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for the statistical power of studies with a hierarchical structure to guide biomedical researchers designing future studies of this type. Upon model fitting it is important to examine if the model assumptions are met to avoid that spurious conclusions are drawn. While the range of diagnostic methods is extensive...... for models assuming a normal response it is generally more limited for non-normal models. An R package providing diagnostic tools suitable for examining the validity of binomial regression models have been developed. The binom Tools package is publicly available at the CRAN repository....

  20. Evaluation systems for clinical governance development: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Lack of scientific and confirmed researches and expert knowledge about evaluation systems for clinical governance development in Iran have made studies on different evaluation systems for clinical governance development a necessity. These studies must provide applied strategies to design criteria of implementing clinical governance for hospital's accreditation. This is a descriptive and comparative study on development of clinical governance models all over the world. Data have been gathered by reviewing related articles. Models have been studied in comprehensive review method. The evaluated models of clinical governance development were Australian, NHS, SPOCK and OPTIGOV. The final aspects extracted from these models were Responsiveness, Policies and Strategies, Organizational Structure, Allocating Resources, Education and Occupational Development, Performance Evaluation, External Evaluation, Patient Oriented Approach, Risk Management, Personnel's Participation, Information Technology, Human Resources, Research and Development, Evidence Based Medicine, Clinical Audit, Health Technology Assessment and Quality. These results are applicable for completing the present criteria which evaluating clinical governance application and provide practical framework to evaluate country's hospital on the basis of clinical governance elements.

  1. Design study on metal fuel FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach for metal fuel FBR core to maintain fuel integrity during transient events by limiting eutectic/liquid phase formation is proposed based on the current status of metallic fuel development. Its impact as the limitation on the core outlet temperature is assessed through its application to two of CRIEPI's core concepts, high linear power 1000 MWe homogeneous design and medium linear power 300 MWe radially heterogeneous design. SESAME/SALT code is used in this study to analyze steady state and transient fuel behavior. SE2-FA code is developed based on SUPERENERGY-2 and used to analyze core thermal-hydraulics with uncertainties. As the result, the core outlet temperatures of both designs are found to be limited to ≤500degC if it is required to prevent eutectic/liquid phase formation during operational transients in order to guarantee the fuel integrity. Additional assessment is made assuming an advanced limiting condition that allows small liquid phase formation based on the liquid phase penetration rate derived from existing experimental results. The result indicates possibility of raising core outlet temperature to ∼ 530degC. Also, it is found that core design technology improvements such as hot spot factors reduction can contribute to the core outlet temperature extension by 10 ∼ 20degC. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  3. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of a nasal surgical questionnaire designed for monitoring surgical outcomes and comparing different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, R; Døsen, L K; Shiryaeva, O; Amlie, E

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated a nasal surgical questionnaire designed for monitoring surgical outcomes and comparing different techniques. Eighty-three healthy volunteers answered the same questionnaire twice with a minimum interval of five weeks. Three visual analogue scale items were used to assess nasal obstruction during the day, at night and during exercise. Respondents rated nasal obstruction severity by marking on a 10 cm line, with scores ranging from 0 to 100 (measured in millimetres). Other nasal symptoms, considered secondary outcomes, were graded using four-point Likert scales. Mean visual analogue scale scores for nasal obstruction severity experienced during the day, at night and during exercise at initial assessment were 9.99, 12.95 and 11.67, respectively. Thirty-eight per cent of scores indicated no obstruction (scores of 0), 47 per cent indicated mild obstruction (scores 1-30), 13 per cent indicated moderate obstruction (scores 31-70) and 2 per cent indicated severe obstruction (scores 71-100). Males had higher scores than females. The scores for the first and second assessment did not differ, except at night for obstruction in allergic individuals which was considered clinically unimportant. The questionnaire reliably assesses nasal symptoms and may be useful for prospective studies of nasal surgery.

  5. Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.

  6. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  7. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  8. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  10. Design and Comparative Analysis of a Retrofitted Liquid Cooling System for High-Power Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Paine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-depth system-level experimental analysis comparing air-cooled and liquid-cooled commercial off-the-shelf (COTS electric motors. Typically, liquid-cooled electric motors are reserved for large, expensive, high-end applications where the design of the motor’s electromagnetic components are closely coupled to its cooling system. By applying liquid cooling to a pre-existing motor design, this work helps bring the performance advantages of liquid cooling to smaller scale and lower cost applications. Prior work in this area gives little insight to designers of such systems. Conversely, this work aims to improve the understanding of liquid-cooled COTS motors by reporting empirically-observed factors of improvement for motor current, torque, output power and system efficiency. These measurements are obtained using a new liquid-cooled motor housing design that improves the ease of maintenance and component reuse compared to existing work. It is confirmed that datasheet motor thermal properties may serve as a reasonable guide for anticipating continuous torque performance, but may over-specify continuous power output. For the motor used in this test, continuous torque output is increased by a factor of 2.58, matching to within 9% of expected datasheet values. Continuous power output is increased by a factor of two with only 2.2% reduced efficiency compared to air-cooling.

  11. Service Design, insights from nine case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gijbels; C. van Gessel; Dr. Ir. Remko van der Lugt; Tanja Enninga; Sjoukje Sleeswijk Visser; Fenne Verhoeven; Berit Godfroij; M.M. Manschot

    2013-01-01

    Service design is literally the design of services. Service designers improve existing services or design completely new ones. Nothing new so far. Services have been around for centuries, and every service was conceived and designed by someone. However, service design takes a different angle; a

  12. Stability and Comparative Dissolution Studies of Five Brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution profiles of five different brands of norfloxacin (400 mg) tablets designated as A, B, C, D, and E, marketed in Addis Ababa were compared with those of an innovator product (F). The stability of these tablets was evaluated under the influence of accelerated conditions (40 °C + 2 °C and 75% ± 5% RH).

  13. Academic library benchmarking in The Netherlands: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to describe some of the unique features of the Dutch academic library benchmarking system. Design/methodology/approach - The Dutch system is compared with similar projects in the USA, the UK and Germany. Findings - One of the most distinguishing features of the Dutch system

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BS 8110 AND EUROCODE 2 IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to compare the use of BS 8110 and Eurocode 2 in the design of structures and focused on outlining the relative gains and/or shortcomings of Eurocode 2 and BS 8110 under certain criteria which are loading, analysis, ease of use and technological advancement. To accomplish this, the analysis ...

  15. A comparative contrast-detail study of five medical displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Delong, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the contrast-detail performance of five different commercial liquid crystal displays (LCDs) to other LCD and cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays for medical applications. A contrast-detail phantom, supplemented with 5 in. of acrylic, was imaged on a commercial digital radiographic system using techniques comparable to chest radiography. The phantom design enabled observer evaluation by a four-alternative forced choice paradigm. The acquired images were independently scored by five observers on five medical display devices: a 5 megapixel monochrome LCD, a 3 megapixel monochrome LCD, a 9 megapixel color LCD, a 5 megapixel monochrome CRT, and a mammographic-grade monochrome CRT. The data were analyzed using the method suggested by the manufacturer based on a nearest neighbor correction technique. They were further analyzed using a logistic regression response model with a natural threshold using an overall chi-square test for display type followed by pairwise comparisons for individual display performance. The differences between the display devices were small. The standard analysis of the results based on the manufacturer-recommended method did not yield any statistically discernible trend among displays. The logistic regression analysis, however, indicated that the 5 megapixel monochrome LCD was statistically significantly (p<0.0001) superior to the others, followed by the 3 megapixel monochrome LCD (p<0.0001). The three other displays exhibited lower but generally similar performance characteristics. The findings suggest that 5 and 3 megapixel monochrome LCDs provide comparable but subtly superior contrast detectability than other tested displays, with the former performing slightly better in the detection of subtle and fine details

  16. Parametric study for design of thermal sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.B.; Mehra, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal sleeves are used inside nozzle in many reactor components. Basic aim in design of thermal sleeve is to arrive at a set of dimensions for gap and annulus length, which will give rise to minimum thermal gradient in the base metal of the associated nozzle. Study includes the minimisation of the thermal gradient in the crotch zone by suitable choice of gap and annulus length. Three different geometries of nozzle radii 50.00 mm., 100 mm. and 200.0 mm. are studied for single and two concentric thermal sleeves model. The paper also presents effect of parameters like velocity of flow, temperature of fluid, materials etc. on the design of thermal sleeves. (orig.)

  17. Comparative performance of three experimental hut designs for measuring malaria vector responses to insecticides in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massue, Dennis J; Kisinza, William N; Malongo, Bernard B; Mgaya, Charles S; Bradley, John; Moore, Jason D; Tenu, Filemoni F; Moore, Sarah J

    2016-03-15

    Experimental huts are simplified, standardized representations of human habitations that provide model systems to evaluate insecticides used in indoor residual spray (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to kill disease vectors. Hut volume, construction materials and size of entry points impact mosquito entry and exposure to insecticides. The performance of three standard experimental hut designs was compared to evaluate insecticide used in LLINs. Field studies were conducted at the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) testing site in Muheza, Tanzania. Three East African huts, three West African huts, and three Ifakara huts were compared using Olyset(®) and Permanet 2.0(®) versus untreated nets as a control. Outcomes measured were mortality, induced exophily (exit rate), blood feeding inhibition and deterrence (entry rate). Data were analysed using linear mixed effect regression and Bland-Altman comparison of paired differences. A total of 613 mosquitoes were collected in 36 nights, of which 13.5% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, 21% Anopheles funestus sensu stricto, 38% Mansonia species and 28% Culex species. Ifakara huts caught three times more mosquitoes than the East African and West African huts, while the West African huts caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the other hut types. Mosquito densities were low, very little mosquito exit was measured in any of the huts with no measurable exophily caused by the use of either Olyset or Permanet. When the huts were directly compared, the West African huts measured greater exophily than other huts. As unholed nets were used in the experiments and few mosquitoes were captured, it was not possible to measure difference in feeding success either between treatments or hut types. In each of the hut types there was increased mortality when Permanet or Olyset were present inside the huts compared to the control, however this did not vary between the hut types. Both East African

  18. Values in nursing students and professionals: An exploratory comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, F Rosa; Roales-Nieto, Jesus Gil; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Preciado, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have explored personal values in nursing, but none has assessed whether the predictions made by the theory of intergenerational value change are true for the different generations of nursing professionals and students. This theory predicts a shift in those personal values held by younger generations towards ones focussed on self-expression. The purpose of the study was to identify intergenerational differences in personal values among nursing professionals and nursing students and to determine whether generational value profiles fit the predictions made by the theory. An exploratory comparative design with a cross-sectional survey method was used. Participants were recruited from four public hospitals and 10 Primary Care Centres in medium-size cities in Spain. A sample of 589 nurses and 2295 nursing students participated in the study. An open survey method was used to collect data that were classified grouping reported values into categories following a method of value lexicon construction and analysed by contingency tables with Pearson's χ (2) and standardized residuals. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Deans of the nursing schools and the Directors of Nursing of the institutions. Anonymity was guaranteed, participation was voluntary and participants were informed of the purpose of the study. The results can be synthesized in two age-related trends in the reporting of values among three groups of participants. First, among younger nurses and students, some nursing core values (e.g. ethical and professional) decreased in importance, while other values centred on social relationships and personal well-being increased. This study shows intergenerational change in personal values among both nursing students and young nursing professionals. Findings suggest the need to pay more attention to value training and professional socialization during the schooling period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  20. Parental infant jaundice colour card design successfully validated by comparing it with total serum bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guo-Chang; Ren, Ming-Xing; Shen, Lin-Na; Zhang, Li-Wen

    2016-12-01

    We designed a jaundice colour card that could be used by the parents of neonates and validated it by comparing it with total serum bilirubin levels. There were 106 term Chinese neonates in the study. The majority weighed between 2500 g and 3499 g (63%) and had a gestational age of 37-40 weeks (77%). The jaundice colour card and photometric determination were used to screen for neonatal jaundice and compared with serum bilirubin. The bilirubin levels were measured by mothers using the jaundice colour card, and 67% of the measurements were taken at 11-20 days (range 3-30). The measurements at the infant's forehead, cheek and sternum showed strong correlations with total serum bilirubin. The mean differences between the total serum bilirubin and the jaundice colour card measurements from the forehead, cheek and sternum were 1.9 mg/dL, 0.3 mg/dL and 1.5 mg/dL, respectively. When total serum bilirubin >13 mg/dL was used as the cut-off point, the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.934 for the forehead, 0.985 for the cheek and 0.966 for the sternum. We established the validity of the jaundice colour card as a parental measurement tool for jaundice in Chinese neonates, and the cheek was the best measurement site. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparative Performance of Surrogate-Assisted MOEAs for Geometrical Design of Pin-Fin Heat Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwadol Kanyakam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative performance of several surrogate-assisted multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs for geometrical design of a pin-fin heat sink (PFHS. The surrogate-assisted MOEAs are achieved by integrating multiobjective population-based incremental learning (PBIL with a quadratic response surface model (QRS, a radial-basis function (RBF interpolation technique, and a Kriging (KRG or Gaussian process model. The mixed integer/continuous multiobjective design problem of PFHS with the objective to minimise junction temperature and fan pumping power simultaneously is posed. The optimum results obtained from using the original multiobjective PBIL and the three versions of hybrid PBIL are compared. It is shown that the hybrid PBIL using KRG is the best performer. The hybrid PBILs require less number of function evaluations to surpass the original PBIL.

  2. Design study of a flexible diaphragm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whatley, M E; Morgan, J G

    1982-10-01

    A design study was made to meet the requirements for a diaphragm for a rotary seal at the discharge end of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program`s prototypic voloxidizer. Using a computer program called NEPSAP, the study examined thickness, outer radius, corrugation wavelength and corrugation amplitude as variables, and established the general effect of each on stiffness and stresses. The result comprises a basis for the selection of diaphragms for similar applications. Limited experimental measurements of stress validate the stress values calculated by NEPSAP.

  3. A comparative study of the defluoridation efficiency of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the defluoridation efficiency of synthetic dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and lacunar hydroxyapatite (L-HAp): An application of synthetic solution and Koundoumawa field water.

  4. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  5. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of instructional design features in simulation-based education: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Hamstra, Stanley J; Brydges, Ryan; Zendejas, Benjamin; Szostek, Jason H; Wang, Amy T; Erwin, Patricia J; Hatala, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Although technology-enhanced simulation is increasingly used in health professions education, features of effective simulation-based instructional design remain uncertain. Evaluate the effectiveness of instructional design features through a systematic review of studies comparing different simulation-based interventions. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, key journals, and previous review bibliographies through May 2011. We included original research studies that compared one simulation intervention with another and involved health professions learners. Working in duplicate, we evaluated study quality and abstracted information on learners, outcomes, and instructional design features. We pooled results using random effects meta-analysis. From a pool of 10,903 articles we identified 289 eligible studies enrolling 18,971 trainees, including 208 randomized trials. Inconsistency was usually large (I2 > 50%). For skills outcomes, pooled effect sizes (positive numbers favoring the instructional design feature) were 0.68 for range of difficulty (20 studies; p simulation-based education.

  7. Study designs in dermatology: Practical applications of study designs and their statistics in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of study designs and related statistical methodology is necessary for clinical dermatologists to critically read scientific literature and incorporate this information into clinical practice. This review focuses on how to identify the appropriate use of study designs and the statistical methodology used therein. Topics covered include population sampling and generalizability, power and sample size calculations, correction for multiple statistical testing, and how to identify the appropriate use of statistics. The impact of improved study designs in previously controversial topics in dermatology will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis

  9. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  10. Randomized comparison of operator radiation exposure comparing transradial and transfemoral approach for percutaneous coronary procedures: rationale and design of the minimizing adverse haemorrhagic events by TRansradial access site and systemic implementation of angioX – RAdiation Dose study (RAD-MATRIX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Calabrò, Paolo; Sarandrea, Alessandro; Rigattieri, Stefano; Tomassini, Francesco; Sardella, Gennaro; Zavalloni, Dennis; Cortese, Bernardo; Limbruno, Ugo; Tebaldi, Matteo; Gagnor, Andrea; Rubartelli, Paolo; Zingarelli, Antonio; Valgimigli, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiation absorbed by interventional cardiologists is a frequently under-evaluated important issue. Aim is to compare radiation dose absorbed by interventional cardiologists during percutaneous coronary procedures for acute coronary syndromes comparing transradial and transfemoral access. Methods: The randomized multicentre MATRIX (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of angioX) trial has been designed to compare the clinical outcome of patients with acute coronary syndromes treated invasively according to the access site (transfemoral vs. transradial) and to the anticoagulant therapy (bivalirudin vs. heparin). Selected experienced interventional cardiologists involved in this study have been equipped with dedicated thermoluminescent dosimeters to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed during transfemoral or right transradial or left transradial access. For each access we evaluate the radiation dose absorbed at wrist, at thorax and at eye level. Consequently the operator is equipped with three sets (transfemoral, right transradial or left transradial access) of three different dosimeters (wrist, thorax and eye dosimeter). Primary end-point of the study is the procedural radiation dose absorbed by operators at thorax. An important secondary end-point is the procedural radiation dose absorbed by operators comparing the right or left radial approach. Patient randomization is performed according to the MATRIX protocol for the femoral or radial approach. A further randomization for the radial approach is performed to compare right and left transradial access. Conclusions: The RAD-MATRIX study will probably consent to clarify the radiation issue for interventional cardiologist comparing transradial and transfemoral access in the setting of acute coronary syndromes

  11. Randomized comparison of operator radiation exposure comparing transradial and transfemoral approach for percutaneous coronary procedures: rationale and design of the minimizing adverse haemorrhagic events by TRansradial access site and systemic implementation of angioX – RAdiation Dose study (RAD-MATRIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciahbasi, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.sciahbasi@fastwebnet.it [Interventional Cardiology, Sandro Pertini Hospital – ASL RMB, Rome (Italy); Calabrò, Paolo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Cardio-Thoracic Sciences - Second University of Naples (Italy); Sarandrea, Alessandro [HSE Management, Rome (Italy); Rigattieri, Stefano [Interventional Cardiology, Sandro Pertini Hospital – ASL RMB, Rome (Italy); Tomassini, Francesco [Department of Cardiology, Infermi Hospital, Rivoli (Italy); Sardella, Gennaro [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy); Zavalloni, Dennis [UO Emodinamica e Cardiologia Invasiva, IRCCS, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Italy); Cortese, Bernardo [Interventional Cardiology, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Milan (Italy); Limbruno, Ugo [Cardiology Unit, Misericordia Hospital, Grosseto (Italy); Tebaldi, Matteo [Cardiology Department, University of Ferrara, Department of Cardiology (Italy); Gagnor, Andrea [Department of Cardiology, Infermi Hospital, Rivoli (Italy); Rubartelli, Paolo [Villa Scassi Hospital, Genova (Italy); Zingarelli, Antonio [San Martino Hospital, Genova (Italy); Valgimigli, Marco [Thoraxcenter, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    Background: Radiation absorbed by interventional cardiologists is a frequently under-evaluated important issue. Aim is to compare radiation dose absorbed by interventional cardiologists during percutaneous coronary procedures for acute coronary syndromes comparing transradial and transfemoral access. Methods: The randomized multicentre MATRIX (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of angioX) trial has been designed to compare the clinical outcome of patients with acute coronary syndromes treated invasively according to the access site (transfemoral vs. transradial) and to the anticoagulant therapy (bivalirudin vs. heparin). Selected experienced interventional cardiologists involved in this study have been equipped with dedicated thermoluminescent dosimeters to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed during transfemoral or right transradial or left transradial access. For each access we evaluate the radiation dose absorbed at wrist, at thorax and at eye level. Consequently the operator is equipped with three sets (transfemoral, right transradial or left transradial access) of three different dosimeters (wrist, thorax and eye dosimeter). Primary end-point of the study is the procedural radiation dose absorbed by operators at thorax. An important secondary end-point is the procedural radiation dose absorbed by operators comparing the right or left radial approach. Patient randomization is performed according to the MATRIX protocol for the femoral or radial approach. A further randomization for the radial approach is performed to compare right and left transradial access. Conclusions: The RAD-MATRIX study will probably consent to clarify the radiation issue for interventional cardiologist comparing transradial and transfemoral access in the setting of acute coronary syndromes.

  12. A Comparative Study for the Clic Drive Beam Decelerator Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Sterbini, G; Adli, E

    2012-01-01

    The baseline for the CLIC drive beam decelerator optics consists of a 2 m long FODO cell. This solution was adopted to have strong focusing in order to mitigate the effect of the PETS wake fields and to minimize the drive beam envelope. Taking into account the most recent PETS design, we compare the performance of the baseline FODO cell with a proposal that consider twice longer FODO cell. Despite of the expected cost in terms of performance, the reduction of the complexity of the system due to the halving of the number of quadrupoles can be beneficial for the overall optimization of the decelerator design.

  13. In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshagh Morteza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. Materials and Methods : A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel. In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Results : Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds for every 4 mm of expansion. Conclusion : In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.

  14. In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, Morteza; Momeni Danaei, S H; Hematian, M R; Oshagh, M R; Zade, A Hadiun; Saboori, A A

    2009-01-01

    Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel). In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds) for every 4 mm of expansion. In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.

  15. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used

  16. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  17. Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles in 6 DOF is analysed in the context of measurement noise. The performance of the adaptive control laws of Sadegh and Harowitz (1990 and Slotine and Benedetto (1990 are compared. Both these schemes require that all states are measured, that is the velocities and positions in surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw. However, for underwater vehicles it is difficult to measure the linear velocities whereas angular velocity measurements can be obtained by using a 3 axes angular rate sensor. This problem is addressed by designing a nonlinear observer for linear velocity state estimation. The proposed observer requires that the position and the attitude are measured, e.g. by using a hydroacoustic positioning system for linear positions, two gyros for roll and pitch and a compass for yaw. In addition angular rate measurements will be assumed available from a 3-axes rate sensor or a state estimator. It is also assumed that the measurement rate is limited to 2 Hz for all the sensors. Simulation studies with a 3 DOF AUV model are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the adaptive control laws and the velocity state observer.

  18. A Comparative thermophysiological study in sport bras for running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, L. P.; Miranda, T. M. R.; Catarino, A.

    2017-10-01

    Comfort in clothing is essential for user’s performance and is considered as a quality factor when choosing a particular piece of garment. Sportswear’s need include comfort and functionality, meaning that the thermo-physiological properties are of extreme importance. The aim of this work consists in comparing six different models of sports bra used specifically for running, taking into consideration the aspects of the thermo-physiological properties, air permeability, moisture behaviour, and friction. This paper is part of an ongoing research aiming to establish a comprehension about function and comfort characteristics for sport bras and propose a new bra with improved characteristics both in ergonomics design as well as in comfort performance. The thermal characterization of different regions on each bra were tested using Alambeta apparatus, Textest FX 3300 for air permeability and Frictorq for friction. Evaporation tests were also carried out in different regions on each bra at 37ºC corresponding to internal temperature of the human body. The results show that raw material, structures and construction can have influence in the properties studied.

  19. Fuel pin design algorithm for conceptual design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uselman, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Two models are available which are currently verified by part of the requirements and which are adaptable as algorithms for the complete range. Fuel thermal performance is described by the HEDL SIEX model. Cladding damage and total deformation are determined by the GE GRO-II structural analysis code. A preliminary fuel pin performance model for analysis of (U, P/sub U/)O 2 pins in the COROPT core conceptual design system has been constructed by combining the key elements of SIEX and GRO-II. This memo describes the resulting pin performance model and its interfacing with COROPT system. Some exemplary results are presented

  20. Domestic versus international Iranian transplantation publication: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Scientific articles are a source of information for other researchers. The aim of the current study was to compare the characteristics of the transplantation related research efforts which have been published in domestic journals and Medline indexed journals from Iran between 1993 and 2003. Within the study period, 601 transplantation scientific papers had been published from Iran, either in 91 domestic (www.iranmedex.com) or international journals (www.ncbi.com) for all the biomedical articles published between 1993 and 2003 in 91 Iranian journals. The search was conducted using "transplantation" or "transplant" as key words. A printed copy of the papers (if available) was reviewed to identify the transplanted organ, study design, number of authors, and type of article. Among 601 articles, 545 (90.6%) had been published in domestic journals, and 56 (9.4%) in Medline indexed journals. Frequency of original articles was significantly higher among domestic journals (84.4% vs. 62.5%, p=0.001). The organ type was not significantly different between domestic or Medline indexed journals (61.7%, 71.4%, p=0.556). Mean author numbers was significantly less among domestic in comparison to Medline indexed journals (3.6+/-2.2 vs. 4.6+/-3.0, p=0.047). It seems that Iranian scientific database is a more important database, not only by means of quantity, but also by means of research characteristics, such as originality of research. So, domestic scientific databases should be regarded as a pool of valuable information, and should be introduced to researchers of other countries, such as Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation region.

  1. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  2. A Comparative Literature Review of the Studies on Drama in English Language Teaching in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuk, Özgehan; Inan, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a comparative literature review of the research studies related to the effects of drama in teaching English as a foreign language. First, the study explains drama in education with regard to foreign language education. In a narrative review design, it demonstrates international studies in four categories under which the…

  3. A Study of Landscape Architecture Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lidy, Christopher James

    2006-01-01

    How do different methods employed by landscape architects impact the design outcome? This paper identifies and defines design methods in landscape architecture that may be classified as part of four internal and external connections and structures categories. Methods are further examined through two design exercises. In the first design exercise, the identified methods are individually applied to the same simple design which is used as a control. The only variable changed is the method used ...

  4. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  5. The conceptual design of waste repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naro

    2002-02-01

    Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy reported the basic approach to the RI and Institute etc. wastes on March 2002. According to it, radioactive waste form medical, industrial and research facilities should be classified by their radioactivity properties and physical and chemical properties, and should be disposed in the appropriate types of repository with that classification. For the radioactive waste containing comparatively high radioactivity generated from reactors, NSC has established the Concentration limit for disposal. NSC is now discussing about the limit for the radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) preliminary studied about the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities and discussed about the problems for design on H12. This study was started to consider those problems, and to develop the conceptual design of the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety assessment for that repository is also performed. The result of this study showed that radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities of high activity should be disposed in the repository that has higher performance of barrier system comparing with the vault type near surface facility. If the conditions of the natural barrier and the engineering barrier are clearer, optimization of the design will be possible. (author)

  6. Preclinical study design for rAAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Conlon, Thomas J; Mueller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The process of moving a novel drug such as an adeno-associated viral vector from the bench top to bedside is an arduous process requiring coordination and skill from multiple laboratories and regulatory agencies. Proceeding to a phase I safety trial in humans after most of the proof-of-concept data have been acquired may take several years. During this time, agencies including the FDA, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), and Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) along with the investigator's team will develop a series of preclinical toxicology and biodistribution studies in order to develop a safety profile for the intended novel drug. In this chapter, key features of the pharm-tox study design and conduct will be discussed. Highlighted features include choosing a sufficient animal number and species to use in testing, dose determination, typical toxicological assays performed, the use of Standard Operating Procedures in respect to good laboratory practices compliancy, and role of the Quality Assurance Unit.

  7. Nuclear reactors design study and parameters calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    the nuclear design a reactor core needs to determine a set of system parameters which will lead to safe, reliable and economical reactor operation at the rated power level over the desired core lifetime. the principal tools used in this task consist of a number of models of neutron behavior in the reactor that are implemented by a multiplicity of computer programs or codes used to simulate the nuclear behavior of the reactor core. the study of the interaction of the core power distributions with the time-dependent production or depletion of nuclei in the core is known as depletion or burn up analysis the main objective of the present thesis is to study the fuel depletion analysis under different reactor operating regimes and their influence on the build up of actinides and fission products (F P). therefore, one can estimate the optimum reactor-operating regime at which the accumulation of certain actinide isotope can reach maximum

  8. DEMO port plug design and integration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossetti, G.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Cismondi, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Fischer, U.; Franke, T.; Granucci, G.; Hernández, F.; Mozzillo, R.; Strauß, D.; Tran, M. Q.; Vaccaro, A.; Villari, R.

    2017-11-01

    The EUROfusion Consortium established in 2014 and composed by European Fusion Laboratories, and in particular the Power Plant Physics and Technology department aims to develop a conceptual design for the Fusion DEMOnstration Power Plant, DEMO. With respect to present experimental machines and ITER, the main goals of DEMO are to produce electricity continuously for a period of about 2 h, with a net electrical power output of a few hundreds of MW, and to allow tritium self-sufficient breeding with an adequately high margin in order to guarantee its planned operational schedule, including all planned maintenance intervals. This will eliminate the need to import tritium fuel from external sources during operations. In order to achieve these goals, extensive engineering efforts as well as physics studies are required to develop a design that can ensure a high level of plant reliability and availability. In particular, interfaces between systems must be addressed at a very early phase of the project, in order to proceed consistently. In this paper we present a preliminary design and integration study, based on physics assessments for the EU DEMO1 Baseline 2015 with an aspect ratio of 3.1 and 18 toroidal field coils, for the DEMO port plugs. These aim to host systems like electron cyclotron heating launchers currently developed within the Work Package Heating and Current Drive that need an external radial access to the plasma and through in-vessel systems like the breeder blanket. A similar approach shown here could be in principle followed by other systems, e.g. other heating and current drive systems or diagnostics. The work addresses the interfaces between the port plug and the blanket considering the helium-cooled pebble bed and the water cooled lithium lead which are two of four breeding blanket concepts under investigation in Europe within the Power Plant Physics and Technology Programme: the required openings will be evaluated in terms of their impact onto the

  9. Case studies of extreme wave analysis: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vledder, G. van; Goda, Y.; Hawkes, P.; Mansard, E.; Martin, M.J.; Mathiesen, M.; Peltier, E.; Thompson, E.

    1993-07-01

    Several methods of extreme wave analysis have been applied to two sets of deep water extreme wave data. One set consisted of three-hourly sea-state records collected during a nine year period with a wave buoy at Haltenbanken off the Norwegian cost. The other set comprised a 20-year period of storm peak wave heights, obtained via a numerical hindcast of historical storms. For both data sets, 100-year return wave heights with corresponding 90% confidence intervals were computed with a variety of extremal analysis techniques, including the Initial Distribution Method, the Annual Maxima Method, and the Peak over Threshold Method. FT-I, Weibull and other probability distributions were fitted to the data by the Method of Moments, Least Squares Method, and the Maximum Likelihood Method. The results of the study show that for both data sets the estimated 100-year return wave heights differ less than 10% of one another. It was also found that the effect of choices in the data selection, e.g. the choice of the threshold, has a significant effect on the estimated wave heights. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Comparative study of the maternal and fetal outcome of women who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Antepartum haemorrhage is a grave and potentially life threatening condition and a major cause of both maternal and fetal mortality. Objective: To compare the fetal and maternal outcome of patients with abruption placenta and placental praevia. Design/Setting/Subjects: A retrospective comparative study ...

  11. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  12. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  13. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  14. Comparing modelling techniques when designing VPH gratings for BigBOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppett, Claire; Edelstein, Jerry; Lampton, Michael; Jelinsky, Patrick; Arns, James

    2012-09-01

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV Dark Energy instrument based on the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Red Shift Distortions (RSD) techniques using spectroscopic data of 20 million ELG and LRG galaxies at 0.5VPH) gratings have been identified as a key technology which will enable the efficiency requirement to be met, however it is important to be able to accurately predict their performance. In this paper we quantitatively compare different modelling techniques in order to assess the parameter space over which they are more capable of accurately predicting measured performance. Finally we present baseline parameters for grating designs that are most suitable for the BigBOSS instrument.

  15. Comparative analysis of strain fields in layers of step-graded metamorphic buffers of various designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ruban, O. A.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    Spatial distribution of residual elastic strain in the layers of two step-graded metamophic buffers of various designs, grown by molecular beam epitaxy from ternary InxAl1-xAs solutions on GaAs(001) substrates, is obtained using reciprocal space mapping by three-axis X-ray diffractometry and the linear theory of elasticity. The difference in the design of the buffers enabled the formation of a dislocation-free layer with different thickness in each of the heterostructures, which was the main basis of this study. It is shown that, in spite of the different design of graded metamorphic buffers, the nature of strain fields in them is the same, and the residual elastic strains in the final elements of both buffers adjusted for the effect of work hardening subject to the same phenomenological law, which describes the strain relief process in single-layer heterostructures.

  16. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  17. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-01-01

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity

  18. Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on different body weight chickens. HM Yang, W Wang, ZY Wang, J Wang, YJ Cao, YH Chen. Abstract. This experiment was conducted to compare the difference of digestibility on different body weight chickens. Twenty-seven (27) 58-week-old New Yangzhou ...

  19. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  20. A comparative study between all-electron scalar relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A comparative study between all-electron relativistic (AER) calculation and all-electron (AE) cal- culation on the H2 molecule adsorption onto small gold clusters has been performed. Compared with the corres- ponding AunH2 cluster obtained by AE method, the AunH2 cluster obtained by AER method has much ...

  1. Comparative evaluation of in vitro mechanical properties of different designs of epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Surbhi Kuldeep; Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Srivastava, Tuhin; Tyagi, Kanti Prakash; Monsang, Shongsir Warson

    2014-03-01

    To compare in vitro biomechanical properties of different designs of epoxy-pin external skeletal fixator (ESF) constructs. Mechanical testing study. Four epoxy-pin ESF design constructs (uniplanar [EU], multiplanar-I [EM-I], multiplanar-II [EM-II], and circular [EC]) were mechanically tested in compression, bending, and torsion. Four different designs of free-form epoxy-pin external fixator constructs were developed using 1.5 mm K-wires and epoxy resin mounted in an ultra-high density polyethylene rod (20 mm diameter). Three-point fixation was done in each fragment, and the distance between fixation wires, and between the rod and the side bars was kept constant in all the designs. A 5 mm gap was maintained at the center of the fixation rod to simulate an unstable fracture condition. The fixator constructs (n = 12 of each design) were subjected to mechanical testing in axial compression, bending, or torsion. Load-deformation curves were generated and mechanical properties were compared between construct types. EU was the weakest design. Under compression, constructs EM-I, EM-II, and EC were similar. Under bending, EM-I and EM-II had similar strength, whereas EC was strongest. Under torsion, EC was strongest, followed by EM-II, EM-I, and EU; EM-II provided double the rotational stability of EM-I. Overall, EC followed by EM-II epoxy-pin fixator designs had better mechanical strength. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house.Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.  

  3. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house. Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.

  4. Incorporating comparative genomics into the design-test-learn cycle of microbial strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Maria; Gasch, Audrey P

    2017-08-01

    Engineering microbes with new properties is an important goal in industrial engineering, to establish biological factories for production of biofuels, commodity chemicals and pharmaceutics. But engineering microbes to produce new compounds with high yield remains a major challenge toward economically viable production. Incorporating several modern approaches, including synthetic and systems biology, metabolic modeling and regulatory rewiring, has proven to significantly advance industrial strain engineering. This review highlights how comparative genomics can also facilitate strain engineering, by identifying novel genes and pathways, regulatory mechanisms and genetic background effects for engineering. We discuss how incorporating comparative genomics into the design-test-learn cycle of strain engineering can provide novel information that complements other engineering strategies. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. I: case-ascertained studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, B; Leung, G M; Cowling, B J

    2012-01-01

    Case-ascertained household transmission studies, in which households including an 'index case' are recruited and followed up, are invaluable to understanding the epidemiology of influenza. We used a simulation approach parameterized with data from household transmission studies to evaluate alternative study designs. We compared studies that relied on self-reported illness in household contacts vs. studies that used home visits to collect swab specimens for virological confirmation of secondary infections, allowing for the trade-off between sample size vs. intensity of follow-up given a fixed budget. For studies estimating the secondary attack proportion, 2-3 follow-up visits with specimens collected from all members regardless of illness were optimal. However, for studies comparing secondary attack proportions between two or more groups, such as controlled intervention studies, designs with reactive home visits following illness reports in contacts were most powerful, while a design with one home visit optimally timed also performed well.

  6. Comparative study of cost models for tokamak DEMO fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yamazaki, Kozo; Arimoto, Hideki; Ban, Kanae; Kondo, Takuya; Tobita, Kenji; Goto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Cost evaluation analysis of the tokamak-type demonstration reactor DEMO using the PEC (physics-engineering-cost) system code is underway to establish a cost evaluation model for the DEMO reactor design. As a reference case, a DEMO reactor with reference to the SSTR (steady state tokamak reactor) was designed using PEC code. The calculated total capital cost was in the same order of that proposed previously in cost evaluation studies for the SSTR. Design parameter scanning analysis and multi regression analysis illustrated the effect of parameters on the total capital cost. The capital cost was predicted to be inside the range of several thousands of M$s in this study. (author)

  7. Comparative studies in Chelicerata IV. Apatellata, Arachnida, Scorpionida, Xiphosura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study is made of four chelicerate classes: Apatellata (Solifugae and Pseudoscorpionida), Arachnida s. str. (both groups of Uropygi, i.e. Holopeltida and Schizomida, Amblypygi and Araneida), Scorpionida and Xiphosura. Methods, principles and terminology, adopted in this paper,

  8. Comparative bioavailability study of a new quinine suppository and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    QN) administration in complicated and severe malaria. The purpose of this study is to compare the bioavailability (BA) of a new quinine suppository made from theobroma oil to that of an existing tablet formulation in healthy volunteers.

  9. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem

  10. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's (RWMC's) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendices. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  12. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Comparative study of gabapentin and isoflavone in menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Savita Rani Singhal; Wansalan Kuru Shullai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was planned to compare the effects of gabapentin and isoflavones in menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Materials and Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted on 100 patients with complaints of hot flashes, divided into two groups of 50 each. Group I received 900 mg of gabapentin and Group II received 60 mg of isoflavones daily for 3 months. The patients were interviewed to calculate hot flash, global and depression scores and were rescored after 2, 4, 8, and...

  14. A comparative study of the hematological values in the ovulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the hematological values of the ovulation phase with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Sixty subjects with 30 subjects each in the ovulation and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle were studied. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained for the study. Hematological parameters of ...

  15. Comparative Study of Vlasov and Euler Instabilities of Axially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Vlasov's displacement model with modification by Varbanov and Euler's elastica model were used in a comparative study to determine the flexural buckling strength of single-cell doubly symmetric thin-walled box columns with different boundary conditions. The study involved a theoretical formulation based on ...

  16. Comparative study on the pathogenic effects of Diminazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of Trypanosome congolense known to be resistant and ... Water supply was ad libitum. Study isolates. The study was done with two ... Accordingly, blood was taken in a capillary tube and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 minutes. The tube was cut 1mm below ...

  17. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...

  18. A Comparative Study of Depression among Fertile and Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies have identified a high prevalence of depression among women with infertility; few studies have explored this association in this environment. Aims and objectives: the study is aimed at evaluating depression in a group of infertile women; compare the prevalence of depression among this group with ...

  19. Effects of Coaching on Instructional Practices: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Rosie M.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study analyzed two styles of coaching, team and individual, and the perceived impact each style has on instructional practices. This study was conducted in two elementary schools that are part of the same charter organization in California. The study identified the challenges and benefits of each style through interviews with…

  20. Youth in the Netherlands Study (JOiN): Study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); K. Greaves-Lord (Kirstin); B.E. Evans (Brittany); A.S. Euser (Anja); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adolescence is a critical developmental period regarding exposure to substances. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify those adolescents who are most vulnerable to substance abuse in the (near) future. The JOiN study was specifically designed to examine two

  1. A Comparative Study of Endocervical and Pelvic Peritoneal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between the bacterial flora of the endocervix and the pelvic peritoneum in fifty infertile patients undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and dye test was investigated at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The study design was prospective and cross-sectional. The setting was the Department of Obstetrics ...

  2. Comparative Study of the Simulated and Calculation Gantry Angle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast irradiation involves a complex geometric and field-matching technique. Simulators are used to obtain the best and accurate patient treatment positioning as well as irradiation geometry for radiation portals. However many centers in developing countries lack this important equipment. The study was designed to ...

  3. A Comparative Study of the Teaching Efficiency of Outreach Trained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to find out whether there are differences in the teaching efficiency between outreach trained teachers and their non-outreach trained colleagues. The outreach programme is an in-service programme which was designed by the University of Cape Coast in 1997 to help upgrade trained certificate “A” ...

  4. Important Questions Of Comparative Studies In Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the “identity” of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. “Comparative education” is no longer conceived as an imaginary field’s coherence but, rather in terms of distinct branches of comparative and international studies in education and their underlying issues. Such an understanding is fostered through a dee...

  5. Sustaining and Improving Study Abroad Experiences Through Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda S

    Researchers have related participation in study abroad experiences to many positive outcomes for nursing students; however, educators are faced with the task of not only developing meaningful study abroad opportunities but sustaining and improving them as well. Educators can evaluate repeat study abroad programs by comparing experiences, looking for trends, and conjecturing rationales. To illustrate this process, an example of a study abroad opportunity that has been repeated over 11 years is presented. The first six years have been compared to the most recent five years, revealing three categories of change for evaluation and the resulting course improvements.

  6. Design for manufacturability of macro and micro products: a case study of heat exchanger design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, F.; Weng Feng, L.; Hansen, H. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology in designing a micro heat exchanger is proposed by modifying a conventional design methodology for macro products with the considerations of differences between design of a micro and a macro product. The methodology starts with the identification of differences...... by designers/engineers in design of the same category of micro products. Furthermore, through utilization of the proposed methodology by designers/engineers for design of other micro products, the RTC unit can be enriched with micro-oriented design principles and accordingly provide a basic guideline...... in design considerations for micro scale products compared to the macro scale. These design considerations consist of material selection, manufacturing process, physical phenomena and shape and geometry design. Manufacturability criteria are defined and various potential manufacturing processes...

  7. Independent regulatory authorities - a comparative study of European energy regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander Johansen, K.; Holm Pedersen, L.; Moll Soerensen, E.

    2004-04-01

    Independent regulatory authorities are widely recommended as part of the institutional design of liberalised energy markets - not least by the European Commission. This report describes and compares the regulatory authorities for energy in the EU. Arguments for regulatory independence are presented and discussed, and an index is developed to measure the degree of conformance to theories of regulatory independence. It is established that the main pattern of variation is that countries, which formerly had strong state-owned companies, have chosen to create regulatory authorities at state level with many institutional safeguards for independence. (au)

  8. A review on comparative study of PPI and PAMAM dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Jain, Keerti, E-mail: keertijain02@gmail.com; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar [ISF College of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research Laboratory (India); Kesharwani, Prashant [Wayne State University, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (United States); Jain, Narendra K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: dr.jnarendr@gmail.com [ISF College of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research Laboratory (India)

    2016-06-15

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched, monodispersed macromolecules with multivalent functional end groups. Dendrimers have been explored as carrier for many drugs like anticancer, antiviral, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti tubercular drugs. Although a number of different types of dendrimers containing different core molecules, branching monomers and surface functional groups have been designed till date for drug delivery applications, yet the poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) and poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been the most explored dendrimers in this regard. In this review, we have summarized a comparative data on PPI and PAMAM dendrimers particularly relevant to their properties, synthesis, toxicity, biomedical applications and drug delivery attributes.

  9. Safety in the ARIES Tokamak Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.; Wong, C.P.-C.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.

    1989-01-01

    Safety is one of the primary goals of the ARIES Tokamak Design Study. Public safety goals are the achievement passive safety which is demonstrable in tests that could precede operation and the assurance that releases from accidents be passively limited such that no evacuation plan in necessary. Strategies for safety of the plant investment are factory fabrication, short construction times and a design such that no off-normal operational transient results in damage which could not be repaired in routine maintenance. ARIES-I, the first of three 'visions' of potential tokamak reactors, will use He at 5 MPa as a blanket coolant and SiC/composite ceramic for the first wall and blanket materials. Both the coolant and the structural material were chosen for their low activation, both in the short term after accidents and for long term waste management. The breeder, Li 4 SiO 4 , was also chosen for low activation. Contemporary plasma physics and aggressive technology are used in ARIES-I, which results in very high toroidal fields (24 T maximum at the coil). The stored TF energy will be about 130 GJ. A central concern is the safe discharge of this stored energy under electrical fault conditions and prevention of a failure in the magnet set from propagating into systems containing radioactive inventories. The TF coil system consists of 16 coils, each containing two separate windings powered by two independent power supplies. Arcs and shorts between the two power supply systems and across individual windings have been modeled. In addition, delay or failure in circuit breaker opening has been modeled. The safety impacts of LOCA, LOFA and disruptive events have also been evaluated. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Savannah River Site reactor hardware design modification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.

    1990-03-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the merits of proposed design modifications to the SRS reactors. The evaluation was based on the responses calculated by the RELAP5 systems code to double-ended guillotine break loss-of-coolant-accidents (DEGB LOCAs). The three concepts evaluated were (a) elevated plenum inlet piping with a guard vessel and clamshell enclosures, (b) closure of both rotovalves in the affected loop, and (c) closure of the pump suction valve in the affected loop. Each concept included a fast reactor shutdown (to 65% power in 100 ms) and a 2-s ac pump trip. For the elevated piping design, system recovery was predicted for breaks in the plenum inlet or pump suction piping; response to the pump discharge break location did not show improvement compared to the present system configuration. The rotovalve closure design improved system response to plenum inlet or pump discharge breaks; recovery was not predicted for pump suction breaks. The pump suction valve closure design demonstrated system recovery for all break locations downstream of the valve. A combination of features is recommended to ensure liquid inventory recovery for all break locations. The elevated piping design performance during pump discharge breaks would be improved with addition of a dc pump trip in the affected loop. Valve closure design performance for a break location in the short section of piping between the reactor concrete shield and the pump suction valve would benefit from the clamshell enclosing that section of piping. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.S.; Kim, T.K.; Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of 250 MWt Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) designs. A phased approach was adopted with initial startup using conventional enrichment plutonium-based fuel and gradual transition to full core loading of transmutation fuel after its qualification phase. Reference core designs were developed for ternary metal alloy and mixed oxide fuels based on weapons-grade plutonium feed. The transuranics (TRU) transmutation fuel tests can be accommodated in the designated test assemblies, and if fully developed, core conversion to TRU transmutation fuel can be envisioned. For the startup core designs, the calculated TRU conversion ratio is 0.65 for the metal fuel core and 0.64 for the oxide fuel core. The metal fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 18.8% and has a TRU loading of 732 kg. Compared to the metal fuel core, the lower density oxide fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 21.8%, which results in a 780 kg TRU loading despite a {approx} 9% smaller heavy metal inventory. Alternative designs were also studied for a light water reactor spent fuel TRU feed and a low conversion ratio, including the recycle of the ABTR spent fuel TRU. Reactor performance characteristics were evaluated in detail, including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow rates, power distributions, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficients, and reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins. (authors)

  12. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  13. A case study in value design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinclair

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of a special type of valve gave rise to a problem which lead the mechanical engineers who designed the valve to call in the help of the author. The final solution to the problem may not be mathematically sophisticated (in fact, it may seem trivial to some readers, but the steps through which the design team struggled and the final approach which resulted in a practically feasible solution may be of interest to other practitioners.

  14. SeisCORK Engineering Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    cost Data acquisition module Fabricate 10" I.D. pressure WHOI new case design Design and build WHOI new electronics chassis design PC/104 computer - WHOI...require a power supply to be attached to the seismometer string that can supply enough power to retract the geophone anchors. Recovery will then be...require a power supply be attached to the seismometer string that can supply enough power to retract the geophone anchors. Recovery will then be dependent

  15. Study on core design for reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a water-cooled reactor with the harder neutron spectrum comparing with the LWR, resulting from low neutron moderation due to reduced water volume fraction. Based on the difference from the spectrum from the LWR, the conversion from U-238 to Pu-239 is promoted and the new cores preferable to effective utilization of uranium resource can be possible Design study of the RMWR core started in 1997 and new four core concepts (three BWR cores and one PWR core) are recently evaluated in terms of control rod worths, plutonium multiple recycle, high burnup and void coefficient. Comparative evaluations show needed incorporation of control rod programming and simplified PUREX process as well as development of new fuel cans for high burnup of 100 GW-d/t. Final choice of design specifications will be made at the next step aiming at realization of the RMWR. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Standard mirror fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the work of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Division's reactor study group during FY 1976 on the standard mirror reactor. The ''standard'' mirror reactor is characterized as a steady state, neutral beam sustained, D-T fusioning plasma confined by a Yin-Yang magnetic mirror field. The physics parameters are obtained from the same physics model that explains the 2XIIB experiment. The model assumes that the drift cyclotron loss cone mode occurs on the boundary of the plasma, and that it is stabilized by warm plasma with negligible energy investment. The result of the study was a workable mirror fusion power plant, steady-state blanket removal made relatively simple by open-ended geometry, and no impurity problem due to the positive plasma potential. The Q (fusion power/injected beam power) turns out to be only 1.1 because of loss out the ends from Coulomb collisions, i.e., classical losses. This low Q resulted in 77% of the gross electrical power being used to power the injectors, thereby causing the net power cost to be high. The low Q stimulated an intensive search for Q-enhancement concepts, resulting in the LLL reactor design effort turning to the field reversal mirror and the tandem mirror, each having Q of order 5

  17. HCLL TBM for ITER-design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampal, G. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: gilles.rampal@cea.fr; Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Poitevin, Y. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rigal, E. [CEA Grenoble, DTEN/S3ME, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Szczepanski, J. [CONCEPT-21, F-91420 Morangis (France); Boudot, C. [FRAMATOME/ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2005-11-15

    Within the scope of the design and qualification of a helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) blanket module for DEMO, test blanket modules (TBM), have to be designed and inserted in ITER for testing. Several different TBMs will be tested in order to achieve the different testing objectives, according to the ITER operating scenario. This paper aims at presenting the design status of the so-called 'integral-TBM (IN-TBM)', which will include all main features of the corresponding DEMO blanket module, such as design architectures, Eurofer structural material, functional parameters, and all relevant manufacturing processes.

  18. Helping patients choose: how to improve the design of comparative scorecards of hospital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolo, Barbara; Reutskaja, Elena; Dixon, Anna; Boyce, Tammy

    2010-03-01

    To understand how the public understand comparative quality information as presented on NHS Choices, the Department of Health website in England. We explore what quality information people value, how they understand different measures of quality, and their preferences for different types of information. Seven focus groups were conducted. Participants' preferences for types of information changed at different stages of the focus groups. Participants attempted to compare hospitals option-wise, building up an overall picture of the hospital's performance. Faced with abundance of conflicting criteria, participants attempted to make trade offs, but found it difficult. Older and less numerate participants used summative measures to overcome this difficulty. Some indicators were poorly understood and the multiplicity of formats and labels was confusing. Missing data were mistrusted. The presentation of information affects what information people value, how they understand and process it. The design of scorecards is crucial in order to support use of scorecards for informed patient choice. We offer guidelines for changing presentation of comparative quality information with the aim to improve its use by patients when choosing between hospitals, especially online. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study of serum lipid levels in normotensive and pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim : This study was performed to compare the serum lipid levels of pregnant normotensive and pre-eclamptic women. Methods: It was a case control study involving 50 normotensive and 50 preeclamptic women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, making a total of 100 participants. Their venous blood (5mls) was ...

  20. Comparative study of three methods of propagation of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Jatropha curcas L. is an Euphorbiaceae known for its oleaginous seed characters. Its propagation following a specific technical route is not yet established. This study aimed at comparing the growth of seedlings through three methods of propagation in southeastern of Gabon. Methodology and Results: This study ...

  1. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  2. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative

  3. Comparative studies in Chelicerata II. Epimerata (Palpigradi and Actinotrichida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study is made of two groups of Chelicerata (Palpigradi and Actinotrichid mites, together constituting the Epimerata, a chelicerate class), and models of the evolution of epimerate characters are prepared. The study is based on the same methods and principles as the first part of the

  4. A Comparative Study of Learning Organisation Practices of Indian Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…

  5. Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash ... Conclusion: This study has revealed the ability of these public devices to serve as vehicle of transmission of microorganisms with serious health implications.

  6. Importance of comparative study of CT dose between different centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Amores, D.; Serna Berna, A.; Mata Colodro, F.; Puchades Puchades, V.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to show the importance of comparative analysis to get CT study can be made with fewer doses without impeding optimal image quality for diagnosis. With this work we can see that statistical studies on the dose given at two different sites can have beneficial consequences for patients because scanners can work with fewer doses and optimal image quality for diagnosis. (Author)

  7. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  8. International comparative studies of education and large scale change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, Sarah; Plomp, T.; Bascia, Nina; Cumming, Alister; Datnow, Amanda; Leithwood, Kenneth; Livingstone, David

    2005-01-01

    The development of international comparative studies of educational achievements dates back to the early 1960s and was made possible by developments in sample survey methodology, group testing techniques, test development, and data analysis (Husén & Tuijnman, 1994, p. 6). The studies involve

  9. Comparative study of some mechanical and release properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets formulated with cashew gum (CAG), povidone (PVP) and gelatin (GEL) as binders were studied and compared. The parameters studied were tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), friability (F), disintegration time (DT) and percentage drug released ...

  10. Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the Framework of Modified Strömgren Filters ... The study conveys a good agreement of GALEV models with modified Strömgren colours but with poor UV model predictions and observed globular cluster data, while the spectroscopic models perform badly because of ...

  11. A comparative study of chromosome morphology among some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... genetic source of wheat, some cytogenetic analysis reported (Chennaveeraiah, 1960; Badaeva et al., 1998,. 2001) and indicated that all A. crassa chromosomes can be identified by their morphology and C-banding patterns. Cytogenetical studies have been carried out on A. crassa but a comparative study ...

  12. ulous and comparative study on the use of specific and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudhanshu

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... Comparison of genetic diversity indices of heterologous and species-specific microsatellite loci within a species may provide a panel of appropriate markers for genetic studies, but few studies have carried out such comparisons. We examined and compared the genetic characteristics of tiger-specific and.

  13. Comparative ultrasound study of acute lateral ankle ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the difference in rehabilitation outcomes between the Jump Stretch Flex Band (JSFB) programme and conventional ankle rehabilitation programmes of acute lateral ankle ligament injuries. This study compares the process of healing under the guidance of ultrasound in both groups.

  14. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  15. A Comparative Study of the Block Characteristics of Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For most of the study period, group D exhibited significantly lower mean blood pressures compared to group B. The differences in the occurrence of adverse etfects were not statistically signiticant in both groups. Conclusion: This study has shown that spinal anaesthesia using hyperbaric bupivacaine plus dexrnedetomid ine ...

  16. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAPAROSCOPIC VERSUS OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Rao; Suryanarayana; Srinivas; Satish

    2015-01-01

    The model era of Laparoscopic Surgery has evoked remarkable changes in approaches to surgical diseases. The trend toward minimal access surgery (MAS) has prompted General surgeons to scrutinize nearly all operations for possible convention to Laparoscopic techniques. AIM OF THE STUDY : Our aim of the study is to compare Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with that of open cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS : ...

  18. [Comparative biometric studies of school children from Kenya and Braunschweig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, E; Indiatsy, I; Hannemann, K

    1994-09-01

    Constitution and growth biology of 6 to 7 years old children from a European city ("Braunschweiger Längsschnitt") and a country with rather original habits (extreme rural area of Kenya, "Abaluya"--administrative name of Bantuid tribes from W-Kenya--out of the region of Idakho and Tiriki, elevated in spring 1990) were comparatively studied. To achieve comparability in physique and body height, the elevated data were "allometrically standardized". The statistical parameters and the results of correlation statistics were shown by comparing the two groups of children. This paper is thought to be the first attempt of a more extensive study in which further more comparative data from other age groups of children and different ecological factors as climate or nutrition should be involved in the analysis. At least the knowledge of standardized data is a cogent assumption to judge about constitution, typology and health of populations.

  19. Design and Phenomenology of the FEBSTAT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Masur, David; Frank, L Matthew; Epstein, Leon G; Litherland, Claire; Seinfeld, Syndi; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Bagiella, Emilia; Sun, Shumei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hipppocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology. Methods The “Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood” (FEBSTAT) study is a prospective, multicenter study. Enrolled are children, aged 1 month to 6 years, presenting with a febrile seizure lasting 30 minutes or more based upon ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, and parental interview. At baseline, procedures included an MRI and EEG done within 72 hours of FSE, and a detailed history and neurological examination. Baseline development and behavior are assessed at one month. The baseline assessment is repeated, with age- appropriate developmental testing at one and five years after enrollment as well as at the development of epilepsy and one year after that. Telephone calls every three months document further seizures. Two other groups of children are included: a ‘control’ group consisting of children with a first febrile seizure ascertained at Columbia University and with almost identical baseline and one year follow-up examinations and a pilot cohort of FSE from Duke University. Key findings The FEBSTAT cohort consists of 199 children with a median age at baseline of 16.0 months (Interquartile range (IQR)=12.0–24.0) and a median duration of FSE of 70.0 minutes (IQR=47.0–110.0). Seizures were continuous in 57.3% and behaviorally intermittent (without recovery in between) in 31.2%; most were partial (4;2.0%) or secondary generalized (65.8%), and almost all (98.0%) culminated in a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Of the 199 children, 86.4% had normal

  20. Sustainable Design Approach: A case study of BIM use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed Wael

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology of this design approach through BIM strategies adopted in design creation. Case studies of architectural designs are used to highlight the details and benefits of this proposed approach.

  1. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Disease: Clinical and Psychological outcomes in WOMEN) study to examine gender differences on (1) patient-reported outcomes (PROs), (2) procedure- and device-related complications, and (3) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort....... METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multicenter, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish......-converting enzyme inhibitors, and psychotropic agents. Although women generally had a healthier clinical profile, they reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety and depression and ICD concerns (fear of shock) as compared to men. These differences were not only statistically significant but also clinically...

  2. Comparative study of wavelets of the first and second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.; Shitov, A.B.; Stadnik, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    In order to compare efficiency a comprehensive set of benchmarking tests is developed, which is used to compare abilities of continuous wavelet transform of the vanishing momenta type as well as the second generation wavelets constructed on the basis of the lifting scheme. It is based on processing of various types of pure and contaminated harmonic signals, delta-function, study of the signal phase dependence and the gain-frequency characteristics. The results of a comparative multiscale analysis allow one to reveal advantages and flaws of the considered types of wavelets

  3. Anonymity communication VPN and Tor: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, E.

    2018-03-01

    VPN and Tor is a technology based on anonymity communication. These two technologies have their advantage and disadvantage. The objective of this paper is to find the difference between VPN and Tor technologies by comparing their security of communication on the public network based on the CIA triad concept. The comparative study in this paper is based on the survey method. At last, the result of this paper is a recommendation on when to use a VPN and Tor to secure communication

  4. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  5. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  6. Software design studies emphasizing Project LOGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results of a research project on the development of computer software are presented. Research funds of $200,000 were expended over a three year period for software design and projects in connection with Project LOGOS (computer-aided design and certification of computing systems). Abstracts of theses prepared during the project are provided.

  7. Studying the Creation of Design Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher J.; Hevner, Ala n R.; Weber, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    and information systems represents a highly interconnected locus in which both the generative processes of building design artifacts and articulating constructs used to evaluate their quality take place. We address this interconnectedness with an extended process-oriented research design enabling multi...

  8. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  9. How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2004-11-01

    The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed.

  10. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  11. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  12. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  13. Design of e-books: readers’ expectations in a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Selthofer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare graphic elements used for the design of printed and electronic books. The paper focuses on four main graphic elements: book cover, typography, colour and image. Ten books published in printed and electronic form in Croatia between 2010 and 2012 were used as a research sample. The research methods used are visual content analysis and interviews. The research results indicate that e-books imitate the graphic design of a printed book in many aspects. The graphic elements of an e-book highly depend on the features of e-formats and on e-readers. The main advantages of an e-book are that they are searchable, adaptable, easily linked to other digital documents, transportable, easily accessible and durable. Still, in the second phase of the research, the majority of the interviewed participants stated that reading of an e-book was something new to them. They prefer the interaction with a printed book and its visual appearance.

  14. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  15. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  16. Methods and models used in comparative risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons [fr

  17. Social Capital in Russia and Denmark: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation and event......This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation...

  18. A foundational observation method for studying design situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2015-01-01

    impact of individual studies is severely constrained. This paper begins to address this issue by introducing and developing a foundational method for observational design research to improve replicability, reuse, and overall comparability of empirical studies. A three-step foundational method is proposed...... that covers capture, coding, and analysis. The capture step defines overall and situational context as well as multiple capture streams, generating a broad data-set that can be examined from multiple perspectives. The coding step employs a multi-level approach that seeks to minimise workload while describing...

  19. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems resear...

  20. Designing Awe in Virtual Reality: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chirico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe’s underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of “presence,” that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.

  1. Comparing Acquisition of AAC-Based Mands in Three Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using iPad® Applications with Different Display and Design Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Rojeski, Laura; Sammarco, Nicolette; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications may differ in their use of display and design elements. Using a multielement design, this study compared mand acquisition in three preschool-aged males with autism spectrum disorder, across three different displays in two iPad® AAC applications. Displays included a Widgit symbol button…

  2. Design studies of cardiac valve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, D

    1985-03-01

    This paper indicates the vital importance of considering prosthesis articulation in the design of cardiac valves. The prosthesis articulation interrelates with the fixed and the movable prosthetic components. Two basic physiological hemodynamic principles are reviewed: [List: see text] A bileaflet, free-tilting, swivelling prosthesis with a central articular mechanism is undergoing investigation. The four articulations have their own perennial preserving mechanisms to prevent potential failure mode by collecting blood elements in the valve tilting design.

  3. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWRs) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario increases by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  4. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  5. Computational Studies and Designs for Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakagami, H.; Mima, K.

    2006-12-01

    The fast ignition scheme is one of the most fascinating and feasible ignition schemes for the inertial fusion energy. At ILE Osaka University, FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project is in progress. Implosion experiments of the cryogenic target are scheduled in near future. There are two key issues for the fast ignition. One is controlling the implosion dynamics to form high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating the core plasma efficiently by the short pulse high intense laser. The time and space scale in the fast ignition scheme vary widely from initial laser irradiation to solid target, to relativistic laser plasma interaction and final fusion burning. The numerical simulation plays an important role in demonstrating the performance of the fast ignition, designing the targets, and optimizing laser pulse shapes for the scheme. These all the physics are desired to be self-consistently described. In order to study these physics of FI, we have developed "Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code" (FI3), which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code (FISCOF1D/2D), Relativistic Fokker-Planck with hydro code (FIBMET), and 2-dimensional Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code (PINOCO). Those codes are sophisticated in each suitable plasma parameters, and boundaries conditions and initial conditions for them are imported/exported to each other by way of DCCP, a simple and compact communication tool which enable these codes to communicate each others under executing different machines. We show the feature of the FI3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. Individual important physics behind the FI are explained with the numerical results also.

  6. Comparative religion as an academic study in contemporary India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha MUKHERJEE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to argue that the different forms of ‘academic study of religion’ in the West hardly have core characteristics on which there is a consensus of scholars. Moreover, it may not be the only way of doing Academic Study of Religion. In Indian tradition, in its own way there have been religious studies. Religion is a way of living. The presence of a large diverse religious population constitutes myriad human exemplars of and witnesses to what it means to be religious and to act religiously. It furnishes a diversity of backgrounds, sensitivities and language competences on the part of Indians who choose to be trained as scholars in the field. Typically for an Indian, ‘living religion’ is more important than studying, describing, or knowing religion. One does not have the time or money for such ‘luxuries’; religion is a ‘bracketed existence’ in normal circumstances, but in crises it is the basic or fundamental identity of an individual. Further, in the Indian context only the serious academic studycomparative reli‑ gion’ has relevance, and this brings an interesting methodology to the study. Contemporary attempts and distinctive contributions on comparative methodology of study of religion would be discussed as well as how far its application in the Asian context would be possible. The paper concludes by answering what it means to do ‘comparative religion’ of an authentic sort among diverse pressures, expectations, challenges and opportunities.

  7. An Empirical Study on Design Partner Selection in Green Product Collaboration Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green production has become an important issue in PCD (Product Collaboration Design for almost every enterprise, and will determine the sustainability of enterprises in the long term. The choice of design partner is a necessary condition in order to achieve green production. For the uncertain, fuzzy, and dynamic information such as unknown indices and weights, fuzzy semantics, and dynamic time factors in GPCD (Green Product Collaboration Design, a two-stage dynamic hybrid MADM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making approach based on fuzzy DEMATEL (Decision-Making and Trial Evaluation Laboratory, fuzzy KMA (Karnik–Mendel Algorithm, and fuzzy VIKOR (VlseKriterjumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje was proposed. In the first stage, fuzzy DEMATEL was used to determine the evaluation indices. Then, in the second stage, to accurately depict the dynamic information generated by the different phases of a product design, the dynamic evaluation method based on fuzzy theories was employed, and the weights of the indices were calculated by fuzzy KMA, then sorted by fuzzy VIKOR. Finally, a case study and a comparative analysis wre provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Comparative studies on the skeletogenic mesenchyme of echinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minokawa, Takuya

    2017-07-15

    Skeletogenic mesenchyme cells in echinoids are suitable for studying developmental mechanisms, and have been used extensively. Most of these studies have been performed on species in the order Camarodonta, which are modern echinoids (subclass Euechinoidea) and are considered "model" echinoid species. In contrast, species belonging to other orders are studied less frequently, especially investigations of their molecular developmental biology such as gene regulatory networks. Recent studies on mesenchyme development in non-camarodont species suggest that these species are potential sources of comparative information to elucidate the mechanisms underlying skeletogenic mesenchyme development. In this review, the importance of using comparative data to understand development and evolution is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reverse Engineering of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Hache

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks has been an intensively studied topic in bioinformatics since it constitutes an intermediate step from explorative to causative gene expression analysis. Many methods have been proposed through recent years leading to a wide range of mathematical approaches. In practice, different mathematical approaches will generate different resulting network structures, thus, it is very important for users to assess the performance of these algorithms. We have conducted a comparative study with six different reverse engineering methods, including relevance networks, neural networks, and Bayesian networks. Our approach consists of the generation of defined benchmark data, the analysis of these data with the different methods, and the assessment of algorithmic performances by statistical analyses. Performance was judged by network size and noise levels. The results of the comparative study highlight the neural network approach as best performing method among those under study.

  10. A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.630, p=0.068 and p=0.047, respectively) (Table 2). A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. S Zhou, X-J Xue, R-R Li, D-F Chen, W-Y Chen, G-X Liu, ...

  11. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian wood species using the kraft process. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The infra red analysis of the pulp obtained from the various wood species confirmed the chemical integrity of the pulps obtained from all the hard wood ...

  12. A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing 7-day and 14-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... H. pylori infection in Turkey. KEYWORDS: Duodenum, dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, stomach. A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing 7-day and 14-day. Quadruple Therapies as First-line Treatments for Helicobacter pylori. Infection in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia. A Yağbasan, DÖ ...

  13. A comparative study on physicochemical properties of Chinese-type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... A comparative study on physicochemical properties of. Chinese-type soy sauces prepared using .... chemical properties between soy sauces prepared using. A. oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed kojis .... by gel permeation chromatography on a. Superdex peptide 10/300 GL column (Amersham Biosciences ...

  14. Comparative study between purse–string suture and peritoneal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study between purse–string suture and peritoneal disconnection with ligation techniques in the laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia in infants and ... The main outcome measurement was recurrence, and secondary outcome measurements were operative time, hospital stay, intraoperative complications, ...

  15. Comparative Study of Teenage Pregnancy in Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This informed a comparative study of the obstetric performance of primiparous teenagers and nonteenage primiparas within a two-year period (1st January, 2006-31st December, 2007) in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital,Ikeja. Fifty six(56) case notes of teenagers who delivered in this hospital were available for ...

  16. A comparative study of group versus individual diabetes education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A comparative study consisting of two hundred consenting type 2 diabetics receiving care at the general outpatient department of Bingham University Teaching Hospital was done. Subjects were recruited by systematic random sampling and randomly allocated into intervention (group education) and control (one- ...

  17. Comparative study of the inhibition effects of alkaloid and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alkaloid and Non- alkaloid fractions of the ethanolic extracts from Costus afer (AECA and NAECA) were comparatively studied for their inhibitive properties on the corrosion of mild steel in 5 M HCl solution using Gravimetric and Gasometric techniques. The results revealed that both extracts inhibited the corrosion of ...

  18. Comparative Studies on the Biosurfactant Production Capacity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to compare the the production capabilities and the biosurfactant activity of the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using engine oil and diesel as the substrates respectively. The test organisms were isolated from engine oil contaminated soil as in the case of the Bacillus subtilis ...

  19. Comparative studies between FRAPCON-1 and FRAPCON-3 programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Silva, Cecilia C. Guedes e

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between the steady-state calculation results of a LWR fuel rod with the computer codes FRAPCON-1 and FRAPCON-3. FRAPCON-3 is the third released code of the FRAPCON series, and is intended to replace the earlier codes FRAPCON-1 and FRAPCON-2. (author)

  20. A comparative study of Interactions between chronic Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effects of drinking 10% alcohol solution for 12 weeks on daily body weight, and drinking and feeding behaviour were studied in Sprague – Dawley rats of both sexes. Daily measurement of body weight, fluid intake and food consumption were recorded and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was ...