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Sample records for comparative biochemical studies

  1. Comparative Study on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developed anemia was normocytic normochromic while the leucopenia was characterized by neutropenia, eosinopenia and lymphocytosis. While no correlation was established between parasitaemia and the plasma biochemical in the three groups, the plasma protein and bilirubin levels were significantly (p < 0.05) ...

  2. A comparative study of some hematology and biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of some hematology and biochemical parameters of clinically healthy alsatian and local dogs. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file ...

  3. A comparative study on the biochemical effect of ocular and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of oral and ocular exposure to cadmium for one and three months on some biochemical parameters using rabbits as animal model. The results obtained show that the kidney, femoral muscle, femur and brain of rabbits ocularly exposed to Cd had a significantly ...

  4. A biochemical and immunological comparative study on Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, S; Paganico, G; Urbani, G; Rossi, M

    2003-05-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi were purified by three or four cycles of low-speed centrifugation and final filtration through DEAE cellulose. The purified trypanosomes were used in comparative biochemical and immunological studies. Comparative polypeptide pattern analysis revealed that T. equiperdum showed 21 polypeptide bands, whose Mr ranged from >200 to 14.8 kDa. T. evansi showed 25 polypeptide bands in the Mr range 97-14.8 kDa. The main differences were associated with the presence of secondary bands, relative intensity and the number of bands. Both species gave seven glycoprotein bands; those of 97 and 68 kDa were present in T. equiperdum but absent in T. evansi. Bands of 61 and 28 kDa were present in T. evansi but not in T. equiperdum. Anti-T. equiperdum sera recognized four homologous antigens and cross-reacted with three antigens of T. evansi. Anti-T. evansi sera recognized three homologous antigens and cross-reacted with four T. equiperdum antigens. Four identical proteolytic protease bands were present for both species, while only one surface protein was detected for each species: 66 kDa for T. equiperdum and 62 kDa for T. evansi.

  5. Comparative study of computational methods to detect the correlated reaction sets in biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yanping; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Qian, Chen; Wang, Fei

    2011-03-01

    Correlated reaction sets (Co-Sets) are mathematically defined modules in biochemical reaction networks which facilitate the study of biological processes by decomposing complex reaction networks into conceptually simple units. According to the degree of association, Co-Sets can be classified into three types: perfect, partial and directional. Five approaches have been developed to calculate Co-Sets, including network-based pathway analysis, Monte Carlo sampling, linear optimization, enzyme subsets and hard-coupled reaction sets. However, differences in design and implementation of these methods lead to discrepancies in the resulted Co-Sets as well as in their use in biotechnology which need careful interpretation. In this paper, we provide a comparative study of the methods for Co-Sets computing in detail from four aspects: (i) sensitivity, (ii) completeness and soundness, (iii) flexibility and (iv) scalability. By applying them to Escherichia coli core metabolic network, the differences and relationships among these methods are clearly articulated which may be useful for potential users.

  6. Comparative study of the biochemical properties of proteasomes in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raule, Mary; Cerruti, Fulvia; Cascio, Paolo

    2015-07-15

    Information on the biochemical properties of proteasomes is lacking or, at best, only fragmentary for most species of veterinary interest. Moreover, direct comparison of the limited data available on the enzymatic features of proteasomes in domestic animals is rendered difficult due to the heterogeneity of the experimental settings used. This represents a clear drawback in veterinary research, given the crucial involvement of proteasomes in control of several physiological and pathological processes. We performed the first comparative analysis of key biochemical properties of proteasomes obtained from 8 different domestic mammals. Specifically, we investigated the three main peptidase activities of constitutive and immunoproteasomes in parallel and systematically checked the sensitivity of the chymotryptic site to three of the most potent and selective inhibitors available. Overall, there was substantial similarity in the enzymatic features of proteasomes among the species examined, although some interesting species-specific features were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative clinical, pathological, biochemical and genetic study of fused in sarcoma proteinopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashley, Tammaryn; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Bandopadhyay, Rina

    2011-01-01

    findings, as well as genetic and biochemical data in 14 fused in sarcoma proteinopathy cases. In this cohort, the age of onset was variable but included cases of young-onset disease. Patients with atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions all presented with behavioural...... and shown to be more insoluble in the atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions subgroup compared with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. There is considerable overlap and also significant differences in fused in sarcoma-positive pathology between the two...

  8. A comparative study on growth performance and biochemical composition of mixed culture of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans with monocultures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pednekar, C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    The growth performance, biochemical composition and nutritive value of the mixed culture of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans, grown in batch cultures under laboratory conditions was compared with those in monoculture conditions...

  9. Comparative evaluation of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in experimentally-induced myocardial necrosis: Biochemical, morphological and histological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Patel, Snehal S; Trivedi, Jinal I; Gandhi, Hardik P; Rathod, S P

    2015-10-05

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of different statins on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis. Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin (10 mg/kg/day) were administered for 12 weeks. After pretreatment of 12 weeks myocardial necrosis was induced by subsequent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg/day, s.c.) to wistar rats. Serum biochemical parameters like glucose, lipid profile, cardiac markers and transaminases were evaluated. Animals were killed and heart was excised for histopathology and antioxidant study. Statins pretreated rats showed significant protection against ISO induced elevation in serum biochemical parameters and serum level of cardiac marker enzymes and transaminase level as compared to ISO control group. Mild to moderate protection was observed in different statins treated heart in histopathology and TTC stained sections. Result from our study also revealed that statins could efficiently protect against ISO intoxicated myocardial necrosis by impairing membrane bound enzyme integrity and endogenous antioxidant enzyme levels. Amongst all statins used, rosuvastatin and pravastatin were found to have maximum cardio-protective activity against ISO induced myocardial necrosis as compared to other statins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparative Study on Mechanical and Biochemical Properties of Bovine Pericardium After Single or Double Crosslinking Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woosung; Choi, Sunyoung; Kim, Soo Hwan; Yoon, Eunjeung; Lim, Hong-Gook

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glutaraldehyde (GA) has been used as a representative method of tissue preservation in cardiovascular surgery. However, GA has showed limited durability including calcification, mechanical failure and toxicity. To overcome those unsolved problems, we analyzed the crosslinking differences of primary amines, GA and genipin in their mechanical and biochemical properties with a single or double crosslinking agent for clinical application. Materials and Methods Samples were divided into 3 groups; control, single crosslinking fixation and double crosslinking fixation after decellurarization using bovine pericardium. For analysis of the biochemical and mechanical properties of each crosslinking method, tensile strength, percentage strain, thermal stability, resistance to pronase, nynhydrin and cytotoxicity test were studied. Results Combined hexamethylene diamine and suberic acid in the carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysucinimide solution (EDC/NHS) after decellurarization, tensile strength and strain percentage were not statistically significant compared to the single crosslinking treated groups (p>0.05). Tissue crosslinking stability was weak in single treatment of diphenylphosphoryl azide, suberic acid, low concentration of EDC, hexamethylene diamine and procyanidin groups, but thermal stability and resistance to the pronase and ninhydrin were markedly increased in concentrated EDC/NHS or after combined double treatment with low concentration of GA or genipin (p<0.001). Conclusion Single or double crosslinking with low concentration of carbodiimide, diphenylphosphonyl azide, procyanidin, suberic acid and hexane diamine were not as effective in mechanical, biochemical, cytotoxic and crosslinking properties compared to GA or genipin fixation, but their mechanical and chemical properties were much improved when combined with low concentrations of GA or genipin in the double crosslinking process. PMID:22493610

  11. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W Lutz

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H, whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group. Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE or extra-cerebral (AA inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and

  12. A biochemical study to assess and compare salivary magnesium levels in periodontal health and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teertha J Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic magnesium (Mg deficiency has been associated with a number of chronic systemic diseases, including osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Mg may also alter the course and outcome of the periodontal disease. Aim: To evaluate salivary Mg levels in healthy individuals and patients with chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis (CP. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 individuals were selected randomly, which included both males and females with age range between 20 and 45 years. Periodontal status was recorded using the following parameters − gingival index, plaque index, oral hygiene index − simplified and clinical attachment loss. Following periodontal examination, individuals were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1: (n = 50 − comprised of healthy individuals; Group 2: (n = 50 − comprised of patients with gingivitis; Group 3: (n = 50 − comprised of patients with CP. The unstimulated saliva samples from the study individuals were collected and subjected to the estimation of salivary Mg levels using Abcam’s Mg assay kit and Erba EM 360 fully automated auto analyzer (Erba Diagnostic, Mannheim, Germany. Results: In this study, there was an increase in salivary Mg level with increasing severity of the periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary Mg levels was recorded in patients with gingivitis (1.66 ± 0.28 mg/dl and periodontitis (2.05 ± 0.66 mg/dl as compared to healthy individuals (1.35 ± 0.28 mg/dl. Conclusion: Salivary Mg does not play an active role in the modulation of periodontal disease process and, hence, cannot be used as a reliable biomarker associated with periodontal health and disease.

  13. Comparative transcriptional and biochemical studies in muscle of myotonic dystrophies (DM1 and DM2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Sergio; Furlan, Sandra; Fanin, Marina; Picard, Anne; Pastorello, Ebe; Romeo, Vincenzo; Trevisan, Carlo Pietro; Angelini, Corrado

    2009-06-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (proximal muscular myopaty/DM2) are caused by similar dynamic mutations at two distinct genetic loci. The two diseases also lead to similar phenotypes but different clinical severity. Dysregulation of alternative splicing has been suggested as the common pathogenic mechanism. Here, we investigate the molecular differences between DM1 and DM2 using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of troponin T (TnT) and the insulin receptor (IR), as well as immunoblotting of TnT in muscle biopsies from DM1 and DM2 patients. We found that: (a) slow TnT was encoded by two different transcripts in significantly different ratios in DM1 and DM2 muscles; (b) DM2 muscles exhibited a higher degree of alternative splicing dysregulation for fast TnT transcripts when compared to DM1 muscles; (c) the distribution of TnT proteins was significantly skewed towards higher molecular weight species in both diseases; (d) the RNA for the insulin-independent IR-A isoform was significantly increased and appeared related to the fibre-type composition in the majority of the cases examined. On the whole, these data should give a better insight on pathogenesis of DM1 and DM2.

  14. Autotaxin : biochemical and functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Anna Jacoba Sara

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme responsible for the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX-LPA receptor axis has a wide implication in health and disease. The studies described in this thesis aim at characterizing the biochemical and functional properties of ATX,

  15. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Studies on a Branded Human Recombinant Factor VIIa and a Biosimilar Equivalent Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Nasiredin; Kahn, Daniel; Syed, Daneyal; Iqbal, Omer; Abro, Schuharazad; Eshraghi, Reza; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark) is used to control bleeding in patients with hemophilia. A generic version of FVIIa was developed by AryoGen (Tehran, Iran). This study compared the composition and functional activities of AryoSeven and NovoSeven. Each product was compared at equigravimetric (1 mg/mL) stock solution for protein content. The proteomic profile was obtained using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis was carried out to determine the protein profile and Western blotting was performed using a polyclonal rabbit antihuman FVIIa antibody. The FVIIa-related antigen was also measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Functional assay included the prothrombin time correction in FVII-deficient plasma. The protein content was comparable in 2 products and the mass spectra analysis showed a single peak at 50 kDa in all products. The SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting studies were comparable. Both products exhibited similar coagulant properties in different assays. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Comparative genomics reveals novel biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, Jure; Schnackerz, Klaus D; Andersen, Gorm; Björnberg, Olof

    2007-08-01

    How well do we understand which enzymes are involved in the primary metabolism of the cell? A recent study using comparative genomics and postgenomics approaches revealed a novel pathway in the most studied organism, Escherichia coli. The analysis of a new operon consisting of seven previously uncharacterized genes thought to be involved in the degradation of nucleic acid precursors shows the impact of comparative genomics on the discovery of novel pathways and enzymes.

  17. The ability of hesperidin compared to that of insulin for preventing osteoporosis induced by type I diabetes in young male albino rats: A histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Azza Saad; Amer, Mona Gomah; Abd El-Haleem, Manal Reda; Karam, Rehab Ahmed

    2017-04-04

    Patients with type I diabetes are at increased risk of osteoporosis even after insulin therapy in adult stage. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of hesperidin (hesp) therapy versus that of insulin alone in the alleviation of osteoporosis arising from type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in young rats. Hesperidin was administered orally to STZ-induced diabetes. The animals were evaluated morphologically and biochemically and compared with that received daily SC injections of long-acting insulin. Histologically, we observed the degeneration of osteoblasts and osteocytes, decreased collagen fibers, and disturbed bone turn over markers in untreated DM rats. Hesperidin+ insulin supplementation to diabetic rats caused significant improvement of most of the bone histological and morphometric parameters compared with the insulin-treated group. Furthermore, hesp treatment significantly reduced pro-inflammatory mediators TNFα and NF-κB and increased serum biochemical markers of bone turnover, including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC) and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). These data demonstrated that hesp could be considered to be a beneficial drug for preventing diabetic osteoporosis in growing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study on the adverse effects of flunixin, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone in miniature donkeys: haematological, biochemical and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, A A; Derakhshanfar, A; Alinejad, A; Morovati, M

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of flunixin, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone when administered I/V to clinically normal miniature donkeys. Twenty clinically normal adult (2.0-2.5 years old) male miniature donkeys weighing 113-136 kg and 0.81- 0.86 m tall were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and administered either saline (n=5), 1.0 mg/kg flunixin (n=5), 2.2 mg/kg ketoprofen (n=5), or 4.4 mg/kg phenylbutazone (n=5) I/V at 0800 hours on Day 1, then every 12 h, for 12 days. The animals were observed every 8 h, and examined physically daily. Blood, faeces and urine samples were collected daily from all donkeys, for haematological indices and enzyme activities, occult blood, and urinalysis, respectively. Immediately after euthanasia, complete post-mortem examinations were performed on all donkeys, and gross lesions recorded. Histopathology was conducted on a wide range of tissues. Clinically, mild anorexia and diarrhoea were observed during the study only in donkeys treated with phenylbutazone. There was an effect of treatment with the non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs (NSAID) on red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and enzyme activities, but not on urine. Lesions were observed in the glandular mucosa of the stomach of all donkeys treated with NSAID, including ulceration in most. Also, in donkeys treated with NSAID, hyperaemia, erosion and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, and congestion of the liver, kidney and spleen, were observed. Microscopically, hepatic and renal lesions comprised biliary hyperplasia and interstitial nephritis, respectively. The gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal lesions observed in the donkeys treated with NSAID demonstrated the toxic potential of NSAID, which was greatest for animals treated with phenylbutazone, less for flunixin, and least for ketoprofen. When use of these compounds is contemplated in clinical cases, the risk of adverse effects and the comparative toxic potential should be considered

  19. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  20. Comparative Biochemical and Physiological Effects of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of fermented and unfermented soyabeans and African locust beans on albino rats were compared. Male growing albino rats (Wistar strain) were fed diets containing simulated amounts (by weight of a cube of locally manufactured flavouring condiment Dadawa cube) of fermented soyabean – Soyadawadawa ...

  1. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  2. Organic and conventional Coffea arabica L.: a comparative study of the chemical composition and physiological, biochemical and toxicological effects in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Dayene do Carmo; Brigagão, Maisa Ribeiro Pereira Lima; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; de Paula, Fernanda Borges Araújo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Azevedo, Luciana

    2011-06-01

    Differentiation between organic and conventional coffee has increased due to the growing demand and high consumption of healthy foods that contain compounds with antioxidant potential, which have been associated with the reduction of chronic diseases. We used organic and conventional coffee in powder 4% (w/w) and infusions 5%, 10% and 20% (w/v) incorporated in a commercial diet to test in vivo. The levels of chlorogenic acid, caffeine and trigonelline were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The body weight, weight gain, food consumption, aberrant foci crypt, mucin depleted foci, stress biomarkers protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde, biochemical parameters and behavior of the rats were compared between the experimental and control groups within a framework of colon carcinogenesis. The organic coffee showed higher levels of chlorogenic acid, caffeine and trigonelline than conventional, however, this difference did not significantly affect behavior. The infusions had an antioxidant effect, reducing the levels of malondialdehyde; however, the biochemical parameters of the serum were not altered, and there was neither induction nor prevention of preneoplasic lesions.

  3. A Comparative Study of Selected Physical and Biochemical Traits of Wild-Type and Transgenic Sorghum to Reveal Differences Relevant to Grain Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, Roya J.; Kruger, Johanita; Mehlo, Luke; Barnabas, Alban; Kossmann, Jens; Ndimba, Bongani K.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sorghum featuring RNAi suppression of certain kafirins was developed recently, to address the problem of poor protein digestibility in the grain. However, it was not firmly established if other important quality parameters were adversely affected by this genetic intervention. In the present study several quality parameters were investigated by surveying several important physical and biochemical grain traits. Important differences in grain weight, density and endosperm texture were found that serve to differentiate the transgenic grains from their wild-type counterpart. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of the protein bodies revealed a changed morphology that is indicative of the effect of suppressed kafirins. Importantly, lysine was found to be significantly increased in one of the transgenic lines in comparison to wild-type; while no significant changes in anti-nutritional factors could be detected. The results have been insightful for demonstrating some of the corollary changes in transgenic sorghum grain, that emerge from imposed kafirin suppression. PMID:28638394

  4. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4?L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited an...

  5. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia grisea isolates causing blast disease on finger millet in Ethiopia. ... The morphological and physiological variability studies of the six isolates were carried out on Host Seed Extract + 2% Sucrose Agar, Oat Meal Agar, Potato Dextrose Agar and Richard's ...

  6. Haematological and Biochemical Studies on some Ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    CHUKU, L C; *UWAKWE, A A. Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Haematological studies of ruminant vertebrates (cow, sheep and goat) present one acceptable method of understanding the ecological biochemical and physiological relationship between lower and ...

  7. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins. PMID:22312455

  8. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Balti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P<0.05 as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5% and NH1-CPH (DH = 15% contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

  9. Comparative clinical study between the effect of fenofibrate alone and its combination with pentoxifylline on biochemical parameters and liver stiffness in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohamed; Mostafa, Tarek Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common health problem associated with increased liver and vascular specific complications. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effect of fenofibrate alone or in combination with pentoxifylline on the measured biochemical parameters, inflammatory pathway and liver stiffness in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The study design was randomized controlled trial. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited 90 non-alcoholic fatty liver patients from the Internal Medicine Department at Tanta University Hospital, Egypt. They were classified randomly into two groups to receive fenofibrate 300 mg daily or fenofibrate 300 mg daily plus pentoxifylline 1200 mg/day in three divided doses for 24 weeks. Fasting blood sample was obtained before and 24 weeks after treatment for biochemical analysis of liver and lipid panels, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, hyaluronic acid, transforming growth factor beta 1, fasting plasma insulin and fasting glucose. Liver stiffness measurement was carried out using fibro-scan. Data were statistically analyzed by paired and unpaired Student's t test. The data obtained suggests that adding pentoxifylline to fenofibrate does not provide a beneficial effect on lipid panel, but has a beneficial effect on indirect biochemical markers of hepatic fibrosis, a direct marker linked to matrix deposition (hyaluronic acid), a cytokine/growth factor linked to liver fibrosis (transforming growth factor beta 1), the inflammatory pathway, insulin resistance and liver stiffness as compared to fenofibrate alone. The combination pentoxifylline plus fenofibrate may represent a new therapeutic strategy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as it resulted in more beneficial effects on direct and indirect markers of liver fibrosis, liver stiffness, insulin resistance and inflammatory pathway implicated in NAFLD.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Serum Magnesium in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients with and without Periodontitis - A Clinico-biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Akshatha; Bhandary, Rahul; Thomas, Biju; Ramesh, Amitha

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential cation playing a crucial role in many physiological functions and its imbalance is associated with greater number of pathological situations. Oxidative stress is usually increased due to decreased essential nutrients. Hence, any imbalance of essential nutrients like serum magnesium can significantly play a role in the pathobiology of periodontitis in the presence of diabetes, as diabetes and chronic periodontitis are two chronic diseases that have been biologically linked. To evaluate the association of serum magnesium in type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis patients, also to evaluate and associate the influence of serum magnesium on periodontal health. A single blinded, randomized study was conducted that comprised of 120 subjects divided into four groups. Individuals with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus formed the test group. Subjects with chronic periodontitis diagnosed clinically according to 1999 American Academy of Periodontology classification, without any medical history and drug history were included as the study subjects. Gingival Index and Plaque Index were scored for all the groups at baseline and after 21 days of scaling and root planing. Scaling and root planing was done only in the test group. Blood was drawn from the patients at baseline and 21 days after scaling and root planning and estimation of serum magnesium level was done using semi-autoanalyzer. Data obtained was statistically analyzed using the paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc test. The result of the present study showed that mean serum magnesium among healthy was 1.40±0.565mmol/l as compared to 1.01±0.287mmol/l among subjects with periodontitis, 0.920±0.23mmol/l among diabetics with periodontitis and 0.93±0.29mmol/l among diabetics without periodontitis. Serum magnesium was significantly decreased in chronic periodontitis and diabetic patients with and without chronic periodontitis as compared to controls. Imbalance of serum

  11. Comparative analysis of salivary sialic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis patients: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell–cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group. Group 1: patients suffering from COPD and chronic periodontitis, Group 2: periodontitis patients without any systemic diseases Group 3: healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected around 9–10 AM; 2 h after the subjects had breakfast. The sialic acid content was determined by a combined modification of the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. Results: The mean salivary sialic acid levels were least in the healthy group followed by the periodontitis group, and it was highest in the COPD group. Conclusions: We can thus conclude that promotion of dental care knowledge is very much essential in the prevention and treatment of COPD. Thus, estimation of levels of salivary sialic acid can be used as an adjunct to diagnose the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes in subjects with COPD and chronic periodontitis.

  12. A comparative biochemical profile of some cyprinids fish in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Darya Mohammed; Mohammed, Sarbaz Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate the baseline values for some serum biochemical parameters for 64 adult freshwater fish including seven species belong to family Cyprinidae, have been collected in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan region-Iraq. Fishes were weighed, measured, and collect blood for blood chemistry. Serum biochemical analyses were determined using (Cobas C 311) full automatic chemical analyzer. The result of comparative study of serum biochemical parameters of all Cyprinidae species showed that serum glucose was (459.10±106.99 mg/dl) and direct bilirubin was (0.056±0.021mg/dl) in Barbus grypus, serum total protein (3.511± 0.0484gm/dl) and HDL (133.11±0.4231mg/dl) in Cyprinus carpio, serum cholesterol (338.33±43.923 mg/dl) and LDL (86.11±11.871mg/dl) in Carassius carassius, serum triglyceride (420.0±28.8mg/dl) and ALK (113.93±20.65U/L) in Chondrostoma regium, serum AST and serum ALT in Capoeta trutta, were significantly higher when compared to other species. In a conclusion there is variation in biochemical values among species of same family.

  13. Biochemical characterization of TyrA enzymes from Ignicoccus hospitalis and Haemophilus influenzae: A comparative study of the bifunctional and monofunctional dehydrogenase forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlaifer, Irina; Quashie, Peter Kojo; Kim, Hyun Young; Turnbull, Joanne L

    2017-03-01

    Biosynthesis of l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) is directed by the interplay of two enzymes. Chorismate mutase (CM) catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate, which is then converted to hydroxyphenylpyruvate by prephenate dehydrogenase (PD). This work reports the first characterization of the independently expressed PD domain of bifunctional CM-PD from the crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis and the first functional studies of both full-length CM-PD and the PD domain from the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. All proteins were hexa-histidine tagged, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Expression and purification of I. hospitalis CM-PD generated a degradation product identified as a PD fragment lacking the protein's first 80 residues, Δ80CM-PD. A comparable stable PD domain could also be generated by limited tryptic digestion of this bifunctional enzyme. Thus, Δ80CM-PD constructs were prepared in both organisms. CM-PD and Δ80CM-PD from both organisms were dimeric and displayed the predicted enzymatic activities and thermal stabilities in accord with their hyperthermophilic and mesophilic origins. In contrast with H. influenzae PD activity which was NAD+-specific and displayed >75% inhibition with 50μM l-Tyr, I. hospitalis PD demonstrated dual cofactor specificity with a preference for NADP+ and an insensitivity to l-Tyr. These properties are consistent with a model of the I. hospitalis PD domain based on the previously reported structure of the H. influenzae homolog. Our results highlight the similarities and differences between the archaeal and bacterial TyrA proteins and reveal that the PD activity of both prokaryotes can be successfully mapped to a functionally independent unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of the biochemical changes and volatile compound formations during the production of novel whey-based kefir beverages and traditional milk kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Dragone,Giuliano; Pereira, Gilberto V. de Melo; Oliveira, J. M.; Domingues, Lucília; J. A. Teixeira; Silva, João B. Almeida e; Schwan, Rosane F.

    2011-01-01

    Cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW) were investigated for their suitability as novel substrates for the production of kefir-like beverages. Lactose consumption, ethanol production, as well as organic acids and volatile compounds formation, were determined during CW and DCW fermentation by kefir grains and compared with values obtained during the production of traditional milk kefir. The results showed that kefir grains were able to utilise lactose from CW and DCW and produce ...

  15. Comparative study on biochemical activity of the intestinal isolates Lactobacillus sp. V3 and Bifidobacterium sp. A71 in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIP BARAS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The two intestinal isolates Lactobacillus sp. V3 and Bifidobacterium sp. A71 were selected for soymilk fermentation according to their acidification activity in soymilk. Beetroot juice and carrot juice were chosen for soymilk supplementation as additional sources of carbohydrates and brewer's yeast as an extra source of nitrogen. The fermentation was carried out for eight hours at 42°C. The fermentation was monitored by standard analytical and microbiological tests for changes of acidity (decreasing pH and increasing acid content, the contents of soluble dry substances, sugars and a-amino acids as well as changes in the number of viable cells. The samples were collected at the beginning and subsequently every two hours until the end of the fermentation. The results showed that there were differences between the tested isolates in terms of their ability to ferment soymilk. The mix with brewer's yeast had a better stimulating effect on the growth of both strains compared to those with juices alone. In addition, the carrot juice stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium sp. A71 better than beetroot juice, while the opposite effect was found for the growth of Lactobacillus sp. V3.

  16. Haematological and Biochemical Studies on some Species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Haematological and Biochemical Studies on some Species of Fishes. CHUKU, L C; *UWAKWE, A A. Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: In this study the following biochemical and haematological studies on Catfish (clarius gariepianus); Mullet (Mugi Cephalus), Tilpia ...

  17. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative biochemical analysis of recombinant reverse transcriptase enzymes of HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisi Daniella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 subtype C infections account for over half of global HIV infections, yet the vast focus of HIV-1 research has been on subtype B viruses which represent less than 12% of the global pandemic. Since HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT is a major target of antiviral therapy, and since differential drug resistance pathways have been observed among different HIV subtypes, it is important to study and compare the enzymatic activities of HIV-1 RT derived from each of subtypes B and C as well as to determine the susceptibilities of these enzymes to various RT inhibitors in biochemical assays. Methods Recombinant subtype B and C HIV-1 RTs in heterodimeric form were purified from Escherichia coli and enzyme activities were compared in cell-free assays. The efficiency of (- ssDNA synthesis was measured using gel-based assays with HIV-1 PBS RNA template and tRNA3Lys as primer. Processivity was assayed under single-cycle conditions using both homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNA templates. Intrinsic RNase H activity was compared using 5'-end labeled RNA template annealed to 3'-end recessed DNA primer in a time course study in the presence and absence of a heparin trap. A mis-incorporation assay was used to assess the fidelity of the two RT enzymes. Drug susceptibility assays were performed both in cell-free assays using recombinant enzymes and in cell culture phenotyping assays. Results The comparative biochemical analyses of recombinant subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 reverse transcriptase indicate that the two enzymes are very similar biochemically in efficiency of tRNA-primed (- ssDNA synthesis, processivity, fidelity and RNase H activity, and that both enzymes show similar susceptibilities to commonly used NRTIs and NNRTIs. Cell culture phenotyping assays confirmed these results. Conclusions Overall enzyme activity and drug susceptibility of HIV-1 subtype C RT are comparable to those of subtype B RT. The use of RT inhibitors (RTIs

  19. Comparative morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of lentil and grass pea genotypes under water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in the family Fabaceae are two important cool-season food legumes, often experiencing water stress conditions during growth and maturity. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the response of these two crops under different water stress regimes. Materials and Methods: Different morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were studied in a pot experiment under controlled environmental conditions. Along with control (proper irrigation, 0 stress), three sets of plants were subjected to mild (6 d), moderate (13 d) and severe (20 d) water stress by withholding irrigation at the appropriate time. Results: Compared with control, plant growth traits and seed yield components reduced significantly in both crops with increasing period of water stress, resulting in lowering of dry mass with more severe effect on lentil compared with grass pea. Foliar Relative Water Content (RWC) (%), K+/Na+ ratio, chlorophyll (chl) a, chl a/b ratio, stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate declined considerably in both crops under water stress. Leaf-free proline level increased significantly in both crops, but it decreased markedly in nodules of lentil and remained unchanged in grass pea. Nodulation was also affected due to water stress. The impairment in growth traits and physio-biochemical parameters under water stress was manifested in reduction of drought tolerance efficiency of both crops. Conclusion: Impact of water stress was more severe on lentil compared with grass pea, and modulation of growth traits signified necessity of a detailed strategy in breeding of food legumes under water stress. PMID:24082740

  20. Study on the alteration of bubaline blood biochemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bubaline blood biochemistry as affected by slaughter was the agenda for this work. Blood samples were collected from 30 buffaloes from abattoirs before and at slaughter. After biochemical and statistical analysis (mean was compared with t-test), it was observed that the albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase ...

  1. Study of some biochemical and genetic risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of some biochemical and genetic risk factors for atherosclerosis in systemic luus erythematosus patients. ... chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) ( both serum levels and the genotypes of the MCP-1 A-2518G polymorphism) with the development of carotid atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (SLE).

  2. Biochemical and haematological studies of some solitary and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and haematological studies of some solitary and social bee venoms. Samy Zalat, Zohour Nabil, Aida Hussein, Miran Rakha. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Biology Vol.1 1999: 57-71. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African ...

  3. Studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected

  4. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in dakahlia and demiatta governorates in Egypt. ... Unstable situation of Anaplasma marginale in rural farms, and minimal situation disease in modern farms were recorded. The different Anaplasma marginale situation in the district needs more attentionin ...

  5. Haematological and biochemical studies on the effect of diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Haematological and biochemical studies on the effect of diclofenac sodium on. Wistar Rattus norvegicus. Orinya Agbaji ORINYA, Adeshina Yahaya ADENKOLA and Raphael John OGBE*. Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine ...

  6. A Simple Approach to Study Designs in Complex Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somdatta Sinha

    Indian Institute of Technology,. New Delhi, 31 October 2008. Indian Academy of Sciences,. 74th Annual Meeting, New Delhi. Oct. 31 – Nov. 2, 2008. SOMDATTA SINHA. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR). Hyderabad. A Simple Approach to Study. Designs in Complex. Biochemical Pathways. Symposium on.

  7. Biochemical and histopathological studies on the methanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to evaluate the biochemical and the histopathological characteristics of rats administered with various doses of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf. Wistar albino rats fed with 500 mg/kg and 2 g/kg of methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf for 28 days were dissected and vital organs ...

  8. HIGH-CONDUCTIVE NANOSTRUCTURES IN BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES: FLUORESCENCE ENHANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Chegel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies of quenching and enhancement of fluorescence by colloidal solutions of nanoparticles and arrays of nanostructures on solid substrates — nanochips. The literature data and the results of authors’ own studies on the possibility of fluorescence signal manipulation in the presence of gold and silver nanostructures were shown. Mathematical modeling and comparative investigation of the samples with high-conductive metal nanostructures as active elements for the regulation of fluorescence signal were also performed. Nanochips samples were fabricated by thermal annealing of highly conductive gold and silver island films. Using developed novel laser-based fluorometer FluorotestNano it was shown that fluorescence intensity of Rhodamine 6G dye can be enhanced up to 23 times near gold nanostructures by spacing the dye from the nanoparticle at the distance of 20 nm using SiO2 coating. Using high-conductive metal nanostructures to adjust the fluorescence signal opens promising new directions in biochemical studies, such as increasing the sensitivity of fluorescence methods, development of new biosensors, fluorescence microscopy techniques and medical diagnostics.

  9. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  10. ``Bicellar'' Lipid Mixtures as used in Biochemical and Biophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad A.; Pencer, Jeremy; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2005-08-01

    Over the past decade “bicellar” lipid mixtures composed of the long-chain dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the short-chain dihexanoyl PC (DHPC) molecules have emerged as a powerful medium for studying membrane associated, biologically relevant macromolecules and assemblies. Depending on temperature, lipid concentration and composition these lipid mixtures can assume a variety of morphologies, some of them alignable in the presence of a magnetic field. This article will examine the biophysical studies that have elucidated the various morphologies assumed by these lipid mixtures, and their use in the biochemical studies of biomolecules.

  11. Clinical studies on neurophysiological and biochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G B; Li, S C; Jiang, C C

    1986-01-01

    From November 1965 to December 1978, about 10,635 cranio-cerebral operations were performed under acupuncture anesthesia in 24 neurosurgical departments in China. The extensive clinical practices have proved that acupuncture surely has analgesic effect. So far most researches upon the mechanism for analgesia by acupuncture were based on animal experiments, but not confirmed or evidenced in human beings. For this reason, a series of clinical studies upon the neurophysiological and biochemical basis for acupuncture analgesia has been made utilizing the facilities of a neurologic clinic provided that the patient's condition is not adversely affected and therapeutic efficiency is enhanced. The results are summarized as follows.

  12. Distinct biochemical properties of human serine hydroxymethyltransferase compared with the Plasmodium enzyme: implications for selective inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Chatchadaporn; Maenpuen, Somchart; Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2014-06-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a hydroxymethyl group from l-serine to tetrahydrofolate to yield glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Our previous investigations have shown that SHMTs from Plasmodium spp. (P. falciparum, Pf; P. vivax, Pv) are different from the enzyme from rabbit liver in that Plasmodium SHMT can use d-serine as a substrate. In this report, the biochemical and biophysical properties of the Plasmodium and the human cytosolic form (hcSHMT) enzymes including ligand binding and kinetics were investigated. The data indicate that, similar to Plasmodium enzymes, hcSHMT can use d-serine as a substrate. However, hcSHMT displays many properties that are different from those of the Plasmodium enzymes. The molar absorption coefficient of hcSHMT-bound pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) is much greater than PvSHMT-bound or PfSHMT-bound PLP. The binding interactions of hcSHMT and Plasmodium SHMT with d-serine are different, as only the Plasmodium enzyme undergoes formation of a quinonoid-like species upon binding to d-serine. Furthermore, it has been noted that hcSHMT displays strong substrate inhibition by tetrahydrofolate (THF) (at THF > 40 μm), compared with SHMTs from Plasmodium and other species. The pH-activity profile of hcSHMT shows higher activities at lower pH values corresponding to a pKa value of 7.8 ± 0.1. Thiosemicarbazide reacts with hcSHMT following a one-step model [k1 of 12 ± 0.6 m(-1) ·s(-1) and k-1 of (1.0 ± 0.6) × 10(-3) s(-1) ], while the same reaction with PfSHMT involves at least three steps. All data indicated that the ligand binding environment of SHMT from human and Plasmodium are different, indicating that it should be possible to develop species-selective inhibitors in future studies. serine hydroxymethyltransferase, EC 2.1.2.1; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, EC 1.5.1.5. © 2014 FEBS.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  14. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a  synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP, as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I  collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. 

  15. Phenylbutazone toxicosis in equidae: a biochemical and pathophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, D H; Douglas, T A; Thompson, H; Parkins, J J; Holmes, P H

    1981-10-01

    Toxic effects of phenylbutazone (PBZ) in ponies and horses were studied, using a variety of biochemical, pathophysiologic, and pathologic methods. At dosage levels of 10 to 12 mg/kg of body weight/day for 8 to 10 days, ponies frequently developed clinical signs of toxicosis characterized by hypoproteinemia. Studies using 51CrCl3 demonstrated that PBZ caused a protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The plasma loss was usually associated with gastrointestinal ulceration, but sometimes occurred without obvious lesions in mildly affected animals. Similar studies (8.2 mg/kg/day for 13 days) in Thoroughbreds indicated that they were less susceptible to PBZ toxicity; however, a degree of hypoproteinemia occurred in 4 of 6 treated Thoroughbreds.

  16. Simulation studies in biochemical signaling and enzyme reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Vagula, Mary C.

    2014-06-01

    Biochemical pathways characterize various biochemical reaction schemes that involve a set of species and the manner in which they are connected. Determination of schematics that represent these pathways is an important task in understanding metabolism and signal transduction. Examples of these Pathways are: DNA and protein synthesis, and production of several macro-molecules essential for cell survival. A sustained feedback mechanism arises in gene expression and production of mRNA that lead to protein synthesis if the protein so synthesized serves as a transcription factor and becomes a repressor of the gene expression. The cellular regulations are carried out through biochemical networks consisting of reactions and regulatory proteins. Systems biology is a relatively new area that attempts to describe the biochemical pathways analytically and develop reliable mathematical models for the pathways. A complete understanding of chemical reaction kinetics is prohibitively hard thanks to the nonlinear and highly complex mechanisms that regulate protein formation, but attempting to numerically solve some of the governing differential equations seems to offer significant insight about their biochemical picture. To validate these models, one can perform simple experiments in the lab. This paper introduces fundamental ideas in biochemical signaling and attempts to take first steps into the understanding of biochemical oscillations. Initially, the two-pool model of calcium is used to describe the dynamics behind the oscillations. Later we present some elementary results showing biochemical oscillations arising from solving differential equations of Elowitz and Leibler using MATLAB software.

  17. Type I sialidosis: a clinical, biochemical and neuroradiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, S; Villanova, M; Malandrini, A; van Diggelen, O P; Huijmans, J G; Ceuterick, C; Rufa, A; DeFalco, D; Ciacci, G; Martin, J J; Guazzi, G

    2000-01-01

    We report biochemical, morphological and neuroradiological findings in a 40-year-old woman affected with type I sialidosis. The clinical symptoms, consisting of a cerebellar syndrome, were first noted at the age of 17 years. The macular cherry-red spot was first observed after 23 years of disease. A CT scan performed at 21 years of age showed enlargement of the fourth ventricle. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain performed at the age of 40 showed severe atrophy of the cerebellum and pontine region; atrophy of cerebral hemispheres and of the corpus callosum was also observed. We emphasize the prolonged course of illness in this patient, observed over a long period of time. Of particular interest is the neuroradiological study showing our findings both at the beginning of the disease and after 20 years. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A comparative study of technologies for the continuous measurements of the biochemical demand for oxygen and toxicity of water; Estudio comparativo de tecnologias de medicion en continuo de la demanda bioquimica de oxigeno y de la toxicidad en aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Caballero Arnau, T.; Rodriguez Albalat, G.; Rosa de la Garcia, S.; Jimenez Bono, M.; Millan Navarro, C.; prats, R.; Serramia, A.; Miguel, S. de

    2002-07-01

    The Prevention and Integrated Control of Contamination Act (Ley de Prevencion y control Integrado de la Contaminacion) was passed by the Spanish parliament on 13 June. the basic purpose of this law is to prevent, reduce and control contamination of the atmosphere, water and soil caused by the most contaminating industrial activities. Public sector bodies and private companies in Spanish have been invited by the European Union to adopt new technologies in their production processes with a view to cutting down emissions, minimising or re-using waste, and pre-treating or purifying effluents. I t is therefore extremely appropriate to make available information on new tools of analysis that allow users to take preventive measures to reduce the impact their activity may have on the environment. A fundamental parameter in monitoring water is the Biological Demand for Oxygen (BOD). Various different chemical, physical and biological techniques have been developed to solve the problem of continuously monitoring the BOD and toxicity of water. This study carried out a comparative analysis of these techniques, describing the advantages and disadvantages of applying them to water quality control. At the present time it can be said that the BOD microbiosensor. Multisens 304 is the best available technology for monitoring this parameter. The articles tells us why. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Evaluation and review of body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, M; Stoop, R; Vetsch, T; Hohenauer, E; Pini, M; Clarys, P; Pereira, F; Clijsen, R

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity. The selected articles included healthy subjects, biochemical hydration assessment markers and a well-described (de)hydration procedure. The included studies (n=16) revealed that the setting and the method of collecting respectively accessing body fluids are particularly important aspects to choose the optimal hydration marker. To obtain a sample of saliva is one of the simplest ways to collect body fluids. During exercise and heat exposures, saliva composition might be an effective index but seems to be highly variable. The collection of sweat is a more extensive and time-consuming technique making it more difficult to evaluate dehydration and to make a statement about the hydration status at a particular time. The collection procedure of tear fluid is easy to access and causes very little discomfort to the subject. Tear osmolarity increases with dehydration in parallel to alterations in plasma osmolality and urine-specific gravity. But at the individual level, its sensitivity has to be further determined.

  20. [Long term biochemical recurrence free survival after radical prostatectomy for cancer: comparative analysis according to surgical approach and clinicopathological stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, J; Ouzzane, A; Flamand, V; Fantoni, J-C; Puech, P; Leroy, X; Villers, A

    2015-03-01

    To assess long term biochemical recurrence free survival after radical prostatectomy according to open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical approach and clinicopathological stage. A cohort study of 1313 consecutive patients treated by radical prostatectomy for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer between 2000 and 2013. Open surgery (63.7%), laparoscopy (10%) and robot-assisted laparoscopy (26.4%) were performed. Biochemical recurrence was defined by PSA>0,1ng/mL. The biochemical recurrence free survival was described by Kaplan Meier method and prognostic factors were analysed by multivariable Cox regression. Median follow-up was 57 months (IQR: 31-90). Ten years biochemical recurrence free survival was 88.5%, 71.6% and 53.5% respectively for low, intermediate and high-risk D'Amico groups. On multivariable analysis, the worse prognostic factor was Gleason score (PBiochemical recurrence free survival (P=0.06) and positive surgical margins rate (P=0.87) were not statistically different between the three surgical approaches. Biochemical recurrence free survival in our study does not differ according to surgical approach and is similar to published series. Ten years biochemical recurrence free survival for high-risk tumours without hormone therapy is 54% justifying the role of surgery in the therapeutic conversations in this group of tumours. 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of the banana pulp browning process of 'Giant Dwarf' and FHIA-23 during fruit ripening based on image analysis and the polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; García-Ibáñez, Victoria; Virgen-Ortíz, José J; González-Potes, Apolinar; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D; Orozco-Santos, Mario

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a novel method to associate the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the peroxidase (POD) activities with the ripening-mediated color changes in banana peel and pulp by computational image analysis. The method was used to follow up the de-greening of peel and browning of homogenized pulp from 'Giant Dwarf' (GD: Musa AAA, subgroup Cavendish) and FHIA-23 (tetraploid hybrid, AAAA) banana cultivars. In both cultivars, the color changes of peel during the ripening process clearly showed four stages, which were used to group the fruit into ripening stages. The PPO and POD were extracted from pulp of fruit at these ripening stages, precipitated, and partially purified by gel filtration chromatography. Moreover, the pulp browning was digitally monitored after homogenization for a span time of up to 120 min. The browning level was higher for GD than FHIA-23 tissues. This fact correlated with an 11.7-fold higher PPO activity in the GD cultivar, as compared with that of FHIA-23. POD activity was 8.1 times higher for GD as compared that that of FHIA-23.

  2. Measuring recovery: An adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+) compared to biochemical and power output alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonny; Cunningham, Daniel J; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match. Match activity data for each participant was also collected using GPS monitors on players. BAM+, CK and PPO had significant (pBAM+ scores (pBAM+ scores from baseline at 24 and 48h post-match for total distance covered per minute, high intensity distance covered per minute, and total number of sprints per minute. Visual and inferential results indicate that the BAM+ appears effective for monitoring longitudinal recovery cycles in elite level athletes. Future research is needed to confirm both the scales reliability and validity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative biochemical studies of fresh frozen plasma and pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (octaplasLG® ) with focus on protein S and its impact in different thrombin generation assay set-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, A; Janisch, S; Pock, K; Römisch, J

    2016-10-01

    The solvent/detergent treatment enables effective and robust inactivation of all lipid-enveloped viruses, but also inactivates partly sensitive plasma proteins such as protein S. The aim of this study was to investigate the thrombin generation capacity of octaplasLG® , in particular focusing on the function of protein S in thrombin generation assay and the impact of assay settings. Sixteen octaplasLG® batches and 32 units of single donor fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were investigated. For protein S, both functional activity and free antigen levels were measured. Thrombin generation assay was performed using two fluorogenic tests with different triggers. Finally, rotational thromboelastometry was performed. Mean protein S levels were lower in octaplasLG® , but a wider range of values was found for FFP. Clotting parameters and thrombin generation capacities overlapped between the two plasma groups as demonstrated using both thrombin generation assays and different triggers. Spiking studies with protein S-depleted plasma, human purified protein S or antibodies against protein S confirmed a correlation between protein S and thrombin generation capacity under specific assay conditions, especially in an assay with low tissue factor concentration. Correlation between protein S and thrombin generation capacity was demonstrated in the TGA. Due to higher variability in protein S content in the FFP group, overlapping haemostatic potentials of the two plasma groups were found. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978 the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citizen quality of life. The mission still stands for “Compare to learn and improve”. As all the organizations lasting for 39 years, ISCPES experienced several vicissitudes, usually correlated with world economic cycles, social and sports changes, which are in ISS journal articles - International Sport Studies. ISS journal is Scopus indexed, aiming to improve its quality (under evaluation to reach more qualified students, experts, professionals and researchers; doing so it will raise its indexation, which we know it is nowadays a more difficult task. First, because there are more journals trying to compete on this academic fierce competitive market; secondly, because the basic requirements are getting more and more hard to gather in the publishing environment around Physical Education and Sports issues. However, we can promise this will be one of our main strategic goals. Another goal I would like to address on this Editorial is the language issue. We have this second strategic goal, which is to reach most of languages spoken in different continents; besides the English language, we will reach Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries. For that reason, we already defined that all the abstracts in English will be translated into Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese words so people can find them on any search browser. That will expand the demand for our journal and articles, increasing the number of potential readers. Of course this opportunity, given by

  5. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  6. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    b&c trials, were IHC stained for ER, PgR and HER2. In addition, ER and PgR were measured in the DBCG82 b&c trials by a biochemical analysis. Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Log-rank tests, and Cox regression hazards analyses. Results and conclusion. IHC...... cores and biochemical analyses. Patients and methods. A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1 min central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in the DBCG82...... IHC stainings of TMA cores and biochemical analyses. Divergence between IHC and biochemical analyses was predominantly due to the chosen thresholds. IHC staining of one 1mm core from each tumor revealed a significant independent prognostic value of PgR and HER2 on overall survival. In conclusion, IHC...

  7. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG 82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, H

    2008-01-01

    &c trials, were IHC stained for ER, PgR and HER2. In addition, ER and PgR were measured in the DBCG82 b&c trials by a biochemical analysis. Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Log-rank tests, and Cox regression hazards analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: IHC stainings...... cores and biochemical analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1mm central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in the DBCG82 b...... stainings of TMA cores and biochemical analyses. Divergence between IHC and biochemical analyses was predominantly due to the chosen thresholds. IHC staining of one 1mm core from each tumor revealed a significant independent prognostic value of PgR and HER2 on overall survival. In conclusion, IHC stainings...

  8. Comparative study of C-Reactive Protein and other biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin and globulins were investigated using high sensitivity Immunoturbidometric and colorimetric techniques in individuals with hepatitis (n=50), Malaria (n=50) and 40 control subjects in age ...

  9. Biochemical and Structural Studies of RNA Modification and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chio Mui

    2009-01-01

    RNA modification, RNA interference, and RNA repair are important events in the cell. This thesis presents three projects related to these three fields. By using both biochemical and structural methods, we characterized enzymatic activities of pseudouridine synthase TruD, solved the structure of "A. aeolicus" GidA, and reconstituted a novel…

  10. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  11. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of long-term administration of boiled aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (SYZ), commonly known as clove (which has been locally employed for treating gastrointestinal tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as body weight, liver functions and blood parameters ...

  12. Study on the alteration of bubaline blood biochemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Anirban

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... 3Lala Lajpat Rai, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India. Accepted 27 April, 2012. Bubaline blood biochemistry as affected by slaughter was the agenda for this work. Blood samples were collected from 30 buffaloes from abattoirs before and at slaughter. After biochemical and.

  13. Haematological and biochemical studies on the effect of diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these benefits, there are concerns that this drug may have adverse effect on animal's liver and kidneys. This work was designed to determine the effect of diclofenac sodium on blood components using haematological tests, as well as determine the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects using biochemical assays.

  14. Influence of Natural Honey on Biochemical and Hematological Variables in AIDS: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori S. Al-Waili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey lowers prostaglandins and elevates nitric oxide (NO in various biological fluids in normal persons. NO and prostaglandin play a role in pathogenesis of AIDS. The study was designed to assess the effect of natural honey on prostaglandins and NO levels, blood indices and biochemical tests in a 40 year-old woman with AIDS. This presentation is a case story of a 40 year-old women with a long history of AIDS treated with 80g of natural honey. Plasma and urinary prostaglandin F2 alpha and thromboxane B2 levels, plasma, urine and saliva content of NO-end product (total nitrite and hematological tests were estimated before and 3 hours after oral consumption of 80g of natural honey. These variables, in addition to biochemical tests, were re-estimated after 21 days of daily consumption of 80g of natural honey. Results showed that prostaglandins level compared with normal subjects were elevated in patient with AIDS. Natural honey decreased prostaglandins levels, and elevated NO-end product, percentage of lymphocytes, platelet count, and serum protein, albumin and copper levels. It might be concluded that natural honey decreased prostaglandins level, elevated NO production and improved hematological and biochemical tests in a patient with a long history of AIDS.

  15. Comparative Studies for What?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978) the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citiz...

  16. The first trimester aneuploidy biochemical markers in IVF/ICSI patients have no additional benefit compared to spontaneous conceptions in the prediction of pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymusik, Iwona; Kosinski, Przemyslaw; Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Warzecha, Damian; Karwacka, Anetta; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2017-12-07

    The aim of this study was to determine if the levels of biochemical aneuploidy markers in in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies differ from those in spontaneous pregnancies and to verify if biochemical markers could predict pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI gestations. This was a prospective observational study performed in a group of 551 patients who underwent a combined first trimester prenatal screening (ultrasound scan and serum markers). All patients were divided into two groups according to the mode of conception: IVF/ICSI pregnancies (study group) and spontaneous conceptions (control group). The concentrations of first trimester biochemical markers were presented as multiples of median (MoM) and were compared between the study and control groups. Analysed pregnancy complications included: preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes (GDM). The analysis was performed on 183 IVF/ICSI and 368 spontaneously conceived gestations, with complete data regarding obstetric outcome. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of biochemical markers between the analysed groups. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels were lower in hypertensive than in normotensive patients, although the difference was not significant. Twenty-three patients had GDM (12.5%), 16 had GH or PE (8.7%), SGA was diagnosed in 18 (9.8%) and 25 delivered preterm (13.6%). The trend for lower PAPP-A MoM was visible in all affected patients, although the results did not reach statistical significance. The first trimester biochemical markers in assisted reproduction technique (ART) pregnancies do not seem to have additional effect on predicting the risk of pregnancy complications.

  17. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bulushi, Shahab; Shawaf, Turke; Al-Hasani, Afaf

    2017-04-01

    In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam) were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 ×103/µL), and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46%) were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 ×106/µL), hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl), hematocrit (38.29±4.06%), and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl) were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl), and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl) were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further studies to determine reference values for the studied

  18. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. Results: No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 x103/μL, and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46% were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 x106/μL, hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl, hematocrit (38.29±4.06%, and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl, and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. Conclusion: The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further

  19. Genetic and biochemical studies in Argentinean patients with variegate porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giudice Jimena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A partial deficiency in Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX produces the mixed disorder Variegate Porphyria (VP, the second acute porphyria more frequent in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt VP is absolutely important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. Methods We have studied at molecular level 18 new Argentinean patients biochemically diagnosed as VP. PPOX gene was amplified in one or in twelve PCR reactions. All coding exons, flanking intronic and promoter regions were manual or automatically sequenced. For RT-PCR studies RNA was retrotranscripted, amplified and sequenced. PPOX activity in those families carrying a new and uncharacterized mutation was performed. Results All affected individuals harboured mutations in heterozygous state. Nine novel mutations and 3 already reported mutations were identified. Six of the novel mutations were single nucleotide substitutions, 2 were small deletions and one a small insertion. Three single nucleotide substitutions and the insertion were at exon-intron boundaries. Two of the single nucleotide substitutions, c.471G>A and c.807G>A and the insertion (c.388+3insT were close to the splice donor sites in exons 5, 7 and intron 4 respectively. The other single nucleotide substitution was a transversion in the last base of intron 7, g.3912G>C (c.808-1G>C so altering the consensus acceptor splice site. However, only in the first case the abnormal band showing the skipping of exon 5 was detected. The other single nucleotide substitutions were transversions: c.101A>T, c.995G>C and c.670 T>G that result in p.E34V, p.G332A and W224G aminoacid substitutions in exons 3, 10 and 7 respectively. Activity measurements indicate that these mutations reduced about 50% PPOX activity and also that they co-segregate with this reduced activity value. Two

  20. Biochemical composition of the fluid of ovarian cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles compared to the serum in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biochemical composition of follicular cysts, pre-ovulatory follicles and serum in sows. The research involved multiparous sows (cysts-bearing sows, n = 21; non-cysts-bearing sows, n = 22). Concentration of glucose, protein, cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the samples was determined. Glucose concentration in serum was higher than in cysts and follicles (p cysts was higher than in follicles (p cysts-bearing and non-cysts-bearing sows (p cysts and follicles was lower than in serum (p cysts-bearing sows and non-cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in non-cysts-bearing sows (p cysts-bearing and non-cysts-bearing sows was also higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p Cysts-bearing sows had a higher concentration of HDL in the serum than non-cysts-bearing sows. Differences were also observed between the concentration of HDL in cysts and the one in follicles (p cysts or pre-ovulatory follicles. TAG concentration in the serum of cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in the serum of non-cysts-bearing sows (p cysts and in follicles (p follicular cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles point to the variable intensification of the course of metabolic processes in pathological and physiological ovarian structures.

  1. Comparative investigations of Klebsiella species of clinical origin: plasmid patterns, biochemical reactions, antibiotic resistances and serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, R; Heineken, P; Ullmann, U; Sonntag, H G

    1986-09-01

    A total of 124 K. pneumoniae and 52 K. oxytoca isolates obtained from clinical specimens was investigated for plasmid patterns, biochemical reactions, antibiotic resistances and serotypes regarding to the distribution and relationships of these characters. A great diversity of plasmid patterns, bio/serotypes and resistance patterns was revealed. About 90% of strains contained plasmid DNA and up to seven plasmid bands per isolate could be shown. For K. pneumoniae, serotype 7 and for K. oxytoca, type 55 were most common. In general, little difference between both species was found and characters were similarly distributed. With respect to the site of isolation, serotype 7 was predominating in K. pneumoniae strains from the respiratory tract. Highly multiple-resistant organism were found in the largest number in specimens from the urogenital tract, in the lowest in specimens from wounds. Extensive statistical analyses did not detect any relationship among the characters investigated.

  2. A study on clinical and biochemical profile of low body weight type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, Keshab; Mandal, Lopamudra; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Paul, Uttam Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Ramtanu; Basu, Asish Kumar

    2008-11-01

    Low body weight type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a distinct entity in T2DM having different clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality patterns as well as biochemical profile when compared with classical T2 DM. This study was aimed at comparing three subtypes of T2 DM-overweight (BMI>25), normal weight (BMI>18.5 but body weight or lean type2 DM (BM1weight and 25-overweight) were selected. The present study revealed that normal C-peptide level with basal hyperglycaemia is an important characteristic of lean T2 DM. Lower prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and higher level of triglycerides were found in low body weight T2 DM.Lower prevalence of macrovascular and higher prevalence of microvascular complications are also noted.

  3. Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Studies and Treatment of Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Autonomous University of Madrid, and other centers in Spain studied the clinical, biochemical, and genetic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE in 12 patients with the clinically proven diagnosis.

  4. Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, E H; Berk, L S; Kettering, J D; Hubbard, R W; Peters, W R

    1999-09-01

    Dietary and nutritional status of individuals habitually consuming a vegan diet was evaluated by biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic measures in comparison with a nonvegetarian group. On the basis of 4-d dietary records, the intake of female and male vegans tended to be lower in fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and cholesterol and higher in dietary fiber than that of vegetarians. With computed food and supplement intakes, vegan diets provided significantly higher amounts of ascorbate, folate, magnesium, copper, and manganese in both female and male participants. The body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of the vegans was significantly lower than that of the nonvegetarians and 9 of the 25 vegans had a BMI vegan men but iron and zinc status did not differ between the sexes. Mean serum vitamin B-12 and methylmalonic acid concentrations did not differ; however, 10 of the 25 vegans showed a vitamin B-12 deficit manifested by macrocytosis, circulating vitamin B-12 concentrations 376 nmol/L. Vegans had significantly lower leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and lower concentrations of complement factor 3 and blood urea nitrogen but higher serum albumin concentrations. Vegans did not differ from nonvegetarians in functional immunocompetence assessed as mitogen stimulation or natural killer cell cytotoxic activity.

  5. Comparative Morpho-Biochemical Responses of Wheat Cultivars Sensitive and Tolerant to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is likely the most important factor that adversely affects plant growth and development. In this study two wheat cultivars Gemmieza-7 (sensitive and Sahel-1 (tolerant were subjected to water stress and compared in terms of growth parameters (growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations (relative water content and saturation water deficit and protein as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content in flag leaves of both cultivars. In general, water stress caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of both cultivars during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by water stress in both wheat cultivars. In relation to wheat cultivar, the sensitive was more affected by water stress than the tolerant one. Generally, the application of salicylic acid, trehalose or their interaction induced marked increase in growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of both wheat cultivars in compare with control and water stressed plants. In conclusion, Sahel-1 has suitable mechanisms to enable it to respond more effectively to water stress than Gemmieza-7.

  6. Multiple sulfatase deficiency: clinical, neuropathological, ultrastructural and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, W F; Verity, M A; Fluharty, A L; Nguyen, H T; Philippart, M

    1990-07-01

    We describe the clinical, pathological, ultrastructural and biochemical features in the case of a 15-year-old boy with multiple sulfatase deficiency. Clinical abnormalities included hypotonia, retarded psychomotor development, hepatosplenomegaly, pigmentary degeneration of the retina, myoclonic seizures, aortic insufficiency and quadriplegia. Urinalysis revealed increased heparan sulfate. At necropsy, aortic and mitral valves revealed nodular thickening and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, metachromatic granules in renal proximal tubules. The brain weighed 400 g and demonstrated cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with a retrocerebellar meningeal cyst. Cortical neurons contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive and cresyl violet-reactive granules. White matter demonstrated brown metachromasia and intense fibrillary gliosis. Conjunctival fibroblasts contained amorphous vacuoles with dense osmiophilic nucleoid cores. Pleomorphic extracellular, intraneural and intraglial inclusions were noted in the brain. Activities of arylsulfatase A, B and C were diminished markedly in autopsied tissue from brain, liver, and kidney (0, 0 and less than 10% of control activities, respectively). Partial deficiencies of iduronate sulfatase and heparan sulfatase were noted in different tissues. Variable decreased enzyme activities were expressed in leukocytes: arylsulfatase A, less than 33%; B, 40%; and C, 90%; heparan sulfatase, 2%; and iduronate sulfatase was not detectable. Near normal activities were found in cultured fibroblasts.

  7. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joylani D. SAIKHOM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid content was 163.11 mg g-1 and in Clerodendrum chinense and Datura stramonium, which were used for green colouring, total chlorophyll content of 10.29 mg and 11.83 mg g-1 was recorded. Curcumin content responsible for orange colouring in Curcuma domestica was 27.7 mg g-1 while flavonoid content in Solanum nigrum and Terminalia chebula, which were used for brown, brown to black dyes was 24.89 and 21.73 mg g-1. Among the plants used for dyeing different colours, Punica granatum and Parkia timoriana were found to contain higher amounts of total phenols and bound phenols by recording 681.2 mg g-1 and 287.6 mg g-1 total phenols and 151.6 mg g-1 and 130.2mg g-1 bound phenols, while higher amounts of orthodihydric phenols and tannins were recorded in Punica granatum and Strobilanthes flaccidifolius by recording 20.11mg g-1 and 9.54mg g-1 orthodihydric phenols and 675.57mg g-1 and 648.12 mg g-1 tannins, respectively. In case of the plants used as mordant, higher contents of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were detected in Achyranthes aspera, while higher amounts of P, Fe and Cu were recorded in Garcinia xanthochymus.

  8. Biochemical studies in a patient with a Tangier syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J K; Herbert, P N; Fredrickson, D S; Ellefson, R D; Heinen, R J; Forte, T; Dyck, P J

    1978-01-01

    tonsil contained three to four times the normal amount of cholesterol, and the increase was due entirely to abnormal quantities of cholesteryl esters. Of great interest was the chemical documentation of increased cholesteryl esters in a nerve biopsy specimen. These findings indicate that the neurologic as well as the reticuloendothelial manifestations of Tangier disease may be related to cholesteryl ester accumulation. Lipoprotein profiles, their triglyceride and cholesterol concentration, and LCAT activity were obtained on the plasma of 7 closely related members of the kinship. None of these relatives were found to have the biochemical derangement of Tangier disease.

  9. CORRELATED MORPHOMETRIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LIVER CELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Ewald R.; Stäubli, Willy; Gnägi, Hans Rudolf; Hess, Felix A.

    1969-01-01

    The basic morphological properties of liver cells are defined in the form of a morphometric model to permit integrated quantitative characterization of functionally important parameters. Stereologic methods which allow efficient and reliable quantitative evaluation of sectioned liver tissue are presented. Material, obtained by a rigorous three-stage sampling procedure from five normal rat livers, is systematically subjected to this analysis at four levels of magnification. This yields quantitative data which are expressed as "densities," i.e. content per 1 ml of tissue, as "specific dimensions" related to 100 g body weight, and as absolute dimensions per average "mononuclear" hepatocyte. Base line data relating to the normal rat liver are presented for the entire spectrum of parameters. As examples, 1 ml of liver tissue contains 169 x 106 hepatocyte nuclei, some 90 x 106 nuclei of other cells, and 280 x 109 mitochondria. Hepatocyte cytoplasm accounts for 77% of liver volume, and the mitochondria for 18%. The surface area of endoplasmic reticulum membranes in 1 ml of liver tissue measures 11 m2 of which are ⅔ of the rough form carrying some 2 x 1013 ribosomes. The surface area of mitochondrial cristae in the unit volume is estimated at 6 m2. The validity and applicability of the method are discussed, and the data are compared with available information from other studies. PMID:4891915

  10. Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash helmets in Kigali City, ... Microbiological methods including spread plate techniques and some biochemical tests were used to partially identify the microorganisms.

  11. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  12. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  13. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  14. Clinical, biochemical & cytomorphologic study on Hashimoto′s thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed predominance of females in the study population in 21-40 yr age group with diffuse goiter. We suggest that in an endemic zone for goiter, all women of the child bearing age should be screened for HT.

  15. Biochemical And Environmental Studies On Hepatoma Patients In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zakhary, Nadia I.; El-Aaser, Abdelbaset A.; Michael, Michael S.; El-Demerdash, Salwa; Kamel, Refaat; Hamza, Mohamed R.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was carried out on 102 hepatoma patients collected mainly from the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the period 1988-1991 . Environmental and personal data were collected for each patient. These data included their age, sex and occupation. Previous history of fertilisers were also considered. The study revealed a peak of age of primary liver cancer, among Egyptians, between the fifth and sixth decades, since 32.4% and 28.4% of patients were aging from 50-60...

  16. A pilot study on the isolation and biochemical characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, there has been a renewed interest in the search of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for sustainable crop production. Rice is an economically important food crop, which is subjected to infection by a host of fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, an attempt was made to isolate ...

  17. Creation of Simple Biochemical Systems to Study Early Cellular Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruma, Yutetsu

    2015-09-01

    A constructive model of the minimal cell that can produce lipids internally was proposed by reconstructing a set of enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. This will be an promising approach to study not only for potential reconstruction of LUCA-like organisms but also for construction of artificial cells.

  18. Biochemical studies on changes associated with enzymes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Even at moribund stage, the glycolytic pathway was not affected, as evident from the normal activity of aldolase observed in the present study. Key words: WSSV, P. monodon, glucose, gluconeogenic enzymes, glycolytic enzymes. INTRODUCTION. The diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp include infec-.

  19. Biochemical and physiological studies on the effects of senescence leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Kumar, Viney; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Triticum vulgare (Wheat) based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar). During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed's germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  20. Biochemical and genetic studies on degradation of chlorobenzoates by Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H; Kahlon, R S

    1989-01-01

    The chlorobenzoates constitute an important class of recalcitrant compounds polluting this biosphere. Two bacterial strains B16 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and DT4 (Pseudomonas sp.) isolated by enrichment technique were found to utilize 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2-Cba) and 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4-Cba) respectively as sole source of carbon and energy. 2-Cba and 4-Cba were supplemented in synthetic medium at 1500 micrograms/ml and 1000 micrograms/ml (w/v) respectively. Addition of 100 micrograms/ml (w/v) yeast extract stimulated growth of cultures. Degradation studies revealed that substrates were degraded without release of chloride ion with possible accumulation of respective chlorophenols. Respiration studies revealed inducible nature of enzymes for break down of 2-Cba, 4-Cba benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and catechol. Extraction of plasmid DNA from parent strains showed presence of plasmid of same size in both strains. Cured strains showed absence of corresponding plasmid DNA bands thus indicating plasmid-borne genes for degradation of chlorobenzoates.

  1. Psoriasis - a Clinical and Some Biochemical Investigative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Verma

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred thirty two cases of psoriasis were studied. They represented 0.8% of the patients seen in Medical College Hospital, Rohtak. One hundred twenty two cases were between the ages of II 40 years. Ratio of males to females was 4:1. Ten cases gave positive family history, 12 patients had psoriatic lesions over the face and one patient had lesion over the shaft of the penis. Mucous membrane involvement was seen in 7 cases. Hypercalcaemia was seen in 10% of the cases, Ind hypocalcaemia in 15%. High serum magnesium levels were observed in 40% cases. High serum uric acid levels were seen in 26.6% and diabetes was detected in none.

  2. Acute heat stroke. Epidemiologic, biochemical, renal, and coagulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T F

    1975-11-24

    Fifteen Marine recruits with acute heat stroke were examined for (1) predisposing factors, (2) blood coagulation disturbances, (3) renal function abnormalities, and (4) blood composition alterations. Epidemiologic data identified the following risk factors; previous residence in a temperate climate, first phase of training, fatigue, and strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions. Results of blood coagulation studies disclosed an increase in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, with a decrease in platelet count, probably indicating a transient, low-grade consumptive process. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were normal. Only mild elevations of SGOT, SGPT, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were noted, and in combination with clinical observations, they argued against significant muscle damage. No deaths or instances of renal failure occurred.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SO-CALLED SYPHILIS ANTIGEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo; Bronfenbrenner, J.

    1911-01-01

    The liver tissues of man and certain animals (dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.) yield, upon alcoholic extraction, various substances which may be divided by their physical and chemical properties into several groups. While many substances are present in the alcoholic extract, the ones possessing antigenic properties are comparatively few. The latter are responsible for the antigenic properties exhibited by the whole alcoholic extract. The substances extracted with alcohol were fractionated into the following four groups. (a) Substances Insoluble in Ether and Hot Alcohol.—These are chiefly proteins and salts. The proteins are probably the minute particles of larger molecules held in apparent suspension in alcohol until all other substances are removed. The water extracted from the tissues and admixed with alcohol is also an essential factor in extracting these particles in an alcoholic solution. The salts present are the usual physiological constituents of the liver, notably, sodium chloride. The quantity of these substances extracted with alcohol varies greatly with different specimens. Biologically considered, they are neither markedly hemolytic nor anticomplementary and possess no antigenic property for the Wassermann reaction. It is important, however, to note that the proteins bind complement when mixed with certain active human sera. For this reason a preparation of antigen containing this group of substances is unsuitable for use in combination with an active serum, and should, therefore, be rejected. (b) Substances Insoluble in Ether and Soluble in Hot Alcohol.—This group contains soaps, cleavage products of proteins, and small amounts of the bile salts. Soaps and bile salts are very strongly hemolytic and are absolutely unfit for use as antigen. Moreover, their antigenic properties are very slight. It is best to eliminate this group of substances from the preparation of antigen. The quantity of the substances of this group extracted from different

  4. Copper phytoextraction by Salvinia cucullata: biochemical and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Goswami, Sunayana

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of copper on photosynthesis, antioxidant potential, and anatomical response of aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata, with a view to ascertain its phytoremediation potential. Plants were exposed in hydroponics for 21 days to different Cu concentrations (10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/L). Significant declines in chlorophyll, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as a function of Cu proportion were observed. Lipid peroxidation was also evident, which implied reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, both root and leaf tissues responded remarkably to the ROS produced, by inducing superoxide dismutase (1.6-6.5 times), catalase (1.5-5.4 times), guaicol peroxidase (1.5-7.2 times), and ascorbyl peroxidase (1.3-4.7 times) over the control. The plant showed best phytoremedial activity within Cu range of 10-15 mg/L, with maximum accumulation of 2956 ± 82.6 μg/g dw., at 15 mg Cu/L and showed efficient root to shoot translocation (translocation factor, TF > 1) at this range, which is the stipulated minimum requirement to be a hyperaccumulator. The capacity of metal extraction from environment to leaf (extraction coefficient, EC) was also high (EC = 73-197). However, at higher doses (20-30 mg/L), the plant resorted to an exclusion strategy, whereby, more metal accumulation was observed in root than in leaf. The plant conferred suitable remediation attributes by showing minimal root and leaf anatomical damages along with high Ca peaks in both the tissues, and rapid leaf stomatal closure, all of which probably helped in the Cu induced stress mitigation. Due to its widespread availability, fast growth, ability to grow in myriads of polluted environment, and having hardy physiology, this plant can be suggested for use as a suitable Cu phytoremediator.

  5. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats Supplemented with Three. Sources of Vegetable Oils. 1K.E. Imafidon and *2L. .... fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dehydrated embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Statistical Analysis. All data were expressed as mean± ...

  6. End organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus : biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was to evaluate biomarkers of cardiovascular end organ damage in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. We performed cross-sectional studies with biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. We have demonstrated that insulin resistance is a strong

  7. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...

  8. Cultured neurons as model systems for biochemical and pharmacological studies on receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, A; Drejer, J; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1985-01-01

    By the use of primary cultures of neurons consisting of cerebral cortex interneurons or cerebellar granule cells it is possible to study biochemical and pharmacological aspects of receptors for GABA and glutamate. Cerebellar granule cells have been shown to express both high- and low-affinity GAB...

  9. Feasibility of biochemical verification in a web-based smoking cessation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sarah; Ganz, Ollie; Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-10-01

    Cogent arguments have been made against the need for biochemical verification in population-based studies with low-demand characteristics. Despite this fact, studies involving digital interventions (low-demand) are often required in peer review to report biochemically verified abstinence. To address this discrepancy, we examined the feasibility and costs of biochemical verification in a web-based study conducted with a national sample. Participants were 600U.S. adult current smokers who registered on a web-based smoking cessation program and completed surveys at baseline and 3months. Saliva sampling kits were sent to participants who reported 7-day abstinence at 3months, and analyzed for cotinine. The response rate at 3-months was 41.2% (n=247): 93 participants reported 7-day abstinence (38%) and were mailed a saliva kit (71% returned). The discordance rate was 36.4%. Participants with discordant responses were more likely to report 3-month use of nicotine replacement therapy or e-cigarettes than those with concordant responses (79.2% vs. 45.2%, p=0.007). The total cost of saliva sampling was $8280 ($125/sample). Biochemical verification was both time- and cost-intensive, and yielded a relatively small number of samples due to low response rates and use of other nicotine products during the follow-up period. There was a high rate of discordance of self-reported abstinence and saliva testing. Costs for data collection may be prohibitive for studies with large sample sizes or limited budgets. Our findings echo previous statements that biochemical verification is not necessary in population-based studies, and add evidence specific to technology-based studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Zoledronic acid as compared with observation in multiple myeloma patients at biochemical relapse: results of the randomized AZABACHE Spanish trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Ramón; Oriol, Albert; Moreno, María J; de la Rubia, Javier; Payer, Angel R; Hernández, Miguel T; Palomera, Luis; Teruel, Ana I; Blanchard, María J; Gironella, Mercedes; Ribas, Paz; Bargay, Joan; Abellá, Eugenia; Granell, Miquel; Ocio, Enrique M; Ribera, Josep M; San Miguel, Jesús F; Mateos, María V

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the anti-myeloma effect of zoledronic acid monotherapy by investigating patients at the time of asymptomatic biochemical relapse. One hundred patients were randomized to receive either zoledronic acid (4 mg iv/4 weeks, 12 doses) (n=51) or not (n=49). Experimental and control groups were well balanced for disease and prognostic features. Zoledronic acid did not show an antitumor effect according to changes in M-component. However, there were fewer symptomatic progressions in the experimental group than in the control group (34 versus 41, respectively; P=0.05) resulting in a median time to symptoms of 16 versus 10 months (P=0.161). The median time to next therapy was also slightly longer for the treated group than the untreated, control group (13.4 versus 10.1 months), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.360). The pattern of relapses was different for treated versus control patients: progressive bone disease (8 versus 20), anemia (24 versus 18), renal dysfunction (1 versus 2), and plasmacytomas (1 versus 1, respectively). This concurred with fewer skeletal-related events in the treated group than in the control group (2 versus 14), with a projected 4-year event proportion of 6% versus 40% (P<0.001). In summary, zoledronic acid monotherapy does not show an antitumor effect on biochemical relapses in multiple myeloma, but does reduce the risk of progression with symptomatic bone disease and skeletal complications. This trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database with code NCT01087008. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Biochemically altered human erythrocytes as a carrier for targeted delivery of primaquine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Fars K; Harisa, Gamal El-Din I; Maqboul, Ahmad; Abdel-Hamid, Magdi; Neau, Steven H; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate human erythrocytes as a carrier for targeted drug delivery of primaquine (PQ). The process of PQ loading in human erythrocytes, as well as the effect of PQ loading on the oxidative status of erythrocytes, was also studied. At PQ concentrations of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/mL and an incubation time of 2 h, the ratios of the concentrations of PQ entrapped in erythrocytes to that in the incubation medium were 0.515, 0.688, 0.697 and 0.788, respectively. The maximal decline of erythrocyte reduced glutathione content was observed at 8 mg/mL of PQ compared with native erythrocytes p erythrocytes was increased in comparison with unloaded cells. Electron microscopy revealed spherocyte formation with PQ carrier erythrocytes. PQ-loaded cells showed sustained drug release over a 48 h period. Erythrocytes were loaded with PQ successfully, but there were some biochemical as well as physiological changes that resulted from the effect of PQ on the oxidative status of drug-loaded erythrocytes. These changes may result in favorable targeting of PQ-loaded cells to reticulo-endothelial organs. The relative impact of these changes remains to be explored in ongoing animal studies.

  13. COMPARATIVE GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOUR STRAINS OF Nostoc AND Anabaena (CYANOBACTERIA, NOSTOCALES IN RELATION TO SODIUM NITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Rosales Loaiza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNitrogen concentration is an essential parameter in cyanobacterial cultures to produce enriched biomass with biotechnological purposes. Growth and biochemical composition of Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 and Anabaena sp.2 were compared at 0, 4.25, 8.5 and 17 mM NaNO3. Cultures under laboratory conditions were maintained for 30 days at a volume of 500 mL. Anabaena sp.1 yielded the highest value of dry mass of 0.26 ± 2.49 mg mL-1 at 8.5 mM NaNO3. For chlorophyll, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, maximum values were achieved at 17 mM NaNO3 with 18.09 ± 1.74, 102.90 ± 6.73 and 53.47 ± 2.40 μg mL-1, respectively. Nostoc LAUN0015 produced its maximum value of protein 644.86 ± 19.77 μg mL-1, and 890 mg mL-1 of carbohydrates in the absence of nitrogen. This comparative study shows that the most efficient strain for the production of protein, carbohydrates and lipids in diazotrophic conditions corresponded to Nostoc LAUN0015. However, Anabaena sp.1 and Anabaena sp.2 required high nitrogen concentrations to achieve higher values of metabolites, comparing with Nostoc strains. Nitrogen dependence for the production of pigments and high protein production in strains of Anabaena and in diazotrophic conditions for Nostoc was demonstrated. Nostoc can be cultured under nitrogen deficiency and Anabaena in sufficiency, for biomass production enriched with proteins and carbohydrates.Comparación del crecimiento y Composición Bioquímica de cuatro cepas de Nostoc y Anabaena (Cyanobacteria, Nostocales en relación con el nitrato de sodioRESUMENLa concentración de nitrógeno constituye un parámetro esencial en cultivos de cianobacterias para la producción de biomasa enriquecida con fines biotecnológicos. Se comparó el crecimiento y composición bioquímica de las cepas Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 y Anabaena sp.2 a 0, 4,25; 8,5 y 17 mM NaNO3. Los cultivos en condiciones de laboratorio fueron mantenidos durante 30 d

  14. Auxologic, biochemical and clinical (ABC) profile of low birth weight babies- a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, K E; Krishnan, Viji; Zachariah, Philip

    2007-12-01

    Low Birth Weight (LBW) is a key determinant of neonatal mortality, morbidity, subsequent growth and development as well as early onset of adulthood diseases. It represents a conflation of two outcomes-preterm- and term 'light for date' (LFD) babies. This study looks at key auxologic, biochemical and clinical (ABC) parameters of a cohort of LBW babies, both preterm- and term in comparison to a group of normal-term (control) babies. An attempt was also made to see how these parameters were at the end of a 2 year follow-up period with the currently available interventions. A cohort of 500 babies was selected at birth from a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kerala, India, key ABC indices were measured including relevant maternal data. The initial biochemical measurements were done using umbilical cord blood. Currently recommended nutritional interventions were provided to all the normal and LBW babies. At the end of 2 years, the measurements were repeated in a subset of babies available for follow-up (n = 147). From the cohort of 500 babies, two had to be eliminated as biochemical parameters could not be done due to technical reasons from the available umbilical cord blood. They were categorized into three groups: preterm-LBW (11.85%), term-LBW (38.55%) and normal-term controls (49.6%). The maternal characteristics like socio-economic status, maternal weight, height, BMI and hemoglobin levels were comparable in the three subsets. All of them belonged to middle or low-socio-economic status representing the non-affluent. In the initial group (n = 498), all the auxologic measurements and the nutrients measured namely, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron levels were significantly lower (p birth compared to term-normal babies, this was lowest among the preterm babies. As this reserve may be further lowered by recurrent infections and inappropriate feeding habits, there is a need for special feeding and nutrient

  15. Estimation of salivary lactate dehydrogenase in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrikant; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is found in the cells of almost all body tissues. The profile of salivary total LDH enzymes is similar to that found in oral epithelium, indicating that the major source of salivary LDH is probably the oral epithelium-shedding cells. Consequently, LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Study comprised of three groups as follows: Group I: Comprised of 25 healthy individuals of comparable age. Group II: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting patients with oral leukoplakia (OL). Group III: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Biochemical estimation of LDH was done with the help of Semiautomatic Analyzer. Inter comparison of salivary total LDH levels between all the three groups revealed that salivary LDH levels increase from healthy control group to Oral Leukoplakia group to further increase in OSCC group. On comparisons between the histopathological grades of OSCC group the level of LDH were found to increase from well differentiated to moderately differentiated to further increase in poorly differentiated patients. The present salivary analysis for LDH enzyme reveals an overall altered salivary LDH enzyme level in OL and OSCC cases.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3′- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumMill.) Infected byAlternaria alternataand Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3'- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H 2 O 2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H 2 O 2 . The reduction in CAT

  18. Effect of Topical Tetracycline Gel with Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hba1c and Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Clinico- Biochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian-Ardakani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the Effect of topical tetracycline gel application with non surgical periodontal therapy on HbA1c and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 30 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received scaling and root planning, whereas the second group received scaling and root planning with topically applied tetracycline gel. Clinical factors such as GI, PI, PPD and biochemical factors such as HbA1c and lipid profile were assessed in beginning of study and 3 months later. Results: Comparing the clinical factors between the two groups revealed that periodontal pocket depth significantly reduced in tetracycline-received group. Regarding the biochemical factors, triglyceride levels decreased significantly in tetracycline-received group. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in regard with other clinical and biochemical factors. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that clinical and biochemical parameters have been improved after non surgical periodontal treatment in both groups. Although it seems that application of topical tetracycline gel combined with non-surgical periodontal therapy is effective in improvement of some clinical and biochemical factors like PPD and TG, it doesn’t offer any superiority in regard with other factors compared to mere non surgical periodontal therapy.

  19. Biochemical monitoring after initiation of aldosterone antagonist therapy in users of renin-angiotensin system blockers: a UK primary care cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Schmidt, Morten; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea; Tomlinson, Laurie A

    2017-11-16

    To determine the frequency of biochemical monitoring after initiation of aldosterone antagonists(AA) in patients also using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB). UK primary care. ACEI/ARB users who initiated AA between 2004 and 2014. We calculated the proportions with: (1) biochemical monitoring ≤2 weeks post initiation of AA, (2) adverse biochemical values ≤2 months (potassium ≥6 mmol/L, creatinine ≥220 µmol/L and ≥30% increase in creatinine from baseline) and (3) discontinuers of AA in those with an adverse biochemical value. We used logistic regression to study patient characteristics associated with monitoring and adverse biochemical values. In 10 546 initiators of AA, 3291 (31.2%) had a record of biochemical monitoring ≤2 weeks post initiation. A total of 2.0% and 2.7% of those with follow-up monitoring within 2 months of initiation experienced potassium ≥6 mmol/L and creatinine ≥220 µmol/L, respectively, whereas 13.5% had a ≥30% increase in creatinine. Baseline potassium (OR 3.59, 95% CI 2.43 to 5.32 for 5.0-5.5 mmol/L compared with biochemical monitoring within 2 weeks of initiating AAs. Higher levels of monitoring may reduce adverse biochemical events. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Comparative analysis and validation of the malachite green assay for the high throughput biochemical characterization of terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; Faraldos, Juan A; O'Maille, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest group of natural products with important and diverse biological roles, while of tremendous economic value as fragrances, flavours and pharmaceutical agents. Class-I terpene synthases (TPSs), the dominant type of TPS enzymes, catalyze the conversion of prenyl diphosphates to often structurally diverse bioactive terpene hydrocarbons, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). To measure their kinetic properties, current bio-analytical methods typically rely on the direct detection of hydrocarbon products by radioactivity measurements or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study we employed an established, rapid colorimetric assay, the pyrophosphate/malachite green assay (MG), as an alternative means for the biochemical characterization of class I TPSs activity.•We describe the adaptation of the MG assay for turnover and catalytic efficiency measurements of TPSs.•We validate the method by direct comparison with established assays. The agreement of k cat/K M among methods makes this adaptation optimal for rapid evaluation of TPSs.•We demonstrate the application of the MG assay for the high-throughput screening of TPS gene libraries.

  1. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  2. Structural and Biochemical Studies of TIGAR (TP53-induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator)*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hua; Jogl, Gerwald

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule ...

  3. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Oganesyants Lev; Panasyuk Alexander; Kuzmina Helen

    2015-01-01

    One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine l...

  4. Comparative evaluation of biochemical changes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. infected by Alternaria alternata and its toxic metabolites (TeA, AOH and AME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Meena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and tenuazonic acid (TeA. The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of H2O2 produced was reported in pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold, AOH (15.9-fold, and AME (14.1-fold in treated tissues. DAB staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death were measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and MDA content was higher (15.8-fold at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of pathogen, when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. SOD, activity was 5.9- fold higher at 72 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold, AOH (4.1-fold and AME (2.3-fold treated leaves than control. Catalase activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. APx and GR activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT activities after 48 h post inoculation demonstrate that the biochemical defense programming shown by the host against the pathogen is not well efficient

  5. Effect of Short Term NaCl Stress on Cultivars of S. lycopersicum: A Comparative Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.

  6. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  7. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hashem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic, inulin (prebiotic and both (synbiotics, when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old. The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets (additional aflatoxins, protexin, inulin and symbiotic. The birds were weighed and sacrificed at the age of 21 days. Compared to the controls, aflatoxins alone significantly (p<0.05 decreased body weight gain in one group. No difference in body weight gain was found in three groups, indicating apparent protection against the deleterious effects caused by aflatoxins. The weight gain of chicks fed on the diet containing synbiotics alone or synbiotics and aflatoxins was significantly (p<0.05 greater than that of chicks on a diet containing the other treatments. The birds the second group showed significant (p<0.05 reduction in the haematological parameters in comparison with the controls. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable (p<0.05 increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, uric acid and creatinine levels, with a reduction in the serum total proteins, albumin and globulins. The addition of protexin, inulin, or both, diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxins. Finally, it was concluded that the protexin, inulin and synergism of both are effective in the amelioration of the toxic effects of aflatoxins that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg diet. Synbiotics (protexin and inulin are more effective than the protexin and the inulin alone which are variable in the alleviation of toxic effects caused by aflatoxins.

  8. Yoga Practice Improves Physiological and Biochemical Status at High Altitudes: A Prospective Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himashree, Gidugu; Mohan, Latika; Singh, Yogesh

    2016-09-01

    Context • High altitude (HA) is a psychophysiological stressor for natives of lower altitudes. Reducing the morbidity and optimizing the performance of individuals deployed in an HA region has been attempted and reported with varied results. Objective • The present study intended to explore the effects of comprehensive yogic practices on the health and performance of Indian soldiers deployed at HAs. Design • The research team designed a prospective, randomized, case-control study. The study was done at Karu, Leh, India, at an altitude of 3445 m. Participants • Fully acclimatized soldiers in the Indian army were randomly selected from those posted to HA regions (ie, altitudes >3000 m). Intervention • The soldiers were divided into 2 groups of equal size. The first group, the control group, carried out the routine activities for physical training in the Indian army. The second group, the intervention group practiced a comprehensive yoga package, including physical asanas, pranayama, and meditation, and did not perform the physical training that the first group did. Both groups were monitored during their activities. Outcome Measures • A wide and comprehensive range of anthropometrical, physiological, biochemical, and psychological parameters were measured: (1) height and weight; (2) body fat percentage (BFP); (3) heart rate (HR); (4) respiratory rate (RR); (5) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DPB); (6) peripheral saturation of oxygen; (7) end tidal CO2 (EtCO2); (8) chest expansion; (9) pulmonary function; (10) physical work capacity (VO2Max); (11) hematological variables; (12) lipid profile; (13) serum urea; (14) creatinine; (15) liver enzymes; (16) blood glucose; and (17) anxiety scores. Measurements were made at baseline and postintervention. Results • Two-hundred soldiers took part in the study. The yoga group showed a significant improvement in health indices and performance as compared with the control group. They had lower weights, BFPs, RRs

  9. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  10. Biochemical studies on some zooplankton off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Rao, T.S.S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Proximate biochemical analyses on twelve zooplankton species showed that protein was the predominant biochemical component followed by lipid. Carbohydrate content was very low especially in species with high water content or calcareous shell...

  11. Comparative effects of Cd and Pb on biochemical response and DNA damage in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Yun; Cui, Yibin; Li, Dingsheng; Kong, Zhiming

    2009-02-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on the environment in China. Biochemical and comet assays were conducted on the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a suitable bio-indicator organism for evaluating soil pollution after exposure to two heavy metals, Cd and Pb. Protein content increased at low Cd concentrations (pearthworm was more sensitive to the effects of Cd.

  12. Comparative biochemical and pathological changes in some laboratory animals experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and their responses to diminazene diaceturate (Veriben® therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the biochemical and pathological changes of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice, rats and rabbits, and study the chemotherapeutic effects according to standard criteria. Methods: A total of 20 Balb/c Albino mice, 20 Wister Albino rats and 20 New Zealand rabbits, all adults and of both sexes were used in the study. Each rodent group was divided into four groups (A, B, C and D of five animals each. Animals in Groups A and C were individually infected with 0.5 mL of blood from donor rats containing 1.5 ××106 Trypanasoma brucei brucei, while Groups B and D remained uninfected. The animals were later treated like this: Group A (infected and untreated control, Group B (uninfected and untreated control, Group C (infected and treated and Group D (uninfected and treated. The treatment was administered on Day 12 after infection. Results: The prepatent period for mice and rats was 4 days while that for rabbits was 8 days. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in levels of liver enzymes and serum metabolites which were more marked among the mice and rats than rabbits. These changes were modulated to their preinfection values in the infected treated animals. At necropsy, all animals showed splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and nephritis. However, cardiomegaly was exclusive to the rabbits. Histopathologically, degenerative changes were observed in both the liver and kidneys which were more severe among mice and rats and moderate in rabbits. Spleen of mice showed giant macrophages, while that of the rats showed epithelioid giant cells. However, spleen of rabbits showed haemosiderosis and eosinophilic infiltrations. Hydrophobic degeneration, necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltrations in the myocardium were observed only among rabbits. Conclusions: Diminazene diaceturate was able to ameliorate the various biochemical and pathological changes which were suggestive of severe liver and kidney dysfunctions with greater intensity occurring

  13. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates: evaluation of anaerobic biodegradability using data from an international interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raposo, F.; Fernandez-Cegri, V.; Rubia, de la M.A.; Borja, R.; Beline, F.; Cavinato, C.; Demirer, G.; Fernandez, B.; Fernandez-Polanco, M.; Frigon, J.C.; Ganesh, R.; Kaparaju, P.; Koubova, J.; Mendez, R.; Menin, G.; Peene, A.; Scherer, P.; Torrijos, M.; Uellendahl, H.; Wierinck, I.; Wilde, de V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and

  14. CDIO Projects in DTU’s Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. Study Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Karsten; Harris, Pernille; Agersø, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    plant, the 2nd semester laboratory project concerning antimicrobial resistant E. coli bacteria in retail meats, the 3rd semester project on unit operations in enzyme production, the 4th semester project on the fermentation and purification part of enzyme production.......The aim of this paper is to describe how the CDIO standards [1] have influenced the cross-disciplinary projects that are part of the study plan for the Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. program. Four projects are described: The 1st semester design-build project on cleaning of waste water from a power...

  15. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, E O; Adeneye, A A; Daramola, A O

    2009-05-07

    The effects of long-term administration of boiled aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (SYZ), commonly known as clove (which has been locally employed for treating gastrointestinal tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as body weight, liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes. Selected doses of 300 and 700 mg kg(-1) were given orally through cannular to groups of animals for a period of 90 days, while the control group received distilled water throughout the duration of study via the same route. Blood samples collected after therapy and assayed for activities of some liver enzymes recorded a significant (p<0.05) and prominent effect on ALP and AST. Measurement of haematological parameters also revealed significant effects (p<0.05; p<0.001) on Hb, RBC (p<0.05), PCV (p<0.001), platelets (p<0.001) and granulocytes (p<0.001). An insignificant reduction was recorded for total WBC. The histopathological study conducted was in consonance with the results of the biochemical investigations that the aqueous extract of SYZ even at moderate doses, significantly affects body organs, their enzymes as well as the various functions. LD(50) for both intraperitoneal and oral routes of SYZ were 263 and 2500 mg kg(-1) respectively. The present work has revealed the toxicity of sub chronic administration of SYZ, which suggests that its prolonged usage must be avoided.

  16. Stoichiometry of the large conductance bacterial mechanosensitive channel of E. coli. A biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharev, S. I.; Schroeder, M. J.; McCaslin, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    MscL, a 15 kDa transmembrane protein, is the only component involved in the formation of a 3 nS channel in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli that opens in response to mechanical or osmotic stress. While previous data had suggested that the functional MscL complex might be a hexamer, a recent crystallographic study of the MscL homologue from M. tuberculosis reveals a pentameric structure. The present work further examines the stoichiometry of the E. coli MscL using a variety of biochemical approaches. Detergent-purified 6His-MscL in solution and MscL in the membrane could be chemically crosslinked with the products displaying ladderlike patterns on SDS gels. Three crosslinking agents (EDC, DMS, and DMA) used at saturating concentrations invariably generated pentamers as the largest product. DSS produced additional bands corresponding to larger complexes although the pentamer band appeared to be the predominant product at high levels of crosslinker. It is not clear whether these extra bands reflect a difference in the crosslinking chemistry of DSS or whether its spacer arm is the longest of those used, or a combination of both facts. For the detergent-solubilized 6His-MscL both sedimentation equilibrium and gel chromatography showed the presence of multiple species. Thus the longer spacer arm could permit both intra- and intercomplex linkages. Nonetheless, the patterns obtained with all agents are consistent with and strongly suggest a pentameric organization for the MscL channel. Expression of MscL as genetically engineered double or triple subunit tandems yields low numbers of functional channels as compared to expressed monomers. The double-tandem assemblies must have an even number of subunits and crosslinking in the membrane confirmed hexamerization. Gel chromatography clearly demonstrated that the channels formed from the double tandems were larger than those formed from WT MscL, consistent with the native channel being pentameric. The observation that

  17. Biochemical factors in the lens opacities. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, M C; Wu, S Y; Hyman, L; Sperduto, R; Underwood, B; Chylack, L T; Milton, R C; Srivastava, S; Ansari, N

    1995-09-01

    To evaluate associations with biochemical indicators of nutritional and other risk factors in the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study determined risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular opacities among 1380 participants aged 40 to 79 years. Vitamin E, selenium, and biochemistry profile determinations were performed on all patients; red blood cell enzymes and amino acids were measured in systematic samples of about 25% of the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study population. Laboratory test values in cases and controls were compared and expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In polychotomous logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex, the risk of opacities was reduced to less than one half in persons with higher levels of vitamin E (odds ratio, 0.44 for nuclear opacities), albumin-globulin ratio (odds ratio, 0.41 for mixed opacities), or iron (odds ratio, 0.43 for cortical opacities); higher uric acid levels increased risk (odds ratio, 1.74 for mixed opacities). Persons with opacities were twice as likely to have high glutathione reductase activity (with flavin adenine dinucleotide), which suggests low riboflavin status (odds ratio, 2.13). Most odds ratios for amino acids were under unity and were significantly decreased for glycine (0.36) and aspartic acid (0.31). Lens opacities were associated with lower levels of riboflavin, vitamin E, iron, and protein nutritional status. Higher levels of uric acid increased risk of mixed opacities. The findings for riboflavin, vitamin E, iron, and uric acid are compatible with the dietary intake and medical history results of the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study.

  18. Biochemical and histological studies on adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shaymaa; El-Saba, Abdel-Aleem; Galal, Mona K

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of electronic technologies, the public concern about the potential health hazards induced by radiofrequency (RF) radiation has been grown. To investigate the effect of 1800MHz RF radiation emitted from mobile phone on the rat's brain, the present study was performed. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two equal groups; control and exposed group. The later one exposed to 1800MHz emitted from mobile phone with an SAR value of 0.6W/kg for two hours/day for three months. The brain tissues were collected at the end of the experimental period and separated into hippocampus and cerebellum for subsequent biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic investigations. The rats that were exposed to RF- radiation had a significant elevation in MDA content and a significant reduction in antioxidant parameters (glutathione, super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in both regions. Degenerative changes were observed in the hippocampus pyramidal cells, dark cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells with vascular congestion. In addition a significant DNA fragmentation and over expression of cyclooxygenase-2 apoptotic gene was detected. Those results suggested that, direct chronic exposure to mobile phone caused severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: Clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and molecular studies in 88 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine metabolism caused by mutations in MCCC1 or MCCC2 encoding the α and β subunit of MCC, respectively. The phenotype is highly variable ranging from acute neonatal onset with fatal outcome to asymptomatic adults. Methods We report clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and mutation data of 88 MCC deficient individuals, 53 identified by newborn screening, 26 diagnosed due to clinical symptoms or positive family history and 9 mothers, identified following the positive newborn screening result of their baby. Results Fifty-seven percent of patients were asymptomatic while 43% showed clinical symptoms, many of which were probably not related to MCC deficiency but due to ascertainment bias. However, 12 patients (5 of 53 identified by newborn screening presented with acute metabolic decompensations. We identified 15 novel MCCC1 and 16 novel MCCC2 mutant alleles. Additionally, we report expression studies on 3 MCCC1 and 8 MCCC2 mutations and show an overview of all 132 MCCC1 and MCCC2 variants known to date. Conclusions Our data confirm that MCC deficiency, despite low penetrance, may lead to a severe clinical phenotype resembling classical organic acidurias. However, neither the genotype nor the biochemical phenotype is helpful in predicting the clinical course.

  20. Further studies on biochemical characteristics and serologic properties of the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J M; Abbott, S L; Khashe, S; Kellogg, G H; Shimada, T

    1996-08-01

    We characterized a collection of 268 Aeromonas isolates from diverse sources (clinical, animal, and environmental sources) for their species and serogroup designations. Overall, 97% of these strains could be identified to the genomospecies level by using an expanded battery of biochemical tests. Members of the Aeromonas hydrophila complex (A. hydrophila, HG2, and A. salmonicida), a group that has previously been difficult to separate biochemically, could easily be distinguished from one another by using a number of recently described phenotypic properties which included utilization of DL-lactate and urocanic acid. Differences in species distributions on the basis of the source of isolation were noted. Serogroup analysis of these 268 isolates plus a number of reference cultures indicated that (i) each genomospecies is serologically heterogeneous and individual serogroups can be found in more than one species, (ii) most type or reference strains for each hybridization group are not serologically representative of the genomospecies at large, (iii) serogroups O:11, O:34, and O:16 predominate clinically (48%), supporting previous studies indicating their importance in human infections, and (iv) most A. trota strains do not express the O139 antigen of Vibrio cholerae. The collective results suggest that both species and serogroup designations are important factors in establishing which isolates can cause human infections when they are acquired from nonclinical sources (foods, animals, and the environment).

  1. Comparative Study of Prestress Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boukendakdji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the prestress losses as calculated by four different design codes; British standard CP110, Comite Europeen du Beton 70 and 78, American Concrete Institute 77 and the Prestressed Concrete Institute method (PCI. The comparison is done by determining the total losses which take place in a rectangular prestressed concrete beam for both pre-tensioning and post-tensioning systems. The results show that total losses calculated for the post-tensioning method are higher than those calculated for the pre-tensioning method, which is not the usual case. It seems that the PCI method may be required for special structures or for simply supported slender members which may be sensitive to small changes in deflections. However, for non-special structures, or where actual losses have little effect on the design, it is better to compute losses by the ACI method because it is simple and does take into considerations interactions between the various sources of losses. However, it is not possible to conclude which method gives the more accurate prediction of shrinkage and creep without direct co-relation to realistic insitu data.

  2. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in Indian Gaddi (goat) breed bucks: clinical, hemato-biochemical, parasitological and chemotherapeutic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgil, Aman Dev; Sharma, Ankur; Verma, Madan Singh; Kumar, Ravindra; Dogra, Pradeep Kumar; Moudgil, Pallavi

    2017-12-01

    The present study was envisaged with an aim to evaluate gastrointestinal parasitic infections in a herd of conserved Gaddi (goat) breed bucks (6-9 months of age) kept on semi-intensive feeding management. The individuals (n = 20) representing the herd were selected and divided into two groups; group I (n = 10), clinically ill and group II (n = 10), sub clinically infected individuals. The clinical examination revealed anemia, emaciation and rise in body temperature of the individuals of group I as compared to group II. The detailed copro-parasitological examination and copro-culture revealed the presence of eggs of Moniezia expansa and larvae of Haemonchus species, respectively in the fecal samples of both clinically and sub clinically infected individuals. The hemato-biochemical parameters proved vital indicators of the health of group I individuals and exhibited decline in the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count as compared to group II. Significant (P < 0.05) hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia and increased levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were observed in infected individuals as compared to treated ones. The detailed parasitological, hemato-biochemical observations and clinical findings elucidated and supported the presence of concurrent gastrointestinal parasitism in the herd. The significant improvement was observed in the health status of the herd after 1 month of the therapeutic management, which was carried out using a combination of fenbendazole and praziquantel in both clinically and sub clinically infected individuals.

  3. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

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    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado Borges, Mariane; de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Fabiana; Weiss Telles, Rosa; Melo de Andrade, Marcus Vinícius; Toulson Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV=pre-treatment (T0)-post-treatment (T1) concentrations] between groups. p<0.05 was considered significant. The median (interquartile range - IQR) of age was 37 (29-48) years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13) years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2). The median (IQR) of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p=0.008). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius Melo de; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    2016-09-22

    Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV=pre-treatment (T0) minus post-treatment (T1) concentrations] between groups. p<0.05 was considered significant. The median (interquartile range - IQR) of age was 37 (29-48) years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13) years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2). The median (IQR) of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p=0.008). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Curado Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP and other inflammatory mediators. Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795; 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997 were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080 mg EPA + 200 mg DHA, for 12 weeks and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV = pre-treatment (T0 − post-treatment (T1 concentrations] between groups. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The median (interquartile range - IQR of age was 37 (29-48 years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13 years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2. The median (IQR of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p = 0.008. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Conclusions: Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol.

  8. Versatile toolbox for high throughput biochemical and functional studies with fluorescent fusion proteins.

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    Garwin Pichler

    Full Text Available Fluorescent fusion proteins are widely used to study protein localization and interaction dynamics in living cells. However, to fully characterize proteins and to understand their function it is crucial to determine biochemical characteristics such as enzymatic activity and binding specificity. Here we demonstrate an easy, reliable and versatile medium/high-throughput method to study biochemical and functional characteristics of fluorescent fusion proteins. Using a new system based on 96-well micro plates comprising an immobilized GFP-binding protein (GFP-mulitTrap, we performed fast and efficient one-step purification of different GFP- and YFP-fusion proteins from crude cell lysate. After immobilization we determined highly reproducible binding ratios of cellular expressed GFP-fusion proteins to histone-tail peptides, DNA or selected RFP-fusion proteins. In particular, we found Cbx1 preferentially binding to di-and trimethylated H3K9 that is abolished by phosphorylation of the adjacent serine. DNA binding assays showed, that the MBD domain of MeCP2 discriminates between fully methylated over unmethylated DNA and protein-protein interactions studies demonstrate, that the PBD domain of Dnmt1 is essential for binding to PCNA. Moreover, using an ELISA-based approach, we detected endogenous PCNA and histone H3 bound at GFP-fusions. In addition, we quantified the level of H3K4me2 on nucleosomes containing different histone variants. In summary, we present an innovative medium/high-throughput approach to analyse binding specificities of fluroescently labeled fusion proteins and to detect endogenous interacting factors in a fast and reliable manner in vitro.

  9. Biochemical Studies of Mycobacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase: A Catalyst for the Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronikolou, Nektaria; Nair, Satish K

    2015-11-19

    Transesterification of fatty acids yields the essential component of biodiesel, but current processes are cost-prohibitive and generate waste. Recent efforts make use of biocatalysts that are effective in diverting products from primary metabolism to yield fatty acid methyl esters in bacteria. These biotransformations require the fatty acid O-methyltransferase (FAMT) from Mycobacterium marinum (MmFAMT). Although this activity was first reported in the literature in 1970, the FAMTs have yet to be biochemically characterized. Here, we describe several crystal structures of MmFAMT, which highlight an unexpected structural conservation with methyltransferases that are involved in plant natural product metabolism. The determinants for ligand recognition are analyzed by kinetic analysis of structure-based active-site variants. These studies reveal how an architectural fold employed in plant natural product biosynthesis is used in bacterial fatty acid O-methylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on salivary myeloperoxidase levels: A biochemical study

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    Mona Dagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO, the most abundant protein in neutrophils, is the focus of inflammatory pathologies. MPO could participate in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with healthy gingiva, gingivitis, periodontitis between age group of 20–55 years were selected. Group I - 20 Patients with healthy gingiva, Group II - 20 Patients with generalized gingivitis, Group III - 20 Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis, Group IV - 20 Patients of Group III after 1-month of scaling and root planning. The following parameters were recorded: Gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, salivary MPO levels. All the parameters were then statistically analyzed. Results: The mean MPO levels in Group I recorded was - 0.320 + 0.06, Group II was - 0.183 + 0.04, Group III was - 0.814 + 0.08 and Group IV was - 0.386 + 0.08 respectively. All these values were statistically significant when compared between the four groups (P < 0.05. A significantly elevated salivary MPO levels were found in subjects with chronic periodontitis as compared to the gingivitis group and the healthy group (P < 0.05. However, moderate but statistically significant increase in the MPO levels were observed in the gingivitis group as compared to the healthy group (P < 0.05. Furthermore, significant reduction in MPO levels were observed in Group IV after 1-month of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Conclusion: The activities of MPO enzyme were significantly increased in the saliva of patients with periodontal disease in comparison to healthy individuals. Furthermore, nonsurgical periodontal therapy was found to be effective in improving clinical parameters and in reducing MPO levels. Salivary enzymes like MPO could be considered as a biochemical marker of periodontal disease activity.

  11. Immunohistochemical and biochemical studies on the collagenous proteins of human osteosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y; Nakanishi, I

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of type I, II, III, IV, V and VI collagens in 20 cases of osteosarcoma was demonstrated immunohistochemically using monospecific antibodies to different collagen types. In addition, biochemical analysis was made on collagenous proteins synthesized by tumor cells in short-term cultures obtained from seven representative cases and compared with dermal fibroblasts. In osteoblastic areas, most of the tumor osteoid consisted exclusively of type I collagen. Type V collagen was associated in some of them. Type III and type VI collagens were mainly localized in the perivascular fibrous stroma. Cultured tumor cells from osteoblastic osteosarcomas produced type I collagen exclusively and small amount of type V collagen constantly, while the synthetic activity of type III collagen was extremely low. In contrast, fibroblastic areas were characterized by the codistribution of type I, III, VI collagens and chondroblastic areas by type I, V, VI collagens as well as type II. Furthermore, type IV collagen was demonstrated in the stroma, other than the basement membrane region of blood vessels, in fibroblastic, intramedullary well-differentiated and telangiectatic osteosarcomas. In vitro, the production of variable amounts of type IV collagen, which was not detected in cultured dermal fibroblasts, was also recognized in the osteoblastic, fibroblastic, undifferentiated and intramedullary well-differentiated osteosarcomas examined. These findings suggest that the immunohistochemical approach using monospecific antibodies to different collagen types is useful not only in identifying some specific organoid components, such as tumor osteoid, but also in disclosing the biological properties of osteosarcoma cells with diverse differentiation.

  12. Oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in the early evolution of life on earth: in silico comparative analysis of biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Ireneusz; Slesak, Halina; Kruk, Jerzy

    2012-08-01

    In the Universe, oxygen is the third most widespread element, while on Earth it is the most abundant one. Moreover, oxygen is a major constituent of all biopolymers fundamental to living organisms. Besides O(2), reactive oxygen species (ROS), among them hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), are also important reactants in the present aerobic metabolism. According to a widely accepted hypothesis, aerobic metabolism and many other reactions/pathways involving O(2) appeared after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, the hypothesis was formulated that the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) was at least able to tolerate O(2) and detoxify ROS in a primordial environment. A comparative analysis was carried out of a number of the O(2)-and H(2)O(2)-involving metabolic reactions that occur in strict anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, and aerobes. The results indicate that the most likely LUCA possessed O(2)-and H(2)O(2)-involving pathways, mainly reactions to remove ROS, and had, at least in part, the components of aerobic respiration. Based on this, the presence of a low, but significant, quantity of H(2)O(2) and O(2) should be taken into account in theoretical models of the early Archean atmosphere and oceans and the evolution of life. It is suggested that the early metabolism involving O(2)/H(2)O(2) was a key adaptation of LUCA to already existing weakly oxic zones in Earth's primordial environment.

  13. Comparative Physiological, Biochemical, and Genetic Responses to Prolonged Waterlogging Stress in Okra and Maize Given Exogenous Ethylene Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vwioko, Emuejevoke; Adinkwu, Onyekachukwu; El-Esawi, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    Waterlogging is an environmental challenge affecting crops worldwide. Ethylene induces the expression of genes linked to important agronomic traits under waterlogged conditions. The ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) and maize (Zea mays L.) given exogenous ethylene priming to tolerate prolonged waterlogged conditions was investigated in this study. The investigation was carried out as field experiments using 3 week-old plants grouped into four treatments; control, waterlogged plants, ethylene priming of plants before waterlogging, and ethylene priming of plants after waterlogging. Different growth parameters were recorded. Soil chemical and bacterial analyses were performed. The activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were studied. The ethylene biosynthetic genes expression analysis and root anatomy of surviving okra plants were also carried out. Results revealed that okra and maize plants showed increase in their height under waterlogged conditions. Ethylene priming and waterlogged conditions induced early production of adventitious roots in okra and maize. Maize survival lasted between 5 and 9 weeks under waterlogging without reaching the flowering stage. However, okra survived up to 15 weeks under waterlogging producing flower buds and fruits in all treatments. Variable changes were also recorded for total soluble phenolics of soil. Cross sections of waterlogged okra roots showed the formation of a dark peripheral layer and numerous large aerenchyma cells which may have assisted in trapping oxygen required for survival. The activity and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were studied and showed higher increases in the root and leaf tissues of okra and maize subjected to both waterlogging and ethylene priming, as compared to control or waterlogged condition. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis also showed that the ethylene biosynthetic gene expression levels in all okra and maize tissues were up-regulated and showed much higher

  14. Brachytherapy Improves Biochemical Failure–Free Survival in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Compared With Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham D. [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Pickles, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kelowna General Hospital, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, L' Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Morris, Jim [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Catton, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, London, Ontario (Canada); Yang, Ying [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Rodrigues, George, E-mail: George.Rodrigues@lhsc.on.ca [University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led

  15. Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

  16. Studies on Nodulation, Biochemical Analysis and Protein Profiles of Rhizobium Isolated From Indigofera species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation characteristics in five species of Indigofera viz., I .trita, I. linnaei, I. astragalina, I. parviflora and I. viscosa was studied at regular intervals on the plants raised in garden soil. Among the species studied, highest average number of nodules per plant of 23 with maximum sized nodules of 8.0 mm diameter was observed in I. astragalina. Biochemical analysis of root nodules of I. astragalina revealed that the leghaemoglobin content of nodules and nitrogen content of root, shoot, leaves and nodules were gradually increased up to 60 DAS, and then decreased with increase in age. Rhizobium isolates of five species of Indigofera were isolated and screened for enzymatic activities and total cellular protein profiles. All the five isolates showed nitrate reductase, citrase, tryptophanase and catalase activity while much variation was observed for enzymes like gelatinase, urease, caseinase, lipase, amylase, lysine decarboxylase and protease activities. Among the isolates studied, only the isolate from I. viscosa has the ability to solubilize the insoluble tricalcium phosphate. All the Rhizobium isolates exhibit similarity in protein content, except the isolate from I. viscosa which showed one additional protein band.

  17. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  18. Toxic effect and biochemical study of chlorfluazuron, oxymatrine, and spinosad on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, Entsar I; Nasr, Hoda M; Badawy, Mohamed E I

    2010-04-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the comparative effects of two insect growth regulators, chlorfluazuron and oxymatrine, and spinosad as a biopesticide were examined on honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.). Separate groups of bees were left for 24 h to feed on 50% sucrose solution containing different concentrations of the tested insecticides, and the lethal concentration that caused 50% mortality (LC(50)) was estimated. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities as biochemical indicators were determined in vivo after 24 h in head, thorax, and abdomen of surviving bees obtained after treatments with a view to explore the possible mode of action of these compounds. Results indicated that exposure to spinosad showed toxicity to honey bees with LC(50) value of 7.34 mg L(-1), followed by oxymatrine (LC(50) = 10.68 mg L(-1)), while chlorfluazuron was the least acutely toxic of the tested compounds (LC(50) = 2,526 mg L(-1)). Oxymatrine and spinosad at the same tested concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) significantly inhibited AChE activity in different organs of honey bee workers, and high inhibition percentage was obtained with the enzyme isolated from the thorax. However, chlorfluazuron at 400, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg L(-1) caused high inhibition of AChE activity isolated from the head (39.65% and 44.22% at 2,000 and 4,000 mg L(-1), respectively). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on activity of ATPase indicated that spinosad caused the highest inhibitory effect in different organs compared with oxymatrine at the same concentrations, and high inhibition was found with ATPase isolated from the head. The results also indicated that oxymatrine was the least active compound for inhibition of AChE and ATPase.

  19. A biochemical marker panel in MRI-proven hyperacute ischemic stroke-a prospective study

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    Knauer Carolin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer tomography (CT is still the fastest and most robust technique to rule out ICH in acute stroke. However CT-sensitivity for detection of ischemic stroke in the hyperacute phase is still relatively low. Moreover the validity of pure clinical judgment is diminished by several stroke imitating diseases (mimics. The "Triage® Stroke Panel", a biochemical multimarker assay, detects Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP, D-Dimers (DD, Matrix-Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and S100B protein and promptly generates a Multimarkerindex of these values (MMX. This index has been licensed for diagnostic purposes as it might increase the validity of the clinical diagnosis to differentiate between stroke imitating diseases and true ischemic strokes. Our aim was to prove whether the panel is a reliable indicating device for the diagnosis of ischemic stroke in a time window of 6 h to fasten the pre- and intrahospital pathway to fibrinolysis. Methods We investigated all consecutive patients admitted to our stroke unit during a time period of 5 months. Only patients with clinical investigation, blood sample collection and MRI within six hours from symptom onset were included. Values of biochemical markers were analyzed according to the results of diffusion weighted MR-imaging. In addition MMX-values in ischemic strokes were correlated with the TOAST-criteria. For statistical analysis the SAS Analyst software was used. Correlation coefficients were analyzed and comparison tests for two or more groups were performed. Statistical significance was assumed in case of p Results In total 174 patients were included into this study (n = 100 strokes, n = 49 mimics, n = 25 transitoric ischemic attacks. In patients with ischemic strokes the mean NIHSS was 7.6 ± 6.2, while the mean DWI-lesion volume was 20.6 ml (range 186.9 to 4.2 ml. According to the MMX or the individual markers there was no statistically significant difference between the group of ischemic

  20. [Medico-genetic study of isolates in Uzbekistan. IV. Clinico-biochemical diagnosis of hereditary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, S I; Diachenko, S S; Khannanova, F K; Kuleshov, N P; Khodzhaeva, G K

    1976-01-01

    be examined are determined, as well as concrete tasks and the staff of the expedition. The conclusive stage is the medico-genetic examination proper, including clinical, biochemical, immunological and cytogenetic diagnoses of hereditary pathological phenomena. The place of the disposition is a village or a district hospital. More complicated laboratory studies should be performed on the basis of the institution by which the expedition is formed. The results obtained by such expeditions would be important for the investigation of the problems of genogeography, for the discovery of new forms of mutant alleles, for the investigation of the causes and the conditions of the formation of the definite populational structure, of clinical polymorphism of human hereditary diseases.

  1. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  2. Insulin resistance as a non-invasive method for the assessment of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C: a comparative study of biochemical methods La resistencia a la insulina en la valoración no invasiva de la fibrosis en pacientes con hepatitis C: Estudio comparativo de métodos bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romera

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: insulin resistance (IR promotes the progression of fibrosis and diminishes response to treatment in patients with hepatitis C. Recently, Sydney's index (includes IR has been proposed as a non-invasive method for the prediction of fibrosis. Objective: to assess the usefulness of Sydney's index for the prediction of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 or absence of significant fibrosis (F0-F1 in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and methods: we included 131 patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C. Mean age was 40 ± 11, 78 men and 53 women. Fibrosis stage was (F0-F1 69 patients, F2: 40, and advanced (F3-F4 in 22 patients. We measured baseline AST, ALT, GGT, platelet, cholesterol, alcohol, and IR (HOMA - IR levels. Sydney, Forns' and APRI indexes were calculated. Results: the area under the curve for the diagnosis of absence of significant fibrosis in each method was: Sydney: 0.80, Forns: 0.71, APRI: 0.70; p = ns. Moreover, the diagnostic capacity of advanced fibrosis was: Sydney: 0.88, Forns: 0.83, APRI: 0.82; p = ns. The predictive negative value of significant fibrosis was 74, 72, and 67%, respectively. Due to the presence of intermediate values, the indexes were not applicable to 36, 44 and 43% of patients respectively. Conclusions: the incorporation of insulin resistance among biochemical non-invasive methods slightly improves the yield of other indexes. Nevertheless, results are suboptimal, and more than one third of patients might not be correctly classified.Introducción: la resistencia a la insulina (RI promueve la progresión de la fibrosis y disminuye la respuesta al tratamiento en pacientes con hepatitis C. Recientemente, se ha propuesto el índice de Sidney como método no invasivo de predicción de la fibrosis que incluye la RI. Objetivo: valorar la utilidad del índice de Sidney en la predicción de fibrosis avanzada (F3-F4 o ausencia de fibrosis significativa (F0-F1 en pacientes con hepatitis C. Pacientes y m

  3. Tissue-Based MicroRNAs as Predictors of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy: What Can We Learn from Past Studies?

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    Zhongwei Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing understanding of the molecular mechanism of the microRNAs (miRNAs in prostate cancer (PCa, the predictive potential of miRNAs has received more attention by clinicians and laboratory scientists. Compared with the traditional prognostic tools based on clinicopathological variables, including the prostate-specific antigen, miRNAs may be helpful novel molecular biomarkers of biochemical recurrence for a more accurate risk stratification of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy and may contribute to personalized treatment. Tissue samples from prostatectomy specimens are easily available for miRNA isolation. Numerous studies from different countries have investigated the role of tissue-miRNAs as independent predictors of disease recurrence, either alone or in combination with other clinicopathological factors. For this purpose, a PubMed search was performed for articles published between 2008 and 2017. We compiled a profile of dysregulated miRNAs as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence and discussed their current clinical relevance. Because of differences in analytics, insufficient power and the heterogeneity of studies, and different statistical evaluation methods, limited consistency in results was obvious. Prospective multi-institutional studies with larger sample sizes, harmonized analytics, well-structured external validations, and reasonable study designs are necessary to assess the real prognostic information of miRNAs, in combination with conventional clinicopathological factors, as predictors of biochemical recurrence.

  4. [Study on the best detector-distance of noninvasive biochemical examination by Monte Carlo simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Fei; Lu, Qi-Peng; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studies the best detector-distance to improve the near-infrared spectrum signal intensity of the dermis layer and eliminate the interference of the epidermis and subcutaneous layer. First, we analyzed the organizational structure of the skin and calculated the tissue optical parameters of different layers. And we established the Monte Carlo model with the example of glucose absorption peak at 2 270 nm. Then, we used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the light transmission rules in the skin, obtaining the average path length, the average visit depth and the fractions of absorbed energy at each layer with the change in critical angle and detector-distance. The results show that when the photons are incident at an angle less than 45 degrees, you can ignore the effect of the incident angle on photon transmission path, and when the detector-distance is 1 mm, the fraction of absorbed photon energy by the dermis layer is the largest, while it can ensure more energy received by detector. We determined that the best detector-distance is 1mm, which successfully avoids the interference of the epidermis spectral information and obtains large amounts of blood in the dermis layer, which is conducive to the near-infrared non-invasive measurement of biochemical components and the subsequent experiments.

  5. Reconstitution of recombinant human LSm complexes for biochemical, biophysical, and cell biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Bozidarka L; Kambach, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Sm and Sm-like (LSm) proteins are an ancient family of proteins present in all branches of life. Having originally arisen as RNA chaperones and stabilizers, the family has diversified greatly and fulfills a number of central tasks in various RNA processing events, ranging from pre-mRNA splicing to histone mRNA processing to mRNA degradation. Defects in Sm/LSm protein-containing ribonucleoprotein assembly and function lead to severe medical disorders like spinal muscular atrophy. Sm and LSm proteins always assemble into and function in the form of ringlike hexameric or heptameric complexes whose composition and architecture determine their intracellular location and RNA and effector protein binding specificity and function Sm/LSm complexes that have been assembled in vitro from recombinant components provide a flexible and invaluable tool for detailed cell biological, biochemical, and biophysical studies on these biologically and medically important proteins. We describe here protocols for the construction of bacterial LSm coexpression vectors, expression and purification of LSm proteins and subcomplexes, and the in vitro reconstitution of fully functional human LSm1-7 and LSm2-8 heptameric complexes.

  6. Structural and Biochemical Studies of TIGAR (TP53-induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule coordinated to the catalytic histidine residue and a second phosphate molecule in a position not observed in other phosphatases. The recombinant human and zebra fish enzymes hydrolyze fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as well as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but not fructose 6-phosphate in vitro. The TIGAR active site is open and positively charged, consistent with its enzymatic function as bisphosphatase. The closest related structures are the bacterial broad specificity phosphatase PhoE and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. The structural comparison shows that TIGAR combines an accessible active site as observed in PhoE with a charged substrate-binding pocket as seen in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme.

  7. Structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Jogl, Gerwald

    2009-01-16

    Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule coordinated to the catalytic histidine residue and a second phosphate molecule in a position not observed in other phosphatases. The recombinant human and zebra fish enzymes hydrolyze fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as well as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but not fructose 6-phosphate in vitro. The TIGAR active site is open and positively charged, consistent with its enzymatic function as bisphosphatase. The closest related structures are the bacterial broad specificity phosphatase PhoE and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. The structural comparison shows that TIGAR combines an accessible active site as observed in PhoE with a charged substrate-binding pocket as seen in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme.

  8. Biochemical studies on the purine metabolism of four cases with hereditary xanthinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Nishina, T; Kitamura, M; Hosoya, T; Nishioka, K

    1984-02-28

    The purine metabolism of four cases with marked hypouricemia (serum uric acid concentration of less than 0.018 mmol/l) from three Japanese families was investigated. Erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4) and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (EC 2.4.2.1) activities of the patients were within the normal ranges. Urinary hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were 0.096-0.397 mmol/l and 0.743-1.717 mmol/l, respectively. Xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) activities in the jejunal mucosa of the two normal controls were 0.257 and 0.283 units/g protein, while those of three of the patients were extremely low and could not be determined. The findings of these biochemical features may indicate that the four patients have hereditary xanthinuria. In order to study the purine metabolism in the hypouricemic condition of this disorder, a single oral dose of allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) was administered in one case. The excretion pattern of allopurinol and oxypurinol (4,6-dihydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) in the urine of the patient was similar to that of a normal control male. These data suggest that some residual enzyme activity may be functioning in vivo, although the presence of xanthine oxidase could not be detected.

  9. Biochemical characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus tener and comparative biological activities in the mouse and a reptile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; de Roodt, Adolfo; López-Vera, Estuardo; Alagón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the venom components that could play a relevant role during envenomation caused by the coral snake Micrurus tener, through its biochemical characterization as well as the analysis of its effects on a murine model. Furthermore, it aimed to evaluate crude venom, in addition to its components, for possible specificity of action on a natural prey model (Conopsis lineata). The toxicity of the crude venom (delivered subcutaneously) showed a significant difference between the Median Lethal Dose (LD₅₀) in mice (4.4 μg/g) and in Conopsis lineata (12.1 μg/g) that was not observed when comparing the Median Paralyzing Dose (PD₅₀) values (mice = 4.7 μg/g; snakes = 4.1 μg/g). These results are evidence that the choice of study model strongly influences the apparent effects of crude venom. Moreover, based on the observed physical signs in the animal models, it was concluded that the most important physical effect caused by the venom is flaccid paralysis, which facilitates capture and subduing of prey regardless of whether it is alive; death is a logical consequence of the lack of oxygenation. Venom fractionation using a C18 reverse phase column yielded 35 fractions from which 16.6% caused paralysis and/or death to both animal models, 21.9% caused paralysis and/or death only to C. lineata and 1.6% were murine specific. Surprisingly, the diversity of snake-specific fractions did not reflect a difference between the PD₅₀s of the crude venom in mice and snakes, making it impossible to assume some type of specificity for either of the study models. Finally, the great diversity and abundance of fractions with no observable effect in snakes or mice (42.7%) suggested that the observed lethal fractions are not the only relevant toxic fractions within the venom and emphasized the possible relevance of interaction between components to generate the syndrome caused by the venom as a whole. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with overt (TSH ≥10.0 mIU/L and 77 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 6.0-9.9mIU/L and compared with 120 age-matched euthyroid controls. Subjects with overt hypothyroidism had significantly raised serum ALT, AST, ALP and total protein levels as compared to controls whereas subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly increased levels of serum ALT, ALP and total protein. Further, TSH showed significant positive correlation with AST and ALP values whereas fT3 and fT4 had a negative correlation with AST in overt hypothyroidism. Thus, overt hypothyroid state is associated with significant derangement in biochemical parameters of liver function. Hence, liver function should be regularly monitored in hypothyroid patients.

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2, PK, and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Early detection of breast cancer using total biochemical analysis of peripheral blood components: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Udi; Barlev, Eyal; Bar, Omri; Gross, Itai; Flomen, Felix; Mordechai, Shaul; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Nathan, Ilana; Kashtan, Hanoch; Wasserberg, Nir; Madhala-Givon, Osnat

    2015-05-15

    Most of the blood tests aiming for breast cancer screening rely on quantification of a single or few biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting breast cancer by analyzing the total biochemical composition of plasma as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using infrared spectroscopy. Blood was collected from 29 patients with confirmed breast cancer and 30 controls with benign or no breast tumors, undergoing screening for breast cancer. PBMCs and plasma were isolated and dried on a zinc selenide slide and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. Differences in the spectra of PBMCs and plasma between the groups were analyzed as well as the specific influence of the relevant pathological characteristics of the cancer patients. Several bands in the FTIR spectra of both blood components significantly distinguished patients with and without cancer. Employing feature extraction with quadratic discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of ~90 % and a specificity of ~80 % for breast cancer detection was achieved. These results were confirmed by Monte Carlo cross-validation. Further analysis of the cancer group revealed an influence of several clinical parameters, such as the involvement of lymph nodes, on the infrared spectra, with each blood component affected by different parameters. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs and plasma is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the early detection of breast neoplasms. An important application of our study is the distinction between benign lesions (considered as part of the non-cancer group) and malignant tumors thus reducing false positive results at screening. Furthermore, the correlation of specific spectral changes with clinical parameters of cancer patients indicates for possible contribution to diagnosis and prognosis.

  13. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Yuri I., E-mail: nano@tsutmb.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O. [G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University, Nanocenter (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Sokolsky, Marina [University of North Carolina, Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy (United States); Kabanov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  14. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin on Alveolar Bone Resorption After Experimental Periodontitis in Rats: A Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabacı, Taner; Kermen, Eda; Özkanlar, Seçkin; Köse, Oğuz; Kara, Adem; Kızıldağ, Alper; Duman, Şuayip Burak; Ibişoğlu, Ebru

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of systemic melatonin administration on alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (control, experimental periodontitis [Ped], and experimental periodontitis treated with melatonin [Mel-Ped]). For periodontitis induction, first molars were ligatured submarginally for 4 weeks. After ligature removal, rats in the Mel-Ped group were treated with a daily single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight melatonin for 15 consecutive days. At the end of the study, intracardiac blood samples and mandible tissues were obtained for histologic, biochemical, and radiographic analysis. Serum markers related to bone turnover, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and terminal C telopeptide of collagen Type I (CTX) were analyzed. Myeloperoxidase levels were determined in gingival tissue homogenates, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) activation was analyzed in the mandible samples stereologically. Alveolar bone loss was also evaluated radiographically in the mandible samples of each group. Melatonin treatment decreased serum CTX levels and increased b-ALP levels. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not statistically different among groups (P >0.05). Alveolar bone resorption and myeloperoxidase activity were statistically higher in the Ped group compared to the Mel-Ped group (P periodontal healing in an experimental periodontitis rat model.

  16. Preliminary study on physicochemical and biochemical stress markers at poultry slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Santonicola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-slaughter stress can result in variations in the glycogen storage and metabolic changes of muscle, responsible for quality poultry meat. Aim of this study was to investigate, as pre-slaughter stress markers and quality meat, physicochemical (pH, biochemical (muscle glycogen content, and chemical (super oxides free radicals parameters. The carcass quality, as incidence of individual carcass defects, was also evaluated. Twenty broilers were processed with two different electrical stunning: high (250 Hz; 640 mA; 60V (Lot C or control and low (150 Hz; 360 mA; 60 V (Lot A frequency and intensity, using sinusoidal alternating current. As preliminary results, the use of low frequency and intensity induced faster pH decline post mortem and adequate acidification of pH at 3 hours (6.49 Lot C; 6.37 Lot A, better muscle glycogen reserve (0.770 μL/50 mL Lot C; 1.497 μL/50mL Lot A, and lightly more rapid muscle oxidation (IDF: 0.109 Lot C; 0.122 Lot A, (FOX: 0.131 MeqO2/kg Lot C; 0.140 MeqO2/kg Lot A. The incidence of individual carcass defects sufficient to cause downgrading or rejection, both in Lot C and Lot A, was generally low. In a multidisciplinary approach, to assess animal welfare and quality poultry meat, additional and feasible parameters should be implemented. Monitoring of pH, muscle glycogen reserve and superoxide free radical production measurements might be markers easier to use, routinely, in practice at abattoir. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of these parameters.

  17. Preliminary Study on Physicochemical and Biochemical Stress Markers at Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Serena; Peruzy, Maria Francesca; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Murru, Nicoletta; Cortesi, Maria Luisa; Mercogliano, Raffaelina

    2017-04-13

    Pre-slaughter stress can result in variations in the glycogen storage and metabolic changes of muscle, responsible for quality poultry meat. Aim of this study was to investigate, as pre-slaughter stress markers and quality meat, physicochemical (pH), biochemical (muscle glycogen content), and chemical (super oxides free radicals) parameters. The carcass quality, as incidence of individual carcass defects, was also evaluated. Twenty broilers were processed with two different electrical stunning: high (250 Hz; 640 mA; 60V) (Lot C or control) and low (150 Hz; 360 mA; 60 V) (Lot A) frequency and intensity, using sinusoidal alternating current. As preliminary results, the use of low frequency and intensity induced faster pH decline post mortem and adequate acidification of pH at 3 hours (6.49 Lot C; 6.37 Lot A), better muscle glycogen reserve (0.770 μL/50 mL Lot C; 1.497 μL/50mL Lot A), and lightly more rapid muscle oxidation (IDF: 0.109 Lot C; 0.122 Lot A), (FOX: 0.131 MeqO2/kg Lot C; 0.140 MeqO2/kg Lot A). The incidence of individual carcass defects sufficient to cause downgrading or rejection, both in Lot C and Lot A, was generally low. In a multidisciplinary approach, to assess animal welfare and quality poultry meat, additional and feasible parameters should be implemented. Monitoring of pH, muscle glycogen reserve and superoxide free radical production measurements might be markers easier to use, routinely, in practice at abattoir. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of these parameters.

  18. An Association Study Between Gene Polymorphisms of Folic Acid Metabolism Enzymes and Biochemical and Hormonal Parameters in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Zengi, Ayhan; Bozok Çetintaş, Vildan; Karadeniz, Muammer; Tamsel, Sadık; Küçükaslan, Ali Şahin; Köse, Timur; Saygılı, Füsun; Eroglu, Zuhal

    2015-08-01

    Folate metabolism is fundamental to several biological functions and required for cell replication, division, and survival. The mammalian folic acid cycle is highly complex and the enzymes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), have crucial roles in this metabolic pathway. The common polymorphisms of the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), MTRR (A66G), and MTR (A2756G) enzymes are well documented as folate deficiency-related disorders, but their roles have not been examined in acromegalic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the genotypic distribution of these gene polymorphisms between patients with acromegaly and controls and explore whether these polymorphisms were associated with biochemical and hormonal parameters in acromegaly. We examined 91 acromegaly patients and 112 healthy subjects who were compared in terms of age and gender. Blood specimens of the subjects were collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyping of the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms was assessed by melting temperature analyses after real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas MTRR A66G and MTR A2756G gene polymorphism analyses were performed by PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism from the isolated DNA of the subjects. MTHFR-677TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the acromegaly group than the control group (p=0.017), and a significant increase was found in fibrinogen (p=0.032) levels in 677TT-carrying acromegaly patients. MTRR-66AA genotype was significantly higher in the control group than the acromegaly group (p=0.004). Total cholesterol (p=0.048) and C-reactive protein (p=0.046) levels decreased significantly in 66AA genotypes. Although MTR-2756AG genotype frequency was not different between the control and acromegaly groups, 2756AG genotype-carrying individuals have higher left

  19. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  20. Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango, orange and pineapple peels as carbon sources.

  1. Percentage of high-grade tumour volume does not meaningfully improve prediction of early biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy compared with Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jens; Bianchi, Marco; Sun, Maxine; Rink, Michael; Castiglione, Fabio; Abdollah, Firas; Steuber, Thomas; Ahyai, Sascha A; Steurer, Stefan; Göbel, Cosima; Freschi, Massimo; Montorsi, Francesco; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Briganti, Alberto; Chun, Felix K-H

    2014-03-01

    To examine whether percentage of tumour volume (%TV) and percentage of high-grade tumour volume (%HGTV) help to better identify men at higher risk of early biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer, as early BCR after RP might be associated with higher risk of metastases and cancer-specific mortality. We examined the data of 595 men treated with RP for non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer between 1992 and 2011 at two European tertiary care centres. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to graphically depict 2-year BCR-free survival. Multivariable Cox regression models addressed early BCR. We tested whether addition of %TV and %HGTV to a multivariable Cox regression model helps to increase a model's predictive accuracy (PA) for prediction of early BCR. In all, 32 men (10%) with specimen-confined prostate cancer (pT2-pT3a, negative surgical margin, pN0) and 67 men (24%) with non-specimen-confined prostate cancer had early BCR. After stratification according to %HGTV (%HGTV threshold: ≤33.33 vs >33.33%), the 2-year BCR-free survival rates were respectively 93 vs 60% (log-rank P 0.05). However, adding %HGTV (regardless of its coding) to other covariates in multivariable Cox regression analysis did not increase the model's PA in a meaningful fashion compared with the use of the detailed Gleason grading system (6 vs 7a vs 7b vs 8 vs 9-10). In a large cohort of patients with high-risk prostate cancer, %HGTV and %TV did not improve prediction of early BCR after RP substantially, although %HGTV was an independent predictor of early BCR. Therefore, sophisticated TV/HGTV measurements do not seem to have additional benefit for early BCR prediction relative to the use of Gleason grading. However, these results need to be confirmed in larger, prospective studies. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  2. Molecular and biochemical studies on the Ah receptor pathway in flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, H.

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focused on the mechanistic aspects of the toxic and biochemical effects of PCBs in flounder (Platichthys flesus), with the aim to provide a scientific basis for the suggested involvement of PCBs in the aetiology of diseases observed

  3. Clinico-Biochemical Correlation to Histological Findings in Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Single Centre Study from Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Dibbendhu; Sonthalia, Nikhil; Kundu, Supratip; Biswas, Kaushik; Talukdar, Arunansu; Saha, Manjari; Bera, Himel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcoholism is a health problem not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. Cirrhosis due to alcohol is a common cause of death among individuals abusing alcohol. A better knowledge of the spectrum of alcoholic liver diseases, its clinical, biochemical and histopathological features could result in early detection and prevention of alcoholic liver diseases before it’s catastrophic and life threatening effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with alcoholic liver diseases were studied with respect to alcohol consumption, clinical features, biochemical and histopathological changes. The clinical features, biochemical parameters, and histopathology of liver including Ishak’s modified histological activity index (HAI) were correlated with the amount and duration of alcohol consumed. Result: Majority of the patients were in the age group of 40-49 years and all the cases were males. Majority consumed alcohol of about 75-90 grams per day for a duration of 10–12 years. Anorexia and jaundice were the most common symptom and clinical finding respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia were the most common abnormalities observed in liver function tests. Advanced HAI stages with features of cirrhosis were most frequent histo-pathological finding noted in this study. Clinico-biochemical profile was significantly correlated with degree of alcohol ingestion as well as with liver histopathology. Conclusion: The wide prevalence of alcoholic liver disease including cirrhosis among Indian males was noted with significantly lower quantity and duration of alcohol ingestion. The severity of liver damage is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol consumed. Clinical features and biochemical changes may forecast the liver histopathology among the patients of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25478382

  4. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... to a significantly higher content of betaine in WGD plasma samples compared with NWD samples. In an identical study with the same diets, urine samples were collected, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. PLS-DA on spectra obtained for urine samples revealed changes in the intensities of spectral regions, which...

  5. Comparative Assessment of the Effects of Hatha Yoga and Physical Exercise on Biochemical Functions in Perimenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Nayak, Gayathry; Nayak, Akshatha Ganesh; Rao, Anjali

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a transitional phase in which some women experience discomfort, while others may exhibit variety of symptoms. The power of yoga therapy in relieving stress, enhancing health, improving fitness and managing symptoms of a variety of disorders is remarkable. The current study was designed to study the effect of Hatha yoga therapy and regular physical exercise on the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Glycated Haemoglobin (GHB), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), serum cortisol and total plasma thiol levels in perimenopausal women. The study included 216 women with perimenopausal symptoms, 111 in test group (Hatha yoga) and 105 in control group (physical exercise). The duration of intervention was 45 minutes every day for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected in the pre and post intervention period. Statistical significance was defined as pyoga therapy. Cortisol levels significantly (p≤0.05) increased in the post intervention period in the control group. However, it is maintained in the test group between the two time periods. The total plasma thiols level showed a rise in the post intervention period, significant rise (p≤0.001) in control group but not significant in the test group. The TSH levels were not altered in any group. It is concluded that exercise helps in maintaining the sugar levels but calming effects of yoga practice is important in relieving stress and enhancing health in perimenopausal women.

  6. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Comparative study on antibacterial activity of Terminalia- catappa on Multiresistant strains. 5040. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and barks of Terminalia catappa on multiresistant strains. Rubens Dinzedi Mbengui1, 2, ...

  7. COMPARATIVE GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOUR STRAINS OF Nostoc AND Anabaena (CYANOBACTERIA, NOSTOCALES IN RELATION TO SODIUM NITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor ROSALES LOAIZA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La concentración de nitrógeno constituye un parámetro esencial en cultivos de cianobacterias para la producción de biomasa enriquecida con fines biotecnológicos. Se comparó el crecimiento y composición bioquímica de las cepas Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 y Anabaena sp.2 a 0, 4,25; 8,5 y 17 mM NaNO 3 . Los cultivos en condiciones de laboratorio fueron mantenidos durante 30 días a un volumen de 500 mL. En masa seca, Anabaena sp.1 obtuvo el mayor valor, con 2,49 ± 0,26 mg mL -1 a 8,5 mM NaNO 3 . Para clorofila, ficocianina y ficoeritrina, los máximos se alcanzaron a 17 mM NaNO 3 en Anabaena sp.1, con 18,09 ± 1,74; 102,90 ± 6,73 y 53,47 ± 2,40 μg mL -1 , respectivamente. Nostoc LAUN0015 produjo su máximo valor de proteínas de 644,86 ± 19,77μg mL -1 , y alrededor de 890 μg mL -1 de carbohidratos en ausencia de nitrógeno. El estudio comparativo indica que la cepa más eficiente para la producción de proteínas, carbohidratos y lípidos, en condiciones diazotróficas, correspondió a Nostoc LAUN0015. En cambio, las cepas de Anabaena sp.1 y sp.2 requieren de elevadas concentraciones de nitrógeno para alcanzar los mayores valores de metabolitos, respecto a las cepas de Nostoc . Se demuestra la dependencia de nitrógeno para la producción de los pigmentos y la alta producción proteica en las cepas de Anabaena y en condiciones diazotróficas para Nostoc . Esta última puede ser cultivada bajo una deficiencia de nitrógeno y Anabaena con suficiencia para la producción masiva de biomasa enriquecida con proteínas y carbohidratos.

  8. Comparative toxicity of physiological and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to short-term exposure to potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Fernanda; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Heyder, Carmen Diamantina Teixeira; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2015-01-01

    Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis; however, it has moderate toxicity to various species including rat, fish, bacteria and human health. The effects of potassium sorbate on the movement and photosynthetic parameters of Euglena gracilis were studied during short-term exposure. Potassium sorbate showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate E. gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), upward movement and alignment, with mean EC50 values of 2867.2 mg L(-1). The concentrations above 625 mg L(-1) of potassium sorbate induce an inhibition of the photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate and, in concentrations more than 2500.0 mg L(-1), the Euglena cells undergo a complete inhibition of photosynthesis even at low light irradiation.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IgA +IgG and IgA + IgM + IgG combination gave 74.4% and 84.6% sensitivity respectively with the same level of specificity. Fifty-five percent of culture positive subjects were found to be MTB complex positive by routine biochemical tests, while 40% through PATHOZYME TB COMPLEX PLUS kit (high positive (H+)) values).

  10. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  11. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    students (N= 54 students from LU; and N= 33 students from AU) participating in the studies, among them 44 are 2nd-year students (n=28 from LU and n=16 from AU) and 43 3rd-year students (n=26 from LU and n=17 from AU). Students’ writing samples were first collected and the errors on the use of comparative...... of the grammatical errors with using comparative sentences is developed, which include comparative item-related errors, comparative result-related errors and blend errors. The results further indicate that these errors could attribute to negative L1 transfer and overgeneralization of grammatical rule and structures......Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...

  12. Genetic structure and phyletic relationships of eastern Mediterranean Bacillus atticus brunner (Insecta Phasmatodea): a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, B; Scali, V

    1993-10-01

    The allozymic characterization of several new Croatian, Greek, and Turkish samples thought to belong to different subspecies of Bacillus atticus or to atticus-like taxa is given. Several allelic combinations (zymotypes) were observed among both diploid and triploid samples; the occurrence of highly different levels of heterozygosity for the same locus among populations is also common. The biochemical-genetic features of the numerous zymotypes are interpreted on the basis of the recently assessed cytology of their parthenogenetic reproduction. Biochemical and meiotic features also allow one to suggest that both diploid and triploid cytotypes of B. atticus are more likely interracial hybrids in origin. The new triploid Greek samples show only small genetic distances from the Turkish triploid and diploid ones; also, they do not show clear-cut morphological differences, so that all triploids and Turkish diploid samples are together referred to as B. a. carius. On the other hand, all Croatian, Greek, and Italian diploids appear to belong to the same electrophoretic cluster, biochemically differentiated at a subspecific level from B. a. carious. This newly defined comprehensive group of diploid samples, which also morphologically show gradual patterns of variation, is referred to as B. a. atticus.

  13. Biochemical studies of insecticide resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethuan, S; Jirakanjanakit, N; Saengtharatip, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T; Kaewpa, D; Rongnoparut, P

    2007-06-01

    Biochemical analysis was performed on field caught Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to determine activities of enzymes including mixed function oxidases (MFO), nonspecific esterases (alpha- and beta-), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Biochemical tests were performed on F1 generation of Ae. aegypti field caught mosquitoes, while in Ae. albopictus F2 progenies were used. Twenty-six samples of Ae. aegypti mosquito were collected from areas across different parts of Thailand including Bangkok (central), and the provinces of Chiang Rai (north), Nakhon Sawan (north-central), Nakhon Ratchasrima (northeast), Chonburi (east), Chanthaburi (east), and Songkhla (south). Eight wild caught samples of Ae. albopictus were from Songkhla, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasrima and Kanchanaburi (west) provinces. The susceptibility to pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin), organophosphate (fenitrothion) and carbamate (propoxur) insecticides were revealed in these samples. The biochemical test results were compared with those of the susceptible Bora (French Polynesia) strain. There was significant enhancement of MFO in pyrethroid resistant Ae. aegypti samples, except those from Songkhla and Hauykwang district in Bangkok. Biochemical assay results suggested that nonspecific esterases conferred fenitrothion resistance in Ae. aegypti in Nakhon Sawan, while insensitive AChE and/or nonspecific esterases could play role in fenitrothion resistance in Nakhon Ratchasrima. There was no consistent association of GST with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. Low enzyme activities found in Ae. aegypti in Songkhla and in Ae. albopictus corresponded to their insecticide susceptibility status. The increased enzyme activity in field samples reflecting local history of insecticide employment was discussed.

  14. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  15. Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Thai Orchid Farmers—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32 ± 1165.48 U/L, 11.61 ± 4.09% and 312.26 ± 164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85 ± 1139.40 U/L, 14.32 ± 4.23%, 420.34 ± 195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031 ± 0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018 ± 0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted. PMID:26024358

  16. Current status of temporomandibular joint disorders and the therapeutic system derived from a series of biomechanical, histological, and biochemical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo Tanne; Yuki Okamoto; Shao-Ching Su; Tomomi Mitsuyoshi; Yuki Asakawa-Tanne; Kotaro Tanimoto

    2015-01-01

    This article was designed to report the current status of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) and the therapeutic system on the basis of a series of clinical, biomechanical, histological and biochemical studies in our research groups. In particular, we have focused on the association of degenerative changes of articular cartilage in the mandibular condyle and the resultant progressive condylar resorption with mechanical stimuli acting on the condyle during the stomatognathic function. In...

  17. A comparative study on the biochemical effect of ocular and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... that the kidney, femoral muscle, femur and brain of rabbits ocularly exposed to Cd had a significantly higher ... significantly change after three months of exposure to ocular Cd, except plasma ALP activity which remained ..... Concentration of cadmium in the tissues of rabbits after oral and ocular exposure.

  18. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  19. [Biochemical studies on functional proteins in the brain nervous system. Neurobiochemical studies on nerve growth factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K

    1996-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide that is necessary for the survival and growth of developing sympathetic and sensory neurons as well as basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the brain. The effects of NGF are mediated by the binding of the factor to its specific receptor present on the surface of NGF-responsive cells. Since NGF-responsive basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are lost in Alzheimer's disease, treatment with NGF may be therapeutically beneficial for the patients with this disease. Our studies were focused on the purification, amino acid sequence, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), NGF-biosynthesizing cells, regulation of the biosynthesis, compounds stimulating NGF-biosynthesis/secretion, etc. The major results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) We purified NGFs from snake venoms and determined their amino acid sequences. Among them, Crotalus adamanteus-and Vipera russelli-NGFs were glycoproteins. 2) We developed highly sensitive (0.03-0.05 pg/tube or bead), simple, and reliable EIA systems for NGFs and NT-3. 3) Catecholamine, its derivatives, p-quinone derivatives, nicotine, nicotine derivatives, coenzymes, etc. enhanced the NGF-biosynthesis/secretion of fibroblasts and astrocytes by increasing their cellular content of NGF mRNA. 4) Basal forebrain-lesioned rats (an animal model of amnesia) administered 6-(4-hydroxybutyl)-2,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TMQ) orally showed improvement not only their NGF level and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in the brain but also their memory and learning. 5) Interleukins (IL)-4 and -5 significantly increased the amounts of NGF secreted by mouse astrocytes; whereas IL-2, -3, and -6 had no significant effect. 6) Interferons-beta and -lambda inhibited the DNA- and NGF-synthesis in growing astrocytes cultured from neonatal mouse brain but they had no effect on the NGF-synthesis/secretion in quiescent astrocytes. 7) Alkylcatechols regulated the NGF gene expression in astrocytes via both protein kinase C

  20. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  1. World Studies through a Comparative Constitutional Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of understanding the development of democracy around the world by comparative study of constitutions. Uses the development of the Japanese constitution after World War II as a case study. Describes the work of the team appointed by General Douglas MacArthur and the significance of the clause guaranteeing equal rights for…

  2. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  3. STUDIES ON THE BIOCHEMICAL, BIOPHYSICAL, AND IMMUNOGENIC PROPERTIES OF JAPANESE B TYPE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS AND VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C E; Stanley, W M

    1945-11-30

    Studies on the biochemical, biophysical, and immunogenic properties of Japanese B type encephalitis virus and vaccines have been made in order to determine whether a purified vaccine suitable for human use could be obtained by means of differential centrifugation of extracts of infected mouse brains. Studies were also made on extracts of normal mouse brains, it was found that extracts of normal as well as of infected mouse brains contained fairly large amounts of several components of high molecular weight. Components having sedimentation constants near 5 and 40 Svedberg units were found in extracts of infected brains. However the rates of sedimentation of the different components were so similar that it was found impossible, from a practical standpoint, to secure a vaccine consisting largely of virus by means of differential centrifugation. It was also found that a considerable portion of virus was lost or destroyed in the centrifugation process so that it was impossible to secure an effective degree of concentration of immunogenic potency. Although vaccines possessing about twice the immunogenic potency of the starting material were obtained, it was concluded that it was not practical to purify and concentrate Japanese B type encephalitis virus in infected mouse brain extracts by means of differential centrifugation for the production of a vaccine on a large scale. The optimum pH stability range of Japanese B type encephalitis virus activity was found to be near pH 8.5. The virus is inactivated fairly rapidly at pH 7 and very rapidly at more acid reactions. The virus is inactivated rapidly near pH 10. Extracts of infected mouse brains with buffers near pH 8 containing disodium phosphate were found to possess slightly higher titers than saline extracts near pH 7. However vaccines prepared from such extracts were found to possess essentially the same immunogenic potency, hence, although extraction at the more alkaline reaction may perhaps remove more active virus

  4. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  5. Sulfur mustard inhalation induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs: Physiological, biochemical, and histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allon, N.; Gilat, E.; Amir, A.; Fishbine, E.; Liani, H.

    1993-05-13

    Inhalation exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) vapor causes long term damage to the respiratory system. The lesions were characterized by specific physiological, biochemical and histopathological methods. Awake 128 guinea-pigs (GP) were exposed for 10 min to SM (1200-1700 microns x min/1). Respiratory parameters were monitored per animal before, during and after the exposure using plethysmography. Biochemical and histological evaluations were performed at different time intervals for up to 7 days post exposure. SM inhalation resulted in a decrease in both respiratory rate and minute volume, and in an increase in tidal volume. These changes occurred immediately after the onset of exposure and lasted for up to 7 days. The changes in the respiratory parameters were accompanied by a massive reduction in O2 diffusion capacity. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid indicated neutrophil infiltration, an increase in the protein content, and in the activity of both lysosomal enzymes and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the alveolar space. In addition, a decrease in glutathione content was observed one day post exposure in the BAL fluid and the lung whereas an increase in lung glutathione content was observed 6 days later. Histological evaluation of the lungs and trachea revealed severe lesions in both tissues. Recovery was incomplete 7 days post exposure. The detailed characterization of the effect of SM inhalation offers a reliable model for the evaluation of potential therapies against SM exposure.

  6. A detailed radiobiological and dosimetric analysis of biochemical outcomes in a case-control study of permanent prostate brachytherapy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Wayne M.; Stewart, Renee R.; Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, 1 Medical Park, Wheeling, West Virginia 26003-6300 and Wheeling Jesuit University, 316 Washington Avenue, Wheeling, West Virginia 26003 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine dosimetric and radiobiological predictors of biochemical control after recalculation of prostate implant dosimetry using updated AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) parameters and the radiobiological parameters recommended by TG-137. All biochemical failures among patients implanted with {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd sources between 1994 and March 2006 were matched 2:1 with nonfailure controls. The individual matching was by risk group, radionuclide, prescribed dose, and time of implant (one match before and one after the failed patient) resulting in a median follow-up of 10.9 years. Complete dose volume histogram (DVH) data were recalculated for all 55 cases and 110 controls after updating the original source strength by the retrospectively determined ratios of TG-43. Differential DVH data were acquired in 179 increments of prostate volume versus percentage prescribed dose. At each incremental dose level i, the biologically equivalent dose BED{sub i}, equivalent uniform dose EUD{sub i}, and tumor control probability TCP{sub i} were calculated from the implant dose plus any external beam delivered to the patient. Total BED, EUD, and TCP were then derived from the incremental values for comparison with single point dosimetric quality parameters and DVH-based averages. There was no significant difference between failures and controls in terms of total BED (143 vs 142 Gy), EUD (95 vs 94 Gy), or TCP (0.87 vs 0.89). Conditional logistic regression analysis factored out the matching variables and stratified the cohort into each case and its controls, but no radiobiological parameter was predictive of biochemical failure. However, there was a significant difference between radiobiological parameters of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd due to less complete coverage of the target volume by the former isotope. The implant BED and TCP were highly correlated with the D{sub 90} and natural prescription doses and a series of mean DVH-based doses such as

  7. A biochemical study of the distribution of collagen and its crosslinks in knee ligaments and the patellar tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Abe, Masashi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate biochemical differences in collagen crosslinks from different locations within the ligaments and a tendon of the human knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and patellar tendon (PT) were obtained from 24 cadavers (13 men and 11 women) whose average age at the time of death was 84.8 years. Ligaments and PT samples were obtained from the femoral and tibial insertions and the midsubstance. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) and collagen crosslinks, including pyridinoline (Pyr) and pentosidine (Pen), were compared among the different sites. The midsubstance Hyp concentration was greater than at the femoral and tibial insertions in the ACL (p = 0.00124 and 0.000255, respectively) and PCL (p = 0.00036 and 0.042, respectively). The Pyr:collagen ratio did not differ among sites in any of the ligaments or PT. The Pen:collagen ratio at the midsubstance was greater than at the femoral and tibial insertions in the ACL (p = 0.00022 and 0.00025, respectively) and LCL (p = 0.000081 and 0.000021, respectively) and was greater at the femoral insertion in the MCL (p = 0.00010). The mature collagen crosslink Pyr was not different in distribution in knee ligaments and the PT. Pen increased at the midsubstance ligaments and the PT. As increased Pen may represent ligament degeneration, this may indicate that degeneration may progress more rapidly at the midsubstance than at the insertion sites of a ligament.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Chemical and Biochemical Processes through the new LCSoft Software-tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supawanich, Perapong; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is an effective tool for quantifying the potential environmental impacts of products, processes, or services in order to support the selection making of desired products and/or processes from different alternatives. For more sustainable process designs, technical requ...... on the LCI assessment results. The fourth task has been added to validate and improve LCSoft by testing it against several case studies and compare the assessment results with other available tools....

  9. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Following their physicochemical records, their pH values (at 25°C) ranged from 6.61 to 7.01, temperatures ranging from 28 to 30°C, while their turbidity ranged from 1.34 to 4.9 NTU.

  10. Comparative studies of intestinal parasitic infections between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study compared the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among some Riverine communities with Upland communities in Rivers state, Nigeria. Three local government areas (LGAs) were randomly selected from both riverine and upland communities respectively and three communities were further selected from ...

  11. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lopez, Jorge A. [Physics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2004-09-06

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature.

  12. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  13. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BAS, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...

  14. THE STUDY OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bularda Morozan Mihai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of some biochemical parameters obtained in the laboratory of “Elena Beldiman” Emergency Hospital Barlad, and in the”Dr. Stoian –Dr. Ungureanu”Private Medical Practice on 10 patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma during 2005-2011. Numerous researches over serum proteins with the help of various methods ( refractometry have shown the presence of some changes in protein fractions of blood serum. These changes express the change of the normal ratio between these fractions, that means disorders in colloidal structure of blood. The results of the electrophoresis analysis, also in accordance with those from the scholarly literature, show that the changes in the condition of the blood serum are due to the increase in the globulins fractions which is linked to the growth of the immunological processes, the antibodies synthesis being especially closely linked to gammaglobulinic fraction

  15. A biochemical and NMR spectroscopic study of hydrazine in the isolated rat hepatocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatineh, S.; Morgan, W.; Timbrell, J.A. (London School of Pharmacy (United Kingdom). Dept. of Toxicology); Preece, N.E. (Hunterian Inst., Royal Coll. of Surgeons, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biophysics)

    1992-11-01

    Using isolated rat hepatocytes the biochemical effects of hydrazine have been investigated using both conventional assay techniques and high resolution proton NMR. High resolution proton NMR revealed that hydrazine caused a significant increase in alanine and lactate levels in the incubation buffer, whereas levels of [beta]-hydroxybutyrate were decreased. NMR also detected metabolites of hydrazine notably acetylhydrazine and a cyclised hydrazone formed with [alpha]-ketoglutarate. Changes were detected in NADH and NADPH, ATP, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and total non-protein sulphydryl groups (TNPSH). However, the changes in pyridine nucleotides occurred at higher concentrations than those affecting succinate dehydrogenase and ATP. Similarly, the depletion of TNPSH occurred at a higher concentration and with a different time course to that seen with ATP depletion and inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. (orig.).

  16. Biochemical and serological study of two mycoplasma strains isolated from geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Z; Stipkovits, L; Dobos-Kovács, M; Czifra, G

    1989-01-01

    2 mycoplasma strains were isolated, one from the phallic lymph of a gander and the other from a cloacal swab of a laying goose. The strains proved to be different from mycoplasma species isolated from geese before. Strain No. 1223 is a glucose-negative and arginine-negative species belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. In the growth inhibition test, it fails to react with hyperimmune sera raised in rabbits against the presently known mycoplasma species of avian origin nor with sera produced against mammalian mycoplasma species sharing its biochemical properties. Strain No. 1225 belongs to the digitonin resistant Acholeplasmataceae family. It is glucose-positive and aesculin-positive. It is negative by all the other tests and fails to react with sera produced against the presently known acholeplasma species.

  17. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  18. A Comparative Study of Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    KOSAKA, Katsuaki

    1997-01-01

     In this brief paper, we shall try to analyse the concept of Business Ethics. For this purpose, we want to adopt the Comparative studies of Business Ethics. The main points of this argument are as follows.  At first, we want to make clear the relation of Modern Capitalism and the Ethics of Calvinism proposed by Max Weber. And next, we want to inquire into the spirit of merchants in the Edo period (1600-1864). We must compare the business spirit of the modern age in Japan and that of the Edo p...

  19. A Placebo-Controlled Double-Blinded Randomized Pilot Study of Combination Phytotherapy in Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, M Diana; Williams, Scott G; Emery, Jon; Bone, Kerry M; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Lusk, Elizabeth; Pirotta, Marie V

    2017-05-01

    Men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following local therapies often use natural supplements in an attempt to delay metastases and/or avoid the need for more aggressive treatments with undesirable side-effects. While there is a growing body of research into phytotherapeutic agents in this cohort, with some promising results, as yet no definitive recommendations can be made. This pilot study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of a fully-powered study to examine the effects of this phytotherapeutic intervention (containing turmeric, resveratrol, green tea and broccoli sprouts) on PSA doubling time in men with biochemical recurrence with a moderate PSA rise rate. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted with 22 men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer and a moderate rise rate (PSA doubling time of 4-15 months and no evidence of metastases from conventional imaging methods). Patients were randomized to either the active treatment arm or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were feasibility of study recruitment and procedures, and measurement of proposed secondary endpoints (prostate symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, and depression as measured on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and PR-25, the IPSS and HADS). Data were collected to estimate PSA-log slopes and PSA-doubling times, using a mixed model, for both the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods. Adherence to study protocol was excellent, and the phytotherapeutic intervention was well-tolerated, with similar numbers of mild-to-moderate adverse events in the active and placebo arms. Both the intervention and data collection methods were acceptable to participants. No statistical difference between groups on clinical outcomes was expected in this pilot study. There was between-subject variation in the PSA post treatment, but on average the active treatment group experienced a non-significant increase in the log-slope of PSA (pre-treatment doubling time

  20. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  1. Comparative study of background subtraction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benezeth, Yannick; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Emile, Bruno; Laurent, Hélène; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2010-07-01

    We present a comparative study of several state-of-the-art background subtraction methods. Approaches ranging from simple background subtraction with global thresholding to more sophisticated statistical methods have been implemented and tested on different videos with ground truth. The goal is to provide a solid analytic ground to underscore the strengths and weaknesses of the most widely implemented motion detection methods. The methods are compared based on their robustness to different types of video, their memory requirements, and the computational effort they require. The impact of a Markovian prior as well as some postprocessing operators are also evaluated. Most of the videos used come from state-of-the-art benchmark databases and represent different challenges such as poor SNR, multimodal background motion, and camera jitter. Overall, we not only help to better understand for which type of videos each method best suits but also estimate how, sophisticated methods are better compared to basic background subtraction methods.

  2. The occurrence and comparative phenotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus spp. from healthy and diseased, household and shelter dogs, based on routine biochemical diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Białecka, Anna; Białecka, Joanna; Godzisz, Izabela; Barabasz, Wiesław; Jaworska, Olga; Małachowa, Natalia; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    To determine the staphylococcal colonization pattern in healthy and diseased dogs, living in two particular environments, a number of microbiological samples were taken. Overall, twenty dogs, either healthy or with infected skin lesions, were examined. In each case bacterial swabs were collected from the nasal mucosa, ear, perineum, lumbo-sacralis triangle, and from the infection sites if such were present. A total number of 104 isolates representing different staphylococcal species were isolated and identified using routine biochemical methods applied in diagnostic laboratories. Among 17 isolated staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus intermedius was the most common species isolated from both healthy or diseased dogs living either in animal shelter or household environments. The pattern of Staphylococcus sp. colonization differs considerably for animals living in the two tested habitats. In particular, S. aureus MRSA and MSSA isolates were detected only in infected skin lesion samples from animals that dwelled in the animal shelter. As could be expected, S. intermedius was found to be a predominant causative agent in canine skin infections. In our study, we demonstrated that S. intermedius in its carrier-state, inhabits mainly the mucosal membrane of the nasal vestibule. It was also found in the samples taken from the skin, the lumbo-sacralis triangle and perineum, but was rarely isolated from the ears.

  3. Switching patients with acromegaly from octreotide to pasireotide improves biochemical control: Crossover extension to a randomized, double-blind, Phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Bronstein (Marcello); Fleseriu, M. (Maria); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); A. Colao (Annamaria); Sheppard, M. (Michael); Gu, F. (Feng); Shen, C.-C. (Chiung-Chyi); M.R. Gadelha (Mônica R.); Farrall, A.J. (Andrew J.); Reséndiz, K.H. (Karina Hermosillo); Ruffin, M. (Matthieu); Chen, Y. (YinMiao); P.U. Freda (Pamela)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground Many patients with acromegaly do not achieve biochemical control with first-generation somatostatin analogues. A large, multicenter, randomized, Phase III core study demonstrated that pasireotide LAR had significantly superior efficacy over octreotide LAR. This analysis

  4. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  5. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY IN ADJUSTMENT OF TRAVERSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Marian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between the coordinates that result by measuring with a Total Station, precision 5cc, and the coordinates obtained by using classical calculation. Measurements were made in the compilation of cadastral documentation necessary for obtaining provisional registration of a number of land ownership in the Land Registry. The results of measurements and errors were within the tolerances allowed by regulation.

  7. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy: A report on clinical, biochemical, and genetic study in Gujarat population, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mandava V; Sindhav, Gaurang M; Mehta, Jitendra J

    2014-07-01

    In India, various groups have studied different regions to find out deletion pattern of dystrophin gene. We have investigated its deletion pattern among Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD) patients across Gujarat. Moreover, in this study we also correlate the same with reading frame rule. However, we too consider various clinicopathological features to establish as adjunct indices when deletion detection fails. In this pilot study, a total of 88 D/BMD patients consulting at our centers in Gujarat, India were included. All patients were reviewed on basis of their clinical characteristics, tested by three primer sets of 10-plex, 9-plex, and 7-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genetic analysis; whereas, biochemical indices were measured using automated biochemical analyzers. The diagnosis of D/BMD was confirmed by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) in D/BMD patients. A number of 65 (73.86%) out of 88 patients showed deletion in dystrophin gene. The exon 50 (58.46%) was the most frequent deletion found in our study. The mean age of onset of DMD and BMD was 4.09 ± 0.15 and 7.14 ± 0.55 years, respectively. In patients, mean creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin levels were elevated significantly (P Gujarat, India. More research is essential to elucidate specific mutation pattern in association with management and therapies of proband.

  8. A comparative study of intrinsic versus bulk polarized fluorescence in cervical tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Dharitri; Lodhi, Md. Ejaz A.; Shukla, Prashant; Agarwal, Nidhi; Pandey, Kiran; Pradhan, Asima

    2008-02-01

    This study aims towards applying the intrinsic polarized fluorescence technique for obtaining valuable information from human cervical tissue samples. The efficacy of this technique is tested in human tissues by comparing its diagnostic capabilities with the bulk fluorescence. It is seen that biochemical information is hidden due to the presence of distortions by tissue scattering and absorption in the fluorescence spectra. Intrinsic tissue fluorescence provides a complete understanding of the biochemical and/or morphological changes that take place during the progression of disease. Recording of the experimental data and thereafter subsequent extraction of the intrinsic fluorescence serves as fingerprints towards determining the occurrence of these diseases. Here we report a comparative study of intrinsic versus bulk polarized fluorescence in cervical tissues. Intrinsic fluorescence is seen to be a more sensitive technique than bulk fluorescence for diagnosis of cervical cancers. Attempts have been made to study the changes in the amount of different fluorophores found in the epithelial and stromal layer of cervical tissue (both normal and cancerous). It has been seen that collagen decreases and NADH increases as a healthy cervical tissue develops into a cancerous one. Intrinsic fluorescence provides more consistent discriminating results as compared to bulk polarized fluorescence. It is also more sensitive in giving biochemical information from the different layers in cervical tissue. It may be concluded that intrinsic fluorescence shows promise as a viable tool for providing valuable insights towards fruitful diagnosis of the various stages of disease development and changes occurring with age.

  9. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997 for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affects and is affected by distinct dimensions of Latin American society. The paper recognizes that comparative studies have placed the importance of friends and friendship in areas such as economy, health, education, and migration, among others. As expected, Latin American comparative studies are more frequent in some disciplines, mainly those based on censuses data, and theoretically related to social-economic and demographic concepts, including social networks and social capital. The possibility of developing a Latin American perspective for the study of friendship requires not only the need of empirical but also theoretical advances, as well as scientific cooperation and innovation. Friendship is seen as relevant for the constitution of the social tissue of Latin American society, being affected and affecting different areas and levels. In the social economic dimension, friends are relevant, specifically in Latin America, to themes such as poverty and social vulnerability. Some future possibilities for investigation are discussed.

  10. Oral and salivary changes in patients with chronic kidney disease: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beela Ram Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both chronic kidney disease (CKD and its treatment can affect a wide range of tissues and systems. It directly or indirectly affects flow, concentrations and composition of saliva. Hemodialysis can effectively minimize most of these complications to some extent. Aims: The main aim of this study was to know the salivary content of sodium, potassium, calcium, urea, bicarbonate and oral manifestations in patients with CKD. Subjects and Methods: For this study, 50 patients diagnosed with CKD and 50 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals were subjected to a detailed general and intraoral examination. Whole un-stimulated saliva samples of all the selected subjects were collected and subjected to calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, bicarbonate and urea analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: Among 50 study subjects, 26 subjects had reduced salivary flow in the range of 0.1-0.4 ml/min. Intraoral examination of the study subjects revealed pallor, increased deposition of calculus, bleeding gums, metallic taste, hypoplasia of teeth and fissured tongue. There was a significant difference between healthy and prehemodialysis patients in the salivary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, urea levels and the difference was insignificant in relation to bicarbonate levels. Conclusions: Alterations in salivary calcium, phosphorous, urea, sodium, potassium levels were significantly higher in the study groups when compared to control groups and the difference was insignificant in relation to bicarbonate level. The increased levels in dialysis patients correlated with renal disease severity.

  11. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The production media were optimized for maximum yield of secondary metabolites. The metabolites were extracted using n-butanol (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, and MS spectral analyses confirmed that the compound produced by Streptomyces torulosus, T-4 is tunicamycin antibiotic.

  12. Study of comparative bioavailability of omeprazole pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sabiha; Hay, Yuen Kah; Baie, Saringat H; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the bioequivalence between the omeprazole laboratory based formulation and the commercial formulation, Zimor Rubio, Spain, considered as reference formulation. The experiment was carried out according to a 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a two week washout period. A validated high performance liquid chromatographic method was applied for in vivo experiments. It was observed that omeprazole contents were comparable in all formulations. To establish bioequivalence, 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the differences of total AUCs of the test and reference formulations were calculated. The 95% CI ratio of the AUC within 0.80 to 1.25 was considered as bioequivalent. The carryout effect was investigated prior to assessing the bioequivalence of the two formulations. The test formulation of omeprazole was found to be comparable with the reference formulation (Zimor) with regard to bioavailability.

  13. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  14. Biochemical and physiological modifications in tissues of Sardina pilchardus: spatial and temporal patterns as a baseline for biomonitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is subjected to diffuse anthropogenic chemical contamination and seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters that may alter its physiology and condition. Biological material is easily available through commercial fisheries, which could facilitate its use as a bioindicator species. The aim of the present work was to address its potential inclusion in biomonitoring studies, considering a combinatory approach through the use of enzymatic biomarkers and somatic indices, by assessing spatial and temporal patterns in a metapopulation along the west coast of Portugal. Our results showed significant variability of the biochemical and physiological profile of the fish, mainly concordant between sampling sites. Large differences for most markers were found across periods of the year, showing the importance of seasonality, which was mostly related to the reproductive cycle. Hence, environmental scientists should acknowledge seasonality as a strong driving force for physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are normally used to identify effects of chemical contamination. The here-obtained set of data suggests that S. pilchardus may be successfully included in oceanic biomonitoring studies, when one considers that the contribution of seasonal factors may exceed the influence of eventual anthropogenic contamination.

  15. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

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    Mandala Ariani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  16. Comparative study of INPIStron and spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse pinch plasma switch, INPIStron, was studied in comparison to a conventional spark gap. The INPIStron is under development for high power switching applications. The INPIStron has an inverse pinch dynamics, opposed to Z-pinch dynamics in the spark gap. The electrical, plasma dynamics and radiative properties of the closing plasmas have been studied. Recently the high-voltage pulse transfer capabilities or both the INPIStron and the spark gap were also compared. The INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms transfers 87 percent of an input pulse with a halfwidth of 2 mu s. For the same input pulse the spark gap of Z = 100 ohms transfers 68 percent. Fast framing and streak photography, taken with an TRW image converter camera, was used to observe the discharge uniformity and closing plasma speed in both switches. In order to assess the effects of closing plasmas on erosion of electrode material, emission spectra of two switches were studied with a spectrometer-optical multi channel analyzer (OMA) system. The typical emission spectra of the closing plasmas in the INPIStron and the spark gap showed that there were comparatively weak carbon line emission in 658.7 nm and copper (electrode material) line emissions in the INPIStron, indicating low erosion of materials in the INPIStron.

  17. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  18. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

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    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  20. ATLAS of Biochemistry: A Repository of All Possible Biochemical Reactions for Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadi, Noushin; Hafner, Jasmin; Shajkofci, Adrian; Zisaki, Aikaterini; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2016-10-21

    Because the complexity of metabolism cannot be intuitively understood or analyzed, computational methods are indispensable for studying biochemistry and deepening our understanding of cellular metabolism to promote new discoveries. We used the computational framework BNICE.ch along with cheminformatic tools to assemble the whole theoretical reactome from the known metabolome through expansion of the known biochemistry presented in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We constructed the ATLAS of Biochemistry, a database of all theoretical biochemical reactions based on known biochemical principles and compounds. ATLAS includes more than 130 000 hypothetical enzymatic reactions that connect two or more KEGG metabolites through novel enzymatic reactions that have never been reported to occur in living organisms. Moreover, ATLAS reactions integrate 42% of KEGG metabolites that are not currently present in any KEGG reaction into one or more novel enzymatic reactions. The generated repository of information is organized in a Web-based database ( http://lcsb-databases.epfl.ch/atlas/ ) that allows the user to search for all possible routes from any substrate compound to any product. The resulting pathways involve known and novel enzymatic steps that may indicate unidentified enzymatic activities and provide potential targets for protein engineering. Our approach of introducing novel biochemistry into pathway design and associated databases will be important for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

  1. Study of Biochemical and Anthropometrical Risk Factors of the Cardiovascular Disease in Overweight-Obese and Normal Weight Adolescent Boys

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    H. Kermanshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Relationship between overweight being and obese with metabolic risk factors of the cardiovascular disease in adolescent boy considering the variety and irregular motional patterns, has attracted the researchers' attention. The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical and anthropometrical risk factors of the cardiovascular system, daily physical activity (steps/day and aerobic capacity of overweight and normal weight adolescent boys. Materials & Methods: Fifty six adolescent boys were recruited in two groups; over weight-obese as a risk receptive group (n=28 and normal weight (n=28. Blood lipids, daily steps (physical activity volume, body composition and aerobic capacity were measured with standard methods.Results: TG, TC, LDL-C and VLDL–C concentrations and TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in the normal weight individuals were significantly lower than the overweight subjects (P<0.05 and P<0.005 respectively. The Aerobic capacity of normal weight was better than overweight-obese ones (P<0.001. The Mean of Daily steps of overweight group (12617±868 steps/day was significantly lower than normal weight group(14941±1159 steps/day(P<0.001.Conclusion: It seems that living an active life (14941±1159 step day can reduce biochemical and anthropometrical risk factors of the cardiovascular disease. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:15-21

  2. First Indian study evaluating role of biochemical investigations and diagnostic tools in detection of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vishal R; Khajuria, Vijay; Raina, Kapila; Mahajan, Vivek; Sharma, Aman; Gillani, Zahid

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the role of biochemical investigations (BI) and diagnostic tools (DT) in ADR detection. An observational prospective cross-sectional study was done using suspected ADR data collection form. A total of 2381 ADR related events were recorded in two years. Total number/percentage of biochemical abnormalities (BA) related ADR detection rate was 14.57% and of DT was 1.091% in contrast to 84.33% recorded with clinical presentation. Maximum cases were inward patients (87.13%), 67.02% were recorded by active surveillance. ADR detection rate at one point & detection on follow up was 56.31% Vs 46.38%. ADR detection rate of ECG, endoscopy, X-ray were 0.57%, 0.22%, 0.22% and of CT scan, MRI, DEXA scan, USG and biopsy was 0.04% each. Maximum ADRs were severe/serious, latent and Type-A in nature. Anemia (4.6%), followed by liver dysfunction (2.8%), renal dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia (1.1% each), abnormal coagulation profile (1%), decrease platelet count (0.8%), hypoglycemia (0.7%) were the most common BAs. Anti retroviral drugs (ART), tirofiban and methotrexate accounted for anemia, ART and anti tubercular drugs for liver & renal dysfunction, insulin for hypoglycemia, tirofiban, paclitaxel, capecipabine and ifosfamide for thrombocytopenia, hematuria by enoxaparin & dyslipidemia with ART were common ADRs. BI and DT can play very important role in ADR detection.

  3. Metabonomic studies of biochemical changes in the serum of rats by intratracheally instilled TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Wang, Shu; Huang, Mingming; Yang, Yang; Lu, Minyu; Lei, Hao; Kong, Lu; Wang, Yiqing; Pu, Yuepu

    2011-04-01

    In vivo behavior of nanoparticles and interactions between nanoparticles and organisms are key components of nanotoxicology. In this study, the biochemical compositions of rat serum exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) by intratracheal instillation at low (0.8 mg/kg), medium (4 mg/kg) and high doses (20 mg/kg) were investigated using 1H-NMR techniques with pattern recognition methods. Serum biochemical assays, as well as histopathological and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations of tissues were performed. 1H-NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses of nano-TiO2 treated animals showed increased serum levels of ketone bodies, choline, low density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine and GLU, and decreased levels of lactate, creatine and pyruvate. Clinical chemistry analyses of serum showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase, as well as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating slight liver and kidney injury. Furthermore, TEM provided an analysis of particle-related structural changes of the lungs, liver and kidneys, and revealed that the localization of nanoparticles within cells induced apoptosis. The damage to the target organs was associated with the perturbation of energy metabolism. Serum 1H-NMR spectra, in combination with pattern recognition techniques, proved to be an efficient and simple metabonomic method to depict the metabolic changes produced by intratracheally-instilled nano-TiO2.

  4. Effect of smoking on potential salivary markers of periodontal disease: A clinical and biochemical study

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    Narender Dev Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoking exerts a harmful effect on the periodontal tissues manifested by periodontal pockets, attachment loss, and periodontal bone loss. Various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Moreover, smoking may exert effects throughout the cytokine network. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal biomarkers possibly related to the development of periodontitis including inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty subjects aged 30–55 years were included in the study and divided into three groups: systemically and periodontally healthy individuals (Group 1, subjects with pocket probing depth (PPD ≥5 mm and clinical attachment loss (CAL of ≥2 mm (Group 2, and a subjects smoking (≥10 cigarettes a day with periodontal parameters of Group 2 (Group 3. Periodontal parameters of PPD, CAL, gingival index (GI, and plaque index were measured using standard indices and criteria. Three milliliters of unstimulated saliva was taken, and salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 were determined using ELISA technique. Results: The mean GI was lowest for Group 3, but the mean probing depth of Group 3 (4.93 ± 0.41 was highest. The mean TNF-α level of Group 3 was significantly different and higher as compared to Group 1 and Group 2 (24.32 ± 8.32 ng/ml vs. 6.43 ± 2.65 ng/ml, q = 16.14; P< 0.001. Similarly, the mean MMP-8 level of Group 3 (461.71 ± 58.01 ng/ml was significantly different (P < 0.001 and higher as compared to Group 1 (192.96 ± 134.89 ng/ml and Group 2 (347.83 ± 206.72 ng/ml. Both markers showed positive and significant correlation with their periodontal status. Conclusion: Our study clearly indicates a profound effect of smoking on salivary markers of periodontal disease (TNF-α and

  5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-01-01

    The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug. Finally some peripheral biomarkers were identified in ADHD adult patients. We believe this work is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies, pharmacogenetic and biochemical (metabolomics) studies performed in adults with ADHD to identify potential genetic, predictive and peripheral markers linked specifically to ADHD in adults. After screening 5129 records, we selected 87 studies of which 61 were available for candidate gene association studies, 5 for pharmacogenetics and 21 for biochemical studies. Of these, 15 genetic, 2 pharmacogenetic and 6 biochemical studies were included in the meta-analyses. We obtained an association between adult ADHD and the gene BAIAP2 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), even after Bonferroni correction, with any heterogeneity in effect size and no publication bias. If we did not apply the Bonferroni correction, a trend was found for the carriers allele 9R of dopamine transporter SLC6A3 40 bp variable tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and for 6/6 homozygotes of SLC6A3 30 bp VNTR. Negative results were obtained for the 9-6 haplotype, the dopamine receptor DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and the enzyme COMT SNP rs4680. Concerning pharmacogenetic studies, no association was found for the SLC6A3 40 bp and response to MPH with only two studies selected. For the metabolomics studies, no differences between ADHD adults and controls were

  6. Nutritional, biochemical and cytogenotoxicity studies on wasted fat released from chicken during grilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, G M; Magda, R A; Awad, A A

    2010-10-01

    Some physico-chemical properties of fat released from chicken during grilling process were evaluated and the results showed that refractive index and saponification values were not affected by grilling process. However, serious increases in oxidative deterioration parameters and color were noticed. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of grilled fat on body weight, liver function, chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus formation in rats. Eight-week-old Swiss male albino rats, weighing approximately 90 g were used in this study. Rats were fed on a diet containing grilled fat for two months showed insignificant decrease in body weight compared to the control except, the eighth week (last weighing). The serum analysis should that aspartate transaminase (AST), cholesterol, creatinine and urea levels increased significantly whereas, alanine transaminase (ALT), and triglyceride levels were not affected. Also, cytogenetic analysis showed various types of chromosomal aberrations, i.e., chromatide breaks, ring chromosome, fragment chromosome, and end to end association chromosomes and insignificant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal based SOD mimetic therapeutic agents: Synthesis, characterization and biochemical studies of metal complexes

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    J. Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of Fe(III, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with the Schiff base obtained through the condensation of L1 and L2 (L1 – obtained through the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with furfuraldehyde and L2 – derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole and 3-nitrobenzaldehyde were synthesized under reflux conditions. The newly formed complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, 1H NMR, UV–Vis., IR and ESR techniques. Cyclic voltammogram of the complexes in DMSO solution at 300 K was recorded and their salient features were summarized. The X-band ESR spectrum of the copper complex in DMSO solution at 300 and 77 K was recorded. The in vitro biological screening of the investigated compounds was tested against the bacterial species, and fungal species by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of metal complexes was dependent on the microbial species tested, ligand and the metal salts used. A comparative study of inhibition values of Schiff bases and their complexes indicates that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. The DNA binding studies were performed for the complexes using cyclic voltammetry and electronic absorption spectra. Superoxide dismutase activity of these complexes has also been examined.

  8. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

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    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  9. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  10. Buried Target Imaging: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi Aram, Morteza; Dehmollaian, Mojtaba; Khaleghi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    A wide variety of qualitative methods have been proposed for microwave imaging. It is difficult to select only one of these methods based on a priori information and measurement equipment to achieve a reliable reconstruction. Various arrangements for antennas to be used in, for instance, have been proposed which have direct impacts on the complexity of inverse methods as well as the quality of output images. In this study, four qualitative methods of the linear sampling method (LSM), time reversal (TR), diffraction tomography (DT), and back-projection (BP) have been reviewed in a 2D scenario; the performance of the methods is compared within the same framework of a multi-static configuration. The goal is to compare their resolutions and determine their advantages and drawbacks. It is shown that LSM provides the best azimuth resolution but the worst range resolution. It is almost invariant to dielectric contrast and is appropriate for a wide range of dielectric contrasts and relatively large objects. It is also shown that at relatively low dielectric contrasts, TR images are most similar to the true object, show fewer artifacts, and offer high immunity to noise. While suffering from more artifacts due to the presence of some ghost images, DT offers the best range resolution. The results also show that BP has the worst azimuth resolution when reconstructing deeply-buried targets, although its implementation is straightforward and not computationally complex.

  11. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Mohamed H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic), inulin (prebiotic) and both (synbiotics), when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old). The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets (additional aflatoxins, protexin, inulin and symbiotic). The birds were weighed and sacrificed at the age of 21 days. Compared to the controls, aflatoxins alone significantly (pprotexin, inulin, or both, diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxins. Finally, it was concluded that the protexin, inulin and synergism of both are effective in the amelioration of the toxic effects of aflatoxins that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg diet. Synbiotics (protexin and inulin) are more effective than the protexin and the inulin alone which are variable in the alleviation of toxic effects caused by aflatoxins.

  12. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

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    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  13. Glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation of IgG: a biophysical, biochemical, immunological and hematological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sidra; Moinuddin; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Raghav, Alok; Habib, Safia; Alam, Khursheed; Ali, Asif

    2017-09-12

    Glycation and oxidation induce structural alterations in the proteins in an interdependent manner with consequent pathological implications. The published literature presents wide range of modifications in conformational characteristics of proteins by glycation and oxidation; however, there is little data that could elaborate the cumulative effect of both the processes. This study has analysed the modifications in IgG by methylglyoxal (MG) (glycative stress), hydroxyl radical ([Formula: see text]) (oxidative stress) and by their combined action i.e. [Formula: see text] treatment of MG glycated IgG (glycoxidation). It further addresses the implications of the altered structural integrity of IgG on its immunological characteristics and impact on haematological parameters in rabbits. Using circular dichroism, FTIR, SDS-PAGE analysis, thioflavin-T fluorescence assay, congo red absorbance analysis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, ELISA, blood cell counts and rectal temperature studies, we report that the glycoxidative modification caused maximum alteration in the IgG as compared to the glycatively and oxidatively modified protein. Far-UV CD results confirmed the highest decline in the beta-pleated sheet content of the protein by glycoxidation. The damage led to the reduced flexibility and enhanced electronic interactions in IgG as observed by near-UV CD. Modifications caused cross-linking and adduct formation in the serum protein. The electron micrograph confirmed amorphous aggregation in modified IgG. The modifications increased the hydrodynamic radius of IgG by allowing the attachment of [Formula: see text] and MG residues. The glycoxidatively modified IgG induced the maximum antibody titres that showed high specificity towards the altered IgG. The glycoxidation of IgG leads to activation of inflammatory pathways.

  14. ROS dependent copper toxicity in Hydra-biochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Rajendran, Ramasamy Babu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has been to find the effect of ROS-mediated toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of copper at organismal and cellular levels in Hydra magnipapillata. Exposure to copper at sublethal concentrations (0.06 and 0.1mg/L) for 24 or 48h resulted in generation of significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We infer that the free radicals here originate predominantly at the lysosomes but partly at the mitochondria also as visualized by H2-DHCFDA staining. Quantitative real-time PCR of RNA extracted from copper-exposed polyps revealed dose-dependent up-regulation of all antioxidant response genes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, GR, G6PD). Concurrent increase of Hsp70 and FoxO genes suggests the ability of polyps to respond to stress, which at 48h was not the same as at 24h. Interestingly, the transcript levels of all genes were down-regulated at 48h as compared to 24h incubation period. Comet assay indicated copper as a powerful genotoxicant, and the DNA damage was dose- as well as duration-dependent. Western blotting of proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) confirmed ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death in copper-exposed animals. These changes correlated well with changes in morphology, regeneration and aspects of reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate increased production of intracellular ROS in Hydra on copper exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Paolo; Rizzo, Marta; Quaranta, Federico; Ciminelli, Emanuela; Fagnani, Federica; Parisi, Attilio; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2012-06-19

    A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived) dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among "recreational" athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65%) out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M) presenting a "dramatic" increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at the base of the observed hormonal alterations.

  16. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrione Paolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65% out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at

  17. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p lane incidences were falls (59.3%) and collisions with other bicycles (23.5%), whereas in non-bicycle lane cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  18. Study of a number of biochemical indices of the blood and tissue of dogs after prolonged gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Praslichka, T.; Mishurova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Malatova, Z.; Akhunov, A. A.; Markelov, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    The glucose content in blood and the lipid content in serum and tissues of dogs exposed to chronic radiation for 3 and 5 years were studied. In tissues of these animals, the concentration of soluble DNA and DNA contained in DNP was studied in the spleen, lymph node (deep cervical node) and bone marrow of thigh bones. Results indicate that chronic gamma irradiation significantly changes concentrations of glucose in the blood, and that of several lipids in serum and tissues. A reduction in the concentration of DNP in tested organs reflects changes in the relative number of cells with various nuclear cytoplasmic ratios; most pronounced changes in biochemical indices occur in dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation in doses of 125 rad per year.

  19. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Charu; R K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3(rd) day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein.

  20. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small–moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  2. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  3. A study on biochemical changes during cultivation of Rhizopus oryzae in deproteinized whey medium in relation to chitosan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Guha, A K

    2014-08-01

    The kinetics of cultivation of zygomycete filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae in deproteinized whey medium in relation to chitosan production was studied here to optimize chitosan production from R. oryzae as well as utilize whey, a by-product of sweetmeat industry as a cheap source of sugar in the cultivation process. Chitosan content of R. oryzae biomass was found to be increased with time during cultivation and reached maximum (13·6%) after 72 h and then declined steadily. Maximum 1·13 g of chitosan was obtained from one litre of deproteinized whey medium. Concentration of lactose in the medium was observed to be reduced from 45·0 to 11·7 g l(-1) during cultivation resulting in decrease in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of whey by approx. 60%, and this was important from environmental point of view before discharging whey into any water body. However, no significant change in pH or titratable acidity was noted during the entire course of cultivation, probably due to good buffering capacity of the medium. Molecular weight of chitosan varied from 130 to 230 kDa depending on the time of cultivation, but no significant change in degree of deacetylation of chitosan (approx. 87%) was found during cultivation. Whey is the largest by-product of dairy industries, and its disposal is a big environmental issue because of its high biological oxygen demand (BOD) value. This study will help to lower BOD value of whey by using it as a cultivation medium for fungus R. oryzae that contains chitosan, a very commercially important material on its cell wall. Moreover, the study on biochemical changes in whey during cultivation process with R. oryzae will help to understand the exact changes occurring in the medium and optimize cultivation process to isolate chitosan in larger extent with better and uniform physicochemical properties. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, M.J.; Kooij, L.; Muller, M.A.; Bilardo, K.M.; van Lith, J.M.; Tymstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. METHOD: Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  5. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, Martin J. N.; Kooij, Loes; Müller, Moira A.; Bilardo, Katia M.; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Tymstra, Tjeerd

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. Method Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  6. Gel-Based Purification and Biochemical Study of Laccase Isozymes from Ganoderma sp. and Its Role in Enhanced Cotton Callogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K. Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetous fungi, Ganoderma lucidum MDU-7 and Ganoderma sp. kk-02 secreted multiple laccase isozymes under diverse growth condition. Aromatic compounds and metal salts were also found to regulate the differential expression of laccase isozymes from both the Ganoderma sp. Laccase isozymes induced in the presence of copper from G. lucidum MDU-7 were purified by gel-based (native-PAGE purification method. The purity of laccase isozymes was checked by zymogram and SDS-PAGE. The SDS-PAGE of purified proteins confirmed the multimeric nature of laccase isozymes. The molecular mass of isozymes was found to be in the range of 40–66 kDa. Further, the purified laccase isozymes and their peptides were confirmed with the help of MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting. The biochemical characterization of laccase isozymes viz. Glac L2, Glac L3, Glac L4, and Glac L5 have shown the optimum temperature in the range of 30°–45°C and pH 3.0. The Km values of all the laccase isozymes determined for guaiacol were (96–281 μM, ABTS (15–83 μM and O-tolidine (78–724 μM. Further, laccase isozymes from G. lucidum whole genome were studied using bioinformatics tools. The molecular modeling and docking of laccase isozymes with different substrates showed a significant binding affinity, which further validates our experimental results. Interestingly, copper induced laccase of 40 U/ml in culture medium was found to significantly induce cotton callogenesis. Interestingly, all the laccase isozymes were found to have an antioxidative role and therefore capable in free radicals scavenging during callogenesis. This is the first detailed study on the biochemical characterization of all the laccase isozymes purified by a gel-based novel method.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  8. Lung cancer at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia: A four-year prospective study of clinical, pathological, radiological, bronchoscopic, and biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamoudi Omer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Background: Lung cancer accounts for 4% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Saudi Arabia. The pattern of presentation is unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical, radiological, pathological, biochemical and bronchoscopic abnormalities in lung cancer patients and to compare our findings with those reported in the literature. Methods: A total of 114 patients with proven lung cancer were selected for the study. A questionnaire concerning patients′ demographic data was obtained; the abnormalities and the cell types of lung cancer were recorded prospectively in each subject. Results: A total of 114 patients with lung cancer were studied. Mean age ± SD was (59.8 ± 10.8 years, and (71.1% were smokers and 95.1% of them were male, (90.1% smoked> 20 pack/yr (96.2% for 20 years or more. Cough (76.3% and clubbing (40.4% were the most common symptom and physical abnormality respectively. The right lung (64.9% was more commonly affected than the left (37.7%. Metastases were present in (49.1% at presentation. The right and left upper bronchi (24% vs. 16% were the mostly affected. Hypercalcemia was more common in squamous cell, while hyponatremia was more common in adenocarcinoma, and small cell. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type (51.8% and significantly associated with smoking (P ≤ 0.001 Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type, and significantly associated with smoking. The incidence of metastasis was high at presentation. The right lung and right upper bronchus were often affected. Hypercalcemia and hyponatremia were the most common biochemical abnormalities.

  9. Comprehensive Metabolomics Study To Assess Longitudinal Biochemical Changes and Potential Early Biomarkers in Nonobese Diabetic Mice That Progress to Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Peter; Tamayo-Garcia, Alejandro; Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Garcia-Contreras, Marta; Mendez, Armando J; Ricordi, Camillo

    2017-10-06

    A global nontargeted longitudinal metabolomics study was carried out in male and female NOD mice to characterize the time-profile of the changes in the metabolic signature caused by onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and identify possible early biomarkers in T1D progressors. Metabolomics profiling of samples collected at five different time-points identified 676 and 706 biochemicals in blood and feces, respectively. Several metabolites were expressed at significantly different levels in progressors at all time-points, and their proportion increased strongly following onset of hyperglycemia. At the last time-point, when all progressors were diabetic, a large percentage of metabolites had significantly different levels: 57.8% in blood and 27.8% in feces. Metabolic pathways most strongly affected included the carbohydrate, lipid, branched-chain amino acid, and oxidative ones. Several biochemicals showed considerable (>4×) change. Maltose, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and kojibiose increased, while 1,5-anhydroglucitol decreased more than 10-fold. At the earliest time-point (6-week), differences between the metabolic signatures of progressors and nonprogressors were relatively modest. Nevertheless, several compounds had significantly different levels and show promise as possible early T1D biomarkers. They include fatty acid phosphocholine derivatives from the phosphatidylcholine subpathway (elevated in both blood and feces) as well as serotonin, ribose, and arabinose (increased) in blood plus 13-HODE, tocopherol (increased), diaminopimelate, valerate, hydroxymethylpyrimidine, and dulcitol (decreased) in feces. A combined metabolic signature based on these compounds might serve as an early predictor of T1D-progressors.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Montelukast Against Methotrexate-Induced Liver Toxicity: A Biochemical and Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of montelukast against methotrexate-induced liver damage were investigated. 35 Wistar albino female rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: group I: control; group II: montelukast (ML; group III: methotrexate (Mtx; group IV: montelukast treatment after methotrexate application (Mtx + ML; group V: montelukast treatment before methotrexate application (ML + Mtx. At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues of rats were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and reduced glutathione levels were determined from liver tissues. In addition, the liver tissues were examined histologically. MDA and MPO levels of Mtx group were significantly increased when compared to control group. In Mtx + ML group, these parameters were decreased as compared to Mtx group. Mtx injection exhibited major histological alterations such as eosinophilic staining and swelling of hepatocytes. The glycogen storage in hepatocytes was observed as decreased by periodic acid schiff staining in Mtx group as compared to controls. ML treatment did not completely ameliorate the lesions and milder degenerative alterations as loss of the glycogen content was still present. It was showed that montelukast treatment after methotrexate application could reduce methotrexate-induced experimental liver damage.

  11. South-East Asia and Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Watson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how important is context in undertaking comparative and international educational research. It begins by showing how early UNESCO Plans for Asia largely ignored this crucial aspect. It then goes on to trace the development of the twin fields of comparative and international education, their purposes and different approaches and areas of inquiry before turning to South-'‐East Asia. By looking at the context of South-'‐east Asia as a region in its own right, with its diversity and complexities, and by highlighting the region's uniqueness, the paper suggests that there has been too little comparative research across the region as a whole. Too much has been concentrated on individual countries or on a couple of countries at a time. The paper ends by making some recommendations for future comparative educational research.

  12. Biochemical activity of a fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G: Molecular modeling, electrochemical, spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masum, Abdulla; Chakraborty, Maharudra; Ghosh, Soumen; Laha, Dipranjan; Karmakar, Parimal; Islam, Md Maidul; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-11-01

    Interaction of CT DNA with Rhodamine 6G (R6G) has been studied using molecular docking, electrochemical, spectroscopic and thermodynamic methods. From the study, it was illustrated that Rhodamine 6G binds to the minor groove of CT DNA. The binding was cooperative in nature. Circular voltametric study showed significant change in peak current and peak potential due to complexation. All the studies showed that the binding constant was in the order of 106M-1. Circular dichroic spectra showed significant conformational change on binding and DNA unwind during binding. Thermodynamic study showed that binding was favored by negative enthalpy and positive entropy change. From thermodynamic study it was also observed that several positive and negative free energies played significant role during binding and the unfavorable conformational free energy change was overcame by highly negative hydrophobic and salt dependent free energy changes. The experimental results were further validated using molecular docking study and the effect of structure on binding has been studied theoretically. From docking study it was found that the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds played a significant role during binding. The dye was absorbed by cell and this phenomenon was studied using fluorescent microscope. Cell survivability test showed that the dye active against Human Breast Cancer cells MDA-MB 468. ROS study showed that the activity is due to the production of reactive oxygen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Okra Powder (Abelmoscus Esculentus Effects on Histology of Liver Tissue and Sero-Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N erfani majd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabete is a kind of metabolic disease that it is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and disturbed liver function.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of Okra Powder on liver damage in high fat diet fed / streptozotocin (HFD-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats with an average weight of (200–220 g were randomly divided  into 5 groups: Group I: (control group rats were fed the standard diet, Group II: healthy rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks; Group III (HFD/STZ group: Rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks  and then injected low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, Group IV:  Diabetic rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. GroupV: Diabetic rats that received metformin (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters were measured. Liver samples were removed and 5-6 µ sections were made and stained by H&E and Sudan black staining. Results: The results showed that all the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and serum insulin were increased in diabetic rats, while they were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared  to diabetic rats (p<0.05. The liver structure alterations were improved in treated diabetic rats with Okra Powder and metformin.  Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the potential anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Okra Powder. Thus, it seems it has an important role in the management of type 2 diabete.

  14. Study of two comparison procedures applied to biochemical results from twin analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Lise; Pacot, Laurence; Bailleul, Sophie; Lefèvre, Guillaume

    2017-10-01

    Two procedures for checking agreement between twin analyzers (Abbott Architect ci 8200) were tested in 23 blood and 7 urine parameters (10,160 paired results from 7,882 blood and 2,278 urine tests). Two protocols were compared. In protocol 1, acceptance criterion is based on standard-deviation originated either from French recommendations (Société française de biologie clinique) or from within subject biological variation. In protocol 2, acceptance criterion is based on values of expanded uncertainty of measurements calculated according to SH GTA 04. Percentages of comparisons refused were significantly different (p < 0.05) and varied from 0.0 to 18.6% (median: 0.45%) and from 0.0 to 8.75% (median: 1.2%). For 9 blood parameters (sodium, total CO2 , total proteins, calcium, urea, LDH, amylase, lipase and troponin I) and 4 urine parameters (sodium, protein, glucose, creatinine) a significant difference was observed between protocol 1 and 2. For the majority of tests, evaluation criterion based on within run standard deviation (protocol 1) is less stringent than protocol 2 based on expanded uncertainly of measurements. The use of expanded uncertainty as comparability criterion seems to be an interesting approach, especially for assays presenting wide theoretical physiopathology changes.

  15. Biochemical Characterization of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Michele; Bongianni, Matilde; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    Prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by the presence of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc). The pathological and transmissible properties of PrPSc are enciphered in its secondary and tertiary structures. Since it's well established that different strains of prions are linked to different conformations of PrPSc, biochemical characterization of prions seems a preliminary but reliable approach to detect, analyze, and compare prion strains. Experimental biochemical procedures might be helpful in distinguishing PrPSc physicochemical properties and include resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion, insolubility in nonionic detergents, PK-resistance under denaturing conditions and sedimentation properties in sucrose gradients. This biochemical approach has been extensively applied in human prion disorders and subsequently expanded for PrPSc characterization in animals. In particular, in sporadic Creutzfedlt-Jakob disease (sCJD) PrPSc is characterized by two main glycotypes conventionally named Type 1 and Type 2, based on the apparent gel migration at 21 and 19kDa of the PrPSc PK-resistant fragment. An additional PrPSc type was identified in sCJD characterized by an unglycosylated dominant glycoform pattern and in 2010 a variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) was reported showing a PrPSc with an electrophoretic ladder like pattern. Additionally, the presence of PrPSc truncated fragments completes the electrophoretic characterization of different prion strains. By two-dimensional (2D) electrophoretic analysis additional PrPSc pattern was identified, since this procedure provides information about the isoelectric point and the different peptides length related to PK cleavage, as well as to glycosylation extent or GPI anchor presence. We here provide and extensive review on PrPSc biochemical analysis in human and animal prion disorders. Further, we show that PrPSc glycotypes observed in CJD share similarities with

  16. Biochemical studies on the origin of the ATPase of the avian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    also been demonstrated in herpes virus (Epstein and Hott, 1963) and influenza virus. (Ada and Lind, 1961). De-The (1964a) has presented evidence based on electron microscopic studies that the ATPase of the AMV originates from the cell membrane of the myeloblasts. The studies presented in this paper support the ...

  17. Studies on chronic copper poisoning. II. Biochemical studies on the blood of sheep during the haemolytic crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J.R.; Thompson, R.H.

    1963-01-01

    Biochemical analyses of the blood of sheep are reported during the period of accumulation of copper and also during the haemolytic crisis. The estimations included copper, haemoglobin, methaemoglobin, packed cell volume, bilirubin, urea, sodium, potassium, lactic acid, pyruvic acid and ..cap alpha..-keto-gluaric acid, SGOT, SGPT, lactic dehydrogenase and glutathione (non-protein thiols). During the haemolytic crisis marked changes were found in all the above except sodium, potassium and ..cap alpha..-keto-glutaric. During the haemolytic crisis losses of up to 10 g. haemoglobin per 100 ml. were recorded in 48 hours. Lactic and pyruvic acid estimations indicate that tissue anoxia occurs in most but not all cases. The enzyme estimations suggested that liver damage begins some six to eight weeks before, and is very severe at the time of the haemolytic crisis. At the time of the crisis blood glutathione concentrations fell dramatically and the signficance of this in relation to haemolysis and methaemoglobin accumulation is discussed.

  18. A comparative study of fingerprint thinning algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available are compared in terms of the quality of the skeletons they produce (i.e. connectivity and spurious branches) as well as the time complexity associated with each algorithm. Results show that faster algorithms have difficulty preserving connectivity. Zhang...

  19. Comparative study of different Schlieren diffracting elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 70; Issue 1. Comparative ... A K Aggarwal1. Coherent Optics Division, Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30, Chandigarh 160 030, India; Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  20. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  1. Comparative study of extralevator vs. conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Abdominoperineal excision (APE) is used to resect cancers in the distal rectum and anus where sphincterpreserving surgery is not possible. It is associated with increased local recurrence rates compared to anterior resection. The extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) was developed to reduce local ...

  2. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2010-01-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their sha...

  3. Comparative Studies on Some Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils. The percentage ...

  4. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  5. On the analysis of long-chain alkane diols and glycerol ehters in biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M L; Cress, E A; Stephens, N; Snyder, F

    1971-09-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,12-long-chain alkane diols and 1-O-alkylglycerols and their derivatives has been compared. Thin-layer chromatography on Silica Gel G gives poor separations of the 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-alkane diols, O-alkylglycerols, and some of their isopropylidene derivatives. However, gas-liquid chromatography on 10% EGSS-X (coated on 100-120 mesh Gas-Chrom P) resolves the isopropylidenes of the alkane diols and O-alkylglycerols. We also document the formation of 1,3-alkane diols (after LiAlH(4) reduction) from 1-(14)C-labeled fatty acids incubated with mitochondrial fractions from heart and liver of rats. The labeled 1,3-alkane diol was identified by gas-liquid chromatography of its isopropylidene derivative and by its behavior after periodate oxidation. These results serve to caution investigators in the glycerol ether field against incorrect interpretation of data obtained on the incorporation of labeled fatty acids into alkyl ether bonds of glycerolipids. The methodology described points out a technique for distinguishing several types of alkane diols from O-alkylglycerols.

  6. Estrogen receptors in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra, and prostate. An immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Juul, B R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and quantity of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra and the prostate were studied in eight males with recurrent papillomas of the bladder or monosymptomatic hematuria (median age 61 years), 14 men undergoing transurethral resection due to benign...

  7. Biochemical study on some adipocyto-kines in chronic renal failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory responses because of the decreased renal clearance of factors that are directly or indirectly involved in inflammation. Declining renal function may also affect the levels of additional inflammatory molecules such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6.The aim of the study was to assess visfatin and apelin ...

  8. [Model systems based on the lipid-porphyrin assemblies and lipoproteins in biochemical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, S S; Sebiakin, Iu L

    1996-01-01

    Reviewed are the modern state and prospects of using lipid-porphyrin assemblies and lipoporphyrins to study fine functional mechanisms of complex biological systems and to solve applied problems in biochemistry and medicine. Data on the interaction of porphyrin derivatives with natural and artificial membranes are summarized. Models for electron transfer and oxygen transport via lipid-porphyrin assemblies are discussed.

  9. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies of the C-type lectin bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, E H; Storgaard, P

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the supramolecular organization of conglutinin (BK) with its primary and tertiary structure and to gain more knowledge of functionally important regions of the molecule. BK analyzed by SDS-PAGE under standard reducing conditions (40 mM DTT) showed a major ba...

  10. Membrane prteins of herpes simplex infected cells. Immunological and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling-Wester, Sijtske

    1981-01-01

    As a consequence of infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV), cells exhibit a number of alterations. One of these is expressed as a change in the polypeptide composition of the surface of the infected cells. In this study several methods used for the isolation of these polypeptides expressed on the

  11. Distribution of xanthine oxidoreductase activity in human tissues--a histochemical and biochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Schijns, M.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.; James, J.

    1992-01-01

    Localization of the activity of both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase were studied in biopsy and postmortem specimens of various human tissues with a recently developed histochemical method using unfixed cryostat sections, poly-(vinyl alcohol) as tissue stabilizator,

  12. Study of a sterol esterase secreted by Ophiostoma piceae: sequence, model and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Rueda, Olga; Barba, Víctor; Rodríguez, Enrique; Plou, Francisco; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

    2009-07-01

    An extracellular sterol esterase from Ophiostoma piceae efficiently hydrolyzes sterol esters, triglycerides and p-nitrophenol esters. cDNA was screened with a probe obtained by PCR using as primers oligonucleotides corresponding to the N-terminal and internal mature enzyme sequences and complete sequence was obtained by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and inverse PCR. The O. piceae esterase gene had a length of 1.8 kbp and lacked introns. A search for proteins with related amino acid sequences revealed around 40% identity with lipases from Candida rugosa and Geotrichum candidum. Modelling the O. piceae enzyme, using the crystal structures of Lip1 and Lip3 from C. rugosa as templates, revealed a similar substrate-binding site, but some changes affecting the flap zone and the aromatic region of the tunnel may be responsible for the wide substrate specificity of this interesting sterol esterase. The ability of the new fungal esterase to hydrolyze triglycerides and esters of p-nitrophenol and cholesterol was compared with those of commercial lipases and cholesterol esterases showing the new enzyme the highest efficiency hydrolyzing triglycerides and sterol esters in the conditions assayed (in presence of Genapol X-100). Finally, the O. piceae gene was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris, as a model organism to express fungal enzymes, resulting in higher levels of esterase activity than those obtained in the O. piceae cultures. In spite of its higher glycosylation degree, the recombinant enzyme was able to hydrolyze more efficiently than native enzyme the assayed substrates.

  13. Synthetic seed production and physio-biochemical studies in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. - a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, N A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Alwahibi, M S

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 μM) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 μM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

  14. Fluorescent spectral studies of the toxic effect of chlororganic pesticides on the biochemical parameters of synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Bekshokov, K. S.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Abdullaeva, N. M.; Israpov, E. Kh.; Gashimov, I. Sh.

    2017-04-01

    The results of the study of the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of synaptosomes, which have been exposed to a chlororganic pesticide, thiamethoxam, at a concentration of 50 MPC during different time periods, at the excitation/emission wavelengths of 290 ± 5/310-600, 340 ± 5/360-700, and 420 ± 5/450-800 nm are given for the first time. It has been demonstrated that the development of intoxication results in weakening of the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan, NAD(P)·H, derivatives of vitamin B6, and vitamin A and in an increase in the fluorescence of pyridoxic acid, lipofuscin, and flavin and porphyrin complexes. The results of the spectral studies indicate that the toxic effect of the chlororganic pesticide for the functioning of living systems is based on free radical toxicity.

  15. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H +...

  16. Effect of smoking on potential salivary markers of periodontal disease: A clinical and biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Narender Dev Gupta; Neha Agrawal; Namita Gupta; Saif Khan; Pritma Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking exerts a harmful effect on the periodontal tissues manifested by periodontal pockets, attachment loss, and periodontal bone loss. Various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Moreover, smoking may exert effects throughout the cytokine network. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal biomarkers possibly related to the devel...

  17. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Hashem; Mohamed H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic), inulin (prebiotic) and both (synbiotics), when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old). The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets...

  18. Alpha-locus hexosaminidase genetic compound with juvenile gangliosidosis phenotype: clinical, genetic, and biochemical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, W G; Cohen, C S; Miranda, A F; Waran, S P; Chutorian, A M

    1980-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy developed progressive neurological deterioration in his third year, characterized by dementia, ataxia, myoclonic jerks, and bilateral macular cherry-red spots. Hexosaminidase A (HEX A) was partially decreased in the patient's serum, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts. Hexosaminidase was studied in serum and leukocytes from family members. Four members of the paternal branch appeared to be carriers of classical infantile Tay-Sachs allele, HEX alpha 2, probably receiving...

  19. Prediction of further residual ridge resorption by a simple biochemical and radiographic evaluation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Kheur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The success of a removable denture is measured by its retention and stability which rely on the structural integrity exhibited by the underlying residual ridge. However the residual ridge undergoes a progressive resorption, causing a reduction in its size. The multifactorial etiology of the reduction of residual ridges makes it significant for the operator to try and understand as well as to predict the rate of resorption prior to fabrication of dentures. The objective of the study was to evaluate a simple, fast and cost effective diagnostic tool to study and anticipate ridge resorption. Materials and Methods: 17 completely edentulous male patients were selected for the study. Standardized orthopantomographs were made for all the subjects and measurements were made on them. The resorption index was calculated for each patient. A random urine sample was taken from each patient to investigate the 24 hours urinary calcium-creatnine ratio. Results: A direct relation was seen between patients with lower resorption index and lower 24 hours urinary calcium-creatnine ratio. Clinically these cases had undergone a marked amount of reduction in the residual alveolar ridges with respect to the width and height. Also, a direct relation was seen when the patients presented with higher 24 hours urinary calcium-creatnine ratio and greater resorption index. These patients presented with good height and width of the residual ridges. Conclusion: Our study shows a direct relation between the resorption of the bone and the calcium-creatinine levels of the edentulous subjects. The calcium-creatnine ratio in conjunction with the resorption index can be used as a simple and cost effective diagnostic tool.

  20. Inflammation is present in de Quervain Disease--correlation study between biochemical and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hsu, Che-Chia; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Wu, Po-Ting; Shao, Chung-Jung; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Wu, Tung-Tai; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-05-01

    De Quervain disease is a stenosing condition of the sheath of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons at the radial styloid process. Previous studies consistently reported that the pathological change of this condition is thought to be primarily an extensor retinaculum thickened by fibrosis and angiogenesis instead of inflammation. Contradictorily, the conservative treatment for de Quervain disease is anti-inflammatory medication. The inflammatory response may be involved in this disease; however, there is no present study directly evidencing whether the inflammatory responses exist in de Quervain disease or not. The histopathology of de Quervain disease is yet to be elucidated clearly. To grade all specimens in the different stages and characterize specific inflammatory cell and factors to examine whether inflammatory response is involved in de Quervain disease. Retinaculum samples were collected from 13 patients with de Quervain disease after surgery. The specimens were evaluated histologically by collagen structure grading and immunohistochemically by quantifying the presence of neutrophil elastase, macrophages, cyclooxygenase, and vascular endothelium. Neutrophil elastase and cyclooxygenase occur in the de Quervain disease retinaculum and increased with the grade of collagen structure. After angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration occurs in the grade II matrix worse than grade III matrix. Inflammation is present in de Quervain disease. This study provides direct evidence for inflammatory cell and infiltration factors and offer valuable clues for specific pharmacological therapies for de Quervain disease.

  1. Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco's carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Susan R; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C; Kiyani, Amber R; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. Although these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known about levels and distribution of phase I, II, and III (drug egress) enzymes in human oral mucosa. In this study here, we integrated clinical data, and imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were used to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with approximately 2-fold interdonor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed approximately 3.5-fold interdonor variations in intraepithelial phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in nonreplicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed that oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region, which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism, and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that link tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  2. Ethylenediurea as a potential tool in evaluating ozone phytotoxicity: a review study on physiological, biochemical and morphological responses of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya

    2017-06-01

    Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O 3 ), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O 3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O 3 , and technical O 3 -induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used. Recent studies have detected a hormetic response of EDU on plants; i.e. treatment with higher EDU concentrations may or may not show any adverse effect on plants depending upon the experimental conditions. Although the mode of action of EDU is still debated, it is confirmed that EDU remains confined in the apoplastic regions. Certain studies indicate that EDU significantly affects the electron transport chain and has positive impact on the antioxidant defence machinery of the plants. However, the mechanism of protecting the yield of plants without significantly affecting photosynthesis is still questionable. This review discusses in details the probable mode of action of EDU on the basis of available data along with the impact of EDU on physiological, biochemical, growth and yield response of plants under O 3 stress. Data regarding the effect of EDU on plant 'omics' is highly insufficient and can form an important aspect of future EDU research.

  3. GH10 xylanase D from Penicillium funiculosum: biochemical studies and xylooligosaccharide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giardina Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Penicillium funiculosum produces a range of glycoside hydrolases (GH. The XynD gene, encoding the sole P. funiculosum GH10 xylanase described so far, was cloned into the pPICZαA vector and expressed in methylotrophe yeast Pichia pastoris, in order to compare the results obtained with the P. funiculosum GH11 xylanases data. Results High level expression of recombinant XynD was obtained with a secretion of around 60 mg.L-1. The protein was purified to homogeneity using one purification step. The apparent size on SDS-PAGE was around 64 kDa and was 46 kDa by mass spectrometry thus higher than the expected molecular mass of 41 kDa. The recombinant protein was N- and O-glycosylated, as demonstrated using glycoprotein staining and deglycosylation reactions, which explained the discrepancy in molecular mass. Enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of low viscosity arabinoxylan (LVAX was maximal at pH 5.0 with Km(app and kcat/Km(app of 3.7 ± 0.2 (mg.mL-1 and 132 (s-1mg-1.mL, respectively. The activity of XynD was optimal at 80°C and the recombinant enzyme has shown an interesting high thermal stability at 70°C for at least 180 min without loss of activity. The enzyme had an endo-mode of action on xylan forming mainly xylobiose and short-chain xylooligosaccharides (XOS. The initial rate data from the hydrolysis of short XOS indicated that the catalytic efficiency increased slightly with increasing their chain length with a small difference of the XynD catalytic efficiency against the different XOS. Conclusion Because of its attractive properties XynD might be considered for biotechnological applications. Moreover, XOS hydrolysis suggested that XynD possess four catalytic subsites with a high energy of interaction with the substrate and a fifth subsite with a small energy of interaction, according to the GH10 xylanase literature data.

  4. Resveratrol Promotes Remyelination in Cuprizone Model of Multiple Sclerosis: Biochemical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaiad, Heba R; Nooh, Mohammed M; El-Sawalhi, Maha M; Shaheen, Amira A

    2017-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative disease, representing a major cause of neurological disability in young adults. Resveratrol is a stilbenoid polyphenol, known to pass blood brain barrier and exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in several brain injuries. Cuprizone model of MS is particularly beneficial in studying demyelination/remyelination. Our study examined the potential neuroprotective and pro-remyelination effects of resveratrol in cuprizone-intoxicated C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were fed with chow containing 0.7 % cuprizone for 7 days, followed by 3 weeks on 0.2 % cuprizone diet. Resveratrol (250 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for 3 weeks starting from the second week. At the end of the experiment, animals were tested on rotarod to evaluate changes in balance and motor coordination. Mice were then sacrificed to measure the brain content of glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adenosine triphosphate, and phospho-inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor κB-α. The activities of cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. The gene expression of myelin basic protein, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase, oligodendrocyte transcription factor-1 (Olig1), NF-κB p65 subunit, and tumor necrosis factor-α was also estimated. Luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stained brain sections were blindly scored to assess the myelin status. Resveratrol effectively enhanced motor coordination and balance, reversed cuprizone-induced demyelination, improved mitochondrial function, alleviated oxidative stress, and inhibited NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, resveratrol increased Olig1 expression that is positively correlated to active remyelination. The present study may be the first to indicate a pro-remyelinative effect for resveratrol which might represent a potential additive benefit in treating MS.

  5. A Biochemical Study on the Gastroprotective Effect of Andrographolide in Rats Induced with Gastric Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P.; Geetha, A.; Selvamathy, S. M. K. Narmadha

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD50 value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD50 value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects. PMID:22923868

  6. A Three Generation Study with Effect of Imidacloprid in Rats: Biochemical and Histopathological Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the dose-dependent toxic effects of imidacloprid on the female ratsthat were treated through three generations (F0, F1, and F2). F2 female rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment to see the long-term effect of imidacloprid. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups of 6 each. Group I served as control. Group II served as treated I and given 1/45th LD50 (10 mg/kg/day) of imidacloprid. Group III served as treated II and ...

  7. Biochemical and clinical effects of Whey protein supplementation in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Boonla, Chanchai; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Kaewwilai, Lalita; Muensri, Sasipa; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Joutsa, Juho; Rinne, Juha; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2016-08-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated degenerative disorder. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is frequently found in the levodopa-treated PD patients, is associated with disease progression and is a marker of oxidative stress. Whey protein is a rich source of cysteine, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). It has been shown that supplementation with Whey protein increases glutathione synthesis and muscle strength. In this study, we conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind study (NCT01662414) to investigate the effects of undenatured Whey protein isolate supplementation for 6months on plasma glutathione, plasma amino acids, and plasma Hcy in PD patients. Clinical outcome assessments included the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and striatal L-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluorophenylalanine (FDOPA) uptake were determined before and after supplementation. 15 patients received Whey protein, and 17 received Soy protein, served as a control group. Significant increases in plasma concentration of reduced glutathione and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione were found in the Whey-supplemented patients but not in a control group. This was associated with a significant decrease of plasma levels of Hcy. The plasma levels of total glutathione were not significantly changed in either group. Plasma BCAA and essential amino acids (EAA) were significantly increased in the Whey-supplemented group only. The UPDRS and striatal FDOPA uptake in PD patients were not significantly ameliorated in either group. However, significant negative correlation was observed between the UPDRS and plasma BCAA and EAA in the pre-supplemented PD patients. This study is the first to report that Whey protein supplementation significantly increases plasma reduced glutathione, the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, BCAAs and EAAs in patients with PD, together with a concomitant significant reduction of plasma Hcy. However, there were no significant changes in

  8. A Biochemical Study of Noncovalent Forces in Proteins Using Phycocyanin from Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Barbara A.; Gindt, Yvonne M.

    2000-11-01

    Protein tertiary structure is maintained by noncovalent forces. These forces are disrupted by simple environmental changes (increasing temperature, pH, or adding denaturants) but are not always simple to observe. This experiment, suitable for all levels of undergraduate biochemistry laboratories, uses absorption spectroscopy to monitor the denaturation of a pigmented protein. The protein, phycocyanin, contains a covalently attached pigment whose visible spectrum is sensitive to changes in protein environment. The experiment can be done in one or two 3-hour lab periods. The first session isolates the protein from cyanobacteria capsules and the second session studies the denaturation of the protein.

  9. Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gripenberg-Abdon Johanna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing. Method The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC levels were measured using a breath analyzer. Results A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate. Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees, 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine, while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004 than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%. Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women

  10. Comparative Transport Studies of '1212' Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gapud

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ (Hg -1212 thin films were fabricated by exchanging the T1 cations in TlBa2CaCu2O7-δ (Tl-1212 thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle ofHg-1212 and TI-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density.

  11. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H+K+ATPase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed in ethanol-administered rats. Results: The ulcer score was found to be low in HAEAP-pretreated rats. Among the doses studied, 200 mg/kg b.wt was found to be optimum for significant ulcer reduction. The test drug significantly reduced the acidity, pepsin concentration, myeloperoxidase and H+K+ATPase activities in ethanol-administered rats. The elevated TBARS and decreased glutathione (GSH) and mucin levels observed during ulcerogenesis were found to be altered in HAEAP-received animals. Conclusions: The ulcer preventing effect of HAEAP may partly be due to its regulating effect on H+K+ATPase activity and /or mucin preserving effects. The flavonoids present in the HAEAP might be responsible for the gastroprotective action probably by maintaining the antioxidants and thiol status in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21844994

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HERPETOMONADS AND LEISHMANIAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo; Tilden, Evelyn B.

    1926-01-01

    obtained in culture, all the strains grow well on leptospira medium, as well as on blood slants. Growth takes place both at 26°C. and at 37°. The morphology of the organisms is considerably modified by cultivation. This is especially true of the plant flagellates. In the latex they have ribbon-like bodies, often twisted, and comparatively short flagella; the protoplasm is clear, almost hyaline. The flagellates seen in the gut and feces of insects are usually large, slender organisms, with flagella as long as or even longer than the body, which contains numerous volutin granules in the cytoplasm. In cultures under parallel conditions the flagellates from both these sources become shorter and thicker, the plant forms no longer appear flat and ribbon-like, and in general the organisms approach one another in morphological features. Even in the case of the least modified insect flagellates, i.e. those from flies, there is never exact correspondence between the natural and the cultivated forms. The morphological features of the cultivated flagellates vary according to the medium on which the organisms are grown and the age of the culture. The flagellates grown on the surface of blood slants are pyriform, with truncated anterior portion, and short flagellum; in the condensation water, however, the individuals are elongated and have long active flagella. On the leptospira medium the slender active forms with long flagella predominate. In the presence of fermentable carbohydrate, or in medium containing considerable acid, peculiar bifurcated or multifurcated individuals are seen. Similar forms have been seen under natural conditions. Cultures of Leishmania behave in the same way under the conditions described. There is a striking difference in rapidity of growth between the organisms isolated by us and the leishmanias, H. ctenocephali, and T. rotatorium. While the stock cultures of the group first mentioned multiply rapidly at 37°C., growth becoming visible within 24 hours, the

  13. Prepregnancy hypothyroidism versus gestational hypothyroidism: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Ulhas Kaduskar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism managed inadequately in pregnancy may have grave outcomes for both mother and baby. Understanding pregnancy outcomes in our country with low awareness about thyroid diseases is important. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate demographic features and biochemical parameters in patients with prepregnancy hypothyroidism versus patients diagnosed to have primary hypothyroidism during pregnancy and to assess pregnancy outcomes. Study Design: Prospective design Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in Bengaluru for 2 years. The patients were divided into two groups - Group I: Prepregnancy hypothyroidism and Group II: Hypothyroid during pregnancy. They were further staged according to ESI guidelines as subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square and Mann–Whitney test. Results: A total of 452 pregnant women with hypothyroidism were analyzed. The data of 371 delivered pregnancies were available. Group I and II had 196 (43.36% and 256 (56.64% patients, respectively. Age at presentation (years was 27.09 ± 4.19 in Group I versus 25.74 ± 4.29 in Group II (P = 0.003; gestational age (weeks was 9.04 ± 5.41 in Group I versus 13.81 ± 9.12 in Group II (P = 0.000. There was one case of congenital hypothyroidism in baby in each group. Mean birth weight was 2.90 ± 0.39 kg in Group I versus 2.88 ± 0.36 kg in Group II; P = 0.608. There were four abortions in Group I versus ten in Group II (P = 0.231, 104 cesarean sections in Group I compared to 133 in Group II; (P = 0.382. There was no difference in number of cesarean sections, abortions and low birth weight babies between overt and subclinical hypothyroidism subgroups. Conclusions: Group I patients presented earlier for testing suggesting awareness was good in this group. There was no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two groups. Overt versus subclinical status did not have any different

  14. Aryl beta-galactosidase from Sclerotium rolfsii: physiological and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, J H; Shewale, J G

    1995-01-01

    Production of beta-galactosidase by Sclerotium rolfsii NCIM 1084 was studied under submerged fermentation conditions. The enzyme was produced extracellularly and constitutively on glucose. The enzyme production was enhanced when galactose, raffinose, cellobiose, sucrose, xylose, maltose, cellulose and pectin were used as carbon sources. Cellulose and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Surfactants such as Sag, Paraffin oil, Tween 20 and Tween 80 increased the enzyme production. Maximum yield of beta-galactosidase obtained was 3.8-4.2 nkat/ml. The optimum pH, optimum temperature and molecular weight of the beta-glactosidase were 2.7, 60 degrees C and 2,21,000 daltons, respectively. The enzyme is an aryl beta-glactosidase and did not hydrolyse lactose. The Km value for o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside was 3.7 mM. Galactose and 2-mercaptoethanol inhibited the enzyme.

  15. The innervation of the uterus in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Schindelmeiser, J; Straub, H

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the uterus in the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra was studied. In whole mount preparations of the thin-walled uterus of pregnant females, a dense adrenergic network was demonstrated using a modified glyoxylic acid fluorescence technique. Based on vesicle type and cytochemical reactivity after chromate/dichromate fixation for electron microscopy at least two types of neural process were distinguished and classified as adrenergic and cholinergic. Both types are preferentially situated above or between the smooth muscles of the uterine tissue. Adjacent to the muscles in the walls of arterioles mainly adrenergic fibers are seen. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in tissue homogenates of uterus a considerable amount of noradrenaline could be identified. The significance of the dense innervation is discussed with respect to the function of the uterus during pregnancy and birth.

  16. Studies on the radiation induced apoptosis by morphological and biochemical analysis in A431 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Keun Hee [Dong Shin College, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee Seung; Kim, Ji Yeul [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the process of radiation induced apoptosis in A431 skin epithelial cancer cell line. Low to high dose radiation (0, 2, 5, 10, 25 Gy) was given to A431 cells by Cs-137 cell irradiator. Apoptosis was evaluated by cell morphology, dye exclusion test, and DNA laddering. Cell viability decreased as the radiation dose increased. Number of apoptotic bodies increased as radiation dose increased. It increased most significantly at 12 hours after irradiation. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in culture medium increased according to radiation dose and time after irradiation. DNA ladders could be identified in irradiated cells, but, it had no correlation with radiation dose or time after irradiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis which was the main course of cell death in A431 cells could be analyzed quantitatively by counting apoptotic bodies under microscope. Apoptosis increased as radiation dose increased.

  17. Biochemical parameters of paint workers in Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmanaban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified that workers in paint industries are vulnerable to disorders due to the exposure to toxic chemicals and solvents. Such disorders are often missed. Social health security is incomplete, especially in our country, until such issues are addressed. Our aim was to study the alterations in biochemical parameters among paint workers in comparison with healthy subjects, in Puducherry. It was a cross-sectional study with 2 groups. Group A comprised 17 paint workers and Group B, 10 healthy controls in Puducherry. Blood samples and urine samples were collected from both the groups. All blood and urine parameters were estimated an using automated biochemical analyzer. Statistical analysis was employed. Our study showed adverse renal parameters (P<0.05 in the paint workers as compared with the control group. Contrary to conventional expectation, our study did not show evidence of obvious liver damage.

  18. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  19. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...

  20. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  1. Impact of Acute Deltamethrin Poisoning on Rat Adrenal Glands: Biochemical and Pathomorphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene A. Chigrinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin is known all over the world as an effective preparation for the control of insects. In connection with this, its role as a chemical stressor increases. The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning and structure of AG after a single administration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin in experimental animals at a dose of 17.4 mg/kg (1/5 LD50. Material and Methods: For the experiment, 88 male Wistar rats with a body weight of 240±10 g were divided into 8 groups of 10–12 animals each. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 were control groups, which were administered physiological solution intragastrically. The animals in Groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 received a single dose (17.4mg/kg of deltamethrin, which corresponds to 1/5 LD50. In the serum of rats, the content of ACTH, progesterone, DHEA-sulfate, corticosterone and aldosterone was determined by EIA. Histological preparations of adrenal glands were stained with H&E, picrofuxin according to Van Gieson, and with Bismarck brown according to Shubich. On frozen sections, lipids were detected by Sudan Black B.\tResults: One day after intoxication, we identified an increase in adrenal mass, edema of the parenchyma and blood capillary overflow, and a large number of lipids in corticocytes. In the blood serum, the concentration of ACTH and corticosteroids increased, but their level decreased in the adrenal cortex. After 3 days, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum of the experimental animals remained above the control value, but the content of other hormones decreased. At the border of the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, there were mast cells in a state of degranulation; the amount of lipids decreased with time. In the subsequent terms of the study, a decrease in the weight of AG with a decrease in the concentration of hormones in the blood serum and adrenal tissue was detected. Conclusion: The intoxication of rats with deltamethrin causes

  2. Haematological and biochemical studies on Justicia carnea leaves extract in phenylhydrazine induced-anemia in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeabo, Chimaraoke; Achi, Ngozi K; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ebere, Chidinma U; Okoro, Chidinma K

    2017-01-01

    Justicia carnea is a medicinal plant used widely in Nigeria which is reported to have diverse functions, including blood-boosting potential. Aim. The effect of the ethanol extract of Justicea carnea (JC) leaves in phenylhydrazine induced-anemia albino rats on haematological and lipid profile parameters was investigated. The experimental animals were randomly grouped into five groups of six rats each – group 1 (non-anemic control), group 2 (anemic control), group 3 (500 mg/kg of JC extract), group 4 (1000 mg/kg of JC extract) and group 5 (DMSO control). Phenylhydrazine was administered once at a dose of 80 mg/kg b.w.  to induce hemolytic anemia. After 28 days of extract administration, they were humanely sacrificed and the serum collected was used for biochemical analysis. In the acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be above 5000 mg/kg body weight. Packed Cell Volume (PCV) values, Red Blood cell (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations decreased (p Justicia carnea, PCV values, RBC and Hb increased (p Justicia carnea not only reversed anemic conditions in the phenylhydrazine-induced rats, it also improved the lipid profile, and this may be attributed to its rich phytochemical, nutrient and vita- min composition. Therefore, the findings of the study suggest that J. carnea leaves could be used to manage lipid abnormalities associated with anemia.

  3. Insights into the coiled-coil organization of the Hendra virus phosphoprotein from combined biochemical and SAXS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrandi, Matilde; Blocquel, David; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Cavalli, Andrea; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-03-01

    Nipah and Hendra viruses are recently emerged paramyxoviruses belonging to the Henipavirus genus. The Henipavirus phosphoprotein (P) consists of a large intrinsically disordered domain and a C-terminal domain (PCT) containing alternating disordered and ordered regions. Among these latter is the P multimerization domain (PMD). Using biochemical, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies, we show that Hendra virus (HeV) PMD forms an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer in solution, in agreement with our previous findings on Nipah virus (NiV) PMD. However, the orientation of the N-terminal region differs from that observed in solution for NiV PMD, consistent with the ability of this region to adopt different conformations. SAXS studies provided evidence for a trimeric organization also in the case of PCT, thus extending and strengthening our findings on PMD. The present results are discussed in light of conflicting reports in the literature pointing to a tetrameric organization of paramyxoviral P proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine intake decreases oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in experimental liver diseases induced by thioacetamide: Biochemical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona G; Mazen, Nehad F; Mohamed, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    Liver disease remains a significant global health problem. Increased caffeine consumption has been associated with a lower prevalence of chronic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of caffeine on liver injury induced by thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Forty adult male rats were equally classified into four groups: control group, received only tap water; caffeine-treated group, received caffeine (37.5 mg/kg per day); TAA-treated group, received intraperitoneal (i.p.) TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week; and caffeine + TAA-treated group, received combined TAA and caffeine in the same previous doses. After eight weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and liver specimens were prepared for histological and immunohistochemical studies and for assessment of oxidative stress. TAA induced liver toxicity with elevated liver enzymes and histological alterations, fatty changes, apoptosis, and fibrosis evidenced by increased immunohistochemical reaction to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and collagen type IV in hepatocytes. Also, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in serum were significantly elevated. Co-treatment with caffeine and TAA restored normal liver structure and function. Caffeine provided an anti-fibrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effect that was associated with recovery of hepatic histological and functional alterations from TAA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  5. Characterization of postmortem biochemical changes in rabbit plasma using ATR-FTIR combined with chemometrics: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Bing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Yinming; Lin, Hancheng; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2017-02-01

    Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the most challenging tasks in forensic medicine due to a lack of accurate and reliable methods. It is especially difficult for late PMI determination. Although many attempts with various types of body fluids based on chemical methods have been made to solve this problem, few investigations are focused on blood samples. In this study, we employed an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique coupled with principle component analysis (PCA) to monitor biochemical changes in rabbit plasma with increasing PMI. Partial least square (PLS) model was used based on the spectral data for PMI prediction in an independent sample set. Our results revealed that postmortem chemical changes in compositions of the plasma were time-dependent, and various components including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributed to the discrimination of the samples at different time points. A satisfactory prediction within 48 h postmortem was performed by the combined PLS model with a good fitting between actual and predicted PMI of 0.984 and with an error of ± 1.92 h. In consideration of the simplicity and portability of ATR-FTIR, our preliminary study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for application of this technique in forensic practice.

  6. Morphological and biochemical studies on the innervation of the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Bergmann, M; Straub, H; Greven, H

    1983-05-01

    The innervation of the male gonad of Salamandra salamandra was studied by fluorescence microscopy using the glyoxylic acid method, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, electron microscopy using glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide and chromate/dichromate fixation, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in homogenates of the testicular tissue. Noradrenaline has been found to be the prevailing neurotransmitter in the testicular nerves; dopamine could be identified only in minor concentration. The relatively scarce noradrenergic innervation is mainly restricted to the connective tissue septa between the immature and the mature part of the testis and between the mature part and the glandular tissue. Most of the fluorescent fibers have a close connection to blood vessels. After chromate/dichromate fixation the nerve profiles contain in most cases small vesicles with electron-dense reaction products, indicating the presence of catecholamines. Varicosities are to be found near the capillaries, in the vicinity of vascular (in the wall of arterioles) and non-vascular (near the testicular surface) smooth muscle cells; no relationships were found between nerve fibers and glandular (steroid hormone-secreting) or germinal cells. Cholinergic fibers could not be identified, non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic fibers were present only in very small numbers.

  7. Multivesicular droplets: a cell model system to study compartmentalised biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, N; Verboket, P E; Dittrich, P S

    2017-09-12

    Multivesicular vesicles (MVVs) are artificial liposomal structures widely used as a platform to study the compartmentalisation of cells and as a scaffold for artificial cell/protocell models. Current preparation techniques for MVVs, however, offer poor control on the size, lamellarity, and loading of inner lipid vesicles. Here, we introduce a microfluidic device for the production of multivesicular droplets (MVDs): a novel model system combining the ease of use and control of droplet microfluidics with the biological relevance of MVVs. We use a perfluorinated carrier phase with a biocompatible surfactant to generate monodisperse droplets of an aqueous giant unilamellar lipid vesicle suspension. The successful on-chip formation and stability of MVDs is verified through high-speed microscopy. For bright field or fluorescence microscopy inspection, the MVDs are trapped in an array where the integrity of both lipid vesicles and droplets is preserved for up to 15 minutes. Finally, we show a two-step enzymatic reaction that takes place across the lipid vesicle membranes; the second reaction step occurs in the vesicle's interior, where the enzyme is encapsulated, while both the substrate and fluorescent product permeate across the membrane. Our approach opens the possibility to mimic artificial organelles with optimised reaction parameters (pH, ions, etc.) in each compartment.

  8. Studies on the biochemical composition, energetics and essential amino acids of three mudskippers in Xiamen Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Su, Yong-Quan

    1995-12-01

    Measurements were made on the contents of protein, lipid, glycogen (PLG) and water, and on caloric values and amino acids, in muscle of three mudskippers Periophthalmus cantonensis, Scarteiaos viridis and Boleophthalmus pectinirostris collected from Haicang, Xiamen. The essential amino acids (EAA) for these fishes were also studied with radioisotopic trace method. The results showed: (1) The content of each component in tested fish muscles differed slightly, and protein was the most important component making up from 6.685% to 9.891% of the wet weight (about 44.21% 50.45% of dry weight); (2) Energy calculated from the sum of protein, lipid and glycogen in wet muscle was low (fishes, especially in B. pectinirostris (fishes. The content of the same amino acid (among the seventeen) tested in different species and sexes varied slightly. The amounts of methionine, phenylalanine lysine, arginine, histidine, threonine isoleucine and leucine which are indispensable for the needs of human beings and animals were relatively high, accounting for 47.35% 48.06% of the total amino acid content. (4) Leucine, isoleucine, arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, threonine, and valine, are essential in the diet of the three mudskippers as the radioisotopic trace method using D-[U-14C]-glucose showed little or no radioactivity was incorporated into these ten amino acids.

  9. [Familial hypertriglyceridemia: biochemical, clinical and molecular study in a Moroccan family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdellah, Mounya; Iraqi, Hinde; Benlian, Pascale; Berqia, Ikram; Benchekroun, Laila; Chraïbi, Abdelmjid; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypertriglyceridemia is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism. Mutation within the LPL gene constitutes the first cause of monogenic etiology. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the key enzyme in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins catabolism. Familial LPL deficiency is expressed by eruptive xanthomatosis and acute pancreatitis. We report a Moroccan case with a monstrous hypertriglyceridemia caused by LPL gene mutation. We discuss pathophysiology aspects according to available investigations data and the relevance of familial screening. The proband is a 19-year-old woman originating from the village of Taourirt (South of Morocco). She was admitted in emergency for diabetic ketoacidosis. Clinical investigations and routine laboratory tests were performed upon admission. Then lipoprotein electrophoresis and sequencing of the LPL gene were practiced. A monstrous hypertriglyceridemia up to 199 mmol/L was found. Lipoprotein electrophoresis has objectified profound disturbances on chylomicrons, VLDL and IDL. The sequencing detected a missense mutation p.S286R at homozygous state in a consanguinity context. Discovery of this LPL gene mutation is the first indigenous and documented case, never related in any other ethnic group. It constitutes a novel proof of a founder effect in the south Moroccan population. Prevalence studies with familial screening should be done for preventative action which is the only acceptable way to limit the cardiovascular and pancreatitis risks in this population where inbreeding is a general rule.

  10. A comparative study of staff removal algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalitz, Christoph; Droettboom, Michael; Pranzas, Bastian; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a quantitative comparison of different algorithms for the removal of stafflines from music images. It contains a survey of previously proposed algorithms and suggests a new skeletonization based approach. We define three different error metrics, compare the algorithms with respect to these metrics and measure their robustness with respect to certain image defects. Our test images are computer-generated scores on which we apply various image deformations typically found in real-world data. In addition to modern western music notation our test set also includes historic music notation such as mensural notation and lute tablature. Our general approach and evaluation methodology is not specific to staff removal, but applicable to other segmentation problems as well.

  11. Comparative Study of Light Sources for Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Andrzej; Zalesińska, Małgorzata

    2017-03-01

    The article describes test results that provided the ground to define and evaluate basic photometric, colorimetric and electric parameters of selected, widely available light sources, which are equivalent to a traditional incandescent 60-Watt light bulb. Overall, one halogen light bulb, three compact fluorescent lamps and eleven LED light sources were tested. In general, it was concluded that in most cases (branded products, in particular) the measured and calculated parameters differ from the values declared by manufacturers only to a small degree. LED sources prove to be the most beneficial substitute for traditional light bulbs, considering both their operational parameters and their price, which is comparable with the price of compact fluorescent lamps or, in some instances, even lower.

  12. Comparative studies on Egyptian elapid venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, F; Seddik, S

    1980-12-01

    The immunological properties of Naja haje from Western Desert, Naja haje of the Nile Delta, Naja nigricollis from Upper Egypt and Walternnesia aegyptia from Sinai Desert were compared using horse serum antivenin prepared from the Delta Naja haje venom. All elapid venoms showed very similar precipitin lines with immunodiffusion or immunoelectrophoresis on agar gel. Results of cellulose-acetate electrophoresis showed either different concentration of certain similar protein components or the absence of some major protein fractions. However, different migration and localization of protein components were observed. LD50 of the 4 elapids and their degree of lethality was determined. Naja haje (Delta) antivenin had different degree of neutralization capacity on the investigated elapid venoms. No correlation between immunodiffusion similarities and the degree of neutralization could be deducted.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIGHT SOURCES FOR HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej PAWLAK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes test results that provided the ground to define and evaluate basic photometric, colorimetric and electric parameters of selected, widely available light sources, which are equivalent to a traditional incandescent 60-Watt light bulb. Overall, one halogen light bulb, three compact fluorescent lamps and eleven LED light sources were tested. In general, it was concluded that in most cases (branded products, in particular the measured and calculated parameters differ from the values declared by manufacturers only to a small degree. LED sources prove to be the most beneficial substitute for traditional light bulbs, considering both their operational parameters and their price, which is comparable with the price of compact fluorescent lamps or, in some instances, even lower.

  14. Vessels under Body Accelerations: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile flow of blood in constricted narrow arteries under periodic body acceleration is analyzed, modeling blood as non-Newtonian fluid models with yield stress such as (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid model and (ii Casson fluid model. The expressions for various flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Ismail (2010 for Herschel-Bulkley fluid model and Nagarani and Sarojamma (2008, in an improved form, for Casson fluid model are used to compute the data for comparing these fluid models. It is found that the plug core radius and wall shear stress are lower for H-B fluid model than those of the Casson fluid model. It is also noted that the plug flow velocity and flow rate are considerably higher for H-B fluid than those of the Casson fluid model. The estimates of the mean velocity and mean flow rate are considerably higher for H-B fluid model than those of the Casson fluid model.

  15. Clinical methods of goniometry: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J; Clark, C; Deakes, J; Burdon, D; Lawrence, C

    1992-01-01

    This investigation compared the reliability and interchangeable use of three currently available goniometers--a universal goniometer, a fluid goniometer, and an electrogoniometer. Three consecutive readings of the active range of movement of the right elbow joint were taken from each of 23 healthy female volunteers; three experienced observers each used each type of goniometer on two occasions. A balanced experimental design was used to eliminate order effects with respect to subject, tester, or goniometer, and a rigid protocol was employed to reduce error due to diurnal or methodological variations. The results show that there are significant differences between the goniometers used, the testers, and the replications. Significant interaction effects also exist between the goniometers and the occasion, the goniometers and the testers, and the testers and replications. The data suggest that the interchangeable use of different types of goniometer in a clinical setting is inadvisable.

  16. Ghrelin and obestatin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnema, Manar M; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile F; Ozercan, Hanifi I; Yildirim, Nezahat; Sahin, Ibrahim; Karaoglu, Aziz; Kilic, Nermin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozercan, Mehmet R; Donder, Emir

    2010-06-01

    The underlying molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is poorly understood and appears to be controlled on many genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Obestatin and ghrelin, two recently discovered hormones, are co-expressed in endocrine cells. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunohistochemical features of OSCCs in relation to the tissue concentration of ghrelin and obestatin. The association between OSCC and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) status was also explored. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoassay in oral biopsy specimens: 10 benign squamous epithelial cell samples, 10 microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, and seven well-differentiated and seven poorly differentiated OSCCs. The presence of EBV was evaluated in these samples using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in tissue homogenates were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas and benign tissue samples were positive for anti-EBV antibody, and obestatin and ghrelin were shown to be co-expressed in all stratified squamous epithelium samples. Expression of ghrelin and obestatin was decreased or absent in OSCCs in relation to the invasiveness of the carcinoma; ghrelin and obestatin levels in cancerous tissue homogenates were lower than in benign tissue homogenates. These results indicate that the concentrations and distribution of immunoreactive obestatin and ghrelin might be helpful in distinguishing OSCC from benign tumors. Maintaining normal levels of these hormones might be required for regulation of normal cell division. However, detailed studies will be required for better understanding of the complex mechanism of carcinogenesis relating to OSCCs.

  17. Biochemical studies on WbcA, a sugar epimerase from Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, Ari J; Brown, Haley A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2015-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes yersiniosis, a zoonotic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract of humans, cattle, and pigs, among others. The lipopolysaccharide of Y. enterocolitica O:8 contains an unusual sugar, 6-deoxy-d-gulose, which requires four enzymes for its biosynthesis. Here, we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of WbcA, which catalyzes the third step in the pathway, namely an epimerization about the C-3' carbon of a CDP-linked sugar. The structure of WbcA was determined to 1.75-Å resolution, and the model was refined to an overall R-factor of 19.5%. The fold of WbcA places it into the well-defined cupin superfamily of sugar epimerases. Typically, these enzymes contain both a conserved histidine and a tyrosine residue that play key roles in catalysis. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignments, it was anticipated that the "conserved" tyrosine had been replaced with a cysteine residue in WbcA (Cys 133), and indeed this was the case. However, what was not anticipated was the fact that another tyrosine residue (Tyr 50) situated on a neighboring β-strand moved into the active site. Site-directed mutant proteins were subsequently constructed and their kinetic properties analyzed to address the roles of Cys 133 and Tyr 50 in WbcA catalysis. This study emphasizes the continuing need to experimentally verify assumptions that are based solely on bioinformatics approaches. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  18. Mitochondrial glutamate carriers from Drosophila melanogaster: biochemical, evolutionary and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetti, Paola; Cappello, Anna Rita; Marsano, René Massimiliano; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Carrisi, Chiara; Martello, Emanuela; Caggese, Corrado; Dolce, Vincenza; Capobianco, Loredana

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial carriers are members of a family of transport proteins that mediate solute transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Two isoforms of the glutamate carriers, GC1 and GC2 (encoded by the SLC25A22 and SLC25A18 genes, respectively), have been identified in humans. Two independent mutations in SLC25A22 are associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. In the present study we show that two genes (CG18347 and CG12201) phylogenetically related to the human GC encoding genes are present in the D. melanogaster genome. We have functionally characterized the proteins encoded by CG18347 and CG12201, designated as DmGC1p and DmGC2p respectively, by overexpression in Escherichia coli and reconstitution into liposomes. Their transport properties demonstrate that DmGC1p and DmGC2p both catalyze the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Computational approaches have been used in order to highlight residues of DmGC1p and DmGC2p involved in substrate binding. Furthermore, gene expression analysis during development and in various adult tissues reveals that CG18347 is ubiquitously expressed in all examined D. melanogaster tissues, while the expression of CG12201 is strongly testis-biased. Finally, we identified mitochondrial glutamate carrier orthologs in 49 eukaryotic species in order to attempt the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the glutamate carrier function. Comparison of the exon/intron structure and other key features of the analyzed orthologs suggests that eukaryotic glutamate carrier genes descend from an intron-rich ancestral gene already present in the common ancestor of lineages that diverged as early as bilateria and radiata. © 2013.

  19. [Comparative estimation of an acute gastroduodenal ulcers, complicated by hemorrhage according to indexes of enzymatic-biochemical spectrum of the blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, O V

    2004-07-01

    Comparative estimation of methods of endoscopic hemostasis and treatment of an acute gastroduodenal ulcers, complicated by hemorrhage, was done: in 22 patients the conventional methods were applied, in 41-endoscopic hemostasis, using flatorization with the help of ozone-oxygen mixture and subsequent ozone insufflations. For the treatment efficacy control the endoscopic monitoring was used, there were studied cytobiochemical indexes of the dehydrogenases complex activity and of peroxide oxygenation of lipids. It was established, that ozonotherapy, even applied solely, guarantees the erosions healing in 3 days on average with simultaneous approximation to the norm of cytobiochemical indexes investigated.

  20. Biochemical (T2, T2* and magnetisation transfer ratio) MRI of knee cartilage: feasibility at ultra-high field (7T) compared with high field (3T) strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Apprich, Sebastian; Zbyn, Stefan; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Mamisch, Tallal C. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); University of Berne, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Berne (Switzerland); Mlynarik, Vladimir [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Scheffler, Klaus; Bieri, Oliver [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    This study compares the performance and the reproducibility of quantitative T2, T2* and the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of articular cartilage at 7T and 3T. Axial MRI of the patella was performed in 17 knees of healthy volunteers (25.8 {+-} 5.7 years) at 3T and 7T using a comparable surface coil and whole-body MR systems from the same vendor, side-by-side. Thirteen knee joints were assessed once, and four knee joints were measured three times to assess reproducibility. T2 relaxation was prepared by a multi-echo, spin-echo sequence and T2* relaxation by a multi-echo, gradient-echo sequence. MTR was based on a magnetisation transfer-sensitized, steady-state free precession approach. Statistical analysis-of-variance and coefficient-of-variation (CV) were prepared. For T2 and T2*, global values were significantly lower at 7T compared with 3T; the zonal evaluation revealed significantly less pronounced stratification at 7T (p<0.05). MTR provided higher values at 7T (p<0.05). CV, indicating reproducibility, showed slightly lower values at 7T, but only for T2 and T2*. Although lower T2 and T2* relaxation times were expected at 7T, the differences in stratification between the field strengths were reported for the first time. The assessment of MT is feasible at 7T, but requires further investigation. (orig.)

  1. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  2. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  3. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  4. Clinical prospective study of biochemical markers and evoked potentials for identifying adverse neurological outcome after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lases, E.C.; Schepens, M.A.; Haas, F.J.L.M.; Aarts, L.P.H.J.; Beek, H.T. ter; Dongen, E. van; Siegers, H.P.; Tweel, I. van de; Boezeman, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurological deficit after repair of a thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA/TAAA) remains a devastating complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical value of biochemical markers [S-100B, neurone-specific enolase (NSE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD)],

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MOSSES FOR AIR POLLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... The division bryophyta also consists of liverworts and hornworts. Bryophyta have been long considered to be insignificant in the economy of man except for those used in packing, plugging and decoration. Recent progress in environmental pollution studies has changed our understanding of bryophytes as ...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HOUSEHOLD COMMUNITY IN KWAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    hole water samples. `coliform bacteria but coliform bacteria but coliform bacteria but after treatment by boiling an after treatment by boiling an was reduced to was reduced to zero with .... Sanitation and Hygiene) ... STUDY OF HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN KWARA STATE NIGERIA.

  7. Comparative Efficacy Study of Chloroquine Dihydroartemisinin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), dihyroartemisinin (DHA) and the combination of dihyroartemisinin plus mefloquine (MQ) in Nigerian children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Method: Seventy-five subjects aged 2-13 years attending the outpatient clinic of Ijede health center, Ikorodu and ...

  8. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  9. Bilingual Language Proficiency : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-01-01

    his book investigates the role native language plays in the process of acquiring a second language within a bilingual educational model. The research presented is based on a 2 year longitudinal study of students in a bilingual school. Particular attention is paid to the development of academic

  10. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  11. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HONEY COLLECTED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of five. Algerian unifloral types of honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, color intensity and total sugar content, were measured.

  13. Implicature, Pragmatics, and Documentation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the link between the linguistic principles of implicature and pragmatics and software documentation. When implicatures are created in conversation or text, the listener or reader is required to fill in missing information not overtly stated. This information is usually filled in on the basis of previous knowledge or…

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar ben Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  15. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR study on cyanide induced biochemical and structural changes in rat sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiddappa Mallappa Shivanoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, great attention had been focused on cyanide toxicity because of its widespread use in industries and considered to be a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the toxic effect of cyanide on rat sperms at molecular level by using FT-IR technique. For this purpose, rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with 0.0, 0.64, 1.2 and 3.2 mg kg−1 body weight (BW for the period of 90 days. The group treated with lower dose (0.64 mg kg−1 BW showed an insignificant change in all the peaks, except the peaks assigned to olefinic CH, CH2 asymmetric and CH2 symmetric stretching vibration in the lipids. While, the groups treated with higher doses (1.2 and 3.2 mg kg−1 BW showed the significant decrease in the area under the peaks corresponds to different bio-molecules. In addition, spectral second derivative analysis showed the significant alteration in α-helix, turns, β-sheet, aggregated β-sheet and random coil structures in the proteins. In conclusion, the selected higher dosage of cyanide had caused significant decrease in the biochemical composition of rat sperms along with structural changes in the proteins. The FT-IR technique is an excellent tool used for the analysis of oxidative damage in the sperms.

  16. A biochemical approach to study the role of the terminal oxidases in aerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Laz, Sébastien; Kpebe, Arlette; Bauzan, Marielle; Lignon, Sabrina; Rousset, Marc; Brugna, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The genome of the facultative anaerobic γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 encodes for three terminal oxidases: a bd-type quinol oxidase and two heme-copper oxidases, a A-type cytochrome c oxidase and a cbb 3-type oxidase. In this study, we used a biochemical approach and directly measured oxidase activities coupled to mass-spectrometry analysis to investigate the physiological role of the three terminal oxidases under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Our data revealed that the cbb 3-type oxidase is the major terminal oxidase under aerobic conditions while both cbb 3-type and bd-type oxidases are involved in respiration at low-O2 tensions. On the contrary, the low O2-affinity A-type cytochrome c oxidase was not detected in our experimental conditions even under aerobic conditions and would therefore not be required for aerobic respiration in S. oneidensis MR-1. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that the A-type cytochrome c oxidase is a ccaa 3-type oxidase since an uncommon extra-C terminal domain contains two c-type heme binding motifs. The particularity of the aerobic respiratory pathway and the physiological implication of the presence of a ccaa 3-type oxidase in S. oneidensis MR-1 are discussed.

  17. A biochemical approach to study the role of the terminal oxidases in aerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Le Laz

    Full Text Available The genome of the facultative anaerobic γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 encodes for three terminal oxidases: a bd-type quinol oxidase and two heme-copper oxidases, a A-type cytochrome c oxidase and a cbb 3-type oxidase. In this study, we used a biochemical approach and directly measured oxidase activities coupled to mass-spectrometry analysis to investigate the physiological role of the three terminal oxidases under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Our data revealed that the cbb 3-type oxidase is the major terminal oxidase under aerobic conditions while both cbb 3-type and bd-type oxidases are involved in respiration at low-O2 tensions. On the contrary, the low O2-affinity A-type cytochrome c oxidase was not detected in our experimental conditions even under aerobic conditions and would therefore not be required for aerobic respiration in S. oneidensis MR-1. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that the A-type cytochrome c oxidase is a ccaa 3-type oxidase since an uncommon extra-C terminal domain contains two c-type heme binding motifs. The particularity of the aerobic respiratory pathway and the physiological implication of the presence of a ccaa 3-type oxidase in S. oneidensis MR-1 are discussed.

  18. NMR-based metabolomics study of the biochemical relationship between sugarcane callus tissues and their respective nutrient culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Thapaliya, Monica; Boroujerdi, Arezue; Chowdhury, Kamal

    2014-09-01

    The culture of sugarcane leaf explant onto culture induction medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism into both embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues. Previous analyses demonstrated that embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues have distinct metabolic profiles. This study is the follow-up to understand the biochemical relationship between the nutrient media and callus tissues using one-dimensional (1D (1)H) and two-dimensional (2D (1)H-(13)C) NMR spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis (PCA). 1D (1)H spectral comparisons of fresh unspent media (FM), embryogenic callus media (ECM), non-embryogenic callus media (NECM), embryogenic callus (EC), and non-embryogenic callus (NEC), showed different metabolic relationships between callus tissues and media. Based on metabolite fold change analysis, significantly changing sugar compounds such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose were maintained in large quantities by EC only. Significantly different amino acid compounds such as valine, leucine, alanine, threonine, asparagine, and glutamine and different organic acid derivatives such as lactate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, malonate, and choline were present in EC, NEC, and NECM, which indicates that EC maintained these nutrients, while NEC either maintained or secreted the metabolites. These media and callus-specific results suggest that EC and NEC utilize and/or secrete media nutrients differently.

  19. A comparative study of cognitive radio platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of their results to ensure accurate deployments of new network protocols, applications and services. The three commonly used evaluation techniques in the study of communications systems are simulations, emulations, and testbeds or plat- forms. Simulation...- uated in CR platforms include dynamic spectrum manage- ment, spectrum sensing, TV white space exploitation (such as in IEEE 802.22), energy e ciency, MAC protocols, wire- less distributed computing and green radios [17]. CR plat- forms have evolved...

  20. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; D'souza, Pamela; Jain, Rajesh; Dutta, Renu; Saili, Arvind; Singh, Abha

    2011-01-01

    Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Single center, prospective, observational study. A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A) and 100 (Group B) delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (Pconjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60%) developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  1. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  2. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  3. Synthesis, structural and biochemical activity studies of a new hexadentate Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekcioglu, Pinar; Karabocek, Nevin; Karabocek, Serdar; Emirik, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    A new Schiff base ligand (H2L) and its metal complexes have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment and spectral studies. The comparative in-vitro antimicrobial activities against various pathogens with reference to known antibiotics activity under the standard control of different concentrations revealed that the metal complexes (6-8) showed enhanced antimicrobial activities in general as compared to free ligand. As an exception, the free ligand showed better activity against Trichoderma. The antifungal activity experiments were performed in triplicate. The order of biochemical activity for metal complexes were observed as in the following. CuL > CoL > NiL, which is exactly same as the order of stability constants of these complexes. Additionally, we performed DFT and TD-DFT calculation for free ligand and Cu(II) complex to support the experimental data. The geometries of the Cu(II) complex have been optimized using the B3LYP level of theory. The theoretical calculations confirm that the copper (II) center exhibits a distorted square pyramidal geometry which is favored by experimental results.

  4. Vitamin D receptor biochemical and genetic profiling and HLA-class II genotyping among Lebanese with multiple sclerosis - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamout, Bassem; Karaky, Nathalie M; Mahfouz, Rami A R; Jaber, Fadel; Estaitieh, Nour; Shamaa, Dina; Abbas, Fatmeh; Hoteit, Rouba; Daher, Rose T

    2016-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease affecting mostly young adult females with multifactorial etiology. Recent studies suggested that adequate vitamin D levels may lower the risk of developing MS. Our aim was to explore the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism, HLA-DR locus genotype, and serum vitamins D and A levels in the Lebanese population. Fifty MS patients were recruited for this study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy and 51 patients with other neurological disorders (non-MS). Biochemical analysis included serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and vitamin A. Molecular analysis targeted VDR genotypes (ApaI, TaqI and BsmI) and low resolution HLA typing for DRB1 locus. Healthy and non-MS groups had comparable parameters and were combined into one control group. No significant differences were found between MS and control groups for VDR genotypes. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*15 was significantly higher in MS patients (22%) compared to controls (8%) (p=0.018). Odds ratio for MS in the presence of DRB1*15 allele was 3.21 (p=0.018). Cosegregation with A (ApaI) and b (BsmI) alleles did not influence the risk for MS. 25OHD levels were significantly higher in MS patients compared to controls (p=0.002), due to more frequent oral supplementation (p=0.005). Vitamin A levels were comparable between the two groups. When all parameters were included in a logistic regression model adjusted for supplementation, only HLA-DRB1*15 (OR=3.42; p=0.027) contributed significantly to MS risk. There was no association between serum vitamin D or A or VDR genotypes and MS. HLA-DRB1*15 was the major factor imposing more than 3 folds greater risk for developing MS among Lebanese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on thermal processing of Tuna-A comparative study in tin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tin-free steel can is an ideal alternative to open top sanitary tin cans (OTS) for thermal processing of little tuna (Ethynnus affinis) in curry used as filling media. Effect of heat penetration on physical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of canned tuna product were studied. The chemical analysis of raw tuna fish showed a ...

  6. BISEN: Biochemical Simulation Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F; Vinnakota, K. C.; Han, Y; Dash, R. K.; Yang, F; Beard, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for user-specified multi-compartment systems of enzymes and transporters accounting for detailed biochemical thermodynamics, rapid equilibria of multiple biochemical species and dynamic proton and met...

  7. Duarte (DG) galactosemia: a pilot study of biochemical and neurodevelopmental assessment in children detected by newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficicioglu, Can; Thomas, Nina; Yager, Claire; Gallagher, Paul R; Hussa, Christie; Mattie, Andrea; Day-Salvatore, Debra L; Forbes, Brian J

    2008-12-01

    Newborn screening for galactosemia has shown a high prevalence of partial galactose uridyl transferase deficiencies such as Duarte (DG) galactosemia. To determine whether (a) there is any clinical impact of DG galactosemia on development (b) there is a relationship between outcome and biochemical parameters in patients who receive no treatment. Twenty-eight children with DG galactosemia. Group-I-17 children had a lactose restricted diet in the first year of life. Group-II-11 children had a regular diet since birth. Developmental, physical, and ophthalmologic assessments were completed on both DG groups. RBC gal-1-p and urine galactitol were monitored during the follow-up visits in every child with DG galactosemia. Gal-1-p, urine galactitol, liver function tests, and FSH were tested at the time of study visit. The groups had statistically significant differences on RBC gal-1-p and urine galactitol at the 2 week, 1 month, 6 month, and 1 year time points. There was no statistical difference of gal-1-p or urine galactitol in group-I and -II at the time of study. The groups had statistically significant differences on adaptive scores, but not on language or IQ. None of the DG subjects had abnormal liver function at the time of diagnosis or the study visit. The FSH levels were normal. There were no statistically significant relationships between the first year metabolic values and developmental outcomes. The data presented here indicate that clinical and developmental outcomes in DG galactosemics are good regardless of any diet changes.

  8. Coadministration of alloxan and nicotinamide in rats produces biochemical changes in blood and pathological alterations comparable to the changes in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattam, K K; Raghavendran, Hrb; Murali, M R; Savatey, H; Kamarul, T

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks. Elevated levels of glucose were observed in all groups on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, except in groups a and f (control). The serum insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups b and c on day 7, when compared with that in group f, whereas a decrease in the serum insulin levels was observed in groups d and e on days 21 and 28. The adiponectin levels showed inconsistencies on days 7 and 14. However, significant decrease in the adiponectin levels was observed on days 21 and 28. Histological section of the pancreas showed mild (group a), moderate (group b) to severe (groups c, d, and e) degenerative changes. Concomitant fatty changes in the liver and inflammatory infiltration of the kidney were markedly observed in all the treated groups, when compared to control. These results suggested that the use of selective combination of Ax120 + NA50 injection demonstrated type II diabetes mellitus in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner-exposed work in manufacturing plants, Japan: pulmonary function, blood cells, and biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H; Terunuma, N; Kurosaki, S; Hata, K; Ide, R; Kuga, H; Kakiuchi, N; Masuda, M; Totsuzaki, T; Osato, A; Uchino, B; Kitahara, K; Iwasaki, A; Yoshizumi, K; Morimoto, Y; Kasai, H; Murase, T; Higashi, T

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between toner-exposed work and health indices related to respiratory disorders and to confirm the baseline of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure in manufacturing plants. Subjects were 1614 male workers (809 toner-exposed workers and 805 referents) who were engaged in toner manufacturing plants in Japan (Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd). The age of subjects was from 19 to 59 years, and the average age was 40.2 years(median 40 years, SD 7.67). We conducted a pulmonary function test (PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV(1.0)%, V25/Ht) and a blood cell test (RBC, Hb, Hct, Plt, WBC, cell contents of WBC) and measured biochemical indices in blood (ALT, AST, gamma-GTP, CRP, IgE) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine. Student t-test and logistic regression analysis were applied to compare between the toner-exposed workers and the referents and to analyze the relationship among indices of effects and independent factors. There was no significant difference between the two groups in blood cell count and biochemical indices. Inflammation- and allergy-related markers such as 8OHdG and IgE also showed no significant difference between toner-exposed workers and the referents. The influence of smoking on pulmonary function indices was observed, but there was no relationship between the pulmonary function and toner-exposed work. In this article, we report a preliminary cross-sectional analysis in the subjects of a cohort study. No difference in pulmonary function indices was observed between the toner-exposed workers and the referents, and there was no consistent relationship between the exposure status and examined indices; however, the prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms was higher in the exposed workers as presented in another report. Further analysis is important in the ongoing cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on respiratory systems.

  10. Biochemical changes induced by grape seed extract and low level laser therapy administration during intraoral wound healing in rat liver: an experimental and in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, Mehmet Erman; Ekhteiari Salmas, Ramin; Durdagi, Serdar; Akgul, Hasan; Demirkol, Mehmet; Aksungur, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Zeliha

    2017-04-05

    In the present study, the changes that occur in rat liver tissue as a result of the use of grape seed extract (GSE) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) in intraoral wound (IW) healing are analyzed using biochemical parameters. Diode laser application groups received 8 J/cm(2) dose LLLT once a day for 4 days (810 nm wavelength, continuous mode, 0.25 W, 9 s). As a result of the biological parameter analysis, it was determined that the oxidative damage caused by the IWs and recovery period on 7th and 14th days could be substantially removed with GSE applications that have antioxidant capacity especially in rat liver tissue. In addition, the active compound of grape seed, catechin is studied in the active site of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) target using molecular modeling approaches. Post-processing molecular dynamics (MD) results for catechin is compared with a standard GSK3 inhibitor. MD simulations assisted for better understanding of inhibition mechanism and the crucial amino acids contributing in the ligand binding. These results along with a through free energy analysis of ligands using sophisticated simulations methods are quite striking and it suggests a greater future role for simulation in deciphering complex patterns of molecular mechanism in combination with methods for understanding drug-receptor interactions.

  11. STUDY OF CORRELATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVE PHASE OF THYROID EYE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM Role of Interleukin-6 and HS-CRP Levels in the assessment of active thyroid eye disease. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective observational study of 30 patients from the age group of 20-60 years with thyroid eye disease done at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology. All patients were subjected to detailed history, ocular examination, systemic examination, biochemical analysis and Imaging. Patients are categorised as mild, moderate and severe active disease based on clinical activity score. For the period of two years, patients are followed at regular periodic intervals according to the severity of disease and results were analysed. RESULTS Out of 30 patients studied, majority of the patients were females (60%, and 70% of the patients had bilateral disease. Among 30 patients, 83.33% in hyperthyroid state, 3.33% in Hypothyroid state, 13.33% in Euthyroid state (Table 3. Smoking being important risk factor in 30% among males. 50% of patients presented with mild disease, 30% with moderate disease, 0% with severe disease. IL-6, HS-CRP levels are increased only in patients with severe active disease (Table 6. Remission attained in all patients when treated earlier with steroids. CONCLUSION Identifying disease activity early and aggressive treatment with systemic steroids in active phase of moderate and severe disease has reduced the morbidity associated with disease. Correlation of IL-6, HS-CRP, TFT levels are significantly increased only in patients with active phase of severe thyroid eye disease but not significantly elevated in active phase of moderate disease. Another pitfall is IL-6 is an expensive ELISA based diagnosis. Thus, IL-6 & HS-CRP cannot be routinely used to screen patients with Thyroid eye disease.

  12. Evaluation of subacute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of aerial parts of O. sanctum in Wistar rats: Clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, P; Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, M; Agarwal, A; Ruchika, K-G

    2015-12-04

    Ocimum sanctum, commonly known as Holy Basil or Tulsi has been used in Ayurveda as a demulcent, stimulant, expectorant; in the treatment of bronchitis, skin infections, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, arthritis, gastric and inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that methanolic/aqueous extract of O. sanctum did not induce genotoxicity and other toxic effects in acute oral toxicity study. In the present report, we have performed sub-acute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of O. sanctum in Wistar rats to evaluate whether it induced any chronic toxic effects. In subacute toxicity study, animals received O. sanctum extract (OSE) by oral gavage at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day (n=5/group/sex) for 28 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and evaluated for the effect of OSE on clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. The rats treated with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, motor activity, sensory reactivity and foot splay measurements. There were no significant changes in haematological, pathological and biochemical parameters; and histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) among rats of either sex. OSE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg showed significant increase of Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (19.8 ± 0.8; 18.7 ± 0.5) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (41.8 ± 1.1; 39.3 ± 0.7) in male and female rats in comparison to their respective controls (MCH: 17.7 ± 0.3; 17.4 ± 0.3; MCHC: 37.8 ± 0.5; 36.1 ± 0.2). Urine parameters (appearance, blood, nitrate, leucocyte, glucose, ketone, pH, protein and specific gravity) in both the male and female rats were comparable to their respective controls. In addition, no changes were observed in the vital organs of rats at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Our results showed that oral administration of OSE was not toxic to male and female Wistar rats upto the highest

  13. Trajectories of metabolic risk factors and biochemical markers prior to the onset of cardiovascular disease - The Doetinchem cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Smit, Henriette A.; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors often develop at young age and are maintained over time, but it is not fully understood how risk factors develop over time preceding cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our objective was to examine how levels and trajectories of metabolic risk factors and biochemical markers prior to

  14. Current status of temporomandibular joint disorders and the therapeutic system derived from a series of biomechanical, histological, and biochemical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Tanne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was designed to report the current status of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs and the therapeutic system on the basis of a series of clinical, biomechanical, histological and biochemical studies in our research groups. In particular, we have focused on the association of degenerative changes of articular cartilage in the mandibular condyle and the resultant progressive condylar resorption with mechanical stimuli acting on the condyle during the stomatognathic function. In a clinical aspect, the nature and prevalence of TMDs, association of malocclusion with TMDs, association of condylar position with TMDs, association of craniofacial morphology with TMDs, and influences of TMDs, TMJ-osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA in particular, were examined. In a biomechanical aspect, the nature of stress distribution in the TMJ from maximum clenching was analyzed with finite element method. In addition, the pattern of stress distribution was examined in association with varying vertical discrepancies of the craniofacial skeleton and friction between the articular disk and condyle. The results demonstrated an induction of large compressive stresses in the anterior and lateral areas on the condyle by the maximum clenching and the subsequent prominent increases in the same areas of the mandibular condyle as the vertical skeletal discrepancy became more prominent. Increase of friction at the articular surface was also indicated as a cause of larger stresses and the relevant disk displacement, which further induced an increase in stresses in the tissues posterior to the disks, indicating an important role of TMJ disks as a stress absorber. In a histological or biological aspect, increase in TMJ loading simulated by vertical skeletal discrepancy, which has already been revealed by the preceding finite element analysis or represented by excessive mouth opening, produced a decrease in the thickness of cartilage layers, an increase in the numbers of

  15. Structural And Biochemical Studies of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype C1 Light Chain Protease: Implications for Dual Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, R.; Sikorra, S.; Stegmann, C.M.; Pich, A.; Binz, T.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-06-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic disease botulism and tetanus. They block neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain (LC), a Zn2+ endopeptidase. There are seven structurally and functionally related botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), termed serotype A to G, and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). Each of them exhibits unique specificity for their target SNAREs and peptide bond(s) they cleave. The mechanisms of action for substrate recognition and target cleavage are largely unknown. Here, we report structural and biochemical studies of BoNT/C1-LC, which is unique among BoNTs in that it exhibits dual specificity toward both syntaxin and SNAP-25. A distinct pocket (S1') near the active site likely achieves the correct register for the cleavage site by only allowing Ala as the P1' residue for both SNAP-25 and syntaxin. Mutations of this SNAP-25 residue dramatically reduce enzymatic activity. The remote a-exosite that was previously identified in the complex of BoNT/A-LC and SNAP-25 is structurally conserved in BoNT/C1. However, mutagenesis experiments show that the a-exosite of BoNT/C1 plays a less stringent role in substrate discrimination in comparison to that of BoNT/A, which could account for its dual substrate specificity.

  16. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisansky, Thomas M., E-mail: pisansky.thomas@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Agrawal, Shree [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, Bridget F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Moghanaki, Drew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists for salvage radiation therapy (RT) of biochemical failure after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Individual data from 1108 patients who underwent salvage RT at 10 academic centers were pooled. The cohort was enriched for selection criteria more likely associated with tumor recurrence in the prostate bed (margin positive and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of ≤2.0 ng/mL) and without the confounding of planned androgen suppression. The cumulative incidence of biochemical failure and distant metastasis over time was computed, and competing risks hazard regression models were used to investigate the association between potential predictors and these outcomes. The association of radiation dose with outcomes was the primary focus. Results: With a 65.2-month follow-up duration, the 5- and 10-year estimates of freedom from post-RT biochemical failure (PSA level >0.2 ng/mL and rising) was 63.5% and 49.8%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was 12.4% by 10 years. A Gleason score of ≥7, higher pre-RT PSA level, extraprostatic tumor extension, and seminal vesicle invasion were associated with worse biochemical failure and distant metastasis outcomes. A salvage radiation dose of ≥66.0 Gy was associated with a reduced cumulative incidence of biochemical failure, but not of distant metastasis. Conclusions: The use of salvage radiation doses of ≥66.0 Gy are supported by evidence presented in the present multicenter pooled analysis of individual patient data. The observational reporting method, limited sample size, few distant metastasis events, modest follow-up duration, and elective use of salvage therapy might have diminished the opportunity to identify an association between the radiation dose and this endpoint.

  17. The effect of tadalafil therapy on kidney damage caused by sepsis in a polymicrobial septic model induced in rats: a biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Erdal; Ayyildiz, Sema Nur; Cirrik, Selma; Koktürk, Sibel; Cirakoglu, Abdullah; Noyan, Tevfik; Ayyildiz, Ali; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is an inflammatory reaction to bacteria involving the whole body and is a significant cause of mortality and economic costs. The purpose of this research was to determine whether tadalafil exhibits a preventive effect on sepsis in a septic model induced in rats with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were randomly separated into groups, 10 rats in each: (i) a sham (control) group, (ii) an untreated sepsis group, (iii) a sepsis group treated with 5mg/kg tadalafil and (iv) a sepsis group treated with 10mg/kg tadalafil. A polymicrobial sepsis model was induced in rats using CLP. Rats were sacrificed after 16h, and blood and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological study. Levels of the inflammatory parameter IL-6 decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil in comparison with the untreated sepsis group (p kidney tissues decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil compared to the untreated sepsis group (p kidney tissue of septic rats in a polymicrobial sepsis model induced with CLP. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  18. Comparison of anthropometric and biochemical indices of adolescents born during and after the Iran-Iraq war; Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-01-01

    A country's developmental progress and overall changes in socio-economic structure are reflected in the outcome of secular trend studies on physical growth of children. The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric and biochemical indices of adolescent boys and girls born during and after the Iran-Iraq war. Adolescents, aged 11 - 18 years, were selected from the TLGS cohort and divided into two groups. In the first group, adolescents born during the war and in the second group adolescents born after the war were included. Height, weight, serum lipids, FBS, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and BMI were compared amongst adolescents of the same ages between the two groups. Mean weight and height increased at the ages of 12, 13, 14, and 17 years in boys of the post-war group. The mean weight of girls in the post-war group increased at the ages of 11, 13, and 14 years. Between 11 - 14 years, the means for total and LDL cholesterol, and between the ages of 15 - 18 years FBS, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased in boys of the post-war group. For girls between the ages of 11 - 14, FBS, total cholesterol, TG and LDL cholesterol, and between the ages of 15 - 18 years, FBS, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased in the post-war group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased at all ages in both groups. This study showed that some anthropometric indices such as height and weight increased in boys who were born after the war; but in girls, the mean weight in the age groups increased. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and some lipid profiles decreased in boys and girls of the post-war group.

  19. [Clinical significance of studies of microorganisms of the intestinal mucosa by culture biochemical methods and mass fragmentography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, G A; Parfenov, A I; Verkhovtseva, N V; Ruchkina, I N; Kurchavov, V A; Boĭko, N B; Rogatina, E L

    2003-01-01

    This research is a continuation of the series of studies of the parietal microbiota of the bowel tissue samplings by the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) method [G.A. Ossipov et al.//Journal of the Society of Russian Gastroenterologists, 2001, 1:54-69]. The purpose was to study a number of new microorganisms in view of new data on the composition of their fatty acids (FA) and aldehydes; to confirm the presence of a number of bacteria, fungi and aerobic actinomycetes revealed earlier by FA markers in the composition of the bowel parietal microbiota by their isolation in a pure culture; to amend the estimation of the clinical value of changes in the composition of the human bowel parietal microflora in case of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and antibiotics-associated diarrhea (AAD). We examined 31 patients with IBS with predominating diarrhea, 18 patients with AAD and 3 volunteers (a control group). We studied the blood samples, tissue samplings of the mucous coat of the jejunum, ileum and colon and composition of healthy people's feces. The GCMS method was applied. Morphology of defined strains was controlled by methods of light and scanning electron microscopy. We found a substantial portion of eubacteria among the bowel microorganisms and specific changes of their species in case of IBS and AAD. Taking into account their physiological and biochemical activity, when regulating their concentration one can expect at least the same effect as when regulating the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in treatment of intestinal pathologies and other diseases related to bowel dysbacteriosis. The analysis of the feces microbiota using the GCMS method by FA of parietal microorganisms provides reliable data on their number both in feces and in tissue samplings. We found a substantial portion of eubacteria among other bowel microorganisms (27% in the jejunum and 16% in the colon) and specific changes of their species in case of IBS and AAD. The

  20. Field and Laboratory Studies on Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in the Phytoplanktivorous Bighead Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and experimental studies were conducted to investigate pathological characterizations and biochemical responses in the liver and kidney of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp after intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of microcystins (MCs and exposure to natural cyanobacterial blooms in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Bighead carp in field and laboratory studies showed a progressive recovery of structure and function in terms of histological, cellular, and biochemical features. In laboratory study, when fish were i.p. injected with extracted MCs at the doses of 200 and 500 μg MC-LReq/kg body weight, respectively, liver pathology in bighead carp was observed in a time dose-dependent manner within 24 h postinjection and characterized by disruption of liver structure, condensed cytoplasm, and the appearance of massive hepatocytes with karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis. In comparison with previous studies on other fish, bighead carp in field study endured higher MC doses and longer-term exposure, but displayed less damage in the liver and kidney. Ultrastructural examination in the liver revealed the presence of lysosome proliferation, suggesting that bighead carp might eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by MCs through lysosome activation. Biochemically, sensitive responses in the antioxidant enzymes and higher basal glutathione concentrations might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs, suggesting that bighead carp can be used as biomanipulation fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination.

  1. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  2. Small-molecule inhibition of the uPAR·uPA interaction: synthesis, biochemical, cellular, in vivo pharmacokinetics and efficacy studies in breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Timmy; Wang, Fang; Knabe, William Eric; Sinn, Anthony L; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Sandusky, George E; Sledge, George W; Jones, David R; Khanna, Rajesh; Pollok, Karen E; Meroueh, Samy O

    2013-04-01

    The uPAR·uPA protein-protein interaction (PPI) is involved in signaling and proteolytic events that promote tumor invasion and metastasis. A previous study had identified 4 (IPR-803) from computational screening of a commercial chemical library and shown that the compound inhibited uPAR·uPA PPI in competition biochemical assays and invasion cellular studies. Here, we synthesize 4 to evaluate in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) and efficacy studies in a murine breast cancer metastasis model. First, we show, using fluorescence polarization and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, that 4 binds directly to uPAR with sub-micromolar affinity of 0.2 μM. We show that 4 blocks invasion of breast MDA-MB-231, and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Derivatives of 4 also inhibited MMP activity and blocked invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound 4 also impaired MDA-MB-231 cell adhesion and migration. Extensive in vivo PK studies in NOD-SCID mice revealed a half-life of nearly 5h and peak concentration of 5 μM. Similar levels of the inhibitor were detected in tumor tissue up to 10h. Female NSG mice inoculated with highly malignant TMD-MDA-MB-231 in their mammary fat pads showed that 4 impaired metastasis to the lungs with only four of the treated mice showing severe or marked metastasis compared to ten for the untreated mice. Compound 4 is a promising template for the development of compounds with enhanced PK parameters and greater efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of oral lichen planus with hepatitis C virus, surface antigen of hepatitis B virus, and diabetes: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Donempudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease commonly encountered in the dental clinic. The etiology of oral lichen planus is still unknown. The probable factors associated with oral lichen planus include anxiety, trauma, malnutrition, infection, and autoimmunity. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, and hepatitis C virus (HCV autoantibodies in oral lichen planus patients and controls, and to assess the association of oral lichen planus with diabetes, HCV, and HBsAg. Study Design: The study included a total of 25 oral lichen planus patients. Twenty-five individuals who did not have the above clinical conditions were also included in the study and comprised the control group. Both the study and control groups consisted of both sexes in the age group of 20–70 years. Patients were clinically diagnosed as oral lichen planus after obtaining a detailed history and was later confirmed by histopathologic examination. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from both the oral lichen planus patients and controls. Biochemical analysis of blood glucose levels, i.e., fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, HBsAg, hepatitis C autoantibodies were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Blood glucose levels, i.e., fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, were found to be statistically increased in oral lichen planus patients when compared with controls. There was no significant change in HCV autoantibodies and HBsAg. The results of the present study also showed a significant association of oral lichen planus with diabetes. However, there was no significant association of oral lichen planus with HCV and HBsAg in patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: There was a direct relation of oral lichen planus with diabetes whereas there was no significant association with HCV

  4. Evolution of a microbial nitrilase gene family: a comparative and environmental genomics study

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    Eads Jonathan R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completed genomes and environmental genomic sequences are bringing a significant contribution to understanding the evolution of gene families, microbial metabolism and community eco-physiology. Here, we used comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with enzymatic data to probe the evolution and functions of a microbial nitrilase gene family. Nitrilases are relatively rare in bacterial genomes, their biological function being unclear. Results We examined the genetic neighborhood of the different subfamily genes and discovered conserved gene clusters or operons associated with specific nitrilase clades. The inferred evolutionary transitions that separate nitrilases which belong to different gene clusters correlated with changes in their enzymatic properties. We present evidence that Darwinian adaptation acted during one of those transitions and identified sites in the enzyme that may have been under positive selection. Conclusion Changes in the observed biochemical properties of the nitrilases associated with the different gene clusters are consistent with a hypothesis that those enzymes have been recruited to a novel metabolic pathway following gene duplication and neofunctionalization. These results demonstrate the benefits of combining environmental genomic sampling and completed genomes data with evolutionary and biochemical analyses in the study of gene families. They also open new directions for studying the functions of nitrilases and the genes they are associated with.

  5. BISEN: Biochemical Simulation Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, J; Wu, F; Qi, F; Vinnakota, K C; Han, Y; Dash, R K; Yang, F; Beard, D A

    2009-03-15

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for user-specified multi-compartment systems of enzymes and transporters accounting for detailed biochemical thermodynamics, rapid equilibria of multiple biochemical species and dynamic proton and metal ion buffering. The software and a user manual (including several tutorial examples) are available at bbc.mcw.edu/BISEN.

  6. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  7. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  8. Laying performance, haematology and serum biochemical profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to compare the effects of unfermented and fermented African locust bean on laying performance, haematology and serum biochemical profile of hens in a twelve week feeding trial. The unfermented African locust bean (UALB) contained seeds that were dehulled and boiled in water, without going ...

  9. Biochemical and organoleptic changes in some frozen commercially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the biweekly comparative changes in the organoleptic and biochemical composition of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Electric fish, Malapterurus ... Organoleptic assessment with the aid of questionnaire on the basis of eyes, gills, skin and flesh quality was conducted by five (5) trained panelists.

  10. Psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of weight loss because of aerobic exercise training and dietary measures on psychological wellbeing and biochemical modulation in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Material and methods: One hundred obese type 2 diabetes patients of both sexes participated in ...

  11. Comparative analyses of nonpathogenic, opportunistic, and totally pathogenic mycobacteria reveal genomic and biochemical variabilities and highlight the survival attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Singh, Yadvir; Kohli, Sakshi; Ahmad, Javeed; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Tyagi, Anil K; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2014-11-04

    Mycobacterial evolution involves various processes, such as genome reduction, gene cooption, and critical gene acquisition. Our comparative genome size analysis of 44 mycobacterial genomes revealed that the nonpathogenic (NP) genomes were bigger than those of opportunistic (OP) or totally pathogenic (TP) mycobacteria, with the TP genomes being smaller yet variable in size--their genomic plasticity reflected their ability to evolve and survive under various environmental conditions. From the 44 mycobacterial species, 13 species, representing TP, OP, and NP, were selected for genomic-relatedness analyses. Analysis of homologous protein-coding genes shared between Mycobacterium indicus pranii (NP), Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (TP) revealed that 4,995 (i.e., ~95%) M. indicaus pranii proteins have homology with M. intracellulare, whereas the homologies among M. indicus pranii, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were significantly lower. A total of 4,153 (~79%) M. indicus pranii proteins and 4,093 (~79%) M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteins exhibited homology with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome, while 3,301 (~82%) and 3,295 (~82%) M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins showed homology with M. indicus pranii and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteomes, respectively. Comparative metabolic pathway analyses of TP/OP/NP mycobacteria showed enzymatic plasticity between M. indicus pranii (NP) and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), Mycobacterium avium 104 (OP), and M. tuberculosis H37Rv (TP). Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have acquired novel alternate pathways with possible roles in metabolism, host-pathogen interactions, virulence, and intracellular survival, and by implication some of these could be potential drug targets. The complete sequence analysis of Mycobacterium indicus pranii, a novel species of Mycobacterium shown earlier to have strong immunomodulatory properties and currently in use for

  12. Comparative study among three different phototherapy protocols to treat chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Luana; Cruz, Érika P; Pereira, Filipi S; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Simões, Alyne

    2016-12-01

    In this study, clinical, biochemical and histological analysis were used to compare different phototherapies, including LED, low and high-power laser (HPL) for the treatment of chemotherapy (CT)-induced oral mucositis (OM). One-hundred-fifty hamsters were divided into five groups: C: control; CH: CT/OM induction; L: CT/OM induction and treatment with LED (635 nm, 1.2 J), HL: CT/OM induction and treatment with HPL (808 nm, 10 J), LL: CT/OM induction and treatment with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (660 nm, 1.2 J). OM was induced by scratches performed on check pouch mucosa after two injections of 5-Fluorouracil. The experiment lasted 10 days and OM was analyzed by specific clinical scales on days 5, 7 and 10. The animals were euthanized and the cheek pouch mucosa removed for biochemical (TNF-α concentration) and histological (light microscopy) analysis. After statistical analysis, the authors' results showed LED and LLLT therapies were efficient treatments for OM, decreasing TNF-α concentration on day 7 (p therapies were the best choices to decrease the severity of OM, accelerating tissue repair and decreasing the inflammatory process. Clinical evaluation of OM in Groups CH, LL, L and HL and their respective arrangement of phototherapy treatments at different time intervals (5, 7 and 10 days). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Studies on the cytotoxic, biochemical and anti-carcinogenic potentials of ninhydrin on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell-bearing Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S; Al-Shabanah, O A; Al-Bekairi, A M; Al-Harbi, M M; Al-Gharably, N M; Raza, M

    2000-08-01

    Ninhydrin (2,2-dihydroxy-1,3-indane dione) was evaluated for its antitumor and cytotoxic properties in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell (EAC Cell)-bearing mice. The rationale behind this study has been mainly the literature reports of its characteristic interference with DNA synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Antitumor activity was evaluated from the total count and viability of EAC cells in addition to their nucleic acid, protein, non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. The EAC cell-bearing animals were also observed for the effect on their survival and body weight variations. In addition, the tumors grown at the site of injection were evaluated for histopathological changes. Ninhydrin treatments (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day) abate the increase in body weight and advanced the duration of survival in EAC cell-bearing mice. The results on histopathological investigations show retardation in tumor growth, decreased frequency of mitotic figures and hair follicles and an increased necrosis in the tumor by ninhydrin treatment. Our results on cytotoxicity, which demonstrated compression in the number of EAC cells and their viability substantiate these data. The results of biochemical studies on EAC cells exhibit a reduction in the levels of DNA, RNA, proteins and NP-SH with a subsequent increase in the concentrations of MDA after ninhydrin treatment. Inhibition in tumor growth was dose dependently significant with the same dose regimen. The observed cytotoxic and antitumor activity of ninhydrin was comparable to cyclophosphamide. The possible mode of action of ninhydrin-induced cytotoxic and antitumor activity appear to be due to its interference with mitochondrial function resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis, an effect that is being investigated further.

  14. A Comparative Study of New Aspergillus Strains for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by Solid State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gastón Ezequiel; Noseda, Diego Gabriel; Ponce Mora, María Clara; Recupero, Matías Nicolás; Blasco, Martín; Albertó, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of the proteolytic enzymes production using twelve Aspergillus strains previously unused for this purpose was performed by solid state fermentation. A semiquantitative and quantitative evaluation of proteolytic activity were carried out using crude enzymatic extracts obtained from the fermentation cultures, finding seven strains with high and intermediate level of protease activity. Biochemical, thermodynamics, and kinetics features such as optimum pH and temperature values, thermal stability, activation energy (E a), quotient energy (Q 10), K m, and V max were studied in four enzymatic extracts from the selected strains that showed the highest productivity. Additionally, these strains were evaluated by zymogram analysis obtaining protease profiles with a wide range of molecular weight for each sample. From these four strains with the highest productivity, the proteolytic extract of A. sojae ATCC 20235 was shown to be an appropriate biocatalyst for hydrolysis of casein and gelatin substrates, increasing its antioxidant activities in 35% and 125%, respectively. PMID:26989505

  15. A Comparative Study of New Aspergillus Strains for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Ezequiel Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the proteolytic enzymes production using twelve Aspergillus strains previously unused for this purpose was performed by solid state fermentation. A semiquantitative and quantitative evaluation of proteolytic activity were carried out using crude enzymatic extracts obtained from the fermentation cultures, finding seven strains with high and intermediate level of protease activity. Biochemical, thermodynamics, and kinetics features such as optimum pH and temperature values, thermal stability, activation energy (Ea, quotient energy (Q10, Km, and Vmax were studied in four enzymatic extracts from the selected strains that showed the highest productivity. Additionally, these strains were evaluated by zymogram analysis obtaining protease profiles with a wide range of molecular weight for each sample. From these four strains with the highest productivity, the proteolytic extract of A. sojae ATCC 20235 was shown to be an appropriate biocatalyst for hydrolysis of casein and gelatin substrates, increasing its antioxidant activities in 35% and 125%, respectively.

  16. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  17. Histochemical, Biochemical and Cell Biological aspects of tail regeneration in lizard, an amniote model for studies on tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The present review summarizes biochemical, histochemical and immunocytochemical aspects of the process of tissue regeneration in lizards, non-mammalian amniotes with high regenerative power. The amputated tail initially mobilizes the glycogen and lipid reserves during wound healing. In the following stage of formation of the regenerative blastema tissue remodeling produces a typical embryonic tissue, initially increasing the amount of water and glycosaminoglycans such as jaluronate, which are later replaced by sulfated glycosaminoglycans and collagen during tail elongation. In blastematic and early differentiating stages the initial anaerobic metabolism utilizes glycolysis and hexose monophosphate pathways to sustain high RNA production and lipid catabolism for energy production. This stage, after formation of blood vessels, is replaced by the energy-efficient aerobic metabolism based on the Krebs' cycle that is needed for the differentiation and growth of the new tissues of the regenerating tail. Specific proteins of the cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, cell junctions, transcriptional and growth factors are actively produced in the embryonic environment of early stages of regeneration and allow for cell movement, signaling and differentiation. During wound healing, the production of anti-microbial peptides in granulocytes is likely involved in limiting inflammation and stimulates tissue regeneration in the tail while the lasting inflammatory reaction of the limb and spinal cord limits their potential of regeneration. Activated hemopoiesis, circulating blood, endocrine glands, liver, kidney and spleen supply the regenerating tissues with metabolites and hormones but also with phagocytes and immuno-competent cells that can inhibit tissue regeneration after repetitive amputations that elicit chronic inflammation. The latter aspect shows how successful tissue regeneration in an amniote can be turned into scarring by the alteration of the initial microenvironment

  18. Allowable warm ischemic time and morphological and biochemical changes in uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaque: a basic study for uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Umene, Kiyoko; Adachi, Masataka; Emoto, Katsura; Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Narita, Hayato; Yoshida, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility. The allowable warm ischemic time and ischemia/reperfusion injury of the uterus in humans and non-human primates is unknown. This experimental study included 18 female cynomolgus macaques with periodic menstruation. Animals were divided into six groups of three monkeys each: a control group and groups with uterine ischemia for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. Biopsies of uterine tissues were performed before blood flow blockage, after each blockage time, and after reperfusion for 3 h. Blood sampling was performed after each blockage time, and after reperfusion for 5, 15 and 30 min for measurement of biochemical data. Resumption of menstruation was monitored after the surgical procedure. Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes after ischemia and reperfusion were evaluated. Mild muscle degeneration and zonal degeneration were observed in all animals subjected to warm ischemia for 4 or 8 h, but there were no marked differences in the appearance of specimens immediately after ischemia and after reperfusion for 3 h in animals subjected to 4 or 8 h of warm ischemia. There were no significant changes in any biochemical parameters at any time point in each group. Periodical menstruation resumed in all animals with warm ischemia up to 4 h, but did not recover in animals with warm ischemia for 8 h with atrophic uteri. Warm ischemia in actual transplantation was not exactly mimicked in this study because uteri were not perfused, cooled, transplanted or reanastomosed with vessels. Results in non-human primates cannot always be extrapolated to

  19. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. I. Biochemical and histopathological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina [Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2c str., 15-222, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, Marcin; Supernak-Bobko, Dorota [Department of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Medykow 20, 40-752, Katowice-Ligota (Poland); Zwierz, Krzysztof [Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2A, 15-222, Bialystok (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    We have created an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd administered in drinking water at the concentration of 5 or 50 mg Cd/l for 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The degree of kidney damage was evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Sensitive biomarkers of Cd-induced proximal tubular injury such as urinary total N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (NAG-T) and its isoenzyme B (NAG-B), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used. Cd content in the kidney increased with the level and duration of exposure leading to dose- and time-dependent structural and functional renal failure. In rats exposed to 5 mg Cd/l, first symptoms of injury of the main tubules of long and short nephrons (structural damage to epithelial cells, increased urinary activities of NAG-T and NAG-B) were noted after 12 weeks of the experiment. The damage occurred at a low kidney Cd concentration amounting to 4.08{+-}0.33 {mu}g/g wet weight (mean {+-}SE) and a urinary concentration of 4.31{+-}0.28 {mu}g/g creatinine. On exposure to 50 mg Cd/l, damage to the main tubules (blurred structure of tubular epithelium, atrophy of brush border, partial fragmentation of cells with release of nuclei into tubular lumen as well as increased urinary activities of NAG-T, NAG-B and ALP) was already evident after 6 week s with the kidney Cd concentration of 24.09{+-}1.72 {mu}g/g wet weight. In rats exposed to 50 mg Cd/l, a lack of regular contour of glomeruli was noted after 12 weeks, whereas after 24 weeks thickening of capillary vessels and widening of filtering space were evident. After 24 weeks of exposure to Cd, increased urea concentration in the serum with simultaneous decrease in its level in the urine, indicating decreased clearance of urea, and increased excretion of total protein were observed, but endogenous creatinine clearance remained unaffected. At the lower exposure, symptoms of structural, but not functional, damage to the glomeruli were also evident after 24 weeks of the experiment. Our

  20. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  1. Clinical, biochemical and histological study of the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Érika de Paula da; Campos, Luana; Pereira, Filipi da Silva; Magliano, Gabriela Campos; Benites, Bernar Monteiro; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Ballester, Rafael Yagüe; Simões, Alyne

    2015-06-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which can be relieved by phototherapy. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) may be used for the treatment of OM, when infection is present. However, there are no studies showing that aPDT affects tissue repair process when used in the treatment of lesions caused by OM. This work aims to evaluate the effect of aPDT in healing OM induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Two hundred forty-five hamsters were divided into two groups, control (C) and experimental, which were subdivided into 4 subgroups (Ch, ChP, ChL, aPDT). C group received only the vehicle of chemotherapy and anesthesia, whereas all animals of the experimental groups received anesthesia and chemotherapy agent 5-FU to induce OM. Ch group received no OM treatment; ChP group received an application of methylene blue (MB) 0.01%; ChL received irradiation with low-power-laser (LPL-660 nm/120 J /cm(2)/40 mW/4.4 J per point); and aPDT received MB and LPL irradiation. OM Clinical severity were daily assessed by a blinded examiner. The animals were sacrificed after 5, 7 and 10 days of experiment and their oral mucosa were removed for biochemical (enzymatic activity of SOD and catalase) and histological analyzes (light microscopy). After statistical analysis was performed, results showed that aPDT reduced the severity of OM on the tenth day of the experiment, when compared to the initial OM score (p < 0.05), as well as increased keratinization with organized collagen deposition in the lamina propria. In conclusion, aPDT can be safely used in animals with infected OM because it does not affect lesion-repairing processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of the defluoridation efficiency of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the defluoridation efficiency of synthetic dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and lacunar hydroxyapatite (L-HAp): An application of synthetic solution and Koundoumawa field water.

  3. [Comparative analysis of diploid species of Avena l. using cytogenetic and biochemical markers: Avena canariensis baum et fedak and A. longiglumis dur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhina, O Iu; Badaeva, E D; Brezhneva, T A; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2008-06-01

    The diploid oat species containing the A genome of two types (Al and Ac) were studied by electrophoresis of grain storage proteins (avenins), chromosome C-banding, and in situ hybridization with probes pTa71 and pTa794. The karyotypes of the studied species displayed similar C-banding patterns but differed in size and morphology of several chromosomes, presumably, resulting from structural rearrangements that took place during the divergence of A genomes from a common ancestor. In situ hybridization demonstrated an identical location of the 45S and 5S rRNA gene loci in Avena canariensis and A. longiglumis similar to that in the A. strigosa genome. However, the 5S rDNA locus in A. longiglumis (5S rDNA1) was considerably decreased in the chromosome 3A1 long arm. The analysis demonstrated that these oat species were similar in the avenin component composition, although individual accessions differed in the electrophoretic mobilities of certain components. A considerable similarity of A. canariensis and A. longiglumis to the Avena diploid species carrying the As genome variant was demonstrated.

  4. Comparative analysis of some biochemical parameters of argan pulp morphotypes (Argania spinosa (L) Skeels) during maturity and according to the continentality in Essaouira region (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhar, Nawal; Naamani, Khalid; Dihazi, Abdelhi; Jaiti, Fatima; El Keroumi, Abderrahim

    2016-07-01

    Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels is an endemic forest tree for Morocco. The phytochemical compounds evaluation of four different morphotypes of their fruit pulps was investigated. The total content of sugar, protein and phenolic compounds were monitored during three different stages of maturation in the semi-continental (Mejji) and littoral regions (R'zwa). Total sugars, proteins, phenolics increased up to the ripe stage of all argan fruit morphotypes in the two regions. Spherical shape had higher sugar and protein content than other morphotypes. A significant difference (p < 0.05), was demonstrated by Pearson's test, between the different morphotypes at three stages studied for all the phytochemicals compounds. Likewise, ANOVA test established that the variation of this compounds was influenced by the stage of maturation and/or region of development and/or their interaction according to fruit shape. Results from this study revealed that the increase of these parameters level take place for the most part during the last stages of maturity which synchronize with fruit softening. Furthermore, our results showed information about the richness of argan fruit pulp in carbohydrates compounds and secondary metabolites as the possibility of their contribution in nutritive forage value especially at ripe stage.

  5. PAIN THRESHOLD MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH AND LOW ALTITUDE AMONG HEALTHY VOLUNTEER ADULTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa S. Hamed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of high altitude residents have certain clinical, physiological, anatomical and biochemical changes. Pain threshold is one of the numerable changes that may occur due to chronic hypoxia. The aim of this research was to study the long term effects of high altitude exposure on pain perception among healthy volunteer subjects. Methods: This is an observational case-control study. Two groups of healthy volunteer subjects, highland group (n=242 and lowland group (n=242 in two different cities. Assessment methods used were: Pressure algometer, was measured bilaterally three times on ten body points and Situational pain scale, which is 18 items self-report questionnaire measuring the mental representation of pain intensity in imaginary painful situations. Results: pain sensitivity was lower in highlanders compared to lowlanders (p<0.0005. While the participants’ attitudes towards imaginary painful situations trough SPS showed lesser pain sensitivity in highlanders compared to lowlanders in 72% from the total scale items. Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, pressure pain threshold is higher (pain sensitivity is lower in highlanders compared to lowlanders. And attitudes towards imaginary painful situations are lower in highland population compared to lowland population as a long-term effect of chronic hypoxia.

  6. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  7. Biochemical studies on the ocular lens in relation to cataractogenesis. Final report, July 1, 1968--December 31, 1978J. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, V.E.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    As indicated in the scope and purpose of this program, the broad aim of these investigations was to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which various inorganic ions and a number of organic substances, particularly amino acids, enter and leave the ocular lens and to assay the role of these mechanisms in the physiological and pathological conditions of the eye. The studies also dealt with the mechanisms of glutathione in the lens and its relationship to amino acid transport, the effect of x-ray on the protein aggregation mechanism as well as the studies of the biochemical changes associated with the development of the experimentally induced galactose cataract.

  8. The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: a clinico-biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jacob; Hegde, Shashikant; Rajesh, K S; Kumar, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A double-blinded controlled clinical trial with parallel groups was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis as compared with a conventional dentifrice. The efficacy of Colgate Herbal over Colgate tooth paste was assessed in this study. Thirty subjects with gingivitis participated in the study. All participants had at least 20 natural teeth with no probing depths greater than 3 mm and a plaque index score of 2 or more at baseline. At baseline, the clinical parameters like gingival index, plaque index and salivary pH were estimated. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference within the groups and unpaired t-test was used to compare the difference between the groups at baseline and on the 30th day. At the end of the study, there were statistically significant reductions in the gingival index and the plaque index scores within the test group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the test and the control groups. The salivary pH changes were not statistically significant in the test group but were displaced more toward the acidic range in the control group. It was however concluded that the herbal-based toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated dentifrice in the control of plaque and gingivitis.

  9. The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: A clinico-biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A double-blinded controlled clinical trial with parallel groups was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis as compared with a conventional dentifrice. The efficacy of Colgate Herbal over Colgate tooth paste was assessed in this study. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with gingivitis participated in the study. All participants had at least 20 natural teeth with no probing depths greater than 3 mm and a plaque index score of 2 or more at baseline. At baseline, the clinical parameters like gingival index, plaque index and salivary pH were estimated. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference within the groups and unpaired t-test was used to compare the difference between the groups at baseline and on the 30 th day. Results: At the end of the study, there were statistically significant reductions in the gingival index and the plaque index scores within the test group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the test and the control groups. The salivary pH changes were not statistically significant in the test group but were displaced more toward the acidic range in the control group. Conclusion: It was however concluded that the herbal-based toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated dentifrice in the control of plaque and gingivitis.

  10. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity in rice: Comparative effect of inoculation of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis sp. on growth, biochemical changes and arsenic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Singh, N K; Singh, R; Rai, U N

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Triguna) by inoculating alga; Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochlropsis sp. supplemented with As(III) (50µM) under hydroponics condition. Results showed that reduced growth variables and protein content in rice plant caused by As toxicity were restored in the algae inoculated plants after 7d of treatment. The rice plant inoculated with Nannochloropsis sp. exhibited a better response in terms of increased root, shoot length and biomass than C. vulgaris under As(III) treatment. A significant reduction in cellular toxicity (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, APX and GR) activities were observed in algae inoculated rice plant under As(III) treatment in comparison to uninoculated rice. In addition, rice treated with As(III), accumulated 35.05mgkg(-1)dw arsenic in the root and 29.96mgkg(-1)dw in the shoot. However, lower accumulation was observed in As(III) treated rice inoculated with C. vulgaris (24.09mg kg(-1)dw) and Nannochloropsis sp. (20.66mgkg(-1)dw) in the roots, while in shoot, it was 20.10mgkg(-1)dw and 11.67mgkg(-1)dw, respectively. Results demonstrated that application of these algal inoculum ameliorates toxicity and improved tolerance in rice through reduced As uptake and modulating antioxidant enzymes. Thus, application of algae could provide a low-cost and eco-friendly mitigation approach to reduce accumulation of arsenic in edible part of rice as well as higher yield in the As contaminated agricultural field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early steps of V(D)J rearrangement: insights from biochemical studies of RAG-RSS complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patrick C; Kumar, Sushil; Raval, Prafulla

    2009-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the synapsis and cleavage of a complementary (12/23) pair of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. Our understanding of these processes has been greatly aided by the development of in vitro biochemical assays of RAG binding and cleavage activity. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic complex assembly occurs in a step-wise manner and that the RAG proteins catalyze RSS cleavage by mechanisms similar to those used by bacterial transposases. In this chapter we will review the molecular mechanisms of RAG synaptic complex assembly and 12/23-regulated RSS cleavage, focusing on recent advances that shed new light on these processes.

  12. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  13. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  14. Diversity in Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on one hundred and fifty poultry isolates of Escherichia coli using Microscan® Dried Gram-negative Breakpoint Combo Pannels. The microscan panel analysed bacterial isolates for 24 biochemical tests and 23 to 25 antimicrobial agents following ...

  15. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  16. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  17. Prostate carcinoma: Comparative study of Saudi Arabian and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: A recent Saudi Arabian series on prostate carcinoma directed attention to the urgent need for worldwide comparative studies and accumulation of data on this disease. This necessitated comparing of my West African data with those of that Middle Eastern population. Method: A 30-year retrospective study was carried ...

  18. Comparative Study of Teenage Pregnancy in Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Study of Teenage Pregnancy in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. ... Abstract. Teenage pregnancy is a topic that will need to be revisited time and again because of the continuously evolving and changing social and moral norms in different parts of the world. This informed a comparative study of the ...

  19. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein ...

  20. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Barchia, I

    2006-09-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (PMaca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women.

  1. Comparative Biochemical and Physiological Effects of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les effets du soja fermenté et non fermenté et celui du haricot ont été évalués sur des souris blanches. Des jeunes mâles de souris blanches (souche Wistar) ont été soumis, pendant 28 jours, aux régimes avec des quantités simulées (par poids d`une briquette de condiments Dadawa en cubes fabriqués localement), ...

  2. Biochemical and cytochemical studies of the enzymatic activity of the venom glands of workers of honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rusleyd Maria Magalhães; Silva de Moraes, Regina Lúcia Morelli; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2010-02-01

    Biochemical studies revealed that the activity of some hydrolytic enzymes from the venom glands of honey bee Apis mellifera was higher in workers of 14 days of age than in those of 40 days. Among these enzymes, the highest activity was recorded for acid phosphatase, which was cytochemically detected throughout the length of the secretory filament and surrounding the canaliculi of the distal region of the reservoir. The acid phosphatase was considered to be a typical secretion product, since it was present in the cytoplasm as well as in the canaliculi of the secretory cells.

  3. Relationships among egg size, composition, and energy: a comparative study of geminate sea urchins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S McAlister

    Full Text Available Egg size is one of the fundamental parameters in the life histories of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the relationships among egg size, composition, and energetic content in a phylogenetically controlled context. We investigated the associations among egg size, composition, and energy using a comparative system, geminate species formed by the closure of the Central American Seaway. We examined western Atlantic (WA and eastern Pacific (EP species in three echinoid genera, Echinometra, Eucidaris, and Diadema. In the genus with the largest difference in egg size between geminates (Echinometra, the eggs of WA species were larger, lipid rich and protein poor compared to the smaller eggs of their EP geminate. In addition, the larger WA eggs had significantly greater total egg energy and summed biochemical constituents yet significantly lower egg energy density (energy-per-unit-volume. However, the genera with smaller (Eucidaris or no (Diadema differences in egg size were not significantly different in summed biochemical constituents, total egg energy, or energy density. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life history evolution. We show that even among closely-related taxa, large eggs cannot be assumed to be scaled-up small eggs either in terms of energy or composition. Although our data comes exclusively from echinoid echinoderms, this pattern may be generalizable to other marine invertebrate taxa. Because egg composition and egg size do not necessarily evolve in lockstep, selective factors such as sperm limitation could act on egg volume without necessarily affecting maternal or larval energetics.

  4. Predictive factors of late biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Takahito; Kuroiwa, Kentarou; Hori, Yoshifumi; Tomoda, Toshihisa; Uchino, Hiroshi; Tokuda, Noriaki; Furubayashi, Nobuki; Nagase, Kei; Iwai, Hidenori; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2017-03-01

    To assess the characteristics of biochemical recurrence in the late period (>5 years after radical prostatectomy) and the differences in the predictors of biochemical recurrence in different periods, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study. We reviewed 478 men who underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. All of the patients were followed up for at least 5 years. The cohort was then divided into three groups; no recurrence group, recurrence biochemical recurrence in each period. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 135 men. In 113 (84%) of the patients, biochemical recurrence occurred at biochemical recurrence at biochemical recurrence at ≥5 years after surgery (hazard ratio: 3.03); however, a high preoperative prostate-specific antigen level was not. Biochemical recurrence occurred at ≥5 years after surgery in 16% of the patients. A positive surgical margin predicted biochemical recurrence in both the early and late periods.

  5. Global Harmonization of Comparator Products for Bioequivalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaza, Luther; Gordon, John; Leufkens, Hubert; Stahl, Matthias; García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Comparator products should be the products that were shown to be safe and efficacious in pivotal clinical trials to ensure prescribability of generics. The use of a common comparator ensures switchability between generics. The selection of the comparator is a national responsibility and may be different between countries. This paper discusses the current recommendations on selection of comparators, the associated problems, and the possibility of harmonization. Most countries follow the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for selecting comparator products and require the comparator product to be obtained from their national markets to ensure switchability between the local comparator and their generics. These recommendations are only feasible in the few countries where the repetition of the bioequivalence study is economically feasible, but they are impracticable in all other countries. Furthermore, the exclusive use of the local comparator to ensure switchability is ethically and scientifically questionable. The innovator product from well-regulated markets should be the global comparator. This harmonization is feasible as the concept already applies in the WHO prequalification program. It is ineffectual to harmonize only the requirements for performing bioequivalence studies, if such a study has to be repeated for every single country simply because of the different comparator products.

  6. Biochemical abnormalities in basal ganglia and executive dysfunction in acute- and euthymic-episode patients with bipolar disorder: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shunkai; Zhong, Shuming; Liao, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ying; Huang, Jingyu; Zhang, Shanhong; Sun, Yao; Zhao, Hui; Jia, Yanbin

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies found abnormal biochemical metabolism and executive cognitive deficits in acute bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence concerning in euthymic BD is limited. Thus, a comparison between acute and euthymic BD is conductive to better understanding the association between cognition and the outcome of neuroimaging. This study sought to investigate the relationship between the executive function and the biochemical metabolism in acute- and euthymic-episode BD patients and delineate the prominent endophenotype of BD. Three groups of participants were recruited in this study: 30 BD patients with an acute depressive episode, 22 euthymic BD patients, and 31 healthy controls. All participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and underwent two-dimensional multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to obtain the bilateral metabolite levels in the lenticular nucleus of basal ganglia(BG). The ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and Choline-containing compounds (Cho) /Cr ratios were calculated. Executive function was assessed by using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test, Part-B(TMT-B). The comparison of biochemical changes showed that the NAA/Cr ratios in bilateral lenticular nucleus in both acute and euthymic BD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls at a confidence level of pbiochemical metabolite ratios and executive function. We found that the NAA/Cr ratio in the left in BG in the acute -episode BD patients was positively correlated with the number of categories completed, whereas it was negatively correlated with the total errors and TMT-B uptake. There was no correlation between the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in the bilateral BG and the scores of SWCT and TMT-B in euthymic-episode BD patients. The sample size was relatively small and not all the euthymic-episode patients are the ones with an acute episode. Our findings suggest that biochemical

  7. Comparative study of artesunate, ACTs and their combinants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amodiaquine) on the biochemical parameters- alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (ACPT), prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP), urea, creatinine, uric acid and total cholesterol of the male guinea-pig were investigated. Basal serum ACPP value was increased from 3.50 ± 0.42 to 4.75 ± 0.85 and 4.75 ± 0.48 ...

  8. Novel Aldo-Keto Reductases for the Biocatalytic Conversion of 3-Hydroxybutanal to 1,3-Butanediol: Structural and Biochemical Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeho; Flick, Robert; Brunzelle, Joseph; Singer, Alex; Evdokimova, Elena; Brown, Greg; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George A.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F. (KRICT); (Toronto); (NWU)

    2017-01-27

    The nonnatural alcohol 1,3-butanediol (1,3-BDO) is a valuable building block for the synthesis of various polymers. One of the potential pathways for the biosynthesis of 1,3-BDO includes the biotransformation of acetaldehyde to 1,3-BDO via 3-hydroxybutanal (3-HB) using aldolases and aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). This pathway requires an AKR selective for 3-HB, but inactive toward acetaldehyde, so it can be used for one-pot synthesis. In this work, we screened more than 20 purified uncharacterized AKRs for 3-HB reduction and identified 10 enzymes with significant activity and nine proteins with detectable activity. PA1127 fromPseudomonas aeruginosashowed the highest activity and was selected for comparative studies with STM2406 fromSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium, for which we have determined the crystal structure. Both AKRs used NADPH as a cofactor, reduced a broad range of aldehydes, and showed low activities toward acetaldehyde. The crystal structures of STM2406 in complex with cacodylate or NADPH revealed the active site with bound molecules of a substrate mimic or cofactor. Site-directed mutagenesis of STM2406 and PA1127 identified the key residues important for the activity against 3-HB and aromatic aldehydes, which include the residues of the substrate-binding pocket and C-terminal loop. Our results revealed that the replacement of the STM2406 Asn65 by Met enhanced the activity and the affinity of this protein toward 3-HB, resulting in a 7-fold increase inkcat/Km. Our work provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms of the substrate selectivity of AKRs and for the rational design of these enzymes toward new substrates.

    IMPORTANCEIn this study, we identified several aldo-keto reductases with significant activity in reducing 3

  9. Protective Role of Ramipril and Candesartan against Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury: A Biochemical and Transmission Electron Microscopical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saleem Thattakudian Sheik Uduman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the role of combined administration of Ramipril and Candesartan against in vitro myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups (n=6 and treated with saline (10 mL/kg, Ramipril (2 mg/kg, Candesartan (1 mg/kg, and the combination of both drugs, respectively 24 h before induction of global ischemia (5 min of stabilization, 9 min of global ischemia, and 12 min of reflow. Combination of Ramipril and Candesartan when compared to the monotherapy significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase, and nitric oxide and decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In addition, the superior protective role of combination of Ramipril and Candesartan on ischemia induced myocardial damage was further confirmed by well preserved myocardial tissue architecture in light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis studies. The combination was proved to be effective in salvaging the myocardial tissue against ischemic reperfusion injury when compared to the monotherapy of individual drugs and further investigations on protective mechanism of drugs by increasing the nitric oxide level at molecular levels are needed.

  10. comparative study on specific and early detection of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serologlcal EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  11. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  12. A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Blood loss, operative time, postoperative hepatic function and complications were compared. ... In group C, 2 patients had liver failure, 1 had a gastrointestinal haemorrhage and 1 died.

  13. Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on different body weight chickens. HM Yang, W Wang, ZY Wang, J Wang, YJ Cao, YH Chen. Abstract. This experiment was conducted to compare the difference of digestibility on different body weight chickens. Twenty-seven (27) 58-week-old New Yangzhou ...

  14. Achilles tendinosis - Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mos, Marieke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Jahr, Holger; van Schie, Hans T. M.; van Arkel, Ewoud R.; Tol, Hans; Heijboer, Rien; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design:

  15. Achilles tendinosis: Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, M. de; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Jahr, H.; Schie, H.T.M. van; Arkel, E.R. van; Tol, H.; Heijboer, R.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design:

  16. Computational comparative study of tuberculosis proteomes using a model learned from signal peptide structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhih-Siang Lai

    Full Text Available Secretome analysis is important in pathogen studies. A fundamental and convenient way to identify secreted proteins is to first predict signal peptides, which are essential for protein secretion. However, signal peptides are highly complex functional sequences that are easily confused with transmembrane domains. Such confusion would obviously affect the discovery of secreted proteins. Transmembrane proteins are important drug targets, but very few transmembrane protein structures have been determined experimentally; hence, prediction of the structures is essential. In the field of structure prediction, researchers do not make assumptions about organisms, so there is a need for a general signal peptide predictor.To improve signal peptide prediction without prior knowledge of the associated organisms, we present a machine-learning method, called SVMSignal, which uses biochemical properties as features, as well as features acquired from a novel encoding, to capture biochemical profile patterns for learning the structures of signal peptides directly.We tested SVMSignal and five popular methods on two benchmark datasets from the SPdb and UniProt/Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. Although SVMSignal was trained on an old dataset, it performed well, and the results demonstrate that learning the structures of signal peptides directly is a promising approach. We also utilized SVMSignal to analyze proteomes in the entire HAMAP microbial database. Finally, we conducted a comparative study of secretome analysis on seven tuberculosis-related strains selected from the HAMAP database. We identified ten potential secreted proteins, two of which are drug resistant and four are potential transmembrane proteins.SVMSignal is publicly available at http://bio-cluster.iis.sinica.edu.tw/SVMSignal. It provides user-friendly interfaces and visualizations, and the prediction results are available for download.

  17. The tragedy of the commons in microbial populations: insights from theoretical, comparative and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, R C

    2008-03-01

    First principles of thermodynamics imply that metabolic pathways are faced with a trade-off between the rate and yield of ATP production. Simple evolutionary models argue that this trade-off generates a fundamental social conflict in microbial populations: average fitness in a population is highest if all individuals exploit common resources efficiently, but individual reproductive rate is maximized by consuming common resources at the highest possible rate, a scenario known as the tragedy of the commons. In this paper, I review studies that have addressed two key questions: What is the evidence that the rate-yield trade-off is an evolutionary constraint on metabolic pathways? And, if so, what determines evolutionary outcome of the conflicts generated by this trade-off? Comparative studies and microbial experiments provide evidence that the rate-yield trade-off is an evolutionary constraint that is driven by thermodynamic constraints that are common to all metabolic pathways and pathway-specific constraints that reflect the evolutionary history of populations. Microbial selection experiments show that the evolutionary consequences of this trade-off depend on both kin selection and biochemical constraints. In well-mixed populations with low relatedness, genotypes with rapid and efficient metabolism can coexist as a result of negative frequency-dependent selection generated by density-dependent biochemical costs of rapid metabolism. Kin selection can promote the maintenance of efficient metabolism in structured populations with high relatedness by ensuring that genotypes with efficient metabolic pathways gain an indirect fitness benefit from their competitive restraint. I conclude by suggesting avenues for future research and by discussing the broader implications of this work for microbial social evolution.

  18. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being.

  19. A Comparative Review of Three Microbiology Student Study Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JMBE Production Editor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Correction for Wendy A. Dustman, “A Comparative Review of Three Microbiology Student Study Resources,” which appeared in the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, volume 12, number 2, December 2011, pages 214–216.

  20. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium tungstate and glutathione-tungstate mixture. Arshad Farid, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muhammad Ayaz, Adnan Amin, Muhammad Yaseen, Hafeez Ullah, Fazal Haq ...

  1. Comparative studies in Chelicerata IV. Apatellata, Arachnida, Scorpionida, Xiphosura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study is made of four chelicerate classes: Apatellata (Solifugae and Pseudoscorpionida), Arachnida s. str. (both groups of Uropygi, i.e. Holopeltida and Schizomida, Amblypygi and Araneida), Scorpionida and Xiphosura. Methods, principles and terminology, adopted in this paper,

  2. Renal graft evaluation with pertechnetate and I-131 Hippuran. A comparative clinical study. [Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clorius, J.H.; Dreikorn, K.; Zelt, J.; Raptou, E.; Weber, D.; Rubinstein, K.; Dahm, D.; Georgi, P.

    1979-10-01

    This retrospective study compared standard clinical and biochemical data from 50 graft recipients against 533 I-131 Hippuran sequential scintigrams and 515 (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate serial scintigrams. All grafts included in this study are cadaver kidneys. The majority of the studies were made during the early posttransplantation period. Anuria or oliguria of at least 4 days duration was seen in 18 patients. The study spans 574 days of oliguria during which 136 dual-tracer studies were made. I-131 Hippuran renography of functioning grafts was carried out 397 times, and the Tc-99m sequential scintigraphy 379 times. In all, 47 episodes of acute rejection were registered clinically in functioning grafts, 36 of which were recognized during Hippuran renography and 38 with the pertechnetate study. False-positive errors were seen 12 times during renography. The study also demonstrated that furosemide will significantly and predictably influence renography and the pertechnetate study. This seems noteworthy since furosemide is extensively used in posttransplant management.

  3. Coupled biochemical genetic and karyomorphological analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical genetic and karyomorphological studies were evaluated for taxonomic importance. Five Schizothorax species namely: Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax curvifrons, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax labiatus and Schizothorax plagiostomus were studied in this experiment as a model for serum proteins and ...

  4. Study of the Biochemical Responses and Enzymatic Activity of GF677 (Peach and Almond Hybrid Rootstock to In Vitro Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mashayekhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is the most significant abiotic factor limiting crop productivity and several physiological responses, including modification of ion balance, water status, mineral nutrition, stomatal behavior, photosynthetic efficiency and so on. The GF677 (Prunuspersica×Prunusamygdalus is widelyusedas rootstock for peach and almond. It is mainly used as a rootstock because of its resistance to drought, calcic soil and Fe deficiency. Nowadays, using tissue culture techniques is very popular for the selection of plant resistant to abiotic stress (in vitro salinity; because in vitro conditions are more controllable than in vivo conditions and the large number of genotypes can be evaluated in a limited space. For example, in the field, plants are exposed to variable biological and climatic conditions which result in some interaction effects. In other words, the nutrition and climatic effects are easily controllable in the in vitro conditions all over the year. The objective of this study is to identify biochemical markers of salinity stress of GF677 rootstock under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Plantlets of GF677 rootstock were subcultured into the Murashige and Skoog (MS proliferation medium containing1 mg/l BA (6-Benzyladenineand 0.1 mg/l NAA (naphthaline acetic acid with different concentrations (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl with four replicates. Cultures were transferred to the growth chamber with temperature of 25±2°C, relative humidity of 70%, under a 16/8 h (day/night photoperiod. Data were collected at the end of the experiment (6th weeks. Antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase and peroxidase,total protein content, proline content, soluble sugars, and Na and Cl were measured. The experiments were set up in a completely randomized design (CRD with four replicates (a vessel in each replicate and statistical analysis was performed using MSTAT-C program. Means were separated according to the Duncan

  5. Comparative Study of Internal Efficiency in Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...

  6. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  7. A Comparative Study of Depression among Fertile and Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies have identified a high prevalence of depression among women with infertility; few studies have explored this association in this environment. Aims and objectives: the study is aimed at evaluating depression in a group of infertile women; compare the prevalence of depression among this group with ...

  8. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...

  9. A comparative study of the hematological values in the ovulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the hematological values of the ovulation phase with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Sixty subjects with 30 subjects each in the ovulation and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle were studied. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained for the study. Hematological parameters of ...

  10. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2008-05-01

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of β-tubulin. The degradation of β-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-β-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed.

  11. Reactive oxygen species damaged human serum albumin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: biochemical and immunological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Zafar; Ali, Rashid

    2006-11-10

    The role of hydroxyl radical (.OH) damaged human serum albumin (HSA) in type 1 diabetes has been investigated in the present study. Hydroxyl radical induced modification on HSA has been studied by UV absorption spectroscopy, ANS fluorescence and carbonyl estimation. Hydroxyl radical modified HSA was found to be highly immunogenic in rabbits as compared to native HSA. The binding characteristics of circulating autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes patients against native and modified HSA were assessed. Diabetes patients (n=31) were examined by direct binding ELISA and the results were compared with healthy age-matched controls (n=22). High degree of specific binding by 54.8% of patients sera towards .OH modified HSA, in comparison to its native analogue (pdiabetes patients having smoking history, high aging with high degree of disease showed substantially stronger binding to .OH modified HSA over native HSA in particular. Normal human sera showed negligible binding with either antigen. Competitive inhibition ELISA reiterates the direct binding results. Gel retardation assay further substantiated the enhanced recognition of modified HSA by circulating autoantibodies in diabetes patients. The increase in total serum protein carbonyl levels in the diabetes patients was largely due to an increase in oxidized albumin. HSA of diabetes mellitus patients (DM-HSA) and normal subjects (normal-HSA) were purified on a Sephacryl S-200 HR column. Spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the DM-HSA samples contained higher levels of carbonyls than normal-HSA (poxidation of plasma proteins, especially HSA, might enhance oxidative stress in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Biochemical studies on the effect of different water resources in Hail region on liver and kidney functions of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhan, Ola F A; Abd Elwahab, Safaa A E; Shalapy, Ebtessam M

    2016-08-01

    Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA. Then, this study moves forward to examine the effects of such concentrations on the biochemistry of serum in rats. In this regard, the results demonstrate the presence of significant differences (p acid, urea, and creatinine, when compared with the control group. Thence, and as this study indicates, heavy-metals-polluted water can cause disturbance in the liver and kidney function parameters, which highlights health risks of the water polluted with heavy metals. In this sense, the concerned authorities should regularly carry out survey and should monitor underground water, and people have to be aware of such risks.

  13. Biochemical-Pathway Diversity in Archabacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-28

    diversity within the archaebacteria for comparison with biochemical diversity already known or now emerging within the eubacteria . This will provide a... eubacteria and it will provide a sense of which aspects of diversity are unique to each kingdom., . ... ... 20 DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21...within the archaebacteria will be compared to the biochemical diversity already known or now emerging within the eubacteria . PROGRESS (Year 1): Extreme

  14. Comparative Anatomy of Maintenance Tasks (CAMT): A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    0o0.1-560 Standard Form2 i 298-102 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page I. THEORY 1-1 The Requirement 1-1 Associated Concepts 1-4 Comparative Anatomy 1-4 The...AD-A248 709 -AL-TP-1992-0007 lllllillllllllllir COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF MAINTENANCE TASKS (CAMT): A FEASIBIUTY STUDY A Andrew P. Chenzoff...1989 - 1 September 1990 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Comparative Anatomy of Maintenance Tasks (CAMT): A Feasibility Study C - F33615-87-D

  15. Sustaining and Improving Study Abroad Experiences Through Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda S

    Researchers have related participation in study abroad experiences to many positive outcomes for nursing students; however, educators are faced with the task of not only developing meaningful study abroad opportunities but sustaining and improving them as well. Educators can evaluate repeat study abroad programs by comparing experiences, looking for trends, and conjecturing rationales. To illustrate this process, an example of a study abroad opportunity that has been repeated over 11 years is presented. The first six years have been compared to the most recent five years, revealing three categories of change for evaluation and the resulting course improvements.

  16. Lesions of entorhinal cortex produce a calpain-mediated degradation of brain spectrin in dentate gyrus. I. Biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, P; Ivy, G; Larson, J; Lee, J; Shahi, K; Baudry, M; Lynch, G

    1988-09-06

    Lesions of the rat entorhinal cortex cause extensive synaptic restructuring and perturbation of calcium regulation in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus. Calpain is a calcium-activated protease which has been implicated in degenerative phenomena in muscles and in peripheral nerves. In addition, calpain degrades several major structural neuronal proteins and has been proposed to play a critical role in the morphological changes observed following deafferentation. In this report we present evidence that lesions of the entorhinal cortex produce a marked increase in the breakdown of brain spectrin, a substrate for calpain, in the dentate gyrus. Two lines of evidence indicate that this effect is due to calpain activation: (i) the spectrin breakdown products observed following the lesion are indistinguishable from calpain-generated spectrin fragments in vitro; and (ii) their appearance can be reduced by prior intraventricular in fusion of leupeptin, a calpain inhibitor. Levels of spectrin breakdown products are increased as early as 4 h post-lesion, reach maximal values at 2 days, and remain above normal to some degree for at least 27 days. In addition, a small but significant increase in spectrin proteolysis is also observed in the hippocampus contralateral to the lesioned side in the first week postlesion. At 2 days postlesion the total spectrin immunoreactivity (native polypeptide plus breakdown products) increases by 40%, suggesting that denervation of the dentate gyrus produces not only an increased rate of spectrin degradation but also an increased rate of spectrin synthesis. These results indicate that calpain activation and spectrin degradation are early biochemical events following deafferentation and might well participate in the remodelling of postsynaptic structures. Finally, the magnitude of the observed effects as well as the stable nature of the breakdown products provide a sensitive assay for neuronal pathology.

  17. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  18. Comparative study of serum lipid levels in normotensive and pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim : This study was performed to compare the serum lipid levels of pregnant normotensive and pre-eclamptic women. Methods: It was a case control study involving 50 normotensive and 50 preeclamptic women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, making a total of 100 participants. Their venous blood (5mls) was ...

  19. A comparative study of organizational citizenship behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the degree of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), OCB-Organization (OCB-O) and OCB-Individual (OCB-I) in service and manufacturing organizations. Design of this study was cross-sectional survey and data were collected with a standardized scale that was presented in questionnaire form.

  20. A Comparative Study Of Source Location And Depth Estimates From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study Of Source Location And Depth Estimates From Total Intensity And Reduced-To-The Pole Magnetic Data. ... Ife Journal of Science ... In this study, a synthetic magnetic field due to four buried dipoles was analysed to show that estimates of source location and depth can be improved significantly by ...

  1. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative

  2. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  3. Comparative ultrasound study of acute lateral ankle ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the difference in rehabilitation outcomes between the Jump Stretch Flex Band (JSFB) programme and conventional ankle rehabilitation programmes of acute lateral ankle ligament injuries. This study compares the process of healing under the guidance of ultrasound in both groups.

  4. Comparative study of some mechanical and release properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets formulated with cashew gum (CAG), povidone (PVP) and gelatin (GEL) as binders were studied and compared. The parameters studied were tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), friability (F), disintegration time (DT) and percentage drug released ...

  5. A Comparative Study of Learning Organisation Practices of Indian Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…

  6. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  7. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  8. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  9. comparative study on the efficiency of Lemna minor L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The studies involves a laboratory experiment on the comparative study on the efficiency of Lemna minor L.,. Eicchorniacrassipes and Pistiastratiotes in the phytoremediation of a stream polluted by waste water from kaduna refinery and Petro-chemical Company. Water samples were collected from Kaduna ...

  10. Comparative study of three methods of propagation of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Jatropha curcas L. is an Euphorbiaceae known for its oleaginous seed characters. Its propagation following a specific technical route is not yet established. This study aimed at comparing the growth of seedlings through three methods of propagation in southeastern of Gabon. Methodology and Results: This study ...

  11. Comparative Study for Optimization of CNC Milling MU Technological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Victor Amariei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a study regarding technological optimization of wooden eyeglasses frames manufacturing process on CNC machine tools using 3 respectively 4 working axes. The general conclusion which arises from this study is that 4 axes manufacturing process reduce substantially the production necessary duration compared with 3 axes machining process.

  12. An experimental animal model of aseptic loosening of hip prostheses in sheep to study early biochemical changes at the interface membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akens Margarete K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis as it occurs in clinical cases in human patients was attributed to wear particles of the implants, the response of the tissue dominated by macrophages and the production of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes; however, the cascade of events initiating the process and their interaction regarding the time course is still open and discussed controversially. Therefore, the goal of this study was to establish an experimental animal model in sheep allowing to follow the cascade of early mechanical and biochemical events within the interface membrane and study the sequence of how they contribute to the pathological bone resorption necessary for aseptic loosening of the implant. Methods A cemented modular system (Biomedtrix was used as a hip replacement in 24 adult Swiss Alpine sheep, with one group receiving a complete cement mantle as controls (n = 12, and the other group a cement mantle with a standardized, lateral, primary defect in the cement mantle (n = 12. Animals were followed over time for 2 and 8.5 months (n = 6 each. After sacrifice, samples from the interface membranes were harvested from five different regions of the femur and joint capsule. Explant cell cultures were performed and supernatant of cultures were tested and assayed for nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activity. RNA extraction and quantification were performed for inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6. Overall differences between groups and time periods and interactions thereof were calculated using a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The development of an interface membrane was noticed in both groups at both time points. However, in the controls the interface membrane regressed in thickness and biological activity, while both variables increased in the experimental group with the primary cement mantle defect over time

  13. Maternal influenza and birth outcomes: systematic review of comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, D B; Savitz, D A; Kramer, M S; Gessner, B D; Katz, M A; Knight, M; Luteijn, J M; Marshall, H; Bhat, N; Gravett, M G; Skidmore, B; Ortiz, J R

    2017-01-01

    Although pregnant women are considered at high risk for severe influenza disease, comparative studies of maternal influenza and birth outcomes have not been comprehensively summarised. To review comparative studies evaluating maternal influenza disease and birth outcomes. We searched bibliographic databases from inception to December 2014. Studies of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or fetal death, comparing women with and without clinical influenza illness or laboratory-confirmed influenza infection during pregnancy. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed study quality. Heterogeneity across 16 studies reporting preterm birth precluded meta-analysis. In a subgroup of the highest-quality studies, two reported significantly increased preterm birth (risk ratios (RR) from 2.4 to 4.0) following severe 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza illness, whereas those assessing mild-to-moderate pH1N1 or seasonal influenza found no association. Five studies of SGA birth showed no discernible patterns with respect to influenza disease severity (pooled odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 0.96-1.59). Two fetal death studies were of sufficient quality and size to permit meaningful interpretation. Both reported an increased risk of fetal death following maternal pH1N1 disease (RR 1.9 for mild-to-moderate disease and 4.2 for severe disease). Comparative studies of preterm birth, SGA birth and fetal death following maternal influenza disease are limited in number and quality. An association between severe pH1N1 disease and preterm birth and fetal death was reported by several studies; however, these limited data do not permit firm conclusions on the magnitude of any association. Comparative studies are limited in quality but suggest severe pandemic H1N1 influenza increases preterm birth. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Is the predictive power of previous fractures for new spine and non-spine fractures associated with biochemical evidence of altered bone remodelling? The EPOS study. European Prospective Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, P; Lunt, M; Scheidt-Nave, C; Poor, G; Gennari, C; Hoszowski, K; Vaz, A Lopes; Reid, D M; Benevolenskaya, L; Grazio, S; Weber, K; Miazgowski, T; Stepan, J J; Masaryk, P; Galan, F; Armas, J Bruges; Lorenc, R; Havelka, S; Perez Cano, R; Seibel, M; Armbrecht, G; Kaptoge, S; O'Neill, T W; Silman, A J; Felsenberg, D; Reeve, J; Delmas, P D

    2002-08-01

    In the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS), a past spine fracture increased risk of an incident fracture 3.6 - 12-fold even after adjusting for BMD. We examined the possibility that biochemical marker levels were associated with this unexplained BMD-independent element of fracture risk. Each of 182 cases in EPOS of spine or non-spine fracture that occurred in 3.8 years of follow-up was matched by age, sex and study centre with two randomly assigned never-fractured controls and one case of past fracture. Analytes measured blind were: osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, total alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphate and albumin, together with the collagen cross-links degradation products serum CTS and urine CTX. Most subjects also had bone density measured by DXA. Cases who had recent fractures did not differ in marker levels from cases who had their last fracture more than 3 years previously. No statistically significant effect of recent fracture was found for any marker except osteocalcin, which was 17.6% lower in recent peripheral cases compared to unfractured controls (pfracture as a risk indicator for future fracture is not strongly mediated through increased bone turnover. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  16. Serum biochemical parameters and cytokine profiles associated with natural African trypanosome infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Soale Majeed; Ofori, Jennifer Afua; Kusi, Kwadwo Asamoah; Aning, George Kwame; Awandare, Gordon Akanzuwine; Carrington, Mark; Gwira, Theresa Manful

    2017-06-27

    Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) greatly affects livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana prevalence of AAT is estimated to range between 5 and 50%. Studies have reported serum biochemical aberrations and variability in cytokine profiles in animals during infection. However, information regarding the biochemical parameters and cytokine profiles associated with natural infections are limited. This study was therefore aimed at investigating changes in the levels of serum biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines during a natural infection. Nested internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based PCR and sequencing were used to characterise trypanosome infection in cattle at two areas in Ghana (Adidome and Accra) of different endemicities. The cattle were sampled at four to five-week intervals over a period of six months. Levels of serum biochemical parameters, including creatinine, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin and total protein and cytokines (interleukin 10, interleukin 4, interleukin 12, interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha) were measured in serum samples and then compared between infected cattle and uninfected controls. The predominant trypanosome species detected in Accra (non-endemic) and Adidome (endemic) were Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Serum biochemical parameters were similar between infected and uninfected cattle in Accra. Infected cattle at Adidome however, had significantly higher levels of ALP, creatinine, total protein and total bilirubin (P biochemical alterations whereas cattle in a non-endemic area with predominantly chronic T. theileri infections demonstrate high anti-inflammatory response and no biochemical alterations.

  17. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Rescues Rats from Steatosis: A Comparative and Combination Study with Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Yogalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a premorbid condition, lacks proper management owing to multitude of abnormalities. In this study, we compared the effects of a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP, and an insulin sensitizer, metformin (MET, in high-fat-fructose-diet- (HFFD- induced albino Wistar rat model of NAFLD. Either GSP (100 mg/Kg b.w or MET (50 mg/Kg b.w or both were administered as therapeutic options. HFFD-fed rats showed abnormal plasma lipid profile, inflammation, and steatosis of the liver when examined by biochemical and histology techniques. Increased lipid storage, lipogenesis, and reduced lipolysis were evident from mRNA expression studies of hepatic lipid droplets (LD proteins, sterol regulatory element binding 1c (SREBP 1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α. GSP administration to HFFD-fed rats caused 69% reduction in hepatic TG levels, whereas MET caused only 23%. The combination treatment reduced TG levels by 63%. GSP reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP1c and LD proteins and increased that of PPAR-α more effectively compared to MET in HFFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Combination of MET and GSP improved the metabolism of lipids effectively, but the effect was not additive in restoring lipid levels.

  18. Clinical and biochemical comparison of guided tissue regeneration versus guided tissue regeneration plus low-level laser therapy in the treatment of class II furcation defects: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Aksoy, Hülya; Demir, Turgut; Laloğlu, Esra; Özyıldırım, Ercan; Sağlam, Ebru; Akçay, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the clinical and biochemical effectiveness of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) alone and combined with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) application in the treatment of furcation II periodontal defects, over a period of 6 months. Thirty-three furcation defects were included in the study. Seventeen of these defects were treated with GTR plus LLLT, and sixteen of them were treated with GTR alone. Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), horizontal probing depth (HPD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were recorded at baseline and at postoperative 3rd and 6th months. Healing was uneventful in all cases. At the 3rd and 6th months, both treatment modalities-GTR and GTR plus LLLT--showed improved PPD, CAL, and HPD values compared to their baseline values. ALP and OC levels in GCF increased after the treatment in both groups (p < 0.05). When compared the two groups, at the 6th month, PPD, CAL, HPD, and ALP values showed significantly more improvement in laser group than non-laser group (p < 0.05). The results of this study showed that both treatments led to significantly favorable clinical improvements in furcation periodontal defects. LLLT plus GTR may be a more effective treatment modality compared to GTR alone.

  19. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  20. Social Capital in Russia and Denmark: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation and event......This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation...

  1. Estimation of serum malondialdehyde in potentially malignant disorders and post-antioxidant treated patients: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa D′souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco causes the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS which are responsible for the high rate of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA is the most widely used agent to estimate the extent of lipid peroxidation. Timely diagnosis of the condition followed by supplementation with antioxidants like beta-carotene, pro-vitamin A, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, lipoic acid, zinc, selenium, and spirulina can prevent potentially malignant disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum MDA was measured according to the method of Buege, in 15 normal samples and 15 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with potentially malignant disordered and they were prescribed with antioxidants for a period of 4 week-time following which potentially malignant patients serum MDA was analyzed again to determine the extent of peroxidation reactions. Results: The mean serum MDA level in Group C1 was 0.7900 ± 0.2336 μM/L were as the mean serum MDA level of Group S1 was 2.478 ± 0.50756 μM/L and the values between them were highly significant. The values between C1 and S2 were found to be statistically significant. The mean serum MDA of S2 was 2.160 ± 0.41252 μM/L and the values were significant when compared to S1. Conclusion: Serum MDA estimation in oral pre-cancer would serve in determining the extent of lipid peroxidation. Diagnosis of patients and administration of antioxidants has proven to be effective in declining the ROS and thus reducing the extent of damage on the cells. MDA may serve as a diagnostic tool in the estimation of oral pre-cancer and in evaluation of post-treated cases.

  2. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  3. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sati

    Full Text Available Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%, tumor volume (64.4%, and tumor burden (84.8% was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks, post-initiation (10 weeks and promotion (22 weeks stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group

  4. Is mercury in Tibetan Medicine toxic? Clinical, neurocognitive and biochemical results of an initial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallon, Sarah; Dory, Yahav; Barghouthy, Yazeed; Tamdin, Tsewang; Sangmo, Rigzin; Tashi, Jamyang; Yangdon, Sonam; Yeshi, Tenzin; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Rotenberg, Michal; Cohen, Elinor; Harlavan, Yehudit; Sharabi, Galit; Bdolah-Abram, Tali

    2017-02-01

    Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " Tsothel" the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) ( P ≤ 0.001), levels above EPA (RfDs) suggested threshold (0.3 µg/kg /day) for oral chronic exposure. Mean duration of Tibetan Medicine treatment was 9 ± 17 months (range 3-116) (Group 1) and 5 ± 1.96 months (range 1-114) (Group 2) (NS) with cumulative days of mercury containing Tibetan Medicine, 764 days ± 1214 (range 135-7330) vs. 103 days ± 111 (range 0-426), respectively ( P ≤ 0.001). Comparison of treatment groups with healthy referents (Group 3) not taking Tibetan Medicine showed no significant differences in prevalence of 23 non-specific symptoms of mercury toxicity, abnormal neurological, cardiovascular and dental findings and no correlation with mercury exposure variables; consumption, cumulative treatment days, blood/ urine Hg. Liver and renal function tests in treatment groups were not significantly increased compared to referents, with mean urine Beta2 Microglobulin within the normal range and not significantly associated with Hg exposure variables after correcting for confounding variables. Neurocognitive testing showed no significant intergroup differences for Wechsler Memory Scale, Grooved Pegboard, Visual Retention, but Group1 scores were better for Mini-Mental, Brief Word Learning, Verbal Fluency after correcting for confounding variables. These results suggest mercury containing Tibetan Medicine does not

  5. Associations of Milk Consumption and Vitamin B2 and Β12 Derived from Milk with Fitness, Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in Children. The Healthy Growth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Moschonis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B2 and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9–13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children’s dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations, dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT (β = 0.10; p = 0.017 and negatively with body mass index (BMI (β = −0.10; p = 0.014, after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (β = 0.10; p = 0.015 and β = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.

  6. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  7. BIOCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the object of the article to review the specific hydrolytic, redox, and electron transfer reactions involving enzymes and their mechanisms...The stability of the synthetic high polymers in the biochemical environments is much higher than that of proteins in general, but the increasing use of

  8. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  9. [ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINES: DATA FROM DIRECT COMPARATIVE STUDIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, M I; Vasiliev, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control, however available vaccines are subject to certain limitations. Adjuvanted vaccines are a promising approach, however available adjuvants have a suboptimal effectiveness and safety profile. Data from direct comparative trials are necessary for selection of optimal adjuvants among currently available and search for novel safe and effective adjuvants for next generation influenza vaccines. Data from published direct comparative studies of adjuvants for influenza vaccines are summarized, a lack of such studies is noted, especially those using adequate methods and designs and comparing adjuvants of major groups (nature/source and mechanism of action). Several promising approaches of adjuvant research and development could be identified: chitosan-based adjuvants, oil-in-water emulsions and multi-component formulations (depot + immune modulating components).

  10. Comparative study on direct burning of oil shale and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmad; Al Asfar, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the direct burning processes of oil shale and coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was done in this study using ANSYS Fluent software to solve numerically the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and mass diffusion using finite volume method. The model was built based on an existing experimental combustion burner unit. The model was validated by comparing the theoretical results of oil shale with proved experimental results from the combustion unit. It was found that the temperature contours of the combustion process showed that the adiabatic flame temperature was 1080 K for oil shale compared with 2260 K for coal, while the obtained experimental results of temperatures at various locations of burner during the direct burning of oil shale showed that the maximum temperature reached 962 K for oil shale. These results were used in economic and environmental analysis which show that oil shale may be used as alternative fuel for coal in cement industry in Jordan.

  11. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

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    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  12. "Lies, damned lies ..." and observational studies in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Richard K

    2013-06-01

    A new federal initiative has allocated $1.1 billion to comparative effectiveness research, and many have emphasized the importance of including observational studies in this effort. The rationale for using observational studies to assess comparative effectiveness is based on concerns that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not "real world" because they enroll homogeneous patient populations, measure study outcomes that are not important to patients, use protocols that are overly complex, are conducted in specialized centers, and use study treatments that are not consistent with usual care, and that RCTs are not always feasible because of a lack of equipoise, the need to assess delayed endpoints, and concerns that they take years to complete and are expensive. This essay questions the validity of each of these proposed limitations, summarizes concerns raised about the accuracy of results generated by observational studies, provides some examples of discrepancies between results of observational studies and RCTs that pertain to pulmonary and critical care, and suggests that using observational studies for comparative effectiveness research may increase rather than decrease the cost of health care and may harm patients.

  13. Comparative religion as an academic study in contemporary India

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    Asha MUKHERJEE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to argue that the different forms of ‘academic study of religion’ in the West hardly have core characteristics on which there is a consensus of scholars. Moreover, it may not be the only way of doing Academic Study of Religion. In Indian tradition, in its own way there have been religious studies. Religion is a way of living. The presence of a large diverse religious population constitutes myriad human exemplars of and witnesses to what it means to be religious and to act religiously. It furnishes a diversity of backgrounds, sensitivities and language competences on the part of Indians who choose to be trained as scholars in the field. Typically for an Indian, ‘living religion’ is more important than studying, describing, or knowing religion. One does not have the time or money for such ‘luxuries’; religion is a ‘bracketed existence’ in normal circumstances, but in crises it is the basic or fundamental identity of an individual. Further, in the Indian context only the serious academic studycomparative reli‑ gion’ has relevance, and this brings an interesting methodology to the study. Contemporary attempts and distinctive contributions on comparative methodology of study of religion would be discussed as well as how far its application in the Asian context would be possible. The paper concludes by answering what it means to do ‘comparative religion’ of an authentic sort among diverse pressures, expectations, challenges and opportunities.

  14. Comparative Study of Various E. coli Strains for Biohydrogen Production Applying Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Péter; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin

    2012-01-01

    The proper strategy to establish efficient hydrogen-producing biosystems is the biochemical, physiological characterization of hydrogen-producing microbes followed by metabolic engineering in order to give extraordinary properties to the strains and, finally, bioprocess optimization to realize enhanced hydrogen fermentation capability. In present paper, it was aimed to show the utility both of strain engineering and process optimization through a comparative study of wild-type and genetically modified E. coli strains, where the effect of two major operational factors (substrate concentration and pH) on bioH2 production was investigated by experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the suitable conditions in order to obtain maximum yields. The results revealed that by employing the genetically engineered E. coli (DJT 135) strain under optimized conditions (pH: 6.5; Formate conc.: 1.25 g/L), 0.63 mol H2/mol formate could be attained, which was 1.5 times higher compared to the wild-type E. coli (XL1-BLUE) that produced 0.42 mol H2/mol formate (pH: 6.4; Formate conc.: 1.3 g/L). PMID:22666156

  15. Comparative Study of Various E. coli Strains for Biohydrogen Production Applying Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bakonyi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper strategy to establish efficient hydrogen-producing biosystems is the biochemical, physiological characterization of hydrogen-producing microbes followed by metabolic engineering in order to give extraordinary properties to the strains and, finally, bioprocess optimization to realize enhanced hydrogen fermentation capability. In present paper, it was aimed to show the utility both of strain engineering and process optimization through a comparative study of wild-type and genetically modified E. coli strains, where the effect of two major operational factors (substrate concentration and pH on bioH2 production was investigated by experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the suitable conditions in order to obtain maximum yields. The results revealed that by employing the genetically engineered E. coli (DJT 135 strain under optimized conditions (pH: 6.5; Formate conc.: 1.25 g/L, 0.63 mol H2/mol formate could be attained, which was 1.5 times higher compared to the wild-type E. coli (XL1-BLUE that produced 0.42 mol H2/mol formate (pH: 6.4; Formate conc.: 1.3 g/L.

  16. Rebinding in biochemical reactions on membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Sean D.; Keener, James P.

    2017-10-01

    The behavior of many biochemical processes depends crucially on molecules rapidly rebinding after dissociating. In the case of multisite protein modification, the importance of rebinding has been demonstrated both experimentally and through several recent computational studies involving stochastic spatial simulations. As rebinding stems from spatio-temporal correlations, theorists have resorted to models that explicitly include space to properly account for the effects of rebinding. However, for reactions in three space dimensions it was recently shown that well-mixed ordinary differential equation (ODE) models can incorporate rebinding by adding connections to the reaction network. The rate constants for these new connections involve the probability that a pair of molecules rapidly rebinds after dissociation. In order to study biochemical reactions on membranes, in this paper we derive an explicit formula for this rebinding probability for reactions in two space dimensions. We show that ODE models can use the formula to replicate detailed stochastic spatial simulations, and that the formula can predict ultrasensitivity for reactions involving multisite modification of membrane-bound proteins. Further, we compute a new concentration-dependent rebinding probability for reactions in three space dimensions. Our analysis predicts that rebinding plays a much larger role in reactions on membranes compared to reactions in cytoplasm.

  17. Reverse Engineering of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Comparative Study

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    Hache Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks has been an intensively studied topic in bioinformatics since it constitutes an intermediate step from explorative to causative gene expression analysis. Many methods have been proposed through recent years leading to a wide range of mathematical approaches. In practice, different mathematical approaches will generate different resulting network structures, thus, it is very important for users to assess the performance of these algorithms. We have conducted a comparative study with six different reverse engineering methods, including relevance networks, neural networks, and Bayesian networks. Our approach consists of the generation of defined benchmark data, the analysis of these data with the different methods, and the assessment of algorithmic performances by statistical analyses. Performance was judged by network size and noise levels. The results of the comparative study highlight the neural network approach as best performing method among those under study.

  18. Africa and Ethnic Conflict Management: A Comparative Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes, among other things, that ethnic conflicts in Africa are fallout of colonialism. Relying on the comparative study of Nigeria and South Africa, it is the contention in this paper that ethnic conflict which has been at the heart of African countries development problem is a product of skewed economy, ...

  19. Comparative study of the influence of cement and lime stabilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of the influence of cement and lime stabilization on geotechnical properties of lateritic soil derived from pegmatite in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria. MO Oloruntola, GO Adeyemi, OC Oduneye. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 44 (1) 2008: pp. 95-105. Full Text:.

  20. a comparative study of prioritized handoff schemes with guard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRIORITIZED HANDOFF SCHEMES WITH GUARD CHANNELS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS. D. U. Onyishi. D. U. Onyishi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34, No. 3, July 2015 600 application of resource allocation schemes.This gives precedence to handoff calls. Such schemes ...