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Sample records for comparative anatomical study

  1. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

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    CARMEN BERGHES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  2. Comparative epidermal anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis Swart in Nigeria

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    A. A. Fajuke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis; N. biserrata, N. cordifolia, N. exaltata (i & (ii, N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata were carried out with a view to identify anatomic characters of taxonomic values. Both qualitative and quantitative anatomical studies were carried out. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Anatomical characters studied include venation patterns, trichome types, presence and absence of stomata and values of the stomatal index which are valuable in delimiting the species. The overall results showed overlaps in the quantitative anatomical attributes of the Nephrolepis taxa studied suggesting that they belong to the same genus. Qualitative anatomical attributes that separated the genus into distinct taxa are the presence of simple multicellular glandular trichomes in N. biserrata and simple multicellular non-glandular trichomes in N. exaltata (i and N. exalta (ii while N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata have simple unicellular non-glandular trichomes and absence of trichome in N. cordifolia. Presence of anisocytic, diacytic or anomocytic stomata were of diagnostic important in the six taxa.

  3. Some Comparative Anatomical and Histological Studies on the Laryngeal Cartilages of Buffaloes, Camels and Donkeys

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    Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies concerned the upper air ways of domestic animals are few. So this study was carried out to compare between the larynx of buffaloes, camels and donkeys. The present investigation was carried out on 39 larynxes, 13 larynxes (7 males, 6 females of each species. Ten heads from each species were used for gross anatomical study; the remained three heads were used for the histological study. Results revealed that, the laryngeal cartilages of the three species were consisted of three single cartilages; the thyroid, the cricoid and the epiglottis, and two paired cartilages; the arytenoid and the corniculate. The cuneiform cartilages were paired cartilages present only in the larynx of the donkey. Thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid cartilages were of hyaline type, while the epiglottis, cuniform and corniculate cartilages and the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage were of elastic type. The laryngeal epithelium of aditus laryngis, greater part of epiglottis and vocal folds was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The remained parts of laryngeal epithelium from base of epiglottis and entire parts caudal to vocal folds were lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. The laryngeal glands of lamina propria were of mixed types in buffaloes and donkeys but in camels it was pure mucous glands. This study will fill a gap in the field of comparative anatomy and help other clinical investigation applied on these animals.

  4. Meckel's cave access: anatomic study comparing the endoscopic transantral and endonasal approaches.

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    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.

  5. SESLERIA ULIGINOSA OPIZ – A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LEAF ANATOMICAL TRAITS

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    LAKUŠIĆ DMITAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Sesleria uliginosa is relatively common and widespread in Central (Hungary, Czech republic, Slovakia, Austria, Romania and Northern Europe (Scandinavian peninsula, while in the Southeastern (Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria and Southern Europe (Italy it is a true natural rarity. Ecologically it is the typical species of calcareous swamps and by this feature it is an extreme quite singular within the whole genus. S. uliginosa can also grow on soils moist in spring but drying out later in summer, often at sunny stands, especially on clay soils.According to Deyl, S. uliginosa belongs to Calcaria section, turma Uliginosa. The wax cover of the young leaves is typical for this species, but this pruining is nearly completely absent in the old leaves. It is closely related to Sesleria heuflerana Schur with which it shares some common characters – pruinos leaves, three floretted spikes and the occurrence in lower altitudes. But in the Balkan peninusla it seems to have a far wider amplitude of its stands, so it can be found on the localities that reach up to the subalpine zone.The aim of this study was to establish and describe the anatomical differentiation of populations of S. uliginosa from Romania, Hungary and Montenegro. The measurements were carried out on permanent handmade slides, prepared by the standard method for the light microscopy. To determine the significance of anatomical variation and differentiation, the following analysis were carried out: Principal component analysis (PCA, Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA and cluster analysis by UPGMA method.

  6. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

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    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  7. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

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    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e

  8. A morphometric anatomical and comparative study of the foramen magnum region in a Greek population.

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    Natsis, K; Piagkou, M; Skotsimara, G; Piagkos, G; Skandalakis, P

    2013-12-01

    The foramen magnum (FM), a complex area in craniocervical surgery, poses a challenge for neurosurgeons. The knowledge of the detailed anatomy of the FM, occipital condyles (OC) and variations of the region is crucial for the safety of vital structures. This study focuses on the FM and OC morphometry, highlights anatomical variability and investigates correlations between the parameters studied. One hundred and forty-three Greek adult dry skulls were examined using a digital sliding calliper (accuracy, 0.01 mm). Mean FM width and length were found 30.31 ± 2.79 and 35.53 ± 3.06 mm, respectively. The commonest FM shape was two semicircles (25.9 %), whereas the most unusual was irregular (0.7 %). The OC minimum width, maximum width and length were 5.71 ± 1.61, 13.09 ± 1.99 and 25.60 ± 2.91 mm on the right, and 6.25 ± 1.76, 13.01 ± 1.98 and 25.60 ± 2.70 mm on the left side. The commonest OC shape was S-like and the most unusual was ring, bilaterally. The mean anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 19.30 ± 3.25 and 51.61 ± 5.01 mm, respectively. The OC protruded into the FM in 86.7 % of the skulls. Variations such as a third OC existed in 5.6 % and basilar processes in 2.8 %. Posterior condylar foramina were present in 75.5 %. The gender was correlated with FM width and length, OC length, bilaterally, anterior intercondylar distance (AID) and posterior intercondylar distance (PID). The OC protrusion and existence of posterior condylar foramina were correlated. Bilateral asymmetry for OC shape was statistically significant. Our results provide useful information that will enable effective and reliable surgical intervention in the FM region with the maximum safety and widest possible exposure.

  9. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

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    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  10. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25 deg or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means. (author)

  11. Minimally invasive anterior pelvic internal fixation: An anatomic study comparing Pelvic Bridge to INFIX.

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    Reichel, Lee M; MacCormick, Lauren M; Dugarte, Anthony J; Rizkala, Amir R; Graves, Sara C; Cole, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Anterior external fixation for pelvic ring fractures has shown to effectively improve stability and reduce mortality. However, these fixators can be associated with substantial morbidity such as pin tract infection, premature loss of fixation, and decreased quality of life in patients. Recently, two new methods of subcutaneous anterior pelvic internal fixation have been developed; the INFIX and the Pelvic Bridge. These methods have the purported advantages of lower wound complications, less surgical site pain, and improved quality of life. We sought to investigate the measured distances to critical anatomic structures, as well as the qualitative and topographic differences notable during implantation of both devices in the same cadaveric specimen. The Pelvic Bridge and INFIX were implanted in eleven fresh cadavers. Distances were then measured to: the superficial inguinal ring, round ligament, spermatic cord, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve, femoral artery, and femoral vein. Observations regarding implantation and topography were also recorded. The INFIX had greater measured distances from all structures except for the LFCN, in which its proximity placed this structure at risk. Neither device appears to put other critical structures at risk in the supine position. Significant implantation and topographic differences exist between the devices. The INFIX application lacked "safety margins" concerning the LFCN in 10/11 (90.9%) specimens, while Pelvic Bridge placement lacked "safety margins" with regard to the right superficial ring (1/11, 9%) and the right spermatic cord (1/11, 9%). Both the Pelvic Bridge and INFIX lie at safe distances from most critical pelvic structures in the supine position, though INFIX application places the LFCN at risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys: A comparative study with anatomical sections

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    Zilch, H.G.; Posel, P.; Muenchen Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of human kidneys (n=24) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compared with the corresponding cross-sections that had been prepared later from the same kidneys. The tomographs reveal detailed informations of renal fine structure. In particular, parenchyma and sinus can be easily differentiated from vasculature. It is possible to visualize vessel arborisation, including the arcuate vessels of the renal cortex. The clinical significance of renal MR tomographs is discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Comparative leaf morpho-anatomical studies of two South American species of Cardiospermum (Sapindaceae) with special reference to adaxial domatia

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    Solís, S.M.; Ferrucci, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of two closely related Cardiospermum species from South America, C. procumbens and C. pterocarpum, were assayed. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, non-glandular and glandular trichomes, secretory cells present in the epidermis

  14. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

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    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  15. A Comparative Study of Deep Neck Abscess with Regards to Anatomical Location and Age Groups Using CT and Clinical Data

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    Park, Chan Ho; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Young Tong; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Jou, Sung Shick

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate differences anatomical location and age groups on CT and clinical data in deep neck abscess. This study included 200 patients who underwent CT and were diagnosed with a deep neck abscess, from December 2005 to July 2010. Patients were divided into four groups by age (children, adolescent, adult, elderly). Next, the anatomic location, location multiplicity and clinical data regarding the deep neck abscesses were analyzed retrospectively. The deep neck abscesses observed were defined as superficial or deep and partitioned into sub-groups, with further analysis of their clinical data. The incidence of the parapharyngeal abscess was more frequent in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). The masticator abscess was only observed among patients in the elderly group (p < 0.05). Multiple locations were observed with increased frequency in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). Swelling in the neck was more frequently observed in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05), cervical lymphadenitis was frequently seen in children and adolescent groups (p < 0.05), and the incidence of symptoms including sore throat were significantly increased in adolescent and adult groups (p < 0.05). Location multiplicity was significantly higher in parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, submandibular, danger, visceral and masticator spaces than other spaces (p < 0.05). With regards to anatomic location, neck swelling was more frequent in superficial group and sore throat was more frequent in deep group (p < 0.05). Deep neck abscess would show significant differences with regards to the abscess location, location multiplicity, and clinical symptoms according to age. The clinical symptoms observed are dependent on the anatomic location as defined by a superficial or deep abscess.

  16. Comparative study of autecological, morphological, anatomical and karyological characteristics of Acanthophyllum ejtehadii Mahmoudi & Vaezi (Caryophyllaceae: a rare endemic in Iran

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    Zahra Maleki Sadabadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing traits of a species in its habitat is substantial for planning a practical conservation program. Acanthophyllum ejtehadii Mahmoudi & Vaezi (Caryophyllaceae is a recently established endemic species for flora of Iran and has a narrow non-conserved natural habitat in Radkan region of Chenaran, Razavi Khorasan Province. The soil and climate of Radkan was studied and the ecological, morphological, anatomical, and karyological aspects of A. ejtehadii were investigated to obtain a comprehensive knowledge about this species and its natural growth conditions. Field observations were performed during the growing seasons in 2014‒2015 and 29 vegetation samples were collected as data. Results showed that this plant grows in mound-like sites on clay-loam soils at mean elevation 1279 m.a.s.l. in arid climate. Acanthophyllum ejtehadii is a thorn-cushion form chamaephyte plant. This Plant grow gradually in early-January, the flower unfolds in early-June and the matured seeds are produced in mid-July. A. ejtehadii is a diploid (2n=2x =30 species and has homogenous karyotype. Having unique morphological and anatomical adaptations such as expanded surface roots, reduced leaf area and thickened cuticle, this plant grows successfully in harsh environments. These mechanisms are specific to this specific kind of Acanthophyllum species. The Speciation time of this plant was estimated not more than 200 thousand years ago and if Radkan is preserved from anthropogenic disturbance, this species could expand its distribution area.

  17. Anatomical study of the renal excretory system in pigs. A review of its characteristics as compared to its human counterpart.

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    Gómez, F A; Ballesteros, L E; Estupiñán, H Y

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the pyelocalyceal system in the pig as an experimental model, there is little information about this particular anatomical subject. We determined the morphological characteristics of the renal excretory system in pigs. This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated 130 pairs of kidneys of pigs destined to slaughter. The pyelocalyceal system was subjected to injection technique - corrosion by infusion of polyester resin (85% Palatal and 15% Styrene) and subsequent infusion in potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 10 days. The significance level used was p renal excretory system is characterised by the presence of type A major cranial and caudal calyxes seen in 34.3% of the kidneys (type A1 in 30% and type A2 in 4.3%). type B calyxes, corresponding to minor calyxes draining directly into the renal pelvis, were present in 65.7% of the specimens (type B1 59.2%; type B2 6.5% of the cases). The number of minor calyxes in the collector system was 7.9 ± 2.27 with statistically significant differences in side (p = 0.0047). The morphometric characteristics of the kidneys in this study are slightly smaller than reported in humans. Similarly, the incidence of type A renal excretory system distribution is highest in humans and lowest in pigs. Due to its few morphological differences, the pig kidney is an excellent model for teaching- -learning processes, for research purposes, and for training of urologic applications.

  18. Comparative anatomical study of internal brooding in three anascan bryozoans (Cheilostomata) and its taxonomic and evolutionary implications.

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    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Grischenko, Andrei V; Taylor, Paul D; Bock, Phil; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2006-06-01

    The anatomical structure of internal sacs for embryonic incubation was studied using SEM and light microscopy in three cheilostome bryozoans-Nematoflustra flagellata (Waters,1904), Gontarella sp., and Biflustra perfragilis MacGillivray, 1881. In all these species the brood sac is located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, being a conspicuous invagination of the body wall. It consists of the main chamber and a passage (neck) to the outside that opens independently of the introvert. There are several groups of muscles attached to the thin walls of the brood sac and possibly expanding it during oviposition and larval release. Polypide recycling begins after oviposition in Gontarella sp., and the new polypide bud is formed by the beginning of incubation. Similarly, polypides in brooding zooids degenerate in N. flagellata and, sometimes, in B. perfragilis. In the evolution of brood chambers in the Cheilostomata, such internal sacs for embryonic incubation are considered a final step, being the result of immersion of the brooding cavity into the maternal zooid and reduction of the protecting fold (ooecium). Possible reasons for this transformation are discussed, and the hypothesis of Santagata and Banta (Santagata and Banta1996) that internal brooding evolved prior to incubation in ovicells is rejected. J. Morphol. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cutiscan® - A new system of biomechanical evaluation of the skin in vivo - comparative study of use depending on the anatomical site

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    Catarina Rosado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Skin is a complex biomaterial. One of its characteristics is anisotropy due to fiber alignment, resulting from prolonged exposure to a surrounding stress state. This property is important in experimental studies of skin biomechanics and in experimental dermatology. During the last decades, several devices have been developed to study the cutaneous physiology. The CutiScan®, one of the latest, provides information not only about the elastic and viscoelastic properties, but also on anisotropy and directionality of the skin. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the biomechanical properties of human skin due to the anatomical site, combined with a study on the benefits and limitations of the CutiScan®, and also comparing it with other more studied devices - the Cutometer® and the Reviscometer®. 20 volunteers were engaged in this investigation after an informed consent. Measurements were conducted in three different anatomical sites (forehead, forearm and leg with each device. Results showed that devices were able to identify significant differences among anatomical sites. The CutiScan® enabled a more complete assessment of skin’s biomechanical properties, since it provides real-time images and 360º elasticity curves that allowed the simultaneous study of viscoelasticity and anisotropy.

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of knotless anatomical double-layer double-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative ex vivo study.

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    Hepp, Pierre; Osterhoff, Georg; Engel, Thomas; Marquass, Bastian; Klink, Thomas; Josten, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    The layered configuration of the rotator cuff tendon is not taken into account in classic rotator cuff tendon repair techniques. The mechanical properties of (1) the classic double-row technique, (2) a double-layer double-row (DLDR) technique in simple suture configuration, and (3) a DLDR technique in mattress suture configuration are significantly different. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four sheep shoulders were assigned to 3 repair groups of full-thickness infraspinatus tears: group 1, traditional double-row repair; group 2, DLDR anchor repair with simple suture configuration; and group 3, DLDR knotless repair with mattress suture configuration. After ultrasound evaluation of the repair, each specimen was cyclically loaded with 10 to 100 N for 50 cycles. Each specimen was then loaded to failure at a rate of 1 mm/s. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 testing groups for the mean footprint area. The cyclic loading test revealed no significant difference among the 3 groups with regard to elongation. For the load-to-failure test, groups 2 and 3 showed no differences in ultimate tensile load when compared with group 1. However, when compared to group 2, group 3 was found to have significantly higher values regarding ultimate load, ultimate elongation, and energy absorbed. The DLDR fixation techniques may provide strength of initial repair comparable with that of commonly used double-row techniques. When compared with the knotless technique with mattress sutures, simple suture configuration of DLDR repair may be too weak. Knotless DLDR rotator cuff repair may (1) restore the footprint by the use of double-row principles and (2) enable restoration of the shape and profile. Double-layer double-row fixation in mattress suture configuration has initial fixation strength comparable with that of the classic double-row fixation and so may potentially improve functional results of rotator cuff repair.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARTHROSCOPIC SINGLE BUNDLE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AND NON-ANATOMICAL DOUBLE BUNDLE WITH SINGLE TIBIAL TUNNEL ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH SEMITENDINOSUS ± GRACILIS AUTOGRAFTS USING LAXOMETRY

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    Sivananda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The knee joint is the most commonly injured of all joints and the ACL is the most commonly injured ligament. Arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL has become gold standard in treating these injuries. AIM 1. To compare the short-term results of ACL reconstruction using single bundle (one Tibial + one Femoral tunnel and non-anatomical double-bundle (one Tibial + two Femoral tunnels techniques using Hamstrings (Semitendinosus ± Gracilis graft. 2. To evaluate ACL graft reconstruction stability measured by laxometry and to find out an association with clinical findings. MATERIAL & METHODS We performed a prospective study between 2014-2015 of 20 case of ACL injuries & compared single bundle reconstruction with Non – anatomical double Bundle reconstruction with semitendinosus ± Gracilis, Autograft using laxometry. CONCLUSION Arthroscopic Non-anatomical double ACL Reconstruction is Bio-mechanically stable reconstruction resembling anatomy of the ACL.

  2. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

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    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  3. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

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    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  4. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luiz Felipe; Giordano, Marcos; Cardoso, Gustavo Novaes; Farias, Rafael Baptista; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP) view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film. An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements. From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements. Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  5. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation

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    Luiz Felipe Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film.METHODS: An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements.RESULTS: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  6. Talocalcaneal luxation: an anatomic and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, M.J.; Purinton, P.T.; Penwick, R.C.; Aron, D.N.; Roberts, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Talocalcaneal luxation in dogs was studied by anatomic dissection of the talocalcaneal joint in cadavers and review of five clinical cases. The integrity of the talocalcaneal joint was maintained by two strong ligaments traversing the tarsal sinus between the two bones. The joint was found to be a low motion joint. Luxation in clinical cases was not always apparent on standard radiographic views. Three dogs were treated surgically with a screw inserted in lag fashion from talus to calcaneus. One luxation was treated surgically with figure-of-eight orthopedic wires and one was treated with external coaptation. Four dogs returned to their previous levels of function without clinically detectable lameness

  7. [Anatomical study of men's nipple areola complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, R; Dast, S; Assaf, N; Sinna, R

    2016-06-01

    The surgical approach of gynecomastia, sexual reassignment surgery in female-to-male transsexuals and the increase of number of obese wishing to turn to plastic surgery led us to deepen the anatomical knowledge of the nipple areola complex (NAC) in men, poorly retailed in the literature. By inspiring us of the methodology of a Japanese study, we studied 50 healthy volunteers male, from 18 to 55 years old, from July till August 2015. We measured various distances relative to the NAC to define its vertical and horizontal position, as well as the internipple distance according to the size, to the weight and to the body mass index (BMI). At the end of the analysis, we were able to underline a lower vertical thoracic position of the NAC in the tall category of person, a more side horizontal position to the subject presenting a high BMI and a linear relation between the BMI and the internipple (Em) defined by (Em)=8.96×BMI. The surgeon's judgment and the desires of the patient are essentials basis of therapeutics decisions that could be lean on this anatomical study, which allowed to establish an idea of the cartography of the NAC in man. It will be interesting and necessary to confront it with other studies with larger scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

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    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  9. Internal rib structure can be predicted using mathematical models: An anatomic study comparing the chest to a shell dome with application to understanding fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casha, Aaron R; Camilleri, Liberato; Manché, Alexander; Gatt, Ruben; Attard, Daphne; Gauci, Marilyn; Camilleri-Podesta, Marie-Therese; Mcdonald, Stuart; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-11-01

    The human rib cage resembles a masonry dome in shape. Masonry domes have a particular construction that mimics stress distribution. Rib cortical thickness and bone density were analyzed to determine whether the morphology of the rib cage is sufficiently similar to a shell dome for internal rib structure to be predicted mathematically. A finite element analysis (FEA) simulation was used to measure stresses on the internal and external surfaces of a chest-shaped dome. Inner and outer rib cortical thickness and bone density were measured in the mid-axillary lines of seven cadaveric rib cages using computerized tomography scanning. Paired t tests and Pearson correlation were used to relate cortical thickness and bone density to stress. FEA modeling showed that the stress was 82% higher on the internal than the external surface, with a gradual decrease in internal and external wall stresses from the base to the apex. The inner cortex was more radio-dense, P rib level. The internal anatomical features of ribs, including the inner and outer cortical thicknesses and bone densities, are similar to the stress distribution in dome-shaped structures modeled using FEA computer simulations of a thick-walled dome pressure vessel. Fixation of rib fractures should include the stronger internal cortex. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

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    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  11. Anatomical Study of Healthy Aortic Arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsowicz, Elie; Georg, Yannick; Lefebvre, François; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickael; Chakfe, Nabil

    2017-10-01

    With the steady increase of endovascular procedures involving the aortic arch (AA), an actual depiction of its anatomy has become mandatory. It has also become necessary to evaluate the natural evolution of the AA morphology as part of the evaluation of endovascular devices durability. The objective of this study was to perform a morphological and anatomical study of the AA and of the supra aortic trunks (SAT) in healthy patients, with an evaluation of their evolution with time, with a specific orientation applied to endovascular therapies of the AA. Sixty-one patients (31 men, mean age 50.8 [18-82]) with a normal anatomy were included in the study. Measurements included the diameters of the AA and SAT in 17 locations, their distance and angulation based on computed tomography angiography data. Statistical analysis focused on descriptive statistics, differences between genders, as well as correlations with age. Aortic diameters (mean ± SD) were 29.5 ± 3.9 mm at the ascending aorta, 28.6 ± 3.9 mm at the innominate artery (IA), 27.1 ± 3.2 mm at the left common carotid artery (LCCA), 25.3 ± 3.0 mm at the left subclavian artery (LSCA), 23.9 ± 3.3 mm at the descending aorta. Mean angulation of the AA was 82° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.95-85.19°), mean angulation between LSCA/LCCA was -5.7° (95% CI: -0.9 to 18.7°) and -1.8° (95% CI: 5.4-26.4°) between LCCA/IA. Mean distance between the LSCA and the LCCA was 14.3 mm (95% CI: 13-15.6 mm) and 21.8 mm (95% CI: 20.3-23.4 mm) between LCCA and IA. All diameters of the AA increased with age (P Men had diameters statistically (P women except at the LCCA ostium level. A statistically significant increase of the distances between the LSCA and the LCCA, between the LSCA and the IA and between the IA and the LCCA was found with age, P = 0.027, better understanding of the three-dimensional aspects of the AA, confirmed the variability and heterogeneity of the SAT disposition, and discussed the principles of vascular

  12. Anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament anatomical repair and augmentation versus trans-syndesmosis screw fixation for the syndesmotic instability in external-rotation type ankle fracture with posterior malleolus involvement: A prospective and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Xia, Ronggang; Cheng, Tao; Luo, Congfeng

    2016-07-01

    Syndesmosis injury is common in external-rotation type ankle fractures (ERAF). Trans-syndesmosis screw fixation, the gold-standard treatment, is currently controversial for its complications and biomechanical disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of anatomically repairing the anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) and augmentation with anchor rope system to treat the syndesmotic instability in ERAF with posterior malleolus involvement and to compare its clinical outcomes with that of trans-syndesmosis screw fixation. 53 ERAFs with posterior malleolus involvement received surgery, and the syndesmosis was still unstable after fracture fixation. They were randomised into screw fixation group and AITFL anatomical repair with augmentation group. Reduction quality, syndesmosis diastasis recurrence, pain (VAS score), time back to work, Olerud-Molander ankle score and range of motion (ROM) of ankle were investigated. Olerud-Molander score in AITFL repair group and screw group was 90.4 and 85.8 at 12-month follow-up (P>0.05). Plantar flexion was 31.2° and 34.3° in repair and screw groups (P=0.04). Mal-reduction happened in 5 cases (19.2%) in screw group while 2 cases (7.4%) in repair group. Postoperative syndesmosis re-diastasis occurred in 3 cases in screw group while zero in repair group (P>0.05). Pain score was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Overall complication rate and back to work time were 26.9% and 3.7% (P=0.04), 7.15 months and 5.26 months (P=0.02) in screw group and repair group, respectively. For syndesmotic instability in ERAF with posterior malleolus involvement, the method of AITFL anatomical repair and augmentation with anchor rope system had an equivalent functional outcome and reduction, earlier rehabilitation and less complication compared with screw fixation. It can be selected as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) with Anatomically Guided (3D) Neural Targeting Shows Superior Chronic Axial Low Back Pain Relief Compared to Traditional SCS-LUMINA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizi, Elias; Hayek, Salim M; North, James; Brent Chafin, T; Yearwood, Thomas L; Raso, Louis; Frey, Robert; Cairns, Kevin; Berg, Anthony; Brendel, John; Haider, Nameer; McCarty, Matthew; Vucetic, Henry; Sherman, Alden; Chen, Lilly; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether spinal cord stimulation (SCS) using 3D neural targeting provided sustained overall and low back pain relief in a broad routine clinical practice population. This was a multicenter, open-label observational study with an observational arm and retrospective analysis of a matched cohort. After IPG implantation, programming was done using a patient-specific, model-based algorithm to adjust for lead position (3D neural targeting) or previous generation software (traditional). Demographics, medical histories, SCS parameters, pain locations, pain intensities, disabilities, and safety data were collected for all patients. A total of 213 patients using 3D neural targeting were included, with a trial-to-implant ratio of 86%. Patients used seven different lead configurations, with 62% receiving 24 to 32 contacts, and a broad range of stimulation parameters utilizing a mean of 14.3 (±6.1) contacts. At 24 months postimplant, pain intensity decreased significantly from baseline (ΔNRS = 4.2, N = 169, P  pain subgroup (ΔNRS = 5.3, N = 91, P  low back pain also decreased significantly from baseline to 24 months (ΔNRS = 4.1, N = 70, P  pain responder rates of 51% (traditional SCS) and 74% (neural targeting SCS) and axial low back pain responder rates of 41% and 71% in the traditional SCS and neural targeting SCS cohorts, respectively. Lastly, complications occurred in a total of 33 of the 213 patients, with a 1.6% lead replacement rate and a 1.6% explant rate. Our results suggest that 3D neural targeting SCS and its associated hardware flexibility provide effective treatment for both chronic leg and chronic axial low back pain that is significantly superior to traditional SCS. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Anatomic variability of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle: an anatomical study

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    Trung-Hau Le Thua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The anatomical study and clinical application for the vascularized corticoperiosteal flap from the medial femoral condyle have been performed and described previously. Although prior studies have described the composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, a detailed analysis of the vascularity of this region has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods: This anatomical study described the variability of the arteries from the medial femoral condyle in 40 cadaveric specimens. Results: The descending genicular artery (DGA was found in 33 of 40 cases (82.5%. The  superomedial genicular artery (SGA was present in 10 cases (25%. All 33 cases (100% of the DGA had articular branches to the periosteum of the medial femoral condyle. Muscular branches and saphenous branches of the DGA were present in 25 cases (62.5% and 26 cases (70.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the size and length of the vessels to the medial femoral condyle are sufficient for a vascularized bone flap. A careful preoperative vascular assessment is essential prior to use of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, because of the considerable anatomical variations in different branches of the DGA.

  15. The scala vestibuli for cochlear implantation. An anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, A J; Steenerson, R L

    1996-02-01

    Traditionally, cochlear implantation has used the scala tympani (ST) for electrode insertion. When faced with ST ossification, the surgeon may elect to drill out the cochlea to accomplish partial electrode insertion. Theoretically, another option in this situation is to insert the electrode into the scala vestibuli (SV). To determine whether or not the dimensions of the SV are sufficient to accommodate an electrode array so as to assess the feasibility of SV cochlear implantation. The study of 20 normal human temporal bones, comparing the maximum diameter and surface area of the ST with those of the combined SV and scala media. The dimensions of the SV and scala media were comparable to those of the ST and appeared sufficient to accommodate a cochlear implant electrode array. It appears that the combination of SV and scala media is a viable alternative route for electrode insertion, at least on the basis of anatomic dimensions, in those cases in which the ST is obliterated.

  16. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Anatomical studies of some medicinal plants of family polygonaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, I.; Hussain, F.; Dastgir, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anatomical studies of the 6 different species of family Polygonaceae viz., Rumex hastatus D. Don, Rumex dentatus Linn, Rumex nepalensis Spreng, Rheum australe D. Don, Polygonum plebejum R. Br and Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gay are presented. The study is based on the presence and absence of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, pith, mesophyll cells and stone cells. (author)

  18. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  19. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  20. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... The tendon sheath of the posterior tibial muscle covers the posterior and ..... may be associated with avulsion fractures at either the origin or the insertion .... 14. Shibata Y, Nishi G, Masegi A. Stress test and anatomical study of.

  1. The morphological and anatomical studies on endemic crocus biflorus miller subsp. Pulchricolor (herbert) mathew (iridaceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Iridaceae)were investigated. The subsp. pulchricolor has, 4 leaves, 1 mm broad, bracts drying brownish. these properties are characteristics of these plants. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root, stem and leaves were examined. These parts photographed and compared with the other crocus and Iridaceae family species. (author)

  2. Anatomic humeral head replacement with a press-fit prosthesis: An in vivo radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Vopat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful total shoulder arthroplasty is, in part, dependent on anatomic reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post-operative anatomy of total shoulder arthroplasty with an anatomic implant design in patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis and compare it to published normative anatomic measurements. Fifty-one patients (56 shoulders with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis were treated with a press-fit humeral component as part of a total shoulder arthroplasty (Aequalis, Tornier, Edina, Minnesota. Analysis of postoperative true anterior posterior radiographs was performed with use of a custom software algorithm. The mean humeral inclination (head-shaft angle, mean humeral implant anatomical humeral axis, mean greater tuberosity height, and mean humeral head center offset (medial offset were 135.4±5.1°, 1.73±1.7°, 6.9±2.4 mm, and 3.8±1.8 mm, respectively. All parameters were within the ranges reported in the literature for normal shoulders except the mean humeral head center offset, which was less than reported in the literature. Anatomic parameters of a total shoulder arthroplasty can be achieved with an anatomically designed, modular adaptable press-fit design. Reduced medial humeral head center offset was likely dependent upon implant specific design parameters.

  3. Determination of cartilage thickness in the ankle joint. MRT (1,5 T) comparative anatomical study; Bestimmung der Knorpeldicke am oberen Sprunggelenk. Eine MRT(1,5 T)-anatomische Vergleichsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Breitenseher, M.J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Huber, M. [Pathologisch-Bakteriologisches Inst. Baumgartner Hoehe, Wien (Austria); Zettl, R. [Orthopaedisches Krankenhaus Gersthof, Wien (Austria); Rottmann, B. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Haller, J. [Hanuschkrankenhaus, Wien (Austria). Radiologische Abt.; Imhof, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Einrichtung Magnet Resonanz und Abt. fuer Osteoradiologie]|[Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Radiologische Tumordiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    1997-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in the measurement of cartilage thickness of the ankle joint in comparison to pathologic and histologic specimens. Patients and methods: The ankle joints of four fresh cadaver feet were imaged on a 1.5 T MR-unit in the coronal plane. Standard T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo (SE) and a T{sub 1}-weighted 3D-GE (FLASH-3D) sequence with fat saturation were applied. Following MR imaging, the talus was explanted and cut parallel to the MR images for macroscopic evaluation and histologic specimens were prepared. MRI measurements of the cartilage thickness of the talus were carried out in two ways: Without and with consideration of a transition zone of intermediate signal intensity between hyperintense cartilage and hypointense cortical bone. The data were compared with the anatomic specimens as the gold standard expressing the difference as a percentage value. On histologic specimens thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer was measured. Results: Measurements without the transition zone showed a mean underestimation of talus cartilage thickness of 46.8% (41.3-52.1) for T{sub 1}-SE and 47.5% (43.1-52.1) for fat saturated FLASH-3D images. Considering the transition zone the mean values were 25.0% (23.1-26.2) and 14.1% (6.7-21.5). The histologic specimens showed a three-fold increase of thickness of deep calcified cartilage layer. Conclusions: Measurements of the cartilage layer of the ankle joint on MR images are only accurate if the transition zone (calcified cartilage layer) is considered and the optimal pulse sequence (FLASH-3D-fat-sat) is applied. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die Frage, ob die MRT die Dicke des Knorpels exakt bestimmen kann, wird kontrovers diskutiert. Ziel der Studie war die Bestimmung der Knorpeldicke am oberen Sprunggelenk mit der MRT im Vergleich zum anatomischen Praeparat. Material und Methode: Sprunggelenke von 4 Leichen wurden auf einem 1,5 Tesla MR-Geraet mittels T{sub 1}-betonter Spin

  4. Sinonasal anatomical variations: their relationship with chronic rhinosinusitis and effect on the severity of disease-a computerized tomography assisted anatomical and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Ahmet; Haksever, Mehmet; Akduman, Davut; Aslan, Sündüs; Sayar, Zeynep

    2014-09-01

    The anatomy of the sinonasal area has a very wide rage of anatomical variations. The significance of these anatomical variations in pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis, which is the commonest disease in the region, is still unclear. The aims of the study were to compare the rate of sinonasal anatomical variations with development and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. CT scan of paranasal sinuses images of 99 individuals were retrospectively reviewed. 65 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis (study group) who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery were compared with 34 cases without chronic rhinosinusitis (control group). Also in study group Lund-Mackay score of the sinus disease were calculated and compared to the rate of related anatomical variations. There were 74 (74.7 %) males and 25 (25.2 %) females with ages ranging from 13 to 70 years (mean 32.2 years). The anatomical variations recorded were: Septal deviation 47 (72.3) in study and 25 (73.5 %) in control group, concha bullosa 27 (41.5 %) in study and 18 (52.9 %) in control group, overpneumatized ethmoid bulla 17 (26.1 %) in study and 14 (41.1 %) in control group, pneumatized uncinate 3 (4.6 %) in study and 3 (8.8 %) in control group, agger nasi 42 (64.6 %) in study and 19 (55.8 %) in control group, paradoxical middle turbinates 9 (13.8 %) in study and 4 (11.7 %) in control group, Onodi cell 6 (9.2 %) in study and 2 (5.8 %) in control group, Haller's cells (infraorbital ethmoid cell) 9 (13.8 %) in study and 7 (20.5 %) in control group. None of these results were statistically significant between study and control group (p > 0.05). Lund-Mackay score (which was assumed to show the severity of the disease) of the maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinus were calculated and compared to rate of septal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi cells. No significant correlation was conducted (p > 0.05). The results of study showed no statistically significant correlation between sinonasal anatomical

  5. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys

  6. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  7. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

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    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  8. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images

  9. Anatomical study of the proximal origin of hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Nimura, Akimoto; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Akita, Keiichi

    2012-09-01

    It is relatively well accepted that the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus both originate from the ischial tuberosity as a common tendon. However, it is also widely known that the biceps femoris is consistently injured more than the semitendinosus. The purpose of this study was to examine the origins of the hamstring muscles, to find an anatomic basis for diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the posterior thigh regions. Twenty-eight hips of fourteen adult Japanese cadavers were used in this study. In twenty hips of ten cadavers, the positional relationships among the origins on the ischial tuberosity were examined. In eight hips of four cadavers, histological examination of the origins of the hamstrings was also performed. The origin of the long head of the biceps femoris adjoined that of the semitendinosus. In the proximal regions of these muscles, the long head consisted of the tendinous part; however, the semitendinosus mainly consisted of the muscular part. Some of the fibers of the biceps tendon extended to fuse with the sacrotuberous ligament. The semimembranosus muscle broadly originated from the lateral surface of the ischial tuberosity. The origins of the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus are found to be almost independent, and the tendon of the long head is partly fused with the sacrotuberous ligament. The high incidence of injuries to the long head of the biceps femoris could be explained by these anatomical configurations.

  10. Anatomic MRI study of a small muscle: the masseter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheyriat, A.; Lissac, M.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Bonmartin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides functional information in an anatomic presentation allowing to distinguish soft tissues with high sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the normal anatomy of the major masticatory muscle, the masseter, both at rest or during contraction by using three dimensional (3D) MRI. Eighteen subjects aged from 19 to 28 years, all in good health, were studied. Several experiments were first realized on phantoms to test the 3D-MRI technique. After reconstruction and segmentation processing, 3D acquisition, enabled obtaining data on the masseter anatomy. The normal anatomical position of the masseter was reported to the skin plan as the mean internal distance (7.9±0.42 mm) and external distance (15.2±0.41 mm). While there was no difference between internal distance, for sex or side, the external distance was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in male (7.7±0.5 mm) than in female (8.8±0.4 mm) for both sides. The mean volume for all subjects and both sides (20.3±1.1 cm 3 ) did not change significantly between rest and exercise. The masseter volume was significantly (p 3 ) than in female (16.4±3.6 cm 3 ) groups. These physiological references may be useful for further MRI investigations of masticatory system pathologies. (authors)

  11. Anatomic structural study of cerebellopontine angle via endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.

  12. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study

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    Cristina Schmitt Cavalheiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. METHOD: 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. RESULTS: Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9; type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis (n = 2; type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4; type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5; type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5; and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable.

  13. Comparative Anatomical Analyses of the Forearm Muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000): Manipulatory Behavior and Tool Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Maior, Rafael Souto; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use) between Cebus genus and apes. PMID:21789230

  14. Cranial nerve vascular compression syndromes of the trigeminal, facial and vago-glossopharyngeal nerves: comparative anatomical study of the central myelin portion and transitional zone; correlations with incidences of corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Bulent; Sindou, Marc; Meyronet, David; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Simon, Emile; Mertens, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the central myelin portion and the central myelin-peripheral myelin transitional zone of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from fresh cadavers. The aim was also to investigate the relationship between the length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves with the incidences of the corresponding cranial dysfunctional syndromes caused by their compression to provide some more insights for a better understanding of mechanisms. The trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from six fresh cadavers were examined. The length of these nerves from the brainstem to the foramen that they exit were measured. Longitudinal sections were stained and photographed to make measurements. The diameters of the nerves where they exit/enter from/to brainstem, the diameters where the transitional zone begins, the distances to the most distal part of transitional zone from brainstem and depths of the transitional zones were measured. Most importantly, the volume of the central myelin portion of the nerves was calculated. Correlation between length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves and the incidences of the corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes as reported in the literature were studied. The distance of the most distal part of the transitional zone from the brainstem was 4.19  ±  0.81 mm for the trigeminal nerve, 2.86  ±  1.19 mm for the facial nerve, 1.51  ±  0.39 mm for the glossopharyngeal nerve, and 1.63  ±  1.15 mm for the vagus nerve. The volume of central myelin portion was 24.54  ±  9.82 mm(3) in trigeminal nerve; 4.43  ±  2.55 mm(3) in facial nerve; 1.55  ±  1.08 mm(3) in glossopharyngeal nerve; 2.56  ±  1.32 mm(3) in vagus nerve. Correlations (p  nerves and incidences of the corresponding diseases. At present it is rather well-established that primary trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vago

  15. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  16. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging provides additional information as compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijwegt, M.C.; Mey, A.G.L. van der; Wiggers-deBruine, F.T.; Malessy, M.J.A; Osch, M.J.P. van

    2016-01-01

    •DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality.•In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores.•These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality. In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores. These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. The added value of perfusion MRI for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients is unknown. MRI offers two perfusion methods: the first employing contrast agent (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI) that provides information on cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), the second by magnetic labeling of blood (arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI), providing CBF-images. The goal of the current study is to investigate whether DSC and ASL perfusion MRI provides complimentary information to current anatomical imaging in treatment selection process of VS. Nine patients with growing VS with extrameatal diameter >9 mm were included (>2 mm/year and 20% volume expansion/year) and one patient with 23 mm extrameatal VS without growth. DSC and ASL perfusion MRI were obtained on 3 T MRI. Perfusion in VS was scored as hyperintense, hypointense or isointense compared to the contralateral region. Seven patients showed hyperintense signal on DSC and ASL sequences. Three patients showed iso- or hypointense signal on at least one perfusion map (1 patient hypointense on both DSC-MRI and ASL; 1 patient isointense on DSC-CBF; 1 patient isointense on ASL). All patients showed enhancement on post-contrast T1 anatomical scan. Perfusion MR provides additional information compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in VS

  17. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  19. A new contrast agent for radiological and dissection studies of the arterial network of anatomic specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, A; Casoli, C; Farace, F; Mazzarello, V; De Luca, L; Rubino, C; Montella, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a new contrast agent that can be easily applied both to CT and dissection studies to replace lead oxide based formulas for comparative anatomical analyses of the vascularisation of cadaveric specimens. The infusion material was an epoxy resin, especially modified by the addition of barium sulphate to enhance its radiopacity. The final copolymer was toxicologically safe. To test the properties of the new material, several cadaveric limb injections were performed. The injected specimens were both CT scanned to perform 3D vascular reconstructions and dissected by anatomical planes. There was a perfect correspondence between the image studies and the dissections: even the smallest arteries on CT scan can be identified on the specimen and vice versa. The properties of the epoxy allowed an easy dissection of the vessels. The new imaging techniques available today, such as CT scan, can evaluate the vascular anatomy in high detail and 3D. This new contrast agent may help realising detailed vascular studies comparing CT scan results with anatomical dissections. Moreover, it may be useful for teaching surgical skills in the field of plastic surgery.

  20. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  1. An Anatomic Morphological Study of Occipital Spurs in Human Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Monika; Asghar, Adil; Srivastava, Nitya Nand; Gupta, Nandkishore; Jain, Anuj; Verma, Jayant

    2018-01-01

    Occipital spurs are quite common; however, they are also the source of frequent discomfort to the patients. Their role has been implicated in causation of pain at the base of skull, which may extend to shoulder limiting the movement of the shoulder and neck. The present was carried out to find out the prevalence of occipital spur in human skull and to find out the anatomic morphological characteristics of occipital spur. A total of 30 cadaveric skulls were examined in the Department of Anatomy, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, for the presence of occipital spur. These skulls were the part of boneset obtained as a part of undergraduate training in the department. All the measurements were taken using a digital Vernier Caliper after taking all necessary precaution to avoid any damage to these spurs. The prevalence of occipital spur in the present study was 10%. The mean width recorded in the present study was 13.40 mm (±6.7) and the mean length recorded was 13.45 mm (±1.05). Similarly, mean thickness noted was 2.43 mm (±0.43). Thus, the present study concludes that occipital spurs are the frequent source of discomfort to patients. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to neurosurgeons, sports physicians, and radiologists for the diagnosis of such discomfort.

  2. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomic study of the pterion in Nigerian dry human skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukoha, U; Oranusi, C K; Okafor, J I; Udemezue, O O; Anyabolu, A E; Nwamarachi, T C

    2013-01-01

    The pterion is a point of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. The site is an important landmark in surgical approaches to the anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was designed to determine the frequency of pterion types and anatomic positions of the pterion in dry human skulls of Nigerians in the South Eastern Zone. Specific measurements were taken on both sides of 56 Nigerian human skulls of unknown sex, obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Nigeria. All the four types of the pterion were present, i.e. sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate, and epipteric. The study showed that the sphenoparietal type was 75% on the right side, 76% on the left side, the frontotemporal type was 19.6% on both sides, the stellate type was 1.8% on the right side and absent on the left side. The epipteric type was 3.6% on both sides. The distances from the centre of pterion to the frontozygomatic suture were 2.74 ± 0.07 cm on the right side and 2.74 ± 0.06 cm on the left side. The pterion was 4.02 ± 0.05 and 4.01 ± 0.03 cm above the midpoint of the zygomatic arch on the right and left sides, respectively. These findings are important for the surgeon as the pterion junction is a common extracranial landmark in neurosurgical and surgical approaches.

  4. Anatomical study of the pigs temporal bone by microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leandro de Borborema; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    Initial study of the pig`s temporal bone anatomy in order to enable a new experimental model in ear surgery. Dissection of five temporal bones of Sus scrofa pigs obtained from UNIFESP - Surgical Skills Laboratory, removed with hole saw to avoid any injury and stored in formaldehyde 10% for better conservation. The microdissection in all five temporal bone had the following steps: inspection of the outer part, external canal and tympanic membrane microscopy, mastoidectomy, removal of external ear canal and tympanic membrane, inspection of ossicular chain and middle ear. Anatomically it is located at the same position than in humans. Some landmarks usually found in humans are missing. The tympanic membrane of the pig showed to be very similar to the human, separating the external and the middle ear. The middle ear`s appearance is very similar than in humans. The ossicular chain is almost exactly the same, as well as the facial nerve, showing the same relationship with the lateral semicircular canal. The temporal bone of the pigs can be used as an alternative for training in ear surgery, especially due the facility to find it and its similarity with temporal bone of the humans.

  5. Noninvasive study of anatomic variations of the bile and pancreatic duct using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, E.; Falco, J.; Campo, R.; Martin, J.; Brullet, E.; Espinos, J.

    1999-01-01

    To identify anatomic variations of the bile duct and pancreatic duct and papillary anomalies by means of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and determine their correlation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings. Eighty-five patients were selected by means of a prospective study comparing MRCP and ERCP. Coronal and axial HASTE images and coronal and oblique coronal RARE images were acquired in all the patients. Four of the studies (6%) were excluded because of poor technical quality. Anatomic variations were observed in 26 cases (30.5%), including trifurcation (n=7; 27%), right hepatic duct draining into left hepatic duct (n=2, 7.7%), right hepatic duct draining into common bile duct (n=4; 15.4%), extrahepatic confluence (n=2; 7.7%), medial cystic duct (n=2; 7.7%), parallel cystic duct (n=3; 11.5%), juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (n=3; 11.5%) and pancreas divisum (n=3; 11.5%). A good correlation was observed between the MRCP and ERCP findings. The introduction of MRCP into the noninvasive study of biliary disease may be useful in the detection of anatomic variations relevant to laparoscopic surgery and other endoscopic and interventional techniques. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Relapse and stability of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, an anatomical biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Schulten, A.J.M.; van der Wal, K.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This anatomic biomechanical study was undertaken to gain insight into the underlining mechanism of tipping of the maxillary segments during transverse expansion using tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices. Materials and Methods: An anatomic biomechanical study was performed on 10

  7. Morphological approach of the sternal foramen: an anatomic study and a short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantsinikoudis, N; Chaniotakis, C; Gkasdaris, G; Georgiou, N; Kapetanakis, S

    2017-01-01

    The sternal foramen (SF) constitutes a specific anatomic defect in sternum, indicating an impaired fusion of ossificated segments, which occurs either in an anatomical part of the sternum or in sternal joints. The aim of this article is to provide baseline statistical data about the variations of the SF, to present a short review of the relevant literature and to compare results with other studies and populations. We review relevant literature, and we present data obtai-ned from skeletal samples of known population and sex. A total of 35 well-preserved dried sterna from the prefecture of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece, were selected: 20 men and 15 women with a mean age of 55 ± 6 years old. Measurements were made with a sliding calliper and photographic documentation. The incidence of the SF in the 35 dried specimens was 14.2%, 4 men (20% of male sample) and 1 woman (6.6% of female sample) and 80% of sternal foramina were observed in male individuals. The SF was found in the sternum body (2 cases, 40% of foramina), in xiphoid process (2 cases, 40% of foramina) and in sternoxiphoidal junction (1 case, 20% of foramina). All of the sterna presented 1 single visible SF. Two anatomically unique cases were identified throughout these 5 sterna, both belonging in male subjects. The SF constitutes a relatively common variation with great radiological, clinical, and forensic significance. Presence of a SF with irregular bony margins complicates considerably radiological differential diagnosis. Awareness of this important anatomic variation is fundamental for clinicians and autopsy pathologists, in order to avoid severe fatal complications and elucidate the exact cause of death, respectively.

  8. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  9. An anatomical study of the different neurosurgical approaches of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was done to study the feasibility of the various neurosurgical approaches of the cervical spinal cord. Methods: Ten cadaveric specimens obtained from the dissecting room of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria were dissected both anteriorly and posteriorly in the cervical region to compare ...

  10. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  11. Comparative X-ray investigation of lateral and anterior-posterior ankle-joint images - comparison with pathological and anatomical findings concerning lateral ankle-joint lesions and their clinical importance, studied in a special type of holding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.

    1982-01-01

    The study reports on a possibility to interpret the relation of the different bone structures of the upper ankle-joint to one another in the X-ray picture without using contrast media. Modern funtional diagnostic methods increasingly make use of X-ray pictures taken in fixed position. It seems useful to standardize such X-ray images of the ankle-joint in order to make them reproducible. The author developed a device that would suit these purposes. A diagnosis required the reproduction of the accidental mechanism. The clinical symptoms do not permit to clearly state the extent of the lesion of the ligaments. The results of the post-operative follow-up examinations confirm the urgent necessity of the standardized diagnostic method presented and the success of the therapy applied. The presented X-ray method permits safe diagnosis of ruptures of the ligaments. Location of a certain rupture is not possible with the fixed-position X-ray screening. For a clear assessment of lesions of the ligaments at the lateral ankle-joint, X-ray pictures must be taken both in the anterior-posterior path of rays and in the lateral one. A normal result in the lateral path of rays does not exclude a pathologic result in the anterior-posterior path of rays, and vice versa. (orig./MG) [de

  12. STUDY OF THE ANATOMICAL AND VISUAL RESULTS OF THERAPEUTIC PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaya Ashok Shinde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for corneal infections restores anatomical integrity. Improvement in instrumentation and surgical techniques, better postoperative management have improved corneal transplant outcome. Purpose of the study was to know what are the anatomical and visual results after therapeutic keratoplasty and to judge what could be the factors affecting the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, non-comparative, observational cohort study was done in 56 patient (56 eyes operated for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at tertiary care institute .Patients were reviewed for demographic data, postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, and complications. Pre-operative treatment in bacterial infections included Cefazolin 50 mg/ml and Tobramycin 1.4 % or gentamicin 1.4% half hourly, 1% atropine drops. Fungal infections were treated with Natamycin 5% suspension. Debridement was done. Amphotericin B was used against yeasts. Voriconazole (1% eye drops were given in Aspergillus species. With full aseptic precautions penetrating keratoplasty was carried out. The graft was 0.5 mm larger than the lesion. Keratoplasties were evaluated for (1 Graft clarity at 1 month and 1 year postoperative. (2 Cure of the infectious disease after surgery. (3 Anatomical success rate and visual results. RESULTS At the end of one year clear graft with bacterial keratitis was seen in 23 eyes (74.19% out of 31 eyes. In fungal keratitis clear graft was seen in 10 eyes (45.45% out of 22 eyes. 48.22% patients had vision of FC 1m-6/60 compared to preoperative vision at the end of one year. At the end of one year anatomical integrity was maintained in 53 (94.64% cases and it was lost in 5.36% patients. CONCLUSION Patients who underwent keratoplasty with 7.5 mm graft size had maximum graft clarity at the end of one year. Graft was clear in 36 patients (64.29% out of total 56 patients. At the end of 1 year vision improved to FC 1 mt

  13. Brain anatomical networks in world class gymnasts: a DTI tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Fan, Yuanyuan; Lu, Min; Li, Shumei; Song, Zheng; Peng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ruibin; Lin, Qixiang; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-15

    The excellent motor skills of world class gymnasts amaze everyone. People marvel at the way they precisely control their movements and wonder how the brain structure and function of these elite athletes differ from those of non-athletes. In this study, we acquired diffusion images from thirteen world class gymnasts and fourteen matched controls, constructed their anatomical networks, and calculated the topological properties of each network based on graph theory. From a connectivity-based analysis, we found that most of the edges with increased connection density in the champions were linked to brain regions that are located in the sensorimotor, attentional, and default-mode systems. From graph-based metrics, we detected significantly greater global and local efficiency but shorter characteristic path length in the anatomical networks of the champions compared with the controls. Moreover, in the champions we found a significantly higher nodal degree and greater regional efficiency in several brain regions that correspond to motor and attention functions. These included the left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus and temporal lobes. In addition, we revealed an increase in the mean fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract in the champions, possibly in response to long-term gymnastic training. Our study indicates that neuroanatomical adaptations and plastic changes occur in gymnasts' brain anatomical networks either in response to long-term intensive gymnastic training or as an innate predisposition or both. Our findings may help to explain gymnastic skills at the highest levels of performance and aid in understanding the neural mechanisms that distinguish expert gymnasts from novices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An international ecological study of adult height in relation to cancer incidence for 24 anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Marshall, Roger J; Walpole, Sarah C; Prieto-Merino, David; Liu, Dong-Xu; Perry, Jo K

    2015-03-01

    Anthropometric indices associated with childhood growth and height attained in adulthood, have been associated with an increased incidence of certain malignancies. To evaluate the cancer-height relationship, we carried out a study using international data, comparing various cancer rates with average adult height of women and men in different countries. An ecological analysis of the relationship between country-specific cancer incidence rates and average adult height was conducted for twenty-four anatomical cancer sites. Age-standardized rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008. Average female (112 countries) and male (65 countries) heights were sourced and compiled primarily from national health surveys. Graphical and weighted regression analysis was conducted, taking into account BMI and controlling for the random effect of global regions. A significant positive association between a country's average adult height and the country's overall cancer rate was observed in both men and women. Site-specific cancer incidence for females was positively associated with height for most cancers: lung, kidney, colorectum, bladder, melanoma, brain and nervous system, breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, corpus uteri, ovary, and leukemia. A significant negative association was observed with cancer of the cervix uteri. In males, site-specific cancer incidence was positively associated with height for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, colorectum, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, prostate, testicular, lip and oral cavity, and melanoma. Incidence of cancer was associated with tallness in the majority of anatomical/cancer sites investigated. The underlying biological mechanisms are unclear, but may include nutrition and early-life exposure to hormones, and may differ by anatomical site.

  15. TVT-S in the U position--anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Petr; Nanka, Ondrej; Martan, Alois; Grim, Milos; Zvarova, Jana; Masata, Jaromir

    2011-02-01

    The objective is to describe the anatomical position of tension-free vaginal tape Secur (TVT-S) in the U position regarding possible injury and fixation site. We placed TVT-S inserters bilaterally in 13 embalmed and five fresh frozen female bodies. After dissection, we measured distances from the obturator bundle. In embalmed bodies, the mean distance of TVT-S from the obturator bundle was 2.83 cm (standard deviation (SD) 0.87 cm) on the left, 2.92 cm (SD 1.24 cm) on the right. Perforation of the fascia of obturator internus muscle occurred in 38.5%. In fresh frozen bodies, results were fundamentally similar (p > 0.05). There is a risk of injury to the obturator bundle and urinary bladder during TVT-S; however, there is a significant risk of inserting the TVT-S inserter outside the obturator internus muscle (into the lesser pelvis). The position of TVT-S does not change significantly after legs mal-positioning.

  16. Ultrasound-guided block of sciatic and femoral nerves: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Sonja; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Eichenberger, Urs; Rohrbach, Helene

    2014-04-01

    The sheep is a popular animal model for human biomechanical research involving invasive surgery on the hind limb. These painful procedures can only be ethically justified with the application of adequate analgesia protocols. Regional anaesthesia as an adjunct to general anaesthesia may markedly improve well-being of these experimental animals during the postoperative period due to a higher analgesic efficacy when compared with systemic drugs, and may therefore reduce stress and consequently the severity of such studies. As a first step 14 sheep cadavers were used to establish a new technique for the peripheral blockade of the sciatic and the femoral nerves under sonographic guidance and to evaluate the success rate by determination of the colorization of both nerves after an injection of 0.5 mL of a 0.1% methylene blue solution. First, both nerves were visualized sonographically. Then, methylene blue solution was injected and subsequently the length of colorization was measured by gross anatomical dissection of the target nerves. Twenty-four sciatic nerves were identified sonographically in 12 out of 13 cadavers. In one animal, the nerve could not be ascertained unequivocally and, consequently, nerve colorization failed. Twenty femoral nerves were located by ultrasound in 10 out of 13 cadavers. In three cadavers, signs of autolysis impeded the scan. This study provides a detailed anatomical description of the localization of the sciatic and the femoral nerves and presents an effective and safe yet simple and rapid technique for performing peripheral nerve blocks with a high success rate.

  17. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  18. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  19. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  20. Climatic effects on the nasal complex: a CT imaging, comparative anatomical, and morphometric investigation of Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of climate on the nasal region have largely focused on external craniofacial linear parameters, using dry crania of modern human populations. This investigation augments traditional craniofacial morphometrics with internal linear and volumetric measures of the anatomic units comprising the nasal complex (i.e., internal nasal cavity depth, maxillary sinus volumes). The study focuses on macaques (i.e., Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) living at high and low altitudes, rather than on humans, since the short residency of migratory human populations may preclude using them as reliable models to test the long-term relationship of climate to nasal morphology. It is hypothesized that there will be significant differences in nasal complex morphology among macaques inhabiting different climates. This study integrated three different approaches: CT imaging, comparative anatomy, and morphometrics-in an effort to better understand the morphological structure and adaptive nature of the nasal complex. Results showed statistically significant differences when subsets of splanchnocranial and neurocranial variables were regressed against total maxillary sinus volume for particular taxa. For example, basion-hormion was significant for M. fascicularis, whereas choanal dimensions were significant only for M. mulatta. Both taxa revealed strong correlation between sinus volume and prosthion to staphylion distance, which essentially represents the length of the nasal cavity floor-and is by extension an indicator of the air conditioning capacity of the nasal region. These results clearly show that climatic effects play a major role in shaping the anatomy of the nasal complex in closely related species. The major influence upon these differing structures appears to be related to respiratory-related adaptations subserving differing climatic factors. In addition, the interdependence of the paranasal sinuses with other parts of the complex strongly

  1. Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kevin K; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E; McAlonan, Gráinne M

    2011-11-01

    The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay--essentially, the "absence of language delay." To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism. The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right cerebellum, putamen and precuneus

  2. Neural plasticity in functional and anatomical MRI studies of children with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichele, Heike; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms. We conducted a systematic search to identify existing imaging studies (both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in young persons under the age of 19 years with TS. The final search resulted in 13 original studies, which were reviewed with a focus on findings suggesting adaptive processes (using fMRI) and plasticity (using anatomical MRI). Differences in brain activation compared to healthy controls during tasks that require overriding of prepotent responses help to understand compensatory pathways in children with TS. Along with alterations in regions putatively representing the origin of tics, deviations in several other regions most likely represent an activity-dependent neural plasticity that help to modulate tic severity, such as the prefrontal cortex, but also in the corpus callosum and the limbic system. Factors that potentially influence the development of adaptive changes in the brain of children with TS are age, comorbidity with other developmental disorders, medication use, IQ along with study-design or MRI techniques for acquisition, and analysis of data. The most prominent limitation of all studies is their cross-sectional design. Longitudinal studies extending to younger age groups and to children at risk for developing TS hopefully will confirm findings of neural plasticity in future investigations.

  3. ArthroBroström Lateral Ankle Stabilization Technique: An Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Ortiz, Cristian; Golano, Pau; Nery, Caio

    2015-10-01

    Arthroscopic ankle lateral ligament repair techniques have recently been developed and biomechanically as well as clinically validated. Although there has been 1 anatomic study relating suture and anchor proximity to anatomic structures, none has evaluated the ArthroBroström procedure. To evaluate the proximity of anatomic structures for the ArthroBroström lateral ankle ligament stabilization technique and to define ideal landmarks and "safe zones" for this repair. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric ankle specimens (5 matched pairs) were screened for the study. All specimens underwent arthroscopic lateral ligament repair according to the previously described ArthroBroström technique with 2 suture anchors in the fibula. Three cadaveric specimens were used to test the protocol, and 7 were dissected to determine the proximity of anatomic structures. Several distances were measured, including those of different anatomic structures to the suture knots, to determine the "safe zones." Measurements were obtained by 2 separate observers, and statistical analysis was performed. None of the specimens revealed entrapment by either of the suture knots of the critical anatomic structures, including the superficial peroneal nerve (SPN), sural nerve, peroneus tertius tendon, peroneus brevis tendon, or peroneus longus tendon. The internervous safe zone between the intermediate branch of the SPN and sural nerve was a mean of 51 mm (range, 39-64 mm). The intertendinous safe zone between the peroneus tertius and peroneus brevis was a mean of 43 mm (range, 37-49 mm). On average, a 20-mm (range, 8-36 mm) safe distance was maintained from the most medial suture to the intermediate branch of the SPN. The amount of inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) grasped by either suture knot varied from 0 to 12 mm, with 86% of repairs including the retinaculum. The results indicate that there is a relatively wide internervous and intertendinous safe zone when performing the Arthro

  4. Anatomic study of celiac ganglia using CT in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qionghui; Zhang Xiaoming; Zeng Nanlin; Cai Changping; Xie Xingguo; Li Chengjun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the celiac ganglia in cadavers by using current CT techniques, and to facilitate its identification in vivo by CT. Methods: Fifty cadavers were dissected, moving peritoneal organs such as liver and stomach to expose the celiac ganglia. The location, morphology, and dimensions of celiac ganglia, and their relationship to abutting structures, were noted. The celiac ganglia in 6 of the 50 cadavers without peripancreatic diseases and with clear anatomy were isolated and marked with yellow dye and Iohexol injection. In these 6 cadavers, the moved organs were relocated, the abdomen was closed, and CT was performed. CT derived measurements of celiac ganglia were compared with those from cadavers study. Results: The celiac ganglia of 47 of 50 cadavers (94%) were located between T12-L1, and those of 3 cadavers (6%) were located between T11-12. The superior-inferior diameter of the right ganglia was (25.01 ±6.09) mm, long (left-right) diameter was (13.18 ± 3.62) mm, and short (thickness) diameter was (1.40 ± 0.55) mm. In the left ganglia, these three diameters were (22.74 ± 5.70) mm, (15.07 ± 4.35) mm, and (2.00 ± 0.71 ) mm, respectively. On the CT images of 6 cadavers, the right and left ganglia were all identified and were hyperdense relative to viscus, such as liver and spleen. The long and short diameters on CT images were (15.20 ± 1.64) mm and (1.53 ± 0.52) mm for the right ganglia and (16.25 ± 1.73 ) mm and (2.20 ± 0.73) mm for the left ganglia. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ganglia measured on CT images and by dissection (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current CT techniques can demonstrate accurately the celiac ganglia in cadavers. This can be a reference for identifying the celiac plexus in vivo. (authors)

  5. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  6. The ligament of Parks as a key anatomical structure for safer hemorrhoidectomy: Anatomic study and a simple surgical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Zoulamoglou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhoids are a common anal disorder which affects both men and women of all ages. One out of ten patients with hemorrhoidal disease, requires surgical treatment. Unfortunately though, hemorrhoidectomy is closely related to complications that can be present early or late postoperatively. In the present manuscript, the safe surgical technique which emphasizes to the identification of the key anatomical structure of the ligament of Parks (Trietz's muscle is adequately described. A total of 200 patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, underwent Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson's hemorrhoidectomy. The mucosal ligament of Parks was identified to all patients and was used as a key anatomical structure through the excision of the hemorrhoids. Its identification guides surgeons during the operation and reduces the major problem of postoperative complications. Finally, since the mucosal ligament of Parks represents a constantly identifiable landmark, it allows simple and reliable identification of the internal sphincter muscle and minimizes the probability of postoperative complications.

  7. Anatomic pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy: the Brazilian experience (VATS Brazil study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mingarini Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the results of anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil. Methods: Thoracic surgeons (members of the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery were invited, via e-mail, to participate in the study. Eighteen surgeons participated in the project by providing us with retrospective databases containing information related to anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Demographic, surgical, and postoperative data were collected with a standardized instrument, after which they were compiled and analyzed. Results: The surgeons provided data related to a collective total of 786 patients (mean number of resections per surgeon, 43.6. However, 137 patients were excluded because some data were missing. Therefore, the study sample comprised 649 patients. The mean age of the patients was 61.7 years. Of the 649 patients, 295 (45.5% were male. The majority-521 (89.8%-had undergone surgery for neoplasia, which was most often classified as stage IA. The median duration of pleural drainage was 3 days, and the median hospital stay was 4 days. Of the 649 procedures evaluated, 598 (91.2% were lobectomies. Conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in 30 cases (4.6%. Postoperative complications occurred in 124 patients (19.1%, the most common complications being pneumonia, prolonged air leaks, and atelectasis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2.0%, advanced age and diabetes being found to be predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Our analysis of this representative sample of patients undergoing pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil showed that the procedure is practicable and safe, as well as being comparable to those performed in other countries.

  8. The oblique occipital sinus: anatomical study using bone subtraction 3D CT venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Choi, Dae Seob; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Jeong Yeol; Park, SungEun

    2017-06-01

    An occipital sinus draining into the sigmoid sinus has been termed the oblique occipital sinus (OOS). The frequency, anatomical features, patterns, and relationship with the transverse sinus of the oblique occipital sinus were analyzed in this study. The study included 1805 patients who underwent brain CT angiography during a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015. CT examinations were performed using a 64-slice MDCT system. The OOS was identified in 41 patients (2.3%). There were many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinuses. A hypoplastic or aplastic TS was seen in 31 (75.6%) of the 41 patients with OOS. Many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinus can be seen on CT venography. Some OOSs function as the main drainage route of the intracranial veins instead of the TS. Thus, careful examination is essential for preoperative evaluation in posterior fossa lesions.

  9. A novel method to quantify and compare anatomical shape: application in cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungjong; Jaffray, David; Cho, Young-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) had been proposed to restore dosimetric deficiencies during treatment delivery. In this paper, we developed a technique of Geometric reLocation for analyzing anatomical OBjects' Evolution (GLOBE) for a numerical model of tumor evolution under radiation therapy and characterized geometric changes of the target using GLOBE. A total of 174 clinical target volumes (CTVs) obtained from 32 cervical cancer patients were analyzed. GLOBE consists of three main steps; step (1) deforming a 3D surface object to a sphere by parametric active contour (PAC), step (2) sampling a deformed PAC on 642 nodes of icosahedron geodesic dome for reference frame, and step (3) unfolding 3D data to 2D plane for convenient visualization and analysis. The performance was evaluated with respect to (1) convergence of deformation (iteration number and computation time) and (2) accuracy of deformation (residual deformation). Based on deformation vectors from planning CTV to weekly CTVs, target specific (TS) margins were calculated on each sampled node of GLOBE and the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) variations of the vectors were calculated. Population based anisotropic (PBA) margins were generated using van Herk's margin recipe. GLOBE successfully modeled 152 CTVs from 28 patients. Fast convergence was observed for most cases (137/152) with the iteration number of 65 ± 74 (average ± STD) and the computation time of 13.7 ± 18.6 min. Residual deformation of PAC was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm and more than 97% was less than 3 mm. Margin analysis showed random nature of TS-margin. As a consequence, PBA-margins perform similarly to ISO-margins. For example, PBA-margins for 90% patients' coverage with 95% dose level is close to 13 mm ISO-margins in the aspect of target coverage and OAR sparing. GLOBE demonstrates a systematic analysis of tumor motion and deformation of patients with cervix cancer during radiation therapy and numerical modeling of PBA-margin on 642 locations of CTV

  10. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuho, J., E-mail: jarmo.teuho@tyks.fi [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Johansson, J. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Linden, J. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2014-01-11

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template. -- Highlights: • Comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR was performed with a novel brain phantom. • The performance of reconstruction and attenuation correction in PET/MR was studied. • A recently developed brain phantom was found feasible for PET/MR imaging. • Contrast reduction

  11. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  12. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  13. Nasal Unit Transplantation: A Cadaveric Anatomical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorafshar, Amir H; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Robinson, Brent; Tuffaha, Sami; Brandacher, Gerald; Byrne, Patrick; Walton, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Background  The science and technical acumen in the field of vascularized composite allotransplantation has progressed rapidly over the past 15 years, and transplantation of specialized units of the face, such as the nose, appears possible. No study to date has evaluated the technical feasibility of isolated nasal unit transplantation (NUT). In this study, we explore the anatomy and technical specifics of NUT. Methods  In this study, four fresh cadaver heads were studied. Bilateral vascular pedicle dissections were performed in each cadaver. The facial artery was cannulated and injected with food dye under physiologic pressure in two cadavers, and with lead oxide mixture in two cadavers to evaluate perfusion territories supplied by each vascular pedicle. Results  The facial artery and vein were found to be adequate pedicles for NUT. Divergent courses of the vein and artery were consistently identified, which made for a bulky pedicle with necessary inclusion of large amounts of subcutaneous tissue. In all cases, the artery remained superficial, while the vein coursed in a deeper plane, and demonstrated consistent anastomoses with the superior transverse orbital arcade. While zinc oxide injection of the facial artery demonstrated filling of the nasal vasculature across the midline, dye perfusion studies suggested that unilateral arterial inflow may be insufficient to perfuse contralateral NUT components. Discrepancies in these two studies underscore the limitations of nondynamic assessment of nutritive perfusion. Conclusion  NUT based on the facial artery and facial vein is technically feasible. Angiosome evaluation suggests that bilateral pedicle anastomoses may be required to ensure optimal perfusion. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Visual agnosia and posterior cerebral artery infarcts: an anatomical-clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, Olivier; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Loubeyre, Maud; Hirsbein, David; Hannequin, Didier; Cohen, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate systematically the cognitive deficits following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes, especially agnosic visual disorders, and to study anatomical-clinical correlations. We investigated 31 patients at the chronic stage (mean duration of 29.1 months post infarct) with standardized cognitive tests. New experimental tests were used to assess visual impairments for words, faces, houses, and objects. Forty-one healthy subjects participated as controls. Brain lesions were normalized, combined, and related to occipitotemporal areas responsive to specific visual categories, including words (VWFA), faces (FFA and OFA), houses (PPA) and common objects (LOC). Lesions were located in the left hemisphere in 15 patients, in the right in 13, and bilaterally in 3. Visual field defects were found in 23 patients. Twenty patients had a visual disorder in at least one of the experimental tests (9 with faces, 10 with houses, 7 with phones, 3 with words). Six patients had a deficit just for a single category of stimulus. The regions of maximum overlap of brain lesions associated with a deficit for a given category of stimuli were contiguous to the peaks of the corresponding functional areas as identified in normal subjects. However, the strength of anatomical-clinical correlations was greater for words than for faces or houses, probably due to the stronger lateralization of the VWFA, as compared to the FFA or the PPA. Agnosic visual disorders following PCA infarcts are more frequent than previously reported. Dedicated batteries of tests, such as those developed here, are required to identify such deficits, which may escape clinical notice. The spatial relationships of lesions and of regions activated in normal subjects predict the nature of the deficits, although individual variability and bilaterally represented systems may blur those correlations.

  15. Visual agnosia and posterior cerebral artery infarcts: an anatomical-clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Martinaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate systematically the cognitive deficits following posterior cerebral artery (PCA strokes, especially agnosic visual disorders, and to study anatomical-clinical correlations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated 31 patients at the chronic stage (mean duration of 29.1 months post infarct with standardized cognitive tests. New experimental tests were used to assess visual impairments for words, faces, houses, and objects. Forty-one healthy subjects participated as controls. Brain lesions were normalized, combined, and related to occipitotemporal areas responsive to specific visual categories, including words (VWFA, faces (FFA and OFA, houses (PPA and common objects (LOC. Lesions were located in the left hemisphere in 15 patients, in the right in 13, and bilaterally in 3. Visual field defects were found in 23 patients. Twenty patients had a visual disorder in at least one of the experimental tests (9 with faces, 10 with houses, 7 with phones, 3 with words. Six patients had a deficit just for a single category of stimulus. The regions of maximum overlap of brain lesions associated with a deficit for a given category of stimuli were contiguous to the peaks of the corresponding functional areas as identified in normal subjects. However, the strength of anatomical-clinical correlations was greater for words than for faces or houses, probably due to the stronger lateralization of the VWFA, as compared to the FFA or the PPA. CONCLUSIONS: Agnosic visual disorders following PCA infarcts are more frequent than previously reported. Dedicated batteries of tests, such as those developed here, are required to identify such deficits, which may escape clinical notice. The spatial relationships of lesions and of regions activated in normal subjects predict the nature of the deficits, although individual variability and bilaterally represented systems may blur those correlations.

  16. Transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus revisited: An anatomical study laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Baran; da Silva Centeno, Ricardo; Chaddad-Neto, Feres; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Goiri, Marcelo Augusto Acosta; Karadag, Ali; Tugcu, Bekir; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Tanriover, Necmettin; Kaya, Serdar; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Grande, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn. We reviewed the literature to compare the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach with other SelAH techniques based on surgical outcomes. There does not appear to be a significant difference in seizure outcome between SelAH and ATL. However, the SelAH provides a better neuropsychological outcomes than the ATL in selected patients. Each SelAH approach has individual advantages and disadvantages. Based on our anatomical study, in the transcortical amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus the white matter pathways to be encountered. In the temporal horn, the collateral eminence, hippocampus, lateral ventricular sulcus, choroidal fissure, inferior choroidal point, choroid plexus, fimbria of the fornix, and amygdala are exposed. The subpial dissection is performed along the lateral ventricular sulcus from the collateral eminence on lateral side and from the choroidal fissure on medial side by microdissector for en bloc resection of the hippocampus proper. The trans-middle temporal gyrus approach is commonly used in treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A better anatomical and functional understanding of the structures of the temporal lobe is crucial for safer and more accurate surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

  18. Anatomical explorations of mind: Studies with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    From studies of patients with various lesions affecting areas of the brain thought to be important in language processing, two general theories have emerged; a serial model that posits information flow in an obligatory, stepwise fashion from perception to speech, and a parallel model that posits a flexible modular organization governed by specific information processing requirements that can vary under particular circumstances. The processing of single words has been studied in normal adult humans using positron emission tomography to determine whether either of these theories best explains the manner in which single words are processed by the human brain. Results indicate that the processing of single words is accomplished in a highly modular, parallel fashion that is flexibly determined by specific task requirements and the familiarity of the subject with the task

  19. An anatomical study of normal variations of circle of Willis in 132 fetus, newborn and adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateni F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have investigated the variations in the anatomy of each segment of circle of Willis whereas a few have addressed the variations of this arterial circle as a whole. In this study the entire circle of Willis and its variations were studied in a cohort of Iranian people and compared with previous reports."n"nMethods: Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis in 132 brains of Iranian cadavers (102 male adults and 30 fetuses and infants were studied. The dissection process was digitally filmed for further studies. Using computer software the external diameters of the vessels were measured and the circle variations were classified. The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were compared with previous studies. "n"nResults: Uni-and bilateral hypoplasia of posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs constituted the most common variation in our study which was similar to previous works. Aplasia of the anterior cerebral artery (A1 and the posterior cerebral artery (P1 were not observed. In 3.3% of fetuses and infants and 3% of adult instances both right and left posterior communicating arteries were absent. There was one case of anterior communicating artery (AcoA aplasia in

  20. Pituitary fossa: a correlative anatomic and MR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, L.; Pech, P.; Daniels, D.; Charles, C.; Williams, A.; Haughton, V.

    1984-01-01

    This study characterizes the normal appearance of the pituitary fossa in partial saturation magnetic resonance (MR) images. In sagittal images, the pituitary fossa appears inhomogeneous. Correlation of sagittal MR images in normal subjects with sagittal cryomicrotomic images in cadavers suggests that the highest intensity signal from the posterior-inferior pituitary fossa is due to a fat pad. This conclusion was supported by MR images and postmortem cryotome sections obtained in normal subhuman primates

  1. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  3. Anatomic variation of the clavicle: A novel three-dimensional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daruwalla, Zubin J

    2010-03-01

    An understanding of the complex anatomy of the clavicle is helpful in the treatment of clavicular fractures. Using three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape analysis, the author presents a novel method to assess geometric morphology of the clavicle. Fifteen fresh frozen shoulder specimens were scanned using high-resolution computerized tomography (CT) but four were excluded from the study. A further 16 high-resolution CT scans of the clavicle were obtained by searching the hospital database. All 27 scans were reconstructed and subsequently imported into and analyzed using a specifically developed statistical software package. Using statistical shape analysis, geometric parameters were then measured. Both gender as well as side specific geometric morphology were observed. Clavicles in men were longer, wider, and thicker than in women. Right clavicles had a greater medial depth than left clavicles, especially in women. Clavicles in men had a greater lateral depth than in women. The sternal angle in women was larger than in men. Using 3D statistical shape analysis and applying it to the clavicle standardizes the study of its anatomy, rules out any variability, and calculates morphological parameters that are accurate, precise, and reproducible. This unique approach provides information that is useful not only to the clinician but also in the modification of current or design of future clavicle fixation devices. More importantly, from an anatomy standpoint, implementation of this novel approach in anatomical studies would eliminate intra- and interobserver variation and allow all studies to be standardized and thus more comparable.

  4. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Ju [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Denstistry, Chonbuk National Universty, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  5. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon; Park, Mi Ju

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  6. Surface localization of sacral foramina for neuromodulation of bladder function. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Shanahan, D A; Pridie, A K; Neal, D E

    1996-01-01

    A method is described for percutaneous localization of the sacral foramina, for neuromodulation of bladder function. We carried out an anatomical study of 5 male and 5 female human cadaver pelves. Using the described surface markings, needles were placed percutaneously into all sacral foramina from nine different angles. Paths of needle entry were studied by subsequent dissection. We observed that although it was possible to enter any sacral foramen at a wide range of insertion angles, the incidence of nerve root/vascular penetration increased with increasing angle of needle entry. Also, the incidence of nerve root penetration was higher with the medial approach compared with lateral entry. The insertion of a needle into the S1 foramen was associated with a higher incidence of nerve root penetration and presents a potential for arterial haemorrhage. On the other hand the smaller S3 and S4 nerve roots were surrounded by venous plexuses, presenting a potential source of venous haemorrhage during procedures. Our study suggests a new method for identifying the surface markings of sacral foramina and it describes the paths of inserted needles into the respective foramina. In addition, it has highlighted some potential risk factors secondary to needle insertion.

  7. Automatic detection of anatomical regions in frontal x-ray images: comparing convolutional neural networks to random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olory Agomma, R.; Vázquez, C.; Cresson, T.; De Guise, J.

    2018-02-01

    Most algorithms to detect and identify anatomical structures in medical images require either to be initialized close to the target structure, or to know that the structure is present in the image, or to be trained on a homogeneous database (e.g. all full body or all lower limbs). Detecting these structures when there is no guarantee that the structure is present in the image, or when the image database is heterogeneous (mixed configurations), is a challenge for automatic algorithms. In this work we compared two state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in order to determine which one is the most appropriate for predicting targets locations based on image patches. By knowing the position of thirteen landmarks points, labelled by an expert in EOS frontal radiography, we learn the displacement between salient points detected in the image and these thirteen landmarks. The learning step is carried out with a machine learning approach by exploring two methods: Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Random Forest (RF). The automatic detection of the thirteen landmarks points in a new image is then obtained by averaging the positions of each one of these thirteen landmarks estimated from all the salient points in the new image. We respectively obtain for CNN and RF, an average prediction error (both mean and standard deviation in mm) of 29 +/-18 and 30 +/- 21 for the thirteen landmarks points, indicating the approximate location of anatomical regions. On the other hand, the learning time is 9 days for CNN versus 80 minutes for RF. We provide a comparison of the results between the two machine learning approaches.

  8. Anatomical and radiographic study of the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris skull1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Schimming

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was made to investigate the anatomical features of the white-eared opossum skull, by osteology and radiographic anatomy. For this, five animals were used without sexual distinction. The skull was examined by radiographic and macroscopic characteristics. The skulls were then subjected to maceration. The skull was described macroscopically according to standard views, i.e. dorsal and caudal, lateral, ventral, and midsagittal. The skull can be divided into facial (viscerocranium and cranial (neurocranium regions. The facial region was elongated and more developed than neurocranium. The supraorbital foramen was absent. The tympanic bulla is not well developed. The zygomatic arch was formed by zygomatic process of the temporal bone, zygomatic process of the maxilla, and temporal process of the zygomatic bone. There was no significant difference between bones found in this study when compared with those described for others mammals. These findings may contribute to the better understanding of the anatomy and biology of the white-eared opossum.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the tensor vastus intermedius: A topographic study based on anatomical dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Gascho, Dominic; Ackland, Timothy; Gilbey, Helen; Fretz, Christian; Kuster, Markus S

    2017-11-01

    The tensor of the vastus intermedius (TVI) is a newly described component of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appearance of the TVI on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and its association with the adjacent vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles and to compare these findings with the corresponding anatomy. MR images were analyzed from a cadaveric thigh where the TVI, as part of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint, had been dissected. The course of the TVI in relation to the adjacent VL and VI was studied. The anatomic dissection and MR imaging revealed a multilayered organization of the lateral extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The TVI is an intervening muscle between the VL and VI that combined into a broad flat aponeurosis in the midthigh and merged into the quadriceps tendon. Dorsally, the muscle fibers of the TVI joined those of the VL and VI and blended into the attachment at the lateral lip of the linea aspera. In this area, distinguishing between these three muscles was not possible macroscopically or virtually by MR imaging. In the dorsal aspect, the onion-like muscle layers of the VL, TVI, and VI fuse to a hardly separable muscle mass indicating that these muscles work in conjunction to produce knee extension torque when knee joint action is performed. Clin. Anat. 30:1096-1102, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Study of the appearance difference of lower complete denture between functional and anatomic impression techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qun; Wu, Xue-yin; Shen, Qing-yi; Shen, Qing-ping

    2012-04-01

    To compare the difference in oblique external ridge, oblique internal ridge and alveolar process crest of lower complete denture base made through functional impression and anatomic impression techniques. Fifteen patients were chosen to treat with two kinds of complete dentures through functional impression and anatomic impression technique respectively. 3D laser scanner was used to scan the three-dimensional model of the denture base and the differences of the surface structural between two techniques in alveolar process crest, external and internal oblique ridges were analyzed, using paired t test with SPSS 12.0 software package. Between the two techniques, there were significant differences in the areas of internal and external oblique ridge(P0.05). The results explain why there is less tenderness when functional impression technique is applied. The differences measured also indicate that sufficient buffering should be made in external and internal oblique ridge areas in clinic.

  11. Disruption of brain anatomical networks in schizophrenia: A longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu; Lee, Renick; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Collinson, Simon L; Sim, Kang

    2016-03-01

    Despite convergent neuroimaging evidence indicating a wide range of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, our understanding of alterations in the topological architecture of brain anatomical networks and how they are modulated over time, is still rudimentary. Here, we employed graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI) over a 5-year period to investigate brain network topology in schizophrenia and its relationship with clinical manifestations of the illness. Using deterministic tractography, weighted brain anatomical networks were constructed from 31 patients experiencing schizophrenia and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Although the overall small-world characteristics were observed at both baseline and follow-up, a scan-point independent significant deficit of global integration was found in patients compared to controls, suggesting dysfunctional integration of the brain and supporting the notion of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Specifically, several brain regions (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral insula) that are crucial for cognitive and emotional integration were aberrant. Furthermore, a significant group-by-longitudinal scan interaction was revealed in the characteristic path length and global efficiency, attributing to a progressive aberration of global integration in patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the progressive disruptions of the brain anatomical network topology were associated with the clinical symptoms of the patients. Together, our findings provide insights into the substrates of anatomical dysconnectivity patterns for schizophrenia and highlight the potential for connectome-based metrics as neural markers of illness progression and clinical change with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fingertip replantation at the eponychial level with venous anastomosis: an anatomic study and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Chen, K; Chai, Y-M; Wen, G; Wang, C-Y

    2013-11-01

    We present an anatomic study of the vein distribution at the eponychial level, in order to standardize outpatient fingertip replantation. The cross sectional anatomy of 100 fingers was studied by dissection following dye injection. The distribution of the veins >0.3 mm was recorded on a pie-chart. Thirty fingers in 27 patients with fingertip amputations at the eponychial level were replanted by anastomosis of the palmar subcutaneous veins, to reconstruct the venous reflux of the amputated digits. The operations were aided by the anatomical study and confirmed that the palmar area is the preferred site for venous anastomosis Following a distal finger amputation at the level of the eponychial fold we propose starting the search for veins between the 3 to 5 o'clock or 7 to 9 o'clock positions, as these are the areas where there are most likely to be suitable veins.

  13. Coronoid process of the ulna: paleopathologic and anatomic study with imaging correlation. Emphasis on the anteromedial ''facet''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio; Barbosa, Diogo Miranda; Belentani, Clarissa; Negrao Ramos, Pedro Miguel; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the coronoid process of the ulna and to use magnetic resonance (MR) images and anatomic correlation with cadavers to show the macroscopic configuration of this structure. Photography and high-resolution radiography were performed in 26 ulna specimens from the collection of a local museum. MR imaging of the coronoid process of 11 cadaveric elbows was performed. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. The anteromedial rim of the coronoid process of the ulna had a regular surface, without osseous irregularities or facets in 69.2% of the specimens. In 30.8% of the specimens, the anteromedial rim was not regular and a small ridge could be identified. The insertion site of the joint capsule was onto the anterior aspect of the coronoid process, at an average distance of 5.9 mm distal to the tip. The attachment of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament at the sublime tubercle was flush with the articular margin in 63.6% of the specimens. In 36.4% of the specimens, a more distal attachment, with a separation between the undersurface of the ligament and the adjacent tubercle, was seen. The brachialis tendon was attached to the coronoid process at a mean distance of 12.1 mm distal to the tip. The coronoid process of the ulna is a small osseous structure with a complex anatomy and presents some anatomical variations. (orig.)

  14. Coronoid process of the ulna: paleopathologic and anatomic study with imaging correlation. Emphasis on the anteromedial ''facet''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio [University of California, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Barbosa, Diogo Miranda; Belentani, Clarissa; Negrao Ramos, Pedro Miguel; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the coronoid process of the ulna and to use magnetic resonance (MR) images and anatomic correlation with cadavers to show the macroscopic configuration of this structure. Photography and high-resolution radiography were performed in 26 ulna specimens from the collection of a local museum. MR imaging of the coronoid process of 11 cadaveric elbows was performed. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. The anteromedial rim of the coronoid process of the ulna had a regular surface, without osseous irregularities or facets in 69.2% of the specimens. In 30.8% of the specimens, the anteromedial rim was not regular and a small ridge could be identified. The insertion site of the joint capsule was onto the anterior aspect of the coronoid process, at an average distance of 5.9 mm distal to the tip. The attachment of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament at the sublime tubercle was flush with the articular margin in 63.6% of the specimens. In 36.4% of the specimens, a more distal attachment, with a separation between the undersurface of the ligament and the adjacent tubercle, was seen. The brachialis tendon was attached to the coronoid process at a mean distance of 12.1 mm distal to the tip. The coronoid process of the ulna is a small osseous structure with a complex anatomy and presents some anatomical variations. (orig.)

  15. Functional anatomic studies of memory retrieval for auditory words and visual pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Raichle, M E; Miezin, F M; Petersen, S E

    1996-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging with positron emission tomography was used to study brain areas activated during memory retrieval. Subjects (n = 15) recalled items from a recent study episode (episodic memory) during two paired-associate recall tasks. The tasks differed in that PICTURE RECALL required pictorial retrieval, whereas AUDITORY WORD RECALL required word retrieval. Word REPETITION and REST served as two reference tasks. Comparing recall with repetition revealed the following observations. (1) Right anterior prefrontal activation (similar to that seen in several previous experiments), in addition to bilateral frontal-opercular and anterior cingulate activations. (2) An anterior subdivision of medial frontal cortex [pre-supplementary motor area (SMA)] was activated, which could be dissociated from a more posterior area (SMA proper). (3) Parietal areas were activated, including a posterior medial area near precuneus, that could be dissociated from an anterior parietal area that was deactivated. (4) Multiple medial and lateral cerebellar areas were activated. Comparing recall with rest revealed similar activations, except right prefrontal activation was minimal and activations related to motor and auditory demands became apparent (e.g., bilateral motor and temporal cortex). Directly comparing picture recall with auditory word recall revealed few notable activations. Taken together, these findings suggest a pathway that is commonly used during the episodic retrieval of picture and word stimuli under these conditions. Many areas in this pathway overlap with areas previously activated by a different set of retrieval tasks using stem-cued recall, demonstrating their generality. Examination of activations within individual subjects in relation to structural magnetic resonance images provided an-atomic information about the location of these activations. Such data, when combined with the dissociations between functional areas, provide an increasingly detailed picture of

  16. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  17. Diversity of beta-papillomavirus at anogenital and oral anatomic sites of men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Emily Montosa; Sudenga, Staci L; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to describe prevalence of β-HPVs at three anatomic sites among 717 men from Brazil, Mexico and US enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. β-HPVs were genotyped using Luminex technology. Overall, 77.7%, 54.3% and 29.3% men were positive for any β-HPV at the genitals, anal canal, and oral cavity, respectively. Men from US and Brazil were significantly less likely to have β-HPV at the anal canal than men from Mexico. Older men were more likely to have β-HPV at the anal canal compared to younger men. Prevalence of β-HPV at the oral cavity was significantly associated with country of origin and age. Current smokers were significantly less likely to have β-HPV in the oral cavity than men who never smoked. Lack of associations between β-HPV and sexual behaviors may suggest other routes of contact such as autoinoculation which need to be explored further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomical relations of anterior and posterior ankle arthroscopy portals: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Xavier Martin; Méndez López, José Manuel; Monzo Planella, Mariano; Bravo, Alex; Rodrigues-Pinto, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Ankle arthroscopy is an increasingly used technique. Knowledge of the anatomical structures in relation to its portals is paramount to avoid complications. Twenty cadaveric ankles were analysed to assess the distance between relevant neurovascular structures to the anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral arthroscopy portals. The intermediate dorsal branch of the superficial peroneal nerve was the closest structure to any of the portals (4.8 mm from the anterolateral portal), followed by the posterior tibial nerve (7.3 mm from the posteromedial portal). All structures analysed but one (posterior tibial artery) were, at least in one specimen, portals. This study provides information on the anatomical relations of ankle arthroscopy portals and relevant neurovascular structures, confirming previous studies identifying the superficial peroneal nerve as the structure at highest risk of injury, but also highlighting some important variations. Techniques to minimise the injury to these structures are discussed.

  19. An anatomic study of nipple position and areola size in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Shogo; Shimizu, Yusuke; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Fumio; Minabe, Toshiharu; Momosawa, Akira; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-02-01

    In planning gender-reassignment surgery for biological women and treating men with gynecomastia, surgeons must have a thorough understanding of anatomically correct nipple positions and appropriate areola sizes in men. The authors sought to determine whether body height or body mass index (BMI) affects nipple position or areola size in men. Anatomic measurements of the nipples and areolae of 50 Japanese men were obtained. A relative coordinate system was defined, where the medial-lateral and superior-inferior positions of the nipple were quantitatively indicated by distance ratios between anatomic landmarks. Nipple positions were evaluated for each patient by referring to this coordinate system, and the positions were compared between groups categorized by body height or BMI. Nipple position was not significantly affected by body height. However, the nipple tended to be located more laterally in participants with higher BMI. The vertical nipple position differed between standing and supine positions. Tall men had larger areolae than short men; however, areola size did not differ with respect to BMI. Nipple position and areola size vary by body shape. Consideration of the differences is recommended when performing procedures such as female-to-male gender-reassignment surgery or correction of gynecomastia. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Learning and study strategies correlate with medical students' performance in anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Williams, Shanna E; Gregory Hawkins, H

    2018-05-06

    Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination ® (USMLE ® ) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination ® (COMPLEX-USA ® ) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. The LASSI inventory assesses learning and study strategies based on ten subscale measures. These subscales include three components of strategic learning: skill (Information processing, Selecting main ideas, and Test strategies), will (Anxiety, Attitude, and Motivation) and self-regulation (Concentration, Time management, Self-testing, and Study aid). During second year (M2) orientation, 180 students (Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018) were administered the LASSI survey instrument. Pearson Product-Moment correlation analyses identified significant associations between five of the ten LASSI subscales (Anxiety, Information processing, Motivation, Selecting main idea, and Test strategies) and students' performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. Identification of students lacking these skills within the anatomical sciences curriculum allows targeted interventions, which not only maximize academic achievement in an aspect of an institution's internal examinations, but in the external measure of success represented by USMLE Step 1 scores. Anat Sci Educ 11: 236-242. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis ofFumaria indica (F. indica) (Hausskn.) Pugsley, (Fumariaceae), an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morpho-anatomical, physicochemical, phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F. indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization. Results: Morpho-anatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf, 4 to 6 cm in length, linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata, thin walled parenchymatous cells, scattered, sclerenchymatous, capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays. Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%, loss on drying 6.8%, total ash 16.77%, alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92% and 20.26%, respectively, sugar 17.75%, starch 22.97% and tannins 2.37%. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterol. Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different Rf value under UV light 366λ. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  2. Mystery of alar ligament rupture: Value of MRI in whiplash injuries - biomechanical, anatomical and clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitterling, H.; Brueckmann, H.; Staebler, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Whiplash injury of the cervical spine is a frequent issue in medical expertise and causes enormous consequential costs for motor insurance companies. Some authors accuse posttraumatic changes of alar ligaments to be causative for consequential disturbances. Materials and methods: Review of recent studies on biomechanics, anatomical and clinical MR imaging. Results: Biomechanical experiments can not induce according injuries of alar ligaments. Although MRI provides excellent visualization of alar ligaments, the range of normal variants is high. (orig.)

  3. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  4. Basilar expansion of the human sphenoidal sinus: an integrated anatomical and computerized tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haetinger, Rainer G.; Navarro, Joao A.C.; Liberti, Edson A.

    2006-01-01

    Basilar expansion of the sphenoidal sinus (BESS) was studied in order to demonstrate its critical relevance in endoscopic or microscopic endonasal surgical interventions, including access to the sphenoidal sinus itself or in transsphenoidal pituitary approaches. Direct evaluation of anatomical specimens (25 dry skulls and 25 formalin-fixed hemi heads) and the use of computerized tomography (CT) (50 dry skulls and 750 patients) showed a high BESS frequency (69%). The authors considered BESS to be critical when the posterior wall of the clivus was 2-mm thick and found a high incidence of this important anatomical variation (44%). This study also evaluated the relationship between the sinonasal septa, the clivus, and the internal carotid arteries, and a considerable regularity in the location of these structures was seen. The septa were anatomically related to the internal carotid arteries in 55% and to the clivus in 33% of the cases. In conclusion, the high frequency of critical BESS here described is relevant to endoscopic or microscopic endonasal surgical interventions, including access to the sphenoidal sinus itself or in transsphenoidal pituitary approaches. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  6. An anatomical study of the transversus nuchae muscle: Application to better understanding occipital neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Iwanaga, Joe; Tabira, Yoko; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The transversus nuchae muscle appears inconsistently in the occipital region. It has gained attention as one of the muscles composing the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). The purpose of this study was to clarify its detailed anatomical features. We examined 124 sides of 62 cadavers. The transversus nuchae muscle was identified when present and examined after it had been completely exposed. We also examined its relationship to the occipital cutaneous nerves.The transversus nuchae muscle was detected in 40 sides (40/124, 32.2%) of 26 cadavers; it was present bilaterally in 14 and unilaterally in 12. It originated from the external occipital protuberance; 43% of the observed muscles inserted around the mastoid process, and 58% curved upward around the mastoid process and became the uppermost bundle of the platysma. In one case, an additional bundle originated from the lower posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and coursed obliquely upward along with platysma. Ninety percent of the muscles ran below the sling through which the greater occipital nerve passed; 65% of the lesser occipital nerves ran deep to the muscle, and 55% of the great auricular nerves ran superficial to it. Our observations clarify the unique anatomical features of the transversus nuchae muscle. We found that it occurs at a rate similar to that described in previous reports, but its arrangement is variable. Further investigations will be performed to clarify its innervation and other anatomical features. Clin. Anat. 30:32-38, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anatomic factors affecting the use of ultrasound to predict vocal fold motion: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maheer M; Huang, Benjamin; Goins, Allie; Hackman, Trevor G

    2018-04-13

    Ultrasonography is a well-established modality for visualization of head and neck anatomy. Using ultrasound to detect vocal fold mobility has been described before, but no study has evaluated factors affecting the exam reliability. The aim of the study is to determine anatomic factors influencing the reliability of ultrasound to detect vocal fold motion. Methods and materials Patients underwent ultrasound evaluation and flexible laryngoscopy to assess vocal fold motion from August 2015 to March 2016. Length, accuracy, and clarity of ultrasound examination were assessed, compared to flexible laryngoscopy. For patients with prior neck CT scan imaging, laryngeal anatomy was independently assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist. A total of 23 patients, 21 with bilateral vocal fold motion and two with unilateral paralysis, were enrolled. Vocal folds were visible in 19 patients (82%). Eight patients (42%) had good/excellent view and 11 patients (58%) had fair/difficult view. The ultrasound correctly detected absent movement of the vocal fold in the two patients with unilateral paralysis. A total of 19 patients had CT scans, and a linear correlation (r 2  = 0.65) was noted between the anterior thyroid cartilage angle measured on CT and the grade of view on ultrasound. Ultrasound was able to detect vocal fold motion in 82% of randomly screened patients. Ease of detection of vocal fold motion correlated with the anterior thyroid angle. Further studies are warranted to investigate the reproducibility of our results and how this might impact use of ultrasound for detection of vocal fold motion in the operative setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Reinforcement-Based Learning Paradigm Increases Anatomical Learning and Retention—A Neuroeducation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah J.; Hecker, Kent G.; Krigolson, Olave E.; Jamniczky, Heather A.

    2018-01-01

    In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts. Determining how best do we design and assess pre-class exercises requires a detailed examination of learning and retention in an applied educational context. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) as a quantitative dependent variable to track learning and examine the efficacy of JiTT activities to teach anatomy. Specifically, we examined changes in the amplitude of the N250 and reward positivity event-related brain potential (ERP) components alongside behavioral performance as novice students participated in a series of computerized reinforcement-based learning modules to teach neuroanatomical structures. We found that as students learned to identify anatomical structures, the amplitude of the N250 increased and reward positivity amplitude decreased in response to positive feedback. Both on a retention and transfer exercise when learners successfully remembered and translated their knowledge to novel images, the amplitude of the reward positivity remained decreased compared to early learning. Our findings suggest ERPs can be used as a tool to track learning, retention, and transfer of knowledge and that employing the reinforcement learning paradigm is an effective educational approach for developing anatomical expertise. PMID:29467638

  9. A Reinforcement-Based Learning Paradigm Increases Anatomical Learning and Retention-A Neuroeducation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah J; Hecker, Kent G; Krigolson, Olave E; Jamniczky, Heather A

    2018-01-01

    In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts. Determining how best do we design and assess pre-class exercises requires a detailed examination of learning and retention in an applied educational context. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) as a quantitative dependent variable to track learning and examine the efficacy of JiTT activities to teach anatomy. Specifically, we examined changes in the amplitude of the N250 and reward positivity event-related brain potential (ERP) components alongside behavioral performance as novice students participated in a series of computerized reinforcement-based learning modules to teach neuroanatomical structures. We found that as students learned to identify anatomical structures, the amplitude of the N250 increased and reward positivity amplitude decreased in response to positive feedback. Both on a retention and transfer exercise when learners successfully remembered and translated their knowledge to novel images, the amplitude of the reward positivity remained decreased compared to early learning. Our findings suggest ERPs can be used as a tool to track learning, retention, and transfer of knowledge and that employing the reinforcement learning paradigm is an effective educational approach for developing anatomical expertise.

  10. A Reinforcement-Based Learning Paradigm Increases Anatomical Learning and Retention—A Neuroeducation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Anderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts. Determining how best do we design and assess pre-class exercises requires a detailed examination of learning and retention in an applied educational context. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG as a quantitative dependent variable to track learning and examine the efficacy of JiTT activities to teach anatomy. Specifically, we examined changes in the amplitude of the N250 and reward positivity event-related brain potential (ERP components alongside behavioral performance as novice students participated in a series of computerized reinforcement-based learning modules to teach neuroanatomical structures. We found that as students learned to identify anatomical structures, the amplitude of the N250 increased and reward positivity amplitude decreased in response to positive feedback. Both on a retention and transfer exercise when learners successfully remembered and translated their knowledge to novel images, the amplitude of the reward positivity remained decreased compared to early learning. Our findings suggest ERPs can be used as a tool to track learning, retention, and transfer of knowledge and that employing the reinforcement learning paradigm is an effective educational approach for developing anatomical expertise.

  11. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978 the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citizen quality of life. The mission still stands for “Compare to learn and improve”. As all the organizations lasting for 39 years, ISCPES experienced several vicissitudes, usually correlated with world economic cycles, social and sports changes, which are in ISS journal articles - International Sport Studies. ISS journal is Scopus indexed, aiming to improve its quality (under evaluation to reach more qualified students, experts, professionals and researchers; doing so it will raise its indexation, which we know it is nowadays a more difficult task. First, because there are more journals trying to compete on this academic fierce competitive market; secondly, because the basic requirements are getting more and more hard to gather in the publishing environment around Physical Education and Sports issues. However, we can promise this will be one of our main strategic goals. Another goal I would like to address on this Editorial is the language issue. We have this second strategic goal, which is to reach most of languages spoken in different continents; besides the English language, we will reach Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries. For that reason, we already defined that all the abstracts in English will be translated into Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese words so people can find them on any search browser. That will expand the demand for our journal and articles, increasing the number of potential readers. Of course this opportunity, given by

  12. Anterior joint capsule of the normal hip and in children with transient synovitis: US study with anatomic and histologic correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.F. Robben (Simon); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.F.M. Diepstraten (Ad); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); C.A. Entius; M. Meradji

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To study the anatomic components of the anterior joint capsule of the normal hip and in children with transient synovitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six cadaveric specimens were imaged with ultrasonography (US) with special attention to the anterior

  13. The Anterolateral Limit of the Occipital Lobe: An Anatomical and Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cassius Vinicius C; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Elhadi, Ali M; Dru, Alexander; Lei, Ting; Gusmão, Sebastião N S; Tazinaffo, Uédson; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  The boundaries of the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the anterior portion of the occipital lobe (OL) are poorly defined. Lesions in these areas can be difficult to localize. Therefore, we studied the anterolateral limit of the OL to identify reliable anatomical landmarks. Design  In 10 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads, the boundaries of the OL and relative anatomical landmarks were studied. Main Outcome Measures  Distances between the following structures were measured: (1) preoccipital tentorial plica (POTP) to the junction between lambdoid suture and superior border of the transverse sinus (POTP-SL), (2) POTP to the sinodural angle of Citelli (POTP-PP), (3) lambda to parietooccipital sulcus (L-POS), and (4) preoccipital notch to termination of the vein of Labbé (PON-VL). Landmarks in 559 computed tomography and magnetic resonance images were also studied. Results  The POTP was found on the tentorium of all anatomical specimens, located at the same coronal level as the PON and its attachment to the bony protuberance (BP) at the lateral cranial wall. The mean distances were POTP-SL, 6.5 ± 6.4 mm; POTP-PP, 18.1 ± 7.8 mm; L-POS, 10.8 ± 5.0 mm; and PON-VL, 8.8 ± 10.1 mm. Conclusion  Osseous (asterion, lambda, and BP), dural (POTP), and vascular (VL) landmarks can be used as reference structures to identify the anterolateral limit of the OL.

  14. Strength of suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yun; Hua, Ying-Hui; Wu, Zi-Ying; Chen, Bo; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of fixation with 2-suture anchors versus transosseous tunnel fixation in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments. Six matched pairs of human cadaveric ankles underwent anatomic lateral ankle reconstruction, and fixation of the graft on the talus was achieved with 2 suture anchors or a transosseous tunnel. Ankles for the transosseous tunnel group were chosen at random, with the paired contralateral ankles used for the 2-suture anchor group. Half of the peroneus brevis tendon was harvested as a graft. For each technique, one end of the tendon was secured to the original insertion point of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) at the talus, whereas the other end was armed with 2 No. 5 nonabsorbable sutures (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) and passed through the bone tunnel in the fibula. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying the force in line with the graft. Load to failure was determined at a displacement rate of 50 mm/min. The load-displacement curve, maximum load at failure (N), and stiffness (N/mm) were recorded and compared between the 2 techniques. There was no difference between constructs in the 2-suture anchor group and the transosseous tunnel group in terms of the ultimate load and stiffness (161.8 ± 47.6 N v 171.9 ± 76.0 N; P = .92; 4.59 ± 1.85 N/mm v 5.77 ± 1.98 N/mm; P = .35). Most constructs failed because of anchor pullout in the 2-suture anchor group (5 of 6) and fracture of the bony bridge in the transosseous tunnel group (6 of 6). The strength of fixation with suture anchors in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments was equivalent to transosseous tunnel fixation as determined with biomechanical testing. However, this study did not prove that one is advantageous over the other. Both techniques showed excellent biomechanical results. Therefore, the 2-suture anchor fixation approach can be safely used in anatomic reconstruction of the

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF GRANULES WITH SEEDS EPIDERMIS OF PLANTAGO OVATA FORSSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Daironas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a morphological and anatomical study of granules from the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds are presented in the article. Morphological and microscopic diagnostic signs are important for establishing the authenticity of medicinal plant material and drugs made from it.The aim is the identification of morphological and microscopic diagnostic characteristics of the seed epidermis of Plantago ovata, minimal and sufficient to establish the authenticity of the granular pieces of the plant’s epidermis.Materials and methods. The study of morphological and anatomical characteristics as well as histochemical study were conducted according to the procedures of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIII edition. Microscope “Micromed-1” and digital camera MD300 Electronic Eyepiece (Jincheng were used. Photos were edited in Adobe Photoshop CS6.Results and discussion. Morphological signs of the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds include its light yellow or pinkish-yellow color and a presence of a pigmented spot of pink or light brown color on the epidermis of the convex side of the seeds and along the seed. These signs are applicable for diagnosis and are also found in crushed raw materials. Granules are rough lumps, consisting of stuck together epidermis pieces. They are characterized by a yellowish or light brown color and the presence of a pigmented spot. The microscopic diagnostic signs include the structure of the upper and lower epidermis, the presence of cells with mucus and starch grains. The upper epidermis consists of large polygonal cells with straight thin anticlinal walls. The cells are covered with a smooth cuticle and are filled with mucus. The lower epidermis consists of elongated rectangular cells. Cells with mucus swell rapidly in the radial direction. Biometric characteristics of anatomical diagnostic signs were established.Conclusion. As the result of a morphological and anatomical study the diagnostic signs

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE GRASS OF VERONICA SPICATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of morphological and anatomical studies of Veronica spicata L. Macro- and microscopic features of the grass of Veronica spicata were described. We have determined the principal diagnostic features of leaves and stems of the plant’s active parts. We have found two types of trichomes in active parts of Veronica spicata L.: simple pluricellular fuzz and cephalated glandular fuzz with monocellular pedicle and monocellular or bicellular sphere-like capitulum, anomcytic stomatal apparatus.

  17. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  18. Anatomical variations and morphometric study of the optic strut and the anterior clinoid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldan Kapur

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic strut and the anterior clinoid process represent bony structures that are closely related to anatomically and clinically significant elements such as the cavernous sinus, the internal carotid artery, the optic nerve and the pituitary gland. The objective of our study was to quantify dimensions of the optic strut and anterior clinoid process, and to determine variations in positions and forms of these structures. A descriptive anatomical study was performed on 200 dry human skulls. We analyzed dimensions and variations in position of the optic strut, dimensions of the anterior clinoid process as well as the incidence and forms of the caroticoclinoid foramen. The average thickness of the optic strut on skulls belonging to males was 3 mm and 2.8 mm on those belonging to females. The optic strut was most commonly attached to the anterior two fifths on the lower side of the anterior clinoid process. On the male skulls the average width of the anterior clinoid process was 9.4 mm (right and 9.1 mm (left. Its length was 9.9 and 9.3 mm. On female skulls the average width of the process was 8.7 mm (right and 8.3 mm (left, while the length measured 9.3 mm on the right and 8.9 mm on the opposite side. In our sample, a complete caroticoclinoid foramen appeared in 4.25%, a contact form in 2.75%. At last, an incomplete form of the foramen was observed in 9.75%. The anatomic variations of the investigated structures must be considered during the approaches to the cavernous sinus and neurovascular elements of the sellar region.

  19. Anatomical study of terminal peroneal artery perforators and their clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peroneal artery gives off plenty of perforators that pass through fascial septum to supply skin and tenosynovium of peroneal muscles. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomical basis of perforators from terminal part of peroneal artery axiality and to make use of this knowledge in reconstructing defects of posterior heel with the advantage of reducing the morbidity of conventional flaps. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted at Department of Plastic surgery, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, India. We have carried out eleven cadaver dissections (from six cadavers-four fresh cadavers and two preserved cadavers and delineated all septocutaneous and septosynovial perforators of distal peroneal axis and studied their relation with short saphenous vein (SSV and sural nerve. Using this anatomical knowledge we have fashioned perforator based flaps in 13 patients (three propeller, four V-Y advancement, six tenosynovial flaps for reconstruction of defects over tendo achilles and pericalcaneal region . Results: In all cases, SSV and sural nerve were preserved and donor site was closed primarily. No total flap loss was noted. Conclusion: Perforator based flaps from distal most part of peroneal artery provide a good and reliable method for reconstruction of pericalcaneal and tendo achilles region defects with preservation of SSV and sural nerve. It also avoids contour deformity of the grafted donor site of the classical lateral calcaneal artery axial flap.

  20. Safe Corridor to Access Clivus for Endoscopic Trans-Sphenoidal Surgery: A Radiological and Anatomical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    Full Text Available Penetration of the clivus is required for surgical access of the brain stem. The endoscopic transclivus approach is a difficult procedure with high risk of injury to important neurovascular structures. We undertook a novel anatomical and radiological investigation to understand the structure of the clivus and neurovascular structures relevant to the extended trans-nasal trans-sphenoid procedure and determine a safe corridor for the penetration of the clivus.We examined the clivus region in the computed tomographic angiography (CTA images of 220 adults, magnetic resonance (MR images of 50 adults, and dry skull specimens of 10 adults. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR of the CT images was performed, and the anatomical features of the clivus were studied in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. The data from the images were used to determine the anatomical parameters of the clivus and neurovascular structures, such as the internal carotid artery and inferior petrosal sinus.The examination of the CTA and MR images of the enrolled subjects revealed that the thickness of the clivus helped determine the depth of the penetration, while the distance from the sagittal midline to the important neurovascular structures determined the width of the penetration. Further, data from the CTA and MR images were consistent with those retrieved from the examination of the cadaveric specimens.Our findings provided certain pointers that may be useful in guiding the surgery such that inadvertent injury to vital structures is avoided and also provided supportive information for the choice of the appropriate endoscopic equipment.

  1. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Pozzobon, Adriane; Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  2. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos, E-mail: pclopes@ulbra.br [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Ulbra), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pozzobon, Adriane [Centro Universitario Univates, Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela [Fundacao Serdil/Saint Pastous, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  3. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  4. Anatomical variations of the iliolumbar vein with application to the anterior retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Camp, Christopher L; Zietlow, Scott P; Huddleston, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Objectives of this study include identification of lumbosacral venous variations, designation of a critical area of dissection for surgical exposure, and comparison between both male/female and right/left-sided anatomy. Attempts were made to provide anatomic nomenclature that accurately describes these structures. Thirty-eight iliolumbar venous systems in 20 cadavers (11 females/9 males) were dissected. Each system was identified as one of three patterns of variation: common venous trunk (combining ascending lumbar and iliolumbar venous systems) with distal veins, common venous trunk without distal veins, and venous systems without a common venous trunk. Dimensions including distances to the inferior vena cava (IVC) confluence, the obturator nerve, and the lumbosacral trunk, and venous stem length were obtained to aid surgical dissection. Differences between males and females and those between right and left sides were compared. Anterior lumbosacral venous variations could be organized into three groups. A Type 1 venous system (common venous trunk with distal veins) was most common (53% of systems). The anatomical name "lateral lumbosacral veins" adequately describes the anatomical location of these veins and does not assume a direction of venous flow or the lack of individual distal veins. A critical area bordered by the obturator nerve anteriorly, the psoas muscle laterally, the spinal column medially, and sacrum posteriorly within 8.2 cm of the IVC confluence should be defined to adequately dissect the lateral lumbosacral veins. Differences in male and female lateral lumbosacral venous anatomy do not alter surgeon's approach to the anterior lumbar spine. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belentani, Clarissa; Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald; Haghighi, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  7. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belentani, Clarissa [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  8. Laser technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Huerta, Laura; Hernandez, Adan; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Silva, Adriana B.; Khotiaintsev, Konstantin S.; Svirid, Vladimir A.; Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.

    1999-05-01

    The brain represents one of the most complex systems that we know yet. In its study, non-destructive methods -- in particular, behavioral studies play an important role. By alteration of brain functioning (e.g. by pharmacological means) and observation of consequent behavior changes an important information on brain organization and functioning is obtained. For inducing local alterations, permanent brain lesions are employed. However, for correct results this technique has to be quasi-non-destructive, i.e. not to affect the normal brain function. Hence, the lesions should be very small, accurate and applied precisely over the structure (e.g. the brain nucleus) of interest. These specifications are difficult to meet with the existing techniques for brain lesions -- specifically, neurotoxical, mechanical and electrical means because they result in too extensive damage. In this paper, we present new laser technique for quasi-non- destructive anatomical-functional mapping in vivo of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the rat. The technique is based on producing of small-size, well-controlled laser- induced lesions over some areas of the MPFC. The anesthetized animals are subjected to stereotactic surgery and certain points of the MPFC are exposed the confined radiation of the 10 W cw CO2 laser. Subsequent behavioral changes observed in neonatal and adult animals as well as histological data prove effectiveness of this technology for anatomical- functional studies of the brain by areas, and as a treatment method for some pathologies.

  9. Anatomical aspects of the gastrocnemius muscles: A study in 47 fresh cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkov, Katarina; Atanasijevic, Tatjana C; Popovic, Vesna M; Sforza, Marcos; Atkinson, Connor J; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    This study offers objective dimensions of the gastrocnemius muscle and analyzes correlations between dimensional variables, with a view to providing guidance on the proportions of a healthy gastrocnemius muscle for both genders. This anatomical study was conducted at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade, Serbia, from May until November 2014. We included 47 fresh cadavers (up to 12-h postmortem interval) both male and female. The inclusion criteria were absence of any trauma or degenerative findings in lower limbs, normally weighed, and age between 18 and 60 years. The exclusion criteria were significant difference in dimensions between legs and overweighed cadavers. After statistical analysis of gathered data, we were able to define the exact shape and average measures of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle in male and female. Factors affecting muscle dimensions are also defined in this study. The method of dissection that we applied could be recommended for exploration of different anatomical structures of calf region. The reported dimensions and correlations are useful guide in planning cosmetic and reconstructive procedures with high accuracy. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical stability of custom-made implants: Numerical study of anatomical device and low elastic Young's modulus alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, P; Piotrowski, B; Fischer, M; Laheurte, P

    2017-05-01

    The advent of new manufacturing technologies such as additive manufacturing deeply impacts the approach for the design of medical devices. It is now possible to design custom-made implants based on medical imaging, with complex anatomic shape, and to manufacture them. In this study, two geometrical configurations of implant devices are studied, standard and anatomical. The comparison highlights the drawbacks of the standard configuration, which requires specific forming by plastic strain in order to be adapted to the patient's morphology and induces stress field in bones without mechanical load in the implant. The influence of low elastic modulus of the materials on stress distribution is investigated. Two biocompatible alloys having the ability to be used with SLM additive manufacturing are considered, commercial Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-26Nb. It is shown that beyond the geometrical aspect, mechanical compatibility between implants and bones can be significantly improved with the modulus of Ti-26Nb implants compared with the Ti-6Al-4V. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf anatomy of Gaillardia cabrerae (Asteraceae: Basic plan and comparative study of two contrasting habitat populations Anatomía foliar de Gaillardia cabrerae (Asteraceae: plan básico y estudio comparativo de dos poblaciones de hábitats contrastantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beinticinco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the leaf anatomy pattern of Gaillardia cabrerae Covas, an exclusive endemic camephyte from the Lihué Calel National Park, province of La Pampa, Argentina. Leaf cross sections and peelings of plants growing in two different populations were used to determine the basic leaf anatomy patterns and to estimate the influence of growth conditions in the two microhabitats. The analysis showed differences in epidermal cells area, stomata density and main diameter, lacunar parenchyma cells and central vascular bundle diameter and palisade parenchyma cells dimensions. These aspects might be reflecting environmental conditions of the populations, especially sun exposure and soil moisture. The results provide information on the relationship of the species to its environment, which could be used in the establishment of conservation policies.Gaillardia cabrerae Covas es un caméfito endémico del Parque Nacional Lihué Calel. En este estudio se evalúan características anatómicas de individuos de dos poblaciones provenientes de diferentes microhábitats de las Sierras de Lihué Calel. La información proporcionada es importante para entender las condiciones de vida de la especie y provee información inherente para establecer planes de conservación. Mediante cortes transversales y la técnica de peeling fue posible determinar el plan básico de la anatomía foliar y también verificar diferencias significativas en el área de células epidérmicas, densidad estomática, diámetro mayor de los estomas, diámetro de células del parénquima lagunar y del haz vascular central y en las dimensiones de las células del parénquima en empalizada. Las condiciones ambientales a las cuales estas poblaciones están sometidas, especialmente la exposición solar y la humedad del suelo son posibles factores que podrían explicar las diferencias detectadas en la anatomía foliar para ambas poblaciones.

  12. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE- A DISSECTION-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Dutta Roy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In human, the bulk of the posterior compartment of the leg is formed by the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle. The superficially-placed gastrocnemius is a bipennate muscle, but according to available literature, it exhibits numerous anatomical variations. The aim of the present study is to find out the anatomical variations of the gastrocnemius muscle in this part of Assam. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study undertaken in the Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College, from August 2014 to August 2017 included 30 lower limbs from 15 embalmed cadavers of known sexes. These cadavers were provided to the first year MBBS students for routine dissection procedure. After carrying out the dissection as per Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy, the gastrocnemius muscle was examined for its two heads of origin. Any accessory heads found were noted and recorded. RESULTS Out of the 30 lower limb specimens, 28 (93.33% limbs presented with the normal two-headed gastrocnemius muscle, while 2 (6.66% limbs (1 right and 1 left, presented with four-headed gastrocnemius muscle. Both these limbs belonged to male cadavers. CONCLUSION The precise knowledge of occurrence of multi-headed gastrocnemius muscle should be kept in mind, while performing myocutaneous flaps around the knee joint and also during limb salvage procedures or limb sparing surgery.

  13. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  14. Anatomical study of the posterior cruciate ligament with the knee flexed at 90°,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kyubin Cho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL and define anatomical parameters with the knee flexed at 90°.Methods:Eight knees from cadavers were dissected in order to make measurements from the center of the anterolateral band to the roof (AL1, from the center of the anterolateral band to the anterior cartilage (AL2, from the center of the posteromedial band to the roof (PM1, from the center of the posteromedial band to the anterior cartilage (PM2, from the center of the tibial insertion to the medial region of the tibia (TIM, from the center of the tibial insertion to the lateral region of the tibia (TIL, from the center of the medial insertion to the medial meniscus (IMM and the width of the origin of the PCL (WO. To obtain the results from each anatomical structure, the means and standard deviations of the measurements were calculated.Results:The measurements in millimeters that were found were AL1, 6.2; AL2, 4.9; PM1, 11.7; PM2, 5.5; TIM, 32.5; TIL, 40.6; IMM, 9.4; and WO, 32.5.Conclusions:The PCL has an extensive origin. The center of the anterolateral band is 6 mm from the roof and 5 mm from the anterior cartilage of the knee. The tibial insertion is slightly medial and 10 mm distal to the posterior cornu of the medial meniscus.

  15. Anatomical Study of the Neurovascular in Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Haijiao; Dong, Wenwei; Shi, Zengyuan; Yin, Weigang; Xu, Dachuan; Wapner, Keith L

    2017-10-27

    The transfer of the flexor hallucis longus tendon or flexor digitorum longus tendon is frequently used for the treatment of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency or chronic Achilles tendinopathy. According to several anatomical studies, harvesting the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon may cause nerve injury. Sixty-eight embalmed feet were dissected and anatomically classified to define the relationship between Henry's knot and the plantar nerves. Two different configurations were identified. In Pattern 1, which was observed in 64 specimens (94.1%), the distance between the medial plantar nerve and Henry's knot was 5.96 mm (range, 3.34 to 7.84, SD = 1.12). In Pattern 2, which was observed in 4 specimens (5.9%), there was no distance between the medial plantar nerve (MPN) and Henry's knot. No statistically significant difference was observed according to gender or side (p > 0.05). A retraction was performed to harvest the FHL through the posteromedial hindfoot incision using a single minimally invasive technique, and the medial and lateral plantar nerve lesions were scrupulously assessed. In conclusion, medial and lateral plantar nerve injuries did not occur more frequently, even after performing a single minimally invasive incision to harvest the FHL tendon, due to the large distance between the FHL tendon and the medial and lateral plantar nerves.

  16. The Study of Anatomical Structure and Karyotype of West Sumatran Dioscorea bulbifora L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjahridal Dahlan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Had been done from March 2005 to January 2006 in plant Structure and Development Laboratory of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Andalas University. In present study were used descriptives and quantitatives method by preparing semi-permanent and permanent slide. Anatomycal structures of green aerial stem were consisting of epidermal, cortex with endodermoid cells and sclerechima tissue centripetally. Vascular bundle can be rocognized in three distinct rings with amphycribal type. Transverse section of leave anatomical composed by both a layer epidermal on upper and lower leaf surface, palysade parechima, and spons parenchyma (dorsiventral type. The stomata were anomocytic type on both upper and lower surface of leaf (amphystomatic type. Idioblast of cell raphides crystals and tannin containing founded in leaf structure. In transverse section each of eight individual bundle surrounded by sclerenchyma. The root anatomical structures consist of epidermal, cortex, endodermal (U shape wall thickening, pericycle and pith (with three ring of vascular bundles centripetally. The air tuber lacking of starch grains containing of parenchyma cells. Idioblast cell expected contain of HCN distributed over all of tuber tissue. The somatic cell chromosome were diploid 2n=20 with basic chromosome number were x=10.

  17. Graft union formation in artichoke grafting onto wild and cultivated cardoon: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchera, Alessandra; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Rinaldi, Simona; Crinò, Paola; Temperini, Olindo; Rea, Elvira

    2013-12-15

    In order to develop a non-chemical method such as grafting effective against well-known artichoke soil borne diseases, an anatomical study of union formation in artichoke grafted onto selected wild and cultivated cardoon rootstocks, both resistant to Verticillium wilt, was performed. The cardoon accessions Belgio (cultivated cardoon) and Sardo (wild cardoon) were selected as rootstocks for grafting combinations with the artichoke cv. Romolo. Grafting experiments were carried out in the autumn and spring. The anatomical investigation of grafting union formation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the grafting portions at the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 12th day after grafting. For the autumn experiment only, SEM analysis was also performed at 30 d after grafting. A high affinity between artichoke scion and cardoon rootstocks was observed, with some genotype differences in healing time between the two bionts. SEM images of scion/rootstock longitudinal sections revealed the appearance of many interconnecting structures between the two grafting components just 3d after grafting, followed by a vascular rearrangement and a callus development during graft union formation. De novo formation of many plasmodesmata between scion and rootstock confirmed their high compatibility, particularly in the globe artichoke/wild cardoon combination. Moreover, the duration of the early-stage grafting process could be influenced not only by the scion/rootstock compatibility, but also by the seasonal conditions, being favored by lower temperatures and a reduced light/dark photoperiod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Proximal Femoral Morphology and the Relevance to Design of Anatomically Precontoured Plates: A Study of the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Jhih Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequately shaped femoral plate is critical for the fixation of fracture in the pertrochanteric regions. Lateral aspect of greater trochanter is an important region where the proximal femoral plate anchored. However, little is known regarding the morphology of greater trochanter. The objective of this study was to measure main dimensions of greater trochanter and other regions in the proximal end of the femur to provide an anatomical basis for the design of the proximal femoral plate. Anthropometric data on the proximal femur were performed utilizing three-dimensional computational modeling. Computed tomography images of healthy femurs in 53 women and 47 men were contributed to three-dimensional femur modeling. All data were compared between male and female femora. The results showed that mean values for male group were found to be greater in most of measured femoral dimensions. Oppositely, females demonstrated higher neck-shaft angle on anteroposterior view and femoral anteversion angle. The anthropometric data can be used for the anatomical shape design of femoral plates for osteosynthesis of fractures in the trochanteric regions. A distinct plate design may be necessary to accommodate differences between the genders.

  19. Quantitatively Measured Anatomic Location and Volume of Optic Disc Drusen: An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lindberg, Anne-Sofie Wessel; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2017-01-01

    function using automated perimetric mean deviation (MD) and multifocal visual evoked potentials. Increased age (P = 0.015); larger ODD volume (P = 0.002); and more superficial anatomic ODD location (P = 0.007) were found in patients with ODD visible by ophthalmoscopy compared to patients with buried ODD.......025) and had a higher effect on MD when compared to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Large ODD volume is associated with optic nerve dysfunction. The worse visual field defects associated with visible ODD should only be ascribed to larger ODD volume and not to a more superficial anatomic ODD location....

  20. Anatomical study on Myoforceps aristatus, an invasive boring bivalve in S.E. Brazilian coast (Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, also known as Lithophaga aristata, have been recently collected in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil; a species that bores shells of other mollusks. This occurrence has been interpreted as an invasion of this species, originally from the Caribbean. The distinguishing character of the species is the posterior extensions of the shell crossing with each other. Because specimens with this character have also been collected in the Pacific Ocean, they all have been considered a single species. However, it is possible that more than one species may be involved in such worldwide distribution. With the objective of providing full information based on Atlantic specimens, a complete anatomical description is provided, which can be used in comparative studies with specimens from other oceans. Additional distinctive features of M. aristatus are the complexity of the incurrent siphon, the kidney opening widely into the supra-branchial chamber (instead of via a nephropore, and the multi-lobed auricle.O bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, também conhecido como Lithophaga aristata, tem sido recentemente coletado nas costas do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil; uma espécie que perfura conchas de outros moluscos. Esta ocorrência está sendo interpretada como uma invasão de uma espécie originada do Caribe. O caráter distintivo da espécie é a região posterior da concha, com extensões que se cruzam. Como espécimes com esta característica também têm sido coletados no oceano Pacífico, eles tem sido considerados como pertencentes à mesma espécie. Entretanto, é possível que mais de uma espécie possam estar envolvidas nesta suposta distribuição mundial. Com o objetivo de fornecer informação completa baseada em material do Atlântico, uma descrição anatômica completa é dada, a qual pode ser usada em estudos comparativos com espécimes de outros oceanos. As caracter

  1. A study of biceps brachii muscle: Anatomical considerations and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishaly Kishore Bharambe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Biceps brachii muscle (BBm is a very variable muscle, the variations being associated with a variety of clinical conditions. This study delves on anatomical variations in this muscle, possible phylogenic causes for their frequency and their clinical importance. Aims: The aim was to study anatomy of bicep brachii muscle, its variations and their clinical importance. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 upper limbs preserved in 10% formalin were dissected meticulously to study anatomical details of the BBm. Results: The incidence of variation in anatomy of BBm was 15%, with incidence being 11.6% and 3.3% among male and female cadavers studied, respectively. Variation was unilateral in 10% and bilateral in 3.3%. The incidence of third head was 13.3% out of which 3.3% took origin from the capsule of the shoulder joint, 8.3% from humerus, and 1.6% from brachialis muscle. Incidence of extra bellies of insertion was found to be 1.6%. A 3.3% incidence was observed in the nerve supply. Conclusions: Variations in BBm are a reflection of its late development in human phylum. The extra bellies can cause neurovascular compression, change the kinematics at the elbow joint and be misinterpreted as tears of muscle on magnetic resonance imaging. They should be watched for in the shoulder as well as elbow joint surgeries. The authors suggest that the extra bellies of BBm instead of being labeled as third, fourth or fifth heads, can be classified as those of origin and insertion and bellies of origin be referred to clearly as capsular, humeral or brachial heads.

  2. The posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap: anatomical study and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Lin, Jian; Fu, Fei-Huan; Cai, Zhen-De; Huang, Hui-Mei; Zheng, He-Ping

    2013-11-01

    Defects sustained at the distal forearm are common and pedicled perforator flaps have unique advantages in resurfacing it. The purpose of this study is to reappraise the anatomy of the perforator in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm and present our clinical experience on using perforator flaps based on it for reconstruction of defects in the distal forearm. This study was divided into anatomical study and clinical application. In the anatomical study, 30 preserved upper limbs were used. Clinically, 11 patients with defects at the forearm underwent reconstruction with the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flaps. The defects, ranging from 4.5 × 2.5 cm to 10.5 × 4.5 cm, were located at the dorsal aspect of the distal forearm in 6 cases and at the volar aspect of the distal forearm in 5 cases. Three patterns of the perforator were observed in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm, which originated from the posterior interosseous artery, the proximal segment of the radial artery or the radial recurrent artery, and the middle segment of the radial artery, respectively. The perforator was located 11.8 ± 0.2 cm to 15.8 ± 0.4 cm inferior to the lateral humeral epicondyle. Clinically, flaps in 8 cases survived uneventfully, while the other 3 cases suffered mild marginal epidermal necrosis, which was cured with continuous dress changing. The location of the perforator at the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm is consistent; the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap is particularly suitable to cover defects in the distal one-third of the forearm. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Combined Comparative Transcriptomic, Metabolomic, and Anatomical Analyses of Two Key Domestication Traits: Pod Dehiscence and Seed Dormancy in Pea (Pisum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Smýkal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the agriculture was one of the turning points in human history, and a central part of this was the evolution of new plant forms, domesticated crops. Seed dispersal and germination are two key traits which have been selected to facilitate cultivation and harvesting of crops. The objective of this study was to analyze anatomical structure of seed coat and pod, identify metabolic compounds associated with water-impermeable seed coat and differentially expressed genes involved in pea seed dormancy and pod dehiscence. Comparative anatomical, metabolomics, and transcriptomic analyses were carried out on wild dormant, dehiscent Pisum elatius (JI64, VIR320 and cultivated, indehiscent Pisum sativum non-dormant (JI92, Cameor and recombinant inbred lines (RILs. Considerable differences were found in texture of testa surface, length of macrosclereids, and seed coat thickness. Histochemical and biochemical analyses indicated genotype related variation in composition and heterogeneity of seed coat cell walls within macrosclereids. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry and Laser desorption/ionization–mass spectrometry of separated seed coats revealed significantly higher contents of proanthocyanidins (dimer and trimer of gallocatechin, quercetin, and myricetin rhamnosides and hydroxylated fatty acids in dormant compared to non-dormant genotypes. Bulk Segregant Analysis coupled to high throughput RNA sequencing resulted in identification of 770 and 148 differentially expressed genes between dormant and non-dormant seeds or dehiscent and indehiscent pods, respectively. The expression of 14 selected dormancy-related genes was studied by qRT-PCR. Of these, expression pattern of four genes: porin (MACE-S082, peroxisomal membrane PEX14-like protein (MACE-S108, 4-coumarate CoA ligase (MACE-S131, and UDP-glucosyl transferase (MACE-S139 was in agreement in all four genotypes with Massive analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE data. In

  4. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  5. Anatomical study of the final common pathway for vocalization in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of an anatomical study of the neuronal pathways in the cat, via which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces excitation of motoneurons involved in vocalization. It is shown that a specific cell group in the lateral part of the caudal PAG and in the tegmentum just lateral to it projects bilaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata. Neurons in the NRA in turn project, via a contralateral pathway through the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord, to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating intercostal and abdominal muscles. In the brainstem, the NRA neurons project to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating mouth-opening and perioral muscles as well as to motoneurons innervating the pharynx, soft palate, and tongue. These results indicate that the projections from PAG via NRA to vocalization motoneurons form the final common pathway in vocalization.

  6. Neural plasticity in functional and anatomical MRI studies of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichele, Heike; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests...... that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms. Methods: We conducted a systematic search to identify existing imaging studies (both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in young persons under the age of 19 years with TS. Results: The final search...... compensatory pathways in children with TS. Along with alterations in regions putatively representing the origin of tics, deviations in several other regions most likely represent an activity-dependent neural plasticity that help to modulate tic severity, such as the prefrontal cortex, but also in the corpus...

  7. Anatomical variations in dorsal metatarsal arteries with surgical significance: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Shivshankar Awari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Based on angiosome concept to revascularize a particular artery, the microvascular and reconstructive surgeons must know the anatomy and variations in the arteries in that specific region of the body to achieve better results. Nowadays, dorsal metatarsal artery (DMTA perforator flaps and toe grafts are becoming popular which also demand adequate information about normal anatomy and variants in these arteries for fruitful results. Materials and Methods: The authors studied normal anatomy and variations in the origin of DMTAs in 50 lower extremities of 25 embalmed cadavers. Results: The authors found many variations as the absence of DMTAs, origin of the DMTA from the deep plantar arch. The places wherever the arcuate artery was absent the lateral tarsal artery gave rise to dorsal metatarsal arteries. Conclusion: Being familiar with the incidence of anatomical variations in the origin of the DMTAs can increase vigilance in vascular and reconstructive surgeries leading to better prognosis. surgeries leading to better prognosis.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA MILLI VAR. SPLENDENS (BOJER EX HOOK. URSCH & LEANDRI AND EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA WILLD. EX KLOTZSCH SPECIES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study concerning the leaf structure of two Euphorbia species belonging to Euphorbiaceae family: Euphorbia milli var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook. Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch. Anatomically, the leaves of the studied species are quite similar in the basic structure. The petiole has a single-layered epidermis, a collenchyma tissue – hypodermis - and three collateral bundles embedded in a basic tissue. Differences occur concerning the relationship between the collateral bundles. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract petiole has almost the same structure as those of the leaf petiole. The blade is amphistomatic for Euphorbia milli var. splendes and hipostomatic for E. pulcherrima. The heterogeneous mesophyll is isobilateral in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade and bifacial in E. pulcherrima. The vascular system of the mid rib is represented by one collateral bundle for both species, more developed in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade. Differences appear concerning the epidermal cells cuticle thickness, the type of mesophyll, the abundance of the non-articulated laticifers and the development of the vascular system. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract has the same organization plan structure as the leaf blade but some features differences occur.

  9. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  10. Morphometric anatomical and CT study of the human adult sacroiliac region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacchini, Roberto; Trasimeni, Guido; Ripani, Francesca; Sessa, Pasquale; Perotti, Stefano; Postacchini, Franco

    2017-01-01

    To identify and describe the morphometry and CT features of the articular and extra-articular portions of the sacroiliac region. The resulting knowledge might help to avoid complications in sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. We analyzed 102 dry hemi-sacra, 80 ilia, and 10 intact pelves and assessed the pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans of 90 patients, who underwent the examination for conditions not involving the pelvis. We assessed both the posterior aspect of sacrum with regard to the depressions located externally to the lateral sacral crest at the level of the proximal three sacral vertebrae and the posteroinferior aspect of ilium. Coronal and axial CT scans of the SIJ of patients were obtained and the joint space was measured. On each side, the sacrum exhibits three bone depressions, not described in anatomic textbooks or studies, facing the medial aspect of the posteroinferior ilium, not yet described in detail. Both structures are extra-articular portions situated posteriorly to the SIJ. Coronal CT scans of patients showing the first three sacral foramens and the interval between sacrum and ilium as a continuous space display only the S1 and S3 portions of SIJ, the intermediate portion being extra-articular. The S2 portion is visible on the most anterior coronal scan. Axial scans show articular and extra-articular portions and features improperly described as anatomic variations. Extra-articular portions of the sacroiliac region, not yet described exhaustively, have often been confused with SIJ. Coronal CT scans through the middle part of sacrum, the most used to evaluate degenerative and inflammatory conditions of SIJ, show articular and extra-articular portions of the region.

  11. Anatomical and ultrasonographic study of the femoral nerve within the iliopsoas muscle in beagle dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, Giovanni; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Mahler, Stephan; Charrouin, Maxime; Boyer, Guillaume; Verwaerde, Patrick; Jourdan, Géraldine

    2015-07-01

    An ultrasound (US)-guided ventral suprainguinal approach to block the femoral nerve (FN) within the iliopsoas muscle (IPM) has recently been described in dogs. The goal of the present study was to provide the operator with additional information to locate the FN within the IPM in dogs and cats using US. The study was carried out in three phases: a dissection of the FN (phase 1); an in vivo US-assisted nerve study (phase 2), and an anatomical cross-sectional study (phase 3). Nine healthy adult beagle dogs and nine healthy adult cats. Dissections were performed to investigate the anatomical characteristics of the FN and its related structures in one dog and one cat. Ultrasound scans of the left and right FN were performed in eight dogs and eight cats. The FN diameter and the distance between the FN and the external iliac artery (EIA) in US images and in anatomical cryosections were measured. The median FN diameter did not differ significantly between cats and dogs (1.1 mm versus 1.0 mm) or between the two techniques (US versus anatomical cross-sectional study) (1.1 mm versus 1.1 mm in dogs; 1.0 mm versus 1.1 mm in cats). The US and anatomical measurements of the median distances between the FN and EIA differed significantly between dogs and cats (8.2 mm versus 5.8 mm by US; 5.7 mm versus 4.8 mm in the anatomical study). The distance between the EIA and FN is reproducible in beagle dogs and cats and can be used in locating the FN within the IPM. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. An examination of Aikido's Fourth Teaching: an anatomical study of the tissues of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G D; Seitz, F C

    1990-12-01

    One of the basic teachings of Aikido is known as Yonkyo (Fourth Teaching) or Tekubi-Osae (Wrist Securing). According to some Aikido master teachers, Yonkyo is designed to attack the opponent's weak points. This investigation focused on examining this teaching with the purpose of describing the anatomical tissues involved in the etiology of pain when this teaching is applied precisely. Particular focus was placed on the anatomical locations/sources of pain associated with the application of this teaching.

  13. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial-imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Gary E.; Carlson, Blake; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Yin Pen; Grigsby, Perry W.; Nguyen, Kim; Dempsey, James F; Lerma, Fritz A.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Vannier, Michael W.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that high-dimensional voxel-to-voxel transformations, derived from continuum mechanics models of the underlying pelvic tissues, can be used to register computed tomography (CT) serial examinations into a single anatomic frame of reference for cumulative dose calculations. Methods and Materials: Three patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were treated with CT-compatible intracavitary (ICT) applicators. Each patient underwent five volumetric CT examinations: before initiating treatment, and immediately before and after the first and second ICT insertions, respectively. Each serial examination was rigidly registered to the patient's first ICT examination by aligning the bony anatomy. Detailed nonrigid alignment for organs (or targets) of interest was subsequently achieved by deforming the CT exams as a viscous-fluid, described by the Navier-Stokes equation, until the coincidence with the corresponding targets on CT image was maximized. In cases where ICT insertion induced very large and topologically complex rearrangements of pelvic organs, e.g., extreme uterine canal reorientation following tandem insertion, a viscous-fluid-landmark transformation was used to produce an initial registration. Results: For all three patients, reasonable registrations for organs (or targets) of interest were achieved. Fluid-landmark initialization was required in 4 of the 11 registrations. Relative to the best rigid bony landmark alignment, the viscous-fluid registration resulted in average soft-tissue displacements from 2.8 to 28.1 mm, and improved organ coincidence from the range of 5.2% to 72.2% to the range of 90.6% to 100%. Compared to the viscous-fluid transformation, global registration of bony anatomy mismatched 5% or more of the contoured organ volumes by 15-25 mm. Conclusion: Pelvic soft-tissue structures undergo large deformations and displacements during the external-beam and multiple-ICT course of radiation therapy for locally advanced cervix

  14. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. L. ten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6; 0.4 (1.2; 0.2 (0.6 mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9; −1.5 (3.3; 1.0 (3.7°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available.

  15. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above. The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative

  16. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica(Hausskn.)Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; Chandra; Gupta; Ch; V; Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis of Fumaria indica(F.indica)(Hausskn.)Pugsley,(Fumariaceae),an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morphoanatomical,physicochemical,phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F.indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization.Results:Morphoanatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf,4 to 6 cm in length,linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata,thin walled parenchymatous cells,scattered,sclerenchymatous,capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays.Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%,loss on drying 6.8%,total ash 16.77%,alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92%and 20.26%,respectively,sugar 17.75%,starch 22.97%and tannins 2.37%.Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate,alkaloids,flavonoids,saponins,tannins and sterol.Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different R_f value under UV light 366λ.Conclusions:The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  17. 全腹腔镜与开腹规则性左肝切除术治疗肝胆管结石的比较研究%A Comparative Study on Laparoscopic and Open Anatomical Left Hepatectomy in the Treatment of Hepatolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢元才; 叶荣强; 钟鼎文; 邓小红; 何勇

    2017-01-01

    发症发生率无统计学差异[12.1%(4/33)vs.21.1%(15/71), χ2=1.224,P=0.269]. 结论 腹腔镜规则性左肝切除术治疗肝胆管结石安全、有效.%Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic anatomical left hepatectomy in the treatment of hepatolithiasis.Methods A total of 104 patients receiving anatomical left hepatectomy from January 2011 to January 2016 were divided into either laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) group (33 cases) or open hepatectomy (OH) group (71 cases).Data of two groups were compared, which included intraoperative indicators (operation time, intraoperative bleeding), postoperative conditions (time to postoperative recovery of diet, postoperative hospitalization days, postoperative usage of albumin, and postoperative complication), and operation effects (first stage stone clearance rate, final stone clearance rate).Results The LH group had longer operation time [(199.4±62.9) min vs.(173.6±36.6) min, t=2.635, P=0.010], shorter time of postoperative recovery of diet [(1.7±0.9) d vs.(3.1±0.9) d,t=-7.383, P=0.000], shorter postoperative hospitalization days [(7.9±2.3) d vs.(10.1±2.8) d, t=-3.936, P=0.000], less postoperative usage of albumin [12.1% (4/33) vs.39.4% (28/71), χ2=7.891, P=0.005], lower levels of white blood cell count on the first and third postoperative days [(11.5±1.2)×109/L vs.(14.9±2.1)×109/L, t=-8.653, P=0.000;(8.9±1.8)×109/L vs.(11.0±2.0)×109/L, t=-5.139, P=0.000] and CRP values [(28.4±3.9) mg/L vs.(58.8±20.4) mg/L, t=-8.468, P=0.000;(13.2±3.2) mg/L vs.(30.9±7.6) mg/L, t=-12.834, P=0.000], and higher levels of albumin values on the first and third postoperative days [(33.0±2.7) g/L vs.(31.1±3.1) g/L, t=3.026, P=0.003;(35.2±1.8) g/L vs.(33.6±2.4) g/L, t=3.407, P=0.000].There were no statistical differences in intraoperative bleeding [(213.4±169.3) ml vs.(240.8±91.9) ml, t=-1.069, P=0.287], operation mode (χ2=3.625, P=0.057), case number of TBIL value higher than 17.1

  18. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. Study of 54 observations with anatomical confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labro, R.D.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study attempts to judge the reliability of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. It concerns 54 observations with anatomical confrontation (laparoscopy, biopsy, laparotomy and/or autopsy). Technetium 99m scintigraphy gives a correct diagnosis in 81.5% of the cases, whether cirrhosis is present or not. Scintigraphy is only one stage in the investigation of neoplasic liver disease. This study shows that all too often it is practised alone since of 201 observations only 54 include another examination, and of these only 21 a laparoscopy. The simultaneous use of scintigraphy and laparoscopy eliminates false positives and reduces the percentage of false negatives from 7.5% to 4%. The two methods combined are therefore reliable to 96% (i.e. 96% of successful diagnosis in liver cancer tests. This work was performed with the techniques available in 1973. The quality of the scintigraphic image should be improved by technical progress in the form of new isotopic products, cameras with better definition and computerized data processing. With these new techniques it will certainly be possible to detect very small lacunae and to observe in more detail their diffusion in the liver parenchyma [fr

  19. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis, which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment.

  20. Cervical endplate and facet arthrosis: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Daniel L; Toy, Jason O; Eubanks, Jason D; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2012-10-01

    An anatomic, epidemiologic study of cervical endplate and facet arthrosis in cadaveric spines. To determine the prevalence of cervical endplate and facet arthrosis and the relationship between these 2 entities in a large population sample. Cervical endplate and facet arthrosis are common radiographic findings, which have both been linked to pain. However, the prevalence and relationship between cervical endplate and facet arthrosis has not been clearly defined. The cervical vertebrae from 234 cadaveric spines were examined by a single investigator for evidence of endplate and facet arthrosis. Arthrosis at each endplate and facet was graded on a continuum from 0 to IV. Race, age at death, and sex of each specimen were also recorded. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze any association between race, age, sex, endplate arthrosis, and facet arthrosis. Factors with P values arthrosis severity scores among patients within the same decades of life. Concurrent cervical endplate and facet arthrosis was present in 77% of the study population. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed significant (Parthrosis and between age and facet arthrosis. Race and sex did not correlate with facet arthrosis. In addition, patients in age groups 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 to 89 demonstrated more severe (Parthrosis in comparison with facet arthrosis. Concurrent cervical endplate and facet arthrosis is a common condition. Cervical endplate arthrosis and advancing age are associated with cervical facet arthrosis independent of race and sex. Cervical endplate arthrosis precedes facet arthrosis.

  1. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Audiovisual preconditioning enhances the efficacy of an anatomical dissection course: A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne M; Quinlan, Christine S; Dolan, Roisin T; O'Neill, Shane P; Tierney, Paul; Cronin, Kevin J; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    The benefits of incorporating audiovisual materials into learning are well recognised. The outcome of integrating such a modality in to anatomical education has not been reported previously. The aim of this randomised study was to determine whether audiovisual preconditioning is a useful adjunct to learning at an upper limb dissection course. Prior to instruction participants completed a standardised pre course multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ). The intervention group was subsequently shown a video with a pre-recorded commentary. Following initial dissection, both groups completed a second MCQ. The final MCQ was completed at the conclusion of the course. Statistical analysis confirmed a significant improvement in the performance in both groups over the duration of the three MCQs. The intervention group significantly outperformed their control group counterparts immediately following audiovisual preconditioning and in the post course MCQ. Audiovisual preconditioning is a practical and effective tool that should be incorporated in to future course curricula to optimise learning. Level of evidence This study appraises an intervention in medical education. Kirkpatrick Level 2b (modification of knowledge). Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomical and biomechanical study on the interosseous membrane of the cadaveric forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Xian-hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the anatomical and biomechanical features of the interosseous membrane (IOM of the cadaveric forearm. Methods: Ten radius-IOM-ulna structures were har- vested from fresh-frozen cadavers to measure the length, width and thickness of the tendinous portion of IOM. Then, the tendinous portion was isolated along with the ulnar and radial ends to which the tendon attached after measurement. The proximal portion of the radius and the distal portion of the ulna were embedded and fixed in the dental base acrylic resin powder. The embedded specimen was clamped and fixed by the MTS 858 test machine using a 10 000 N load cell for the entire tensile test. IOM was stretched at a speed of 50 mm/min until it was ruptured. The load-displacement curve was depicted with a computer and the maximum load and stiffness were recorded at the same time. Results: The IOM of the forearm was composed of three portions: central tendinous tissue, membranous tis- sue and dorsal affiliated oblique cord. IOM was stretched at a neutral position, and flexed at pronation and supination positions. The tendinous portion of IOM was lacerated in 6 specimens when the point of the maximum load reached to 1 021.50 N± 250.13 N, the stiffness to 138.24 N/m±24.29 N/m, and the length of stretch to 9.77 mm±1.77 mm. Fracture occurred at the fixed end of the ulna before laceration of the tendinous portion in 4 specimens when the maximum load was 744.40 N±109.85 N, the stiffness was 151.17 N/m±30.68 N/m, and the length of the stretch was 6.51 mm±0.51 mm. Conclusions: The IOM of the forearm is a structure having ligamentous characteristics between the radius and the ulna. It is very important for maintenance of the longitu- dinal stability of the forearm. The anatomical and biome- chanical data can be used as an objective criterion for evalu- ating the reconstructive method of IOM of the forearm. Key words: Forearm; Anatomy; Biomechanics

  4. Anatomic relationship of the optic nerve channel with sphenoid al sinus: a computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo Cesar J.; Albernaz, Pedro Luiz M.; Yamashida, Helio K.

    2004-01-01

    The sphenoid sinus, out of the facial sinuses, is certainly the most neglected as far as diagnosis is concerned. The surgical approach requires a detailed anatomical knowledge, considering the serious complications resulting from injuries of vital structures adjacent to this region. Aim: the objective of our research is to evaluate the anatomic relationship of the optic nerve with the sphenoid sinus making use of the computed tomography. Study design: series report. Material and method: the authors present a retrospective analysis of 203 computed tomographies of facial sinus belonging to individuals of both sexes aged 14 and over. The examinations were evaluated observing the course of the optic nerve, obtained through the degree of its projection on the wall of the sphenoid sinus. The method used was the modified classification of Delano, evaluating the absence of bone reduction (dehiscence) of the optic nerve in the sphenoid sinus. We analysed the degree of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, using Hammer's classification adapted by Guerrero, apart from the pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process and pterigoid and the presence of the Onodi cell. Results: most of the patients (78.96%) presented their optic nerve with a type 1 course. Type 2 was observed in 16.83% of the patients, type 3 in 3.47% and type 4 in 0.74%. The presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve in the wall of the sphenoid sinus was evidenced in 21.29% of the cases. Related to pneumatization, we noticed that the pre-selar type was observed in 6.44%, the post-selar type appeared in 39.11%, the selar type appeared in 54.45%, and the apneumatized type was not observed in any of the cases. The pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process was verified in 10.64% of the cases, while the pterigoid process was apparent in 21.29% of the cases. The Onodi cell (sphenoetmoidal) was found in 7.92% of the cases. Conclusion: the presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve is related with the degree of

  5. Multicenter retrospective study of noncompressible torso hemorrhage: Anatomic locations of bleeding and comparison of endovascular versus open approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ronald; Fox, Erin E; Greene, Thomas J; Eastridge, Brian J; Gilani, Ramyar; Chung, Kevin K; DeSantis, Stacia M; DuBose, Joseph J; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Fortuna, Gerald R; Sams, Valerie G; Todd, S Rob; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2017-07-01

    Rational development of technology for rapid control of noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) requires detailed understanding of what is bleeding. Our objectives were to describe the anatomic location of truncal bleeding in patients presenting with NCTH and compare endovascular (ENDO) management versus open (OPEN) management. This is a retrospective study of adult trauma patients with NCTH admitted to four urban Level I trauma centers in the Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas in 2008 to 2012. Inclusion criteria include named axial torso vessel disruption, Abbreviated Injury Scale chest or abdomen score of 3 or higher with shock (base excess, bleeding locations were 25% chest, 41% abdomen, and 31% pelvis. ENDO was used to treat relatively few types of vascular injuries, whereas OPEN and RT injuries were more diverse. ENDO patients had more blunt trauma (95% vs. 34% vs. 32%); severe injuries (median Injury Severity Score, 34 vs. 27 vs. 21), and increased time to intervention (median, 298 vs. 92 vs. 51 minutes) compared with OPEN and RT. Mortality was 15% versus 20% versus 79%. ENDO was associated with decreased mortality compared to OPEN (relative risk, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.73). Although ENDO may reduce mortality in NCTH patients, significant group differences limit the generalizability of this finding. Therapeutic, level V.

  6. Closure of the cribriform fascia: an efficient anatomical barrier against postoperative neovascularisation at the saphenofemoral junction? A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maeseneer, M. G.; Philipsen, T. E.; Vandenbroeck, C. P.; Lauwers, P. R.; Hendriks, J. M.; de Hert, S. G.; van Schil, P. E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neovascularisation at the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) ligation site in the groin may occur within one year after great saphenous vein (GSV) surgery. Several anatomical and prosthetic barrier techniques have been proposed to prevent this evolution. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study

  7. The plantar plate of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Douglas E; Philbin, Terrence; Hatic, Safet

    2014-04-01

    The plantar plate of the first metatarsophalangeal (MP) joint is a critical structure of the forefoot that has been identified as a major stabilizer within the capsuloligamentous complex. Many studies have clarified and documented the anatomy of the lesser toe MP plantar plates, but few have looked closely at the anatomy of the first MP joint. Ten cadaveric specimens were examined to identify and document the objective anatomic relationship of the plantar plate, tibial sesamoid, and surrounding osseus structures. The average distance of the plantar plate distal insertion from the joint line into the proximal phalanx was 0.33 mm. The plantar plate was inserted into the metatarsal head on average 17.29 mm proximal from the joint line. The proximal aspect of the sesamoid was 18.55 mm proximal to the distal attachment of the plantar plate to the phalanx. The distal aspect of the sesamoid averaged 4.69 mm away from the distal attachment into the proximal phalanx. The footprint of the distal plate insertion was on average 6.33 mm in length in the sagittal plane. The authors hope that these objective data measures can aid in the understanding and subsequent surgical repair of this important forefoot structure.

  8. Anatomical basis of the extended TDAP flap: study of its territories of vascularization and its volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dast, Sandy; Havet, Eric; Dessena, Lidia; Abdulshakoor, Abeer; Alharbi, Mohammed; Vaucher, Richard; Herlin, Christian; Sinna, Raphael

    2017-08-01

    The concept of extended thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap was described in 2015 for breast reconstruction. Our anatomical study aims to identify the territories vascularised by the thoracodorsal artery perforator via the deep muscular fascial network. The second goal was to define the volume of the extended TDAP flap. Ten extended TDAP flaps were dissected on 5 fresh human cadavers. Around the classical skin paddle of a TDAP flap, the dissections were performed in a subfascial level, including the muscular fascia and the adipose tissue compartments to increase the volume of the flap. After injection of methylene blue in the thoracodorsal artery, we measured the length and width, the surface and the volume of the coloured flap. The mean sizes of the extended TDAP flap were 24.9 cm × 20.1 cm. The mean surface of the total vascularization zone was 441 cm 2 . The mean volume of the vascularized flap was 193 ml. The thoracodorsal artery perforator via the deep muscular fascial network allows us to harvest a flap of 25 cm × 20 cm with a mean surface of 441 cm² and a mean volume of 193 ml. The extended TDAP flap is a credible option in breast reconstruction.

  9. Anatomical study of phrenic nerve course in relation to neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tomohiro; Usami, Akinobu; Kishi, Asuka; Kon, Hideki; Takada, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The present study sought to clarify the course of the phrenic nerve and its correlation with anatomical landmarks in the neck region. We examined 17 cadavers (30 sides). In each, the phrenic nerves was dissected from the lateral side of the neck, and its position within the triangle formed by the mastoid process and sternal and acromial ends of the clavicle was determined. The point where the phrenic nerve arises in the posterior triangle was found to be similar to the point where the cutaneous blanches of the cervical plexus emerge at the middle of the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In the supraclavian triangle, the phrenic nerve crosses the anterior border of the anterior scalene muscle near Erb's point where the superficial point is 2-3 cm superior from the clavicle and posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The phrenic nerve arises in the posterior triangle near the nerve point, then descends to the anterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle in the supraclavian triangle. It is necessary to be aware of the supraclavian triangle below Erb's point during neck dissection procedures.

  10. Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some onosma l. (boraginaceae) taxa endemic to anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teke, H.I.; Binzet, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma discedens Hausskn. ex. Bornm., O. nana DC. and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora Teppner were investigated. All the examined species are endemic to Anatolia, Turkey. The root cortex of examined species is multilayered. The raphide crystals are observed in epidermal cells and basal hair cells on both side of epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in O. nana and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora, whereas leaves are dorsiventral(=bifacial) in O. discedens. Stomatas are observed on both surfaces (=amfistomatic) in all examined species. Stomata index is 9.25 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. discedens, 9.61 of upper epidermis and 10 of lower epidermis in O. nana and 9.67 of upper epidermis and 13.63 of lower epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. The pollen grains are heteropolar, trisyncolporatae and sphaeroidal shape. In O. discedens, sphaeroidal (P/E: 1.13 W) and subprolate in Acetolysis and in O. nana, subprolate in shape and in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Amb is three angular in all examined Onosma species. Sculpture is scabrate-rugulate in all species. Nutlet ornamentation is rugose. (author)

  11. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Characteristics of the Femoral Canal Isthmus: An Anatomical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-yun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish a new approach for measuring and locating the femoral intramedullary canal isthmus in 3-dimensional (3D space. Methods. Based on the computed tomography data from 204 Chinese patients, 3D models of the whole femur and the corresponding femoral isthmus tube were reconstructed using Mimics software (Materialise, Haasrode, Belgium. The anatomical parameters of the femur and the isthmus, including the femur length and radius, and the isthmus diameter and height, were measured accordingly. Results. The mean ratio of the isthmus height versus the femoral height was 55 ± 4.8%. The mean diameter of the isthmus was 10.49 ± 1.52 mm. The femoral length, the isthmus diameter, and the isthmus tube length were significantly larger in the male group. Significant correlations were observed between the femoral length and the isthmus diameter (r=0.24, p<0.01 and between the femoral length and the isthmus height (r=0.6, p<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the femoral length and radius were the most important factors influencing the location and dimension of the femoral canal isthmus. Conclusion. The current study developed a new approach for measuring the femoral canal and for optimization of customer-specific femoral implants.

  12. Concordance of Beta-papillomavirus across anogenital and oral anatomic sites of men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Emily M; López, Rossana V M; Sudenga, Staci L; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Baggio, Maria L; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the concordance between β-HPVs detected in external genital skin, anal canal, and oral cavity specimens collected simultaneously from 717 men that were participating in the multinational HIM Study. Viral genotyping was performed using the Luminex technology. Species- and type-specific concordance was measured using kappa statistics for agreement. Overall, concordance of β-HPVs across sites was low and mainly observed among paired genital/anal canal samples. When grouped by species, solely β-4 HPVs showed moderate concordance in genital/anal pairs (κ = 0.457), which could be attributed to the substantial concordance of HPV-92 in men from Brazil and Mexico (κ > 0.610). β-HPV type concordance was higher in Mexico, where HPV-19 was consistently concordant in all anatomic site combinations. Our analysis indicates that type-specific concordance across sites is limited to few viral types; however, these infections seem to occur more often than would be expected by chance, suggesting that although rare, there is agreement among sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The cerebral arterial circle (circulus arteriosus cerebri): an anatomical study in fetus and infant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Shahab Kamali; Dadmehr, Majid; Nejat, Farideh; Ansari, Saeed; Eftekhar, Behzad; Tajik, Parvin; El Khashab, Mostafa; Yazdani, Shahrooz; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Mahjoub, Fatemeh; Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Nazparvar, Bashir; Abdi-Rad, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the variations in the anatomy of each segment of the cerebral arterial circle while a few have addressed the variations of the cerebral arterial circle as a whole. Thirty brains of recently deceased Iranian infants and fetuses were dissected. The dissection process was filmed and digitized so as to be readily available for further studies. The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were evaluated. Variants with uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs) were the most common in our study, similar to previous works. No aplasia of the precommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery (A1), the precommunicating part of the posterior cerebral artery (P1) and anterior communicating artery was seen. Hypoplasia of the right and left PcoA was observed in 8 and 5 cases, respectively. Aplasia of the right PcoA was found in 16.6% and of the left PcoA in 3.3%. In this study, we confirmed the previously described finding that the symmetrical, circular configuration of the circulus arteriosus cerebri is present in only about 42.1%. The main differences between the fetal and adult disposition are the diameter of the PcoA and the circular part of the posterior cerebral artery. According to previous studies, the fetal brain older than 4 months has anatomical characteristics very similar to the adult's circle; our finding was mostly similar to adult samples as most samples were from infants, not fetuses. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Pattern of osteophytes and enthesophytes in the proximal ulna: an anatomic, paleopathologic, and radiologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A [Department of Radiology, I.R.C.C.S. Maggiore Policlinico Hospital, Milan (Italy); Souto, S C.L. [Instituto de Radiologia, J.C. Rahal, Pelotas-RS (Brazil); Catalano, O A [Servizio di Radiologia, AO G Rummo, Benevento (Italy); Doria, A S [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Trigo, P B.S. [Department of Radilology, Tenon Hospital, Paris (France); Resnick, D

    2006-11-15

    To develop a schematic segmentation of the proximal ulna in order to detect, assess the frequency, and characterize the bony outgrowths arising from the trochlea and from the radial notch of the ulna, to enable differentiation of osteophytes from enthesophytes. Eighty well-preserved ulna specimens from the collection of the San Diego Museum of Man were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The trochlea and the radial notch of the ulna simulate the shape of a clock quadrant. The proximal ulna was divided into 24 anatomic areas. The relationships of the joint capsule and insertions of tendons and ligaments onto these area were assessed by the two readers, and the resulting appearances of bony outgrowths were compared at visual inspection and on Radiographs. The interobserver visual comparison was good in 17 areas out of 24, but poor correlation was found in 7 areas. In one case, difficulties in differentiating osteophytes originating from the brachialis muscle/ tendon (area 9) from an enthesophyte originating from the capsule insertion on the coronoid process (areas 2 or 3) occurredand between two different enthesophytes in a further case. Five cases had difficulties in defining differences in the grading system of the outgrowths. The percentage of outgrowths observed in each of the areas was globally high, especially in areas 9 and 10. On radiographs it was possible to observe irregularities in ten areas; in eight at a threshold of height of 2 mm (areas 1-4, 9, 10, 11, 14) and in two at a threshold of height of 3 mm (areas 5, 6). The two readers had the same difficulties in differentiating enthesophytes from osteophytes at radiographic and visual examination.

  15. ANATOMIC VARIATIONS OF HEPATIC ARTERY: A STUDY IN 479 LIVER TRANSPLANTATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena da; Lima, Heloise Caroline de Souza; Rabelo, Priscylla; Melo, Paulo Sérgio Vieira de; Amorim, Américo Gusmão; Lacerda, Cláudio Moura

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of anatomic variations of hepatic artery ranges from 20-50% in different series. Variations are especially important in the context of liver orthotopic transplantation, since, besides being an ideal opportunity for surgical anatomical study, their precise identification is crucial to the success of the procedure. To identify the anatomical variations in the hepatic arterial system in hepatic transplantation. 479 medical records of transplanted adult patients in the 13-year period were retrospectively analyzed, and collected data on hepatic arterial anatomy of the deceased donor. It was identified normal hepatic arterial anatomy in 416 donors (86.84%). The other 63 patients (13.15%) showed some variation. According to the Michels classification, the most frequently observed abnormalities were: right hepatic artery branch of superior mesenteric artery (Type III, n=27, 5.63%); left hepatic artery branch of the left gastric artery (Type II, n=13, 2.71%); right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery associated with the left hepatic artery arising from the left gastric artery (Type IV, n=4, 0.83%). Similarly, in relation to Hiatt classification, the most prevalent changes were: right hepatic accessory artery or substitute of the superior mesenteric artery (Type III, n=28, 6.05%)), followed by liver ancillary left artery or replacement of gastric artery left (Type II, n=16, 3.34. Fourteen donors (2.92%) showed no anatomical abnormalities defined in classifications, the highest frequency being hepatomesenteric trunk identified in five (01.04%). Detailed knowledge of the variations of hepatic arterial anatomy is of utmost importance to surgeons who perform approaches in this area, particularly in liver transplantation, since their identification and proper management are critical to the success of the procedure. A incidência das variações anatômicas da artéria hepática varia de 20-50% em diferentes casuísticas. Elas s

  16. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  17. Evaluation of the Location of Mandibular Foramen as an Anatomic Landmark Using CBCT Images: A Pioneering Study in an Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Abbas; Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology – School of Dentistry – Hamadan University of Medical Sciences – Hamadan – Iran.; Falah-Kooshki, Sepideh; Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology – School of Dentistry – Hamadan University of Medical Sciences – Hamadan – Iran.; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases – Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics – School of Public Health – Hamadan University of Medical Sciences – Hamadan – Iran.; Karimi, Atena; Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology – School of Dentistry – Hamadan University of Medical Sciences – Hamadan – Iran.; Ostovarrad, Farzaneh; Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology – School of Dentistry – Hamadan University of Medical Sciences – Hamadan – Iran.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mandibular foramen (MF) is located on the internal surface of the ramus through which blood vessels and nerves pass. Determination of the anatomic position of the MF is very important in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia (IANBA), ramus osteotomy and surgical procedures of the posterior angle of mandibular ramus. The aim of this study was to determine anatomic position of the MF using anatomic landmarks on the three dimensional CBCT images. Material and Methods: A total of 10...

  18. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  19. A systematic review of studies on anatomical position of electrode contacts used for chronic subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caire, François; Ranoux, Danièle; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    The dorso-lateral part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered as the usual target of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the exact anatomical location of the electrode contacts used for chronic stimulation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the existing literature on this issue. We searched for studies on the anatomical location of active contacts published until December 2012. We identified 13 studies, published between 2002 and 2010, including 260 patients and 466 electrodes. One hundred and sixty-four active contacts (35 %) were identified within the STN, 117 (25 %) at the interface between STN and the surrounding structures, 184 (40 %) above the STN and one within the substantia nigra. We observed great discrepancies between the different series. The contra-lateral improvement was between 37 and 78.5 % for contacts located within the STN, between 48.6 and 73 % outside the STN, between 65.3 and 66 % at the interface. The authors report no clear correlation between anatomical location and stimulation parameters. Post-operative analysis of the anatomical location of active contacts is difficult, and all the methods used are debatable. The relationship between the anatomical location of active contacts and the clinical effectiveness of stimulation is unclear. It would be necessary to take into account the volume of the electrode contacts and the diffusion of the stimulation. We can nevertheless assume that the interface between dorso-lateral STN, zona incerta and Forel's fields could be directly involved in the effects of stimulation.

  20. Anatomical features of plantar aponeurosis: cadaveric study using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes do Carmo, Clarissa Canella; Fonseca de Almeida Melao, Lina Isabel; Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio Freitas; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Abnormalities of the plantar aponeurosis are commonly encountered in patients with subcalcaneal heel pain. Understanding normal anatomy is required to accurately diagnose some disorders of the foot. The purpose of our study was to describe the normal anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis, using ultrasonography and MRI with close anatomic correlation in cadavers. After MRI and ultrasonography of 10 cadaveric foot specimens, the thickness of the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis displayed by imaging studies was measured by three radiologists. One specimen was sectioned in the transverse plane, one in the coronal plane, one in the sagittal plane, and two in a sagittal oblique plane. Normal anatomy was identified and similar measurements of the plantar aponeurosis were also made. An average value was determined and a statistical analysis was accomplished. The calcaneal insertions of the plantar aponeurosis were better visualized than its distal portions with both MRI and ultrasonography. The measurements of the plantar aponeurosis made by three different radiologists were different, but without statistical significance. The average measurements for the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis with both imaging methods were different from each other because of differences in the morphology of these structures. The values obtained with ultrasonography and MRI, were also different from each other for both the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis, but with no statistical significance. We have described the detailed anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis with emphasis on the more distal structures that can be visualized with MRI. There was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI regarding the measurements of the thickness of the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis. Knowledge of the normal anatomy of these structures enables the radiologist to identify early

  1. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: computerized anatomic study of relashionship between septal and free left ventricle wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; Costa, Eder França da; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Monteiro, Rosangela; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    A feature of dilated cardiomyopathy is the deformation of ventricular cavity, which contributes to systolic dysfunction. Few studies have evaluated this deformation bearing in mind ventricular regions and segments of the ventricle, which could reveal important details of the remodeling process, supporting a better understanding of its role in functional impairment and the development of new therapeutic strategies. To evaluate if, in basal, equatorial and apical regions, increased internal transverse perimeter of left ventricle in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy occurs proportionally between the septal and non-septal segment. We performed an anatomical study with 28 adult hearts from human cadavers. One group consisted of 18 hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and another group with 10 normal hearts. After lamination and left ventricle digital image capture, in three different regions (base, equator and apex), the transversal internal perimeter of left ventricle was divided into two segments: septal and not septal. These segments were measured by proper software. It was established an index of proportionality between these segments, called septal and non-septal segment index. Then we determined whether this index was the same in both groups. Among patients with normal hearts and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the index of proportionality between the two segments (septal and non-septal) showed no significant difference in the three regions analyzed. The comparison results of the indices NSS/SS among normal and enlarged hearts were respectively: in base 1.99 versus 1.86 (P=0.46), in equator 2.22 versus 2.18 (P=0.79) and in apex 2.96 versus 3.56 (P=0.11). In the idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the transversal dilatation of left ventricular internal perimeter occurs proportionally between the segments corresponding to the septum and free wall at the basal, equatorial and apical regions of this chamber.

  2. Foot reconstruction using a free proximal peroneal artery perforator flap: Anatomical study and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Ho; Lee, Yeon Ji; Moon, Suk-Ho

    2018-02-22

    When a small, thin, and durable flap is required for coverage of the foot, the proximal peroneal artery perforator (PPAP) free flap may be a novel option. However, few clinical results and anatomical studies on the PPAP flap have been published. A total of 24 PPAP flaps used in 22 patients from January 2013 to December 2016 were analyzed. All flaps were elevated in the subfascial plane based on a single perforator from the peroneal artery between the soleus and peroneus muscles. The average harvested flap size was 18.9 cm 2 (range, 9-40 cm 2 ), pedicle length was 4.3 cm (range, 3.1-5.5 cm), and pedicle artery diameter was 1.1 mm (range, 0.8-1.5 mm). Twenty-three of the 24 PPAP flaps survived. Average time to harvest the flap was 35 minutes (range, 20-55 minutes). Perforator location (ratio by fibula length) was confirmed at the 0.32 site (standard deviation, ±0.04) from the fibular head. Percentages of septocutaneous and musculocutaneous types were 42% (10/24) and 58% (14/24), respectively, for perforator vessel course; average intramuscular course was 1.3 cm (range, 0.7-2.4 cm). Vessel graft was conducted in four cases, with an average length of 2.2 cm (range, 1.5-3.0 cm). The PPAP flap is one of the thinnest flaps available and is relatively easy to elevate. Moreover, it can be elevated in the same operative field as the foot, and primary closure is available for the donor site. Thus, the PPAP flap may be a good surgical option for soft tissue coverage of the foot. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of testicular development in Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, G B; Aguirre, M V; Lombardo, D M

    2018-07-01

    In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations. That gonadal outline is evident in stage 18. In stage 29, the testes are constituted of a medulla in which the PGCs are surrounded by the Sertoli cells, constituting the seminiferous tubules. From stage 37 a greater organization of the tubules is visualized and at the time of hatching the testicle is constituted of the closed seminiferous tubules, formed of the PGCs and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are evident outside the tubules. In the juvenile stages, the differentiation of germline cells and the organization of small vessels that irrigate the developing testicle begin to be visible. In the analyzed stages, the immunodetection of the GnRHR receptor and PCNA revealed specific marking in the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear zone for GnRHR and in the nucleus of the germline cells in juvenile testicles for PCNA. These results can be used as a basis for further study of endocrine regulation events during testicular ontogeny in avian species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Revascularization of the upper posterior circulation with the anterior temporal artery: an anatomical feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Griswold, Dylan; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Payman, Andre; Tabani, Halima; Yousef, Sonia; Benet, Arnau

    2017-09-22

    OBJECTIVE In various disease processes, including unclippable aneurysms, a bypass to the upper posterior circulation (UPC) including the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) may be needed. Various revascularization options exist, but the role of intracranial (IC) donors has not been scrutinized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical feasibility of utilizing the anterior temporal artery (ATA) for revascularization of the UPC. METHODS ATA-SCA and ATA-PCA bypasses were performed on 14 cadaver specimens. After performing an orbitozygomatic craniotomy and opening the basal cisterns, the ATA was divided at the M 3 -M 4 junction and mobilized to the crural cistern to complete an end-to-side bypass to the SCA and PCA. The length of the recipient artery between the anastomosis and origin was measured. RESULTS Seventeen ATAs were found. Successful anastomosis was performed in 14 (82%) of the ATAs. The anastomosis point on the PCA was 14.2 mm from its origin on the basilar artery. The SCA anastomosis point was 10.1 mm from its origin. Three ATAs did not reach the UPC region due to a common opercular origin with the middle temporal artery. The ATA-SCA bypass was also applied to the management of an incompletely coiled SCA aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS The ATA is a promising IC donor for UPC revascularization. The ATA is exposed en route to the proximal SCA and PCA through the pterional-orbitozygomatic approach. Also, the end-to-side anastomosis provides an efficient and straightforward bypass without the need to harvest a graft or perform multiple or difficult anastomoses.

  6. Morpho-anatomical and fingerprinting study of Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Manzano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: The specie Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. (Asteraceae is a South American native wild bush that grows in various provinces of Ecuador and it has been used in traditional medicine for several diseases, highliting its use in treatment of leishmaniasis, a condition of high incidence in the country. Despite its medicinal use, there are few or none botanic, chemical nor biological studies for this species. Aims: In this paper it were comprised the morpho-anatomical characterization of leaves and stems and genetic identification of a DNA fraction of the leaves of V. patens, in order to provide the elements for proper characterization and contribute to the establishment of quality control. Methods: The macromorphological description was made in leaves and stems from the fresh plant. The micromorphological evaluation was performed by paraffin inclusion of the material with cross-section that were clarify in sodium hypochlorite for its posterior safranin and cresil’s blue stained and its glycerinated gel fixation respectively. On obtaining the DNA chloroplast it was followed the internal protocol established by Molecular Biology CIBE´s laboratory. In order to sequence isolated DNA fragments from leaves of V. patens, Macrogen Maryland, USA´S company services were hired. Results: Leaves and stems of the new specie’s micro morphological characteristics were described for the first time and new macro morphological characters were described too from stems particularly. Conclusions: Using molecular and macro-micromorphological assessments is corroborated the identity of the V. patens species growing in Ecuador coast.

  7. Anatomía floral comparativa del género Polianthes (Agavaceae Comparative floral anatomy of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Serrano-Casas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio anatómico de las flores de algunas especies en los subgéneros Polianthes y Bravoa del género Polianthes L. (Agavaceae, con el propósito de investigar si la actual clasificación subgenérica es adecuada. Los taxa analizados del subgénero Polianthes fueron P. densiflora, P. nelsonii y P. platyphylla, y del subgénero Bravoa, P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii y P. multicolor. Las características anatómicas florales entre las especies son similares y comparten con otros miembros de la familia Agavaceae los nectarios septales y los óvulos anátropos, bitégmicos y crasinucelados. En los taxa del subgénero Bravoa, los filamentos se originan en la base del tubo floral, mientras que en el subgénero Polianthes se originan por debajo de los tépalos internos del perianto. Anteriormente, sin considerar la anatomía de las flores, se planteaba que los filamentos se originaban en ambos subgéneros desde la base del tubo del perianto y que éstos permanecían adnados al mismo, separándose a diferentes niveles. En el nivel interespecífico, P. howardii presenta nectarios de mayor longitud que los lóculos, en relación con los de las otras especies estudiadas.An anatomical floral study of some species of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae, of both subgenus Polianthes and subgenus Bravoa (Agavaceae was carried out, with the aim of testing the adequacy of the present subgeneric classification. The taxa studied of subgenus Polianthes were P. densiflora, P. nelsonii and P. platyphylla; and P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii and P. multicolor of subgenus Bravoa. The anatomical characters between these species are similar, sharing with other members of the Agavaceae family the septal nectaries and the anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellated ovules. In the taxa of subgenus Bravoa, the filaments originate from the floral tube base, while in subgenus Polianthes they originate near the base of the internal tepals

  8. Calcification in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystalline deposits in the knee: anatomic, radiographic, MR imaging, and histologic study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M.; Chung, C.B.; Lima, J.E. de; Trudell, D. [Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Johnson, K.; Terkeltaub, R.; Resnick, D. [Department of Rheumatology, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States); Pe, S. [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, CA 92162, San Diego (United States)

    2004-07-01

    To demonstrate and determine the frequency and location of calcification within cadaveric knees with or without calcification typical of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), utilizing histologic, radiographic and MR imaging techniques. Ten cadaveric knees of elderly individuals that demonstrated no radiographic evidence of prior surgery or trauma were studied with MR imaging and subsequently sectioned in planes corresponding to those obtained with MR imaging. The slices were imaged with high-resolution radiography. Two musculoskeletal radiologists correlated the anatomic, MR and radiographic findings. Three of the knees, which did not demonstrate calcifications, were utilized as controls. Histologic sections were obtained from four knees that contained calcifications and from the three controls, and analyzed with special histologic stains that demonstrate phosphorus and calcium. Radiographic imaging and histologic analysis demonstrated widespread CPPD crystal deposition in four of the 10 knee specimens (40%). MR imaging demonstrated some calcifications only within the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles in three of the four (75%) specimens that had CPPD deposits. In all four specimens radiographs and histologic analysis were more sensitive than MR imaging. Histologic analysis demonstrated no evidence of CPPD crystals in the control specimens. MR imaging is insensitive to the presence of CPPD deposits in the knee, even when such deposits are widespread. Our study suggests that the sensitivity of MR imaging was significantly better in detecting CPPD deposits in the hyaline cartilage of the femoral condyles when compared with other internal structures, even when such structures contained a higher amount of calcification. (orig.)

  9. The Fibularis (Peroneus Tertius Muscle in Humans: A Meta-Analysis of Anatomical Studies with Clinical and Evolutionary Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaissar Yammine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being considered an exclusive human structure for a long time, fibularis tertius (FT is believed to have a secondary function of foot dorsiflexion and eversion. This study is an attempt to approach the issue from an anatomical perspective. A systematic literature search identified 35 studies (7601 legs which met the inclusion criteria. The weighted results of FT presence were as follows: an “adult cadaveric” frequency of 93.2% and a clinical frequency of 80%. The most common FT origin and insertion sites were the distal half of fibula and the base of the 5th metatarsal, respectively. In 95% of cases, an accessory fibular muscle was detected when FT was lacking. We demonstrated that the discrepancy found between the adult cadaveric and clinical frequency values would point out a probable bias in interpreting previous kinesiological results. On an evolutionary level, comparative anatomy demonstrated a very low FT prevalence among monkeys while reaching a frequency of 30% in gorillas, the only non-human apes having an almost exclusive terrestrial locomotion. The consistent prevalence among humans and the presence of similar functional muscles when it is missing would support an essential role of FT during the phylogenetic development of the erect bipedal posture and probably during gait.

  10. Comparing the Microsoft Kinect to a traditional mouse for adjusting the viewed tissue densities of three-dimensional anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Bethany; Berron, Monica; Philip, Adriana; Williams, Jordan; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Advancements in medical image visualization in recent years have enabled three-dimensional (3D) medical images to be volume-rendered from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. Medical data is crucial for patient diagnosis and medical education, and analyzing these three-dimensional models rather than two-dimensional (2D) slices would enable more efficient analysis by surgeons and physicians, especially non-radiologists. An interaction device that is intuitive, robust, and easily learned is necessary to integrate 3D modeling software into the medical community. The keyboard and mouse configuration does not readily manipulate 3D models because these traditional interface devices function within two degrees of freedom, not the six degrees of freedom presented in three dimensions. Using a familiar, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) device for interaction would minimize training time and enable maximum usability with 3D medical images. Multiple techniques are available to manipulate 3D medical images and provide doctors more innovative ways of visualizing patient data. One such example is windowing. Windowing is used to adjust the viewed tissue density of digital medical data. A software platform available at the Virtual Reality Applications Center (VRAC), named Isis, was used to visualize and interact with the 3D representations of medical data. In this paper, we present the methodology and results of a user study that examined the usability of windowing 3D medical imaging using a Kinect™ device compared to a traditional mouse.

  11. Studies of the anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of the Indian population for setting up a Reference Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D. Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents Indian data on various human characteristics such as physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic parameters. The knowledge of these parameters is required for dosimetric purposes and for developing, secondary radiation standards for occupational workers and the general public. The data reported are for the adult population, as well as for the younger population at the ages newborn, and 1, 5, 10 and 15 years. On the basis of the collection, collation and generation of the above data, the characteristics of the Reference Indian Man are proposed. The comparison of Indian data with that for ICRP Reference Man (representing the Caucasian population) shows that most of the physical, physiological and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population are smaller. The weights of a few smaller organs such as thyroid, testes, etc. are comparable and the daily intake of drinking water, the sweat rate and urine excretion rate etc. are higher than those for ICRP Reference man. (author)

  12. Proximity of arthroscopic ankle stabilization procedures to surrounding structures: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark; Behrens, Steve B; Mulcahey, Mary K; Paller, David; Hoffman, Eve; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2013-06-01

    To examine the anatomy of the lateral ankle after arthroscopic repair of the lateral ligament complex (anterior talofibular ligament [ATFL] and calcaneofibular ligament [CFL]) with regard to structures at risk. Ten lower extremity cadaveric specimens were obtained and were screened for gross anatomic defects and pre-existing ankle laxity. The ATFL and CFL were sectioned from the fibula by an open technique. Standard anterolateral and anteromedial arthroscopy portals were made. An additional portal was created 2 cm distal to the anterolateral portal. The articular surface of the fibula was identified, and the ATFL and CFL were freed from the superficial and deeper tissues. Suture anchors were placed in the fibula at the ATFL and CFL origins and were used to repair the origin of the lateral collateral structures. The distance from the suture knot to several local anatomic structures was measured. Measurements were taken by 2 separate observers, and the results were averaged. Several anatomic structures lie in close proximity to the ATFL and CFL sutures. The ATFL sutures entrapped 9 of 55 structures, and no anatomic structures were inadvertently entrapped by the CFL sutures. The proximity of the peroneus tertius and the extensor tendons to the ATFL makes them at highest risk of entrapment, but the proximity of the intermediate branch of the superficial peroneal nerve (when present) is a risk with significant morbidity. Our results indicate that the peroneus tertius and extensor tendons have the highest risk for entrapment and show the smallest mean distances from the anchor knot to the identified structure. Careful attention to these structures, as well as the superficial peroneal nerve, is mandatory to prevent entrapment of tendons and nerves when one is attempting arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction. Defining the anatomic location and proximity of the intervening structures adjacent to the lateral ligament complex of the ankle may help clarify the

  13. Coronoid process of the ulna: paleopathologic and anatomic study with imaging correlation. Emphasis on the anteromedial ''facet''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio [University of California, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Barbosa, Diogo Miranda; Belentani, Clarissa; Negrao Ramos, Pedro Miguel; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the coronoid process of the ulna and to use magnetic resonance (MR) images and anatomic correlation with cadavers to show the macroscopic configuration of this structure. Photography and high-resolution radiography were performed in 26 ulna specimens from the collection of a local museum. MR imaging of the coronoid process of 11 cadaveric elbows was performed. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. The anteromedial rim of the coronoid process of the ulna had a regular surface, without osseous irregularities or facets in 69.2% of the specimens. In 30.8% of the specimens, the anteromedial rim was not regular and a small ridge could be identified. The insertion site of the joint capsule was onto the anterior aspect of the coronoid process, at an average distance of 5.9 mm distal to the tip. The attachment of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament at the sublime tubercle was flush with the articular margin in 63.6% of the specimens. In 36.4% of the specimens, a more distal attachment, with a separation between the undersurface of the ligament and the adjacent tubercle, was seen. The brachialis tendon was attached to the coronoid process at a mean distance of 12.1 mm distal to the tip. The coronoid process of the ulna is a small osseous structure with a complex anatomy and presents some anatomical variations. (orig.)

  14. Percutaneous Placement of Central Venous Catheters: Comparing the Anatomical Landmark Method with the Radiologically Guided Technique for Central Venous Catheterization Through the Internal Jugular Vein in Emergent Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroglu, M.; Demir, M.; Koroglu, B.K.; Sezer, M.T.; Akhan, O.; Yildiz, H.; Yavuz, L.; Baykal, B.; Oyar, O. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Internal Medicine and Anesthesiology

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the success and immediate complication rates of the anatomical landmark method (group 1) and the radiologically (combined real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy) guided technique (group 2) in the placement of central venous catheters in emergent hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: The study was performed prospectively in a randomized manner. The success and immediate complication rates of radiologically guided placement of central venous access catheters through the internal jugular vein (n = 40) were compared with those of the anatomical landmark method (n 40). The success of placement, the complications, the number of passes required, and whether a single or double-wall puncture occurred were also noted and compared. Results: The groups were comparable in age and sex. The indication for catheter placement was hemodialysis access in all patients. Catheter placement was successful in all patients in group 2 and unsuccessful in 1 (2.5%) patient in group 1. All catheters functioned adequately and immediately after the placement (0% initial failure rate) in group 2, but 3 catheters (7.5% initial failure rate) were non-functional just after placement in group 1. The total number of needle passes, double venous wall puncture, and complication rate were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion: Percutaneous central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein can be performed by interventional radiologists with better technical success rates and lower immediate complications. In conclusion, central venous catheterization for emergent dialysis should be performed under both real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance.

  15. A Morphological, anatomical and caryological study on endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia taxa (Bornm. & Zahn Sell & West (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sepet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant samples of Endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn Sell&West (1975 the taxa were collected in 2013 from the Spil Mountain in Manisa, one of the natural spreading areas. A thick cover was observed on the leaves of the taxon rosette on the base. In the anatomical investigations, the radial transmission in the stem takes up a great deal of space in the bundles compared to the floem elements of the xylem elements. The body covers the epidermis cells of a thick capillary layer with dense fur, and the transmission bundles are generally arranged in a large, small bundle. The leaves are in the bifacial leaf type and accordingly the separation of palisade parenchyma and sponge parenchyma is clearly observed. The abaxial percentage is longer and more intense, and there are stoma cells that are arranged at regular intervals with cover and secretion feathers on both sides. Abdominal abdominal stomata is the upper case. The number of chromosomes was determined as 2x = 2n = 18 in karyological studies performed by Takson and chromosome measurements were made.

  16. Anatomic abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex before psychosis onset: an MRI study of ultra-high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, Alex; Yung, Alison R; Wood, Stephen J; Phillips, Lisa J; Nelson, Barnaby; Cotton, Sue; Velakoulis, Dennis; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2008-11-01

    Abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but whether such changes are apparent before psychosis onset remains unclear. In this study, we characterized prepsychotic ACC abnormalities in a sample of individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. Participants underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and were followed-up over 12-24 months to ascertain diagnostic outcomes. Baseline ACC morphometry was then compared between UHR individuals who developed psychosis (UHR-P; n = 35), those who did not (UHR-NP; n = 35), and healthy control subjects (n = 33). Relative to control subjects, UHR-P individuals displayed bilateral thinning of a rostral paralimbic ACC region that was negatively correlated with negative symptoms, whereas UHR-NP individuals displayed a relative thickening of dorsal and rostral limbic areas that was correlated with anxiety ratings. Baseline ACC differences between the two UHR groups predicted time to psychosis onset, independently of symptomatology. Subdiagnostic comparisons revealed that changes in the UHR-P group were driven by individuals subsequently diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. These findings indicate that anatomic abnormalities of the ACC precede psychosis onset and that baseline ACC differences distinguish between UHR individuals who do and do not subsequently develop frank psychosis. They also indicate that prepsychotic changes are relatively specific to individuals who develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, suggesting they may represent a diagnostically specific risk marker.

  17. Perforation of Axillary Vein by a Branch of the Axillary Artery: an Anatomical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Anita; Rana, K. K; Saha, S

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical variations in the region of axilla and pectoral region are very common. These variations need attention to avoid complications arising during surgeries and diagnostic and interventional invasive procedures in this region such as surgeries for breast carcinoma, venous access during central venous line, pacemaker and cardiac defibrillator implantation etc. During routine cadaveric dissection we had noticed a rare variation of axillary vein and artery. In this case axillary vein, just...

  18. Anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe: an angiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailloud, P.; Muster, M.; Khaw, N.; Martin, J.B.; Murphy, K.J.; Ruefenacht, D.A.; Fasel, J.H.D.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe in 57 consecutive angiograms. Patients with pathology in intracranial venous structures or with inadequate image quality of the venous system were excluded. Arachnoid granulations were found in 12 of the 57 patients (21.1 %), always at the junction of the vein of Labbe and the transverse sinus; the vein of Labbe was present in 55 patients (96.5 %), most often without associated arachnoid granulations; the latter, however, were not observed in the absence of a vein of Labbe. This study confirms the close, constant anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe. This observation may help to differentiate arachnoid granulations from pathologic conditions involving the transverse sinus such as dural sinus thrombosis. The constant character of this relationship suggests a developmental role of afferent veins in the formation of arachnoid granulations. (orig.)

  19. MR neurography with multiplanar reconstruction of 3D MRI datasets: an anatomical study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Wolfgang; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Stuber, Gregor; Schmitz, Bernd; Brinkmann, Alexander; Wagner, Florian; Dinse, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Extracranial MR neurography has so far mainly been used with 2D datasets. We investigated the use of 3D datasets for peripheral neurography of the sciatic nerve. A total of 40 thighs (20 healthy volunteers) were examined with a coronally oriented magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence with isotropic voxels of 1 x 1 x 1 mm and a field of view of 500 mm. Anatomical landmarks were palpated and marked with MRI markers. After MR scanning, the sciatic nerve was identified by two readers independently in the resulting 3D dataset. In every volunteer, the sciatic nerve could be identified bilaterally over the whole length of the thigh, even in areas of close contact to isointense muscles. The landmark of the greater trochanter was falsely palpated by 2.2 cm, and the knee joint by 1 cm. The mean distance between the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve and the knee-joint gap was 6 cm (±1.8 cm). The mean results of the two readers differed by 1-6%. With the described method of MR neurography, the sciatic nerve was depicted reliably and objectively in great anatomical detail over the whole length of the thigh. Important anatomical information can be obtained. The clinical applications of MR neurography for the brachial plexus and lumbosacral plexus/sciatic nerve are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Anatomical study of the radius and center of curvature of the distal femoral condyle

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Scheffer, Cornie; Dillon, Edwin Mark; Erasmus, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    In this anatomical study, the anteroposterior curvature of the surface of 16 cadaveric distal femurs was examined in terms of radii and center point. Those two parameters attract high interest due to their significance for total knee arthroplasty. Basically, two different conclusions have been drawn in foregoing studies: (1) The curvature shows a constant radius and (2) the curvature shows a variable radius. The investigations were based on a new method combining three-dimensional laser-scanning and planar geometrical analyses. This method is aimed at providing high accuracy and high local resolution. The high-precision laser scanning enables the exact reproduction of the distal femurs - including their cartilage tissue - as a three-dimensional computer model. The surface curvature was investigated on intersection planes that were oriented perpendicularly to the surgical epicondylar line. Three planes were placed at the central part of each condyle. The intersection of either plane with the femur model was approximated with the help of a b-spline, yielding three b-splines on each condyle. The radii and center points of the circles, approximating the local curvature of the b-splines, were then evaluated. The results from all three b-splines were averaged in order to increase the reliability of the method. The results show the variation in the surface curvatures of the investigated samples of condyles. These variations are expressed in the pattern of the center points and the radii of the curvatures. The standard deviations of the radii for a 90 deg arc on the posterior condyle range from 0.6 mm up to 5.1 mm, with an average of 2.4 mm laterally and 2.2 mm medially. No correlation was found between the curvature of the lateral and medial condyles. Within the range of the investigated 16 samples, the conclusion can be drawn that the condyle surface curvature is not constant and different for all specimens when viewed along the surgical epicondylar axis. For the portion

  1. Anatomical characteristics of the styloid process in internal carotid artery dissection: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, José M; Pereira, Daniela; Rodrigues, Marta G; Beato-Coelho, José; Lopes, Margarida; Cunha, André; Figueiredo, Sofia; Mendes-Pinto, Mafalda; Ferreira, Carla; Sargento-Freitas, João; Castro, Sérgio; Pinho, João

    2018-06-01

    Introduction Pathophysiology of cervical artery dissection is complex and poorly understood. In addition to well-known causative and predisposing factors, including major trauma and monogenic connective tissue disorders, morphological characteristics of the styloid process have been recently recognized as a possible risk factor for cervical internal carotid artery dissection. Aims To study the association of the anatomical characteristics of styloid process with internal carotid artery dissection. Methods Retrospective, multicenter, case-control study of patients with internal carotid artery dissection and age- and sex-matched controls. Consecutive patients with internal carotid artery dissection and controls with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack of any etiology excluding internal carotid artery dissection, who had performed computed tomography angiography, diagnosed between January 2010 and September 2016. Two independent observers measured styloid process length and styloid process distance to internal carotid artery. Results Sixty-two patients with internal carotid artery dissection and 70 controls were included. Interobserver agreement was good for styloid process length and styloid process-internal carotid artery distance (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.89 and 0.76, respectively). Styloid process ipsilateral to dissection was longer than left and right styloid process in controls (35.8 ± 14.4 mm versus 30.4 ± 8.9 mm and 30.3 ± 8.2 mm, p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively). Styloid process-internal carotid artery distance ipsilateral to dissection was shorter than left and right distance in controls (6.3 ± 1.9 mm versus 7.2 ± 2.1 mm and 7.0 ± 2.3 mm, p = 0.003 and p = 0.026, respectively). Internal carotid artery dissection was associated with styloid process length (odds ratio = 1.04 mm -1 , 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.015) and styloid process

  2. Surgical anatomy of the sternoclavicular joint: a qualitative and quantitative anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jared T; Campbell, Kevin J; Michalski, Max P; Wilson, Katharine J; Spiegl, Ulrich J A; Wijdicks, Coen A; Millett, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The quantitative anatomical relationships of the main ligamentous, tendinous, and osseous structures of the sternoclavicular joint have not been widely investigated. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative description of the sternoclavicular joint in relation to relevant surgical landmarks. We dissected eleven nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric sternoclavicular joints from four men and seven women (mean age at death, fifty-three years; range, thirty-three to sixty-four years) and measured the ligaments, musculature, and osseous landmarks with use of a three-dimensional coordinate-measuring device. The clavicular pectoralis ridge, located at the 9:30 clock-face position on a right clavicle, served as a reliable osseous landmark for reference to the soft-tissue attachments around the sternoclavicular joint. The costoclavicular ligament was the largest ligament of the sternoclavicular joint, with 80% greater footprint area than that of the posterior sternoclavicular ligament. Articular cartilage covered 67% of the medial end of the clavicle and was located anteroinferiorly. The sternohyoid muscle inserted directly over the posterior sternoclavicular joint and the medial end of the clavicle, whereas the sternothyroid muscle inserted 9.5 mm inferior to the posterior-superior articular margin of the manubrium and coursed 19.8 mm laterally along the first rib. An avascular plane that can serve as a "safe zone" for posterior dissection was observed in each specimen, posterior to the sternoclavicular joint and anterior to the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles. The clavicular pectoralis ridge can be used as an intraoperative guide for clavicle orientation and tunnel placement in sternoclavicular ligament reconstruction. Sternoclavicular joint resection arthroplasty should avoid injuring the costoclavicular ligament, which is the largest sternoclavicular joint ligament. Resection of only the anteroinferior aspect of the medial end of the clavicle may

  3. Anatomical parcellation of the brainstem and cerebellar white matter: a preliminary probabilistic tractography study at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel A.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to test whether higher spatial resolution diffusion tensor images and a higher field strength (3 T) enable a more accurate delineation of the anatomical tract within the brainstem, and, in particular, (2) to try to distinguish the different components of the corticopontocerebellar paths in terms of their cortical origins. The main tracts of the brainstem of four volunteers were studied at 3 T using a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. The resulting tractograms enabled anatomical well-delineated structures to be identified on the diffusion tensor coloured images. We tracked corticopontine, corticospinal, central tegmental, inferior and superior cerebellopeduncular, transverse, medial lemniscal and, possibly, longitudinal medial fibres. Moreover, DTI tracking allowed a broad delineation of the corticopontocerebellar paths. Diffusion tensor coloured images allow a rapid and reliable access to the white matter broad parcellation of the brainstem and of the cerebellum, which can be completed by fibre tracking. However, a more accurate and exhaustive depiction of the anatomical connectivity within the brainstem requires the application of more sophisticated techniques and tractography algorithms, such as diffusion spectrum imaging. (orig.)

  4. Anatomical parcellation of the brainstem and cerebellar white matter: a preliminary probabilistic tractography study at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel A. [UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Hopital des Quinze-Vingts, Paris (France)

    2007-10-15

    The aims of this study were: (1) to test whether higher spatial resolution diffusion tensor images and a higher field strength (3 T) enable a more accurate delineation of the anatomical tract within the brainstem, and, in particular, (2) to try to distinguish the different components of the corticopontocerebellar paths in terms of their cortical origins. The main tracts of the brainstem of four volunteers were studied at 3 T using a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. The resulting tractograms enabled anatomical well-delineated structures to be identified on the diffusion tensor coloured images. We tracked corticopontine, corticospinal, central tegmental, inferior and superior cerebellopeduncular, transverse, medial lemniscal and, possibly, longitudinal medial fibres. Moreover, DTI tracking allowed a broad delineation of the corticopontocerebellar paths. Diffusion tensor coloured images allow a rapid and reliable access to the white matter broad parcellation of the brainstem and of the cerebellum, which can be completed by fibre tracking. However, a more accurate and exhaustive depiction of the anatomical connectivity within the brainstem requires the application of more sophisticated techniques and tractography algorithms, such as diffusion spectrum imaging. (orig.)

  5. A cementless, proximally fixed anatomic femoral stem induces high micromotion with nontraumatic femoral avascular necrosis: A finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chuan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in bone mineral density of metaphysis in patients with nontraumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN is considered the main factor leading to aseptic loosening of the femoral component. Researchers have hypothesized that a cementless, anatomic stem fixed proximally to the metaphysis has a higher risk for aseptic loosening than a straight stem that is fixed at the diaphysis in patients with nontraumatic AVN. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cancellous bone stiffness at the metaphysis and stem geometry on the micromotion of the femoral stem relative to the femur. The VerSys (straight and ABG (anatomic femoral stems were enrolled in this finite element study to determine the performance of prosthetic micromotion. The simulated load to the hip joint during heel strike was assigned. Results showed that the VerSys model represented better resistance in micromotion between the bone/stem interface than the ABG model in either normal or poor cancellous bone stiffness at the metaphysis. The bone quality at the metaphysis of patients with nontraumatic AVN should be considered prior to selecting a femoral stem. In consideration of initial stability, acementless, straight stem that fits the isthmus is more favourable than an anatomic stem that is fixed to the proximal area of the canal.

  6. Chest wall thickness and decompression failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing anatomic locations in needle thoracostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Danuel V; Vu, Trang Diem N; Thiels, Cornelius A; Pandian, T K; Schiller, Henry J; Murad, M Hassan; Aho, Johnathon M

    2016-04-01

    Current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines recommend decompression for thoracic tension physiology using a 5-cm angiocatheter at the second intercostal space (ICS) on the midclavicular line (MCL). High failure rates occur. Through systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to determine the chest wall thickness (CWT) of the 2nd ICS-MCL, the 4th/5th ICS at the anterior axillary line (AAL), the 4th/5th ICS mid axillary line (MAL) and needle thoracostomy failure rates using the currently recommended 5-cm angiocatheter. A comprehensive search of several databases from their inception to July 24, 2014 was conducted. The search was limited to the English language, and all study populations were included. Studies were appraised by two independent reviewers according to a priori defined PRISMA inclusion and exclusion criteria. Continuous outcomes (CWT) were evaluated using weighted mean difference and binary outcomes (failure with 5-cm needle) were assessed using incidence rate. Outcomes were pooled using the random-effects model. The search resulted in 34,652 studies of which 15 were included for CWT analysis, 13 for NT effectiveness. Mean CWT was 42.79 mm (95% CI, 38.78-46.81) at 2nd ICS-MCL, 39.85 mm (95% CI, 28.70-51.00) at MAL, and 34.33 mm (95% CI, 28.20-40.47) at AAL (P=.08). Mean failure rate was 38% (95% CI, 24-54) at 2nd ICS-MCL, 31% (95% CI, 10-64) at MAL, and 13% (95% CI, 8-22) at AAL (P=.01). Evidence from observational studies suggests that the 4th/5th ICS-AAL has the lowest predicted failure rate of needle decompression in multiple populations. Level 3 SR/MA with up to two negative criteria. Therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  8. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  9. [Clinical study of post-stroke speech apraxia treated with scalp electric acupuncture under anatomic orientation and rehabilitation training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yujuan; Yang, Yuxia; Xiang, Rong; Chang, E; Zhang, Yanchun; Zuo, Bingfang; Zhang, Qianwei

    2015-07-01

    To compare the differences in the clinical efficacy on post-stroke speech disorder between scalp electric acupuncture (EA) under anatomic orientation combined with rehabilitation training and simple rehabilitation training. Sixty patients of post-stroke speech apraxia were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. In the observation group, under anatomic orientation, the scalp EA was adopted to the dominant hemisphere Broca area on the left cerebrum. Additionally, the speech rehabilitation training was combined. In the control group, the speech rehabilitation training was simply,used. The treatment lasted for 4 weeks totally. The speech movement program module in the psychological language assessment and treatment system of Chinese aphasia was used for the evident of efficacy assessment. The scores of counting, singing scale, repeating phonetic alphabet, repeating monosyllable and repeating disyllable were observed in the patients of the two groups. The assessment was done separately on the day of grouping and 4 weeks after treatment. In 4 weeks of treatment, the scores of counting, singing scale, repeating phonetic alphabet, repeating monosyllable and repeating disyllable were all improved as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (all Pspeech rehabilitation training obviously improves speech apraxia in stroke patients so that the speech disorder cani be relieved. The efficacy is better than that in simple rehabilitation training.

  10. Anatomical studies on the development of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Hejnowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of anatomical characters within a 15 year old stem is presented by the method of contour lines, where against a schematic longitudinal section of a stem points corresponding to the same values for a character are joined by lines, similarly as altitudes in cartography. The method permits prediction of future trends in character changes. It was thus established that tracheid dimensions and diameter of bordered pits in early wood tracheids increase with age of tree and do not reach maximal values before the 15th year. The annual ring width and the height of the rays attain maximal values before the 15th year while the dimensions of ray cells and the percentage of late wood reach almost constant values during the first year or two.

  11. Anatomic study of cranial nerve emergence and associated skull foramina in cats using CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eymeric; Degueurce, Christophe; Ruel, Yannick; Dennis, Ruth; Begon, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain of four normal cats were reviewed retrospectively to assess the emergence and course of the cranial nerves (CNs). Two-millimeter-thick images were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T unit. CN skull foramina, as anatomic landmarks for MR imaging, were identified by computed tomography performed on an isolated cat skull using thin wire within each skull foramen. Thin slice (1 mm slice thickness) images were obtained with a high-resolution bone filter scan protocol. The origins of CNs II, V, VII, and VIII and the group of IX, X, XI, and XII could be identified. The pathway and proximal divisions of CNs V were described. CNs III, IV, and VI were not distinguished from each other but could be seen together in the orbital fissure. CN V was characterized by slight contrast enhancement.

  12. Anatomical study of the popliteal artery perforator-based propeller flap and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Tadanobu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Omokawa, Shohei; Sananpanich, Kanit; Kido, Akira; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2018-05-30

    There is lack of anatomical information regarding cutaneous perforator of the popliteal artery and its connections with the descending branch of the inferior gluteal and profunda femoris arteries. We aimed to evaluate the anatomical basis of popliteal artery perforator-based propeller flap from the posterior thigh region and to demonstrate our experience utilizing this flap. Ten fresh cadaveric lower extremities were dissected following injection of a silicone compound into the femoral artery. We investigated the number, location, length, and diameter of cutaneous perforators of the popliteal artery. Based on the results, we treated three cases with a large soft tissue defect around the knee using popliteal artery perforator-based propeller flap. We found a mean of 1.9 cutaneous perforators arising from the popliteal artery with a mean pedicle length of 6 cm and a mean arterial internal diameter of 0.9 mm, which were located at an average of 4 cm proximal to the bicondylar line. The most distal perforator consistently arose along the small saphenous vein and connected proximally with concomitant artery of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, forming a connection with perforating arteries of the profunda femoris artery. A mean of 4.5 cutaneous perforators branched from the arterial connection sites. All clinical cases healed without any complications. The popliteal artery perforator-based propeller flap is reliable for reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the knee. The flap should include the deep fascia and concomitant artery along with the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve for maintaining the blood supply.

  13. Prevention of postoperative visual field defect after the occipital transtentorial approach: anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Komune, Noritaka; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2017-10-20

    OBJECTIVE A postoperative visual field defect resulting from damage to the occipital lobe during surgery is a unique complication of the occipital transtentorial approach. Though the association between patient position and this complication is well investigated, preventing the complication remains a challenge. To define the area of the occipital lobe in which retraction is least harmful, the surface anatomy of the brain, course of the optic radiations, and microsurgical anatomy of the occipital transtentorial approach were examined. METHODS Twelve formalin-fixed cadaveric adult heads were examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and 0° and 45° endoscopes. The optic radiations were examined by fiber dissection and MR tractography techniques. RESULTS The arterial and venous relationships of the lateral, medial, and inferior surfaces of the occipital lobe were defined anatomically. The full course of the optic radiations was displayed via both fiber dissection and MR tractography. Although the stems of the optic radiations as exposed by both techniques are similar, the terminations of the fibers are slightly different. The occipital transtentorial approach provides access for the removal of lesions involving the splenium, pineal gland, collicular plate, cerebellomesencephalic fissure, and anterosuperior part of the cerebellum. An angled endoscope can aid in exposing the superior medullary velum and superior cerebellar peduncles. CONCLUSIONS Anatomical findings suggest that retracting the inferior surface of the occipital lobe may avoid direct damage and perfusion deficiency around the calcarine cortex and optic radiations near their termination. An accurate understanding of the course of the optic radiations and vascular relationships around the occipital lobe and careful retraction of the inferior surface of the occipital lobe may reduce the incidence of postoperative visual field defect.

  14. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through a Minimal Incision on the Distal Wrist Crease: An Anatomical and Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Yoo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn anatomical analysis of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL and the surrounding structures might help in identifying effective measures to minimize complications. Here, we present a surgical technique based on an anatomical study that was successfully applied in clinical settings.MethodsUsing 13 hands from 8 formalin-fixed cadavers, we measured the TCL length and thickness, correlation between the distal wrist crease and the proximal end of the TCL, and distance between the distal end of the TCL and the palmar arch; the TCL cross sections and the thickest parts were also examined. Clinically, fasciotomy was performed on the relevant parts of 15 hands from 13 patients by making a minimally invasive incision on the distal wrist crease. Postoperatively, a two-point discrimination check was conducted in which the sensations of the first, second, and third fingertips and the palmar cutaneous branch injuries were monitored (average duration, 7 months.ResultsIn the 13 cadaveric hands, the distal wrist crease and the proximal end of the TCL were placed in the same location. The average length of the TCL and the distance from the distal TCL to the superficial palmar arch were 35.30±2.59 mm and 9.50±2.13 mm, respectively. The thickest part of the TCL was a region 25 mm distal to the distal wrist crease (average thickness, 4.00±0.57 mm. The 13 surgeries performed in the clinical settings yielded satisfactory results.ConclusionsThis peri-TCL anatomical study confirmed the safety of fasciotomy with a minimally invasive incision of the distal wrist crease. The clinical application of the technique indicated that the minimally invasive incision of the distal wrist crease was efficacious in the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome.

  16. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  17. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  18. Basic anatomic study of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt by direct transcaval approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xia; Xu Ke

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indications and related anatomic foundation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) through direct transcaval approach, and to evaluate the safety, feasibility and clinical significance. Methods: Sixty four patients diagnosed as hepatocirrhosis clinically were involved, including the function of liver Child B (n=40), Child C (n=24). After 2 phrase of hepatic CT enhancement scanning and postprocessing through multiple planner reconstruction (MPR) and curve planner reconstruction (CPR), the data were conjugated statistically by ANOVA. Results: The length of the intrahepatic segment of the inferior cava in Child B is longer than that in Child C (P<0.05). Referring the points of hepatic vein entrance to vena cava as A1, 2 cm away from right hepatic vein as A2, the crotch of portal vein as B1, 2 cm away from right portal vein as B2. The length of A1B1 is shorter than that of A2B1(P<0.05). The angle between A1B2 and right portal vein is smaller than that of A2B2 and right portal vein (P<0.05). Conclusion: Transcaval TIPS creation is safe and feasible, providing the direct transcaval approach as a favorable fluent patency way and less influence on hemodynamics in comparison with traditional TIPS. (authors)

  19. An anatomical study of the parasacral block using magnetic resonance imaging of healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Maeve

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The parasacral approach to sciatic blockade is reported to be easy to learn and perform, with a high success rate and few complications. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the accuracy of a simulated needle (perpendicular to skin) in contacting the sacral plexus with this approach in 10 volunteers. Intrapelvic structures encountered during the simulated parasacral blocks were also recorded. RESULTS: The sacral plexus was contacted by the simulated needle in 4 of the 10 volunteers, and the sciatic nerve itself in one volunteer. The plexus was accurately located adjacent to a variety of visceral structures, including small bowel, blood vessels, and ovary. In the remaining five volunteers (in whom the plexus was not contacted on first needle pass), small bowel, rectum, blood vessels, seminal vesicles, and bony structures were encountered. Historically, when plexus is not encountered, readjustment of the needle insertion point more caudally has been recommended. We found that such an adjustment resulted in simulated perforation of intrapelvic organs or the perianal fossa. CONCLUSIONS: These findings question the reliability of the anatomical landmarks of the parasacral block and raise the possibility of frequent visceral puncture using this technique.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY AND INCIDENCE OF OS PERONEUM IN PERONEUS LONGUS TENDON AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE. Estudio anatómico comparativo e incidencia del os peroneum en el tendón de peroneo largo y su significación clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar la tasa de incidencia del os peroneo (OP en el tendón del peroneo lateral largo (PLT y su importancia clínica. Métodos: La disección de 60 cadáveres embalsamados (56 hombres y 4 mujeres del grupo de mediana edad se hizo para tener acceso a la  tasa de incidencia del os peroneo en PLT. Resultados: En nuestro estudio se observó que la  tasa de incidencia del os peroneo fue de  86,6% (52  extremidades. La ubicación del os peroneo es también un tema de controversia. La mayoría de los autores afirman que se relaciona con el hueso cuboides y de vez en cuando se ve inferior al calcáneo distal a la articulación calcáneo-cuboidea. Pero en el presente estudio el os- peroneo estuvo en relación al hueso cuboides en 40 extremidades (76.9%  y distal a articulación calcaneocuboidea en el resto de las 12 extremidades (23.1%. Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere que existe una alta tasa de incidencia de un OP en cadaveres. Esto puede ser como consecuencia de la técnica utilizada para localizar el mismo. La importancia clínica ha sido mencionada en relación con la ubicación del os peroneo, que puede ser confundido con fracturas estiloides y de Jones. Introduction: The aim of our study was to assess the incidence rate of the os peroneum (OP in the peroneus longus tendon (PLT and its clinical significance. Methods: Dissection of 60 embalmed cadavers (56 male and 4 female of middle age group was done to access the incidence rate of os peroneum in peroneus longus tendon. Results: In our study the incidence rate of os peroneum was 86.6% (52 limbs. The location of os peroneum is also a subject of dispute. Most authors stated that it is related to the cuboid bone and occasionally it is seen inferior to the calcaneum distal to the calcaneocuboid joint. But in the present study os peroneum was in relation to cuboid bone in 40 limbs (76.9% and distal to calcaneocuboid joint in 12 limbs (23

  1. Anatomic study of the pelvis in carcinoma of the uterine cervix as related to the box technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, Silvia; Rosato, Otilio; Lucino, Sergio; Jauregui, Esteban; Rossi, Luis; Venencia, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To review the radiation therapy 'box' technique for cancer of the cervix by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lymphangiography, and anatomic studies on cadavers. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 1996, the anatomic borders of the 'box' technique used at our Radiation Oncology Department--the superior border of the AP-PA fields at the inferior edge of L4; the inferior border at the inferior edge of the ischium; the lateral borders placed 2.5 cm outside of the bony pelvis rim; the anterior border of the lateral fields over the anterior edge of the pubic symphysis; and the posterior at the S2-S3 interspace - were reviewed in 35 sagittal MRI and 10 lymphangiographies of patients with FIGO IB (6), IIA (6), IIB (19), IIIB (3), and IVA (1). An anatomic revision was conducted on 30 cadavers to identify aortic bifurcation, lymphatic nodes, and uterus flexion. Results: In 50% of the patients with FIGO IB, the posterior border of the lateral field was inadequate to encompass the planning target volume (PTV), and in 67% with Stage IIA. In IIB, the anterior border was inadequate in 1 patient, and the posterior in 8 (42%). In IIB and IVA patients, the PTV was not encompassed. When correlating the anterior and posterior borders of the lateral field and the treatment volume in the 35 sagittal MRIs, the posterior border of the lateral field was inadequate in 49%, and the anterior border in 9% of the cases. According to the lymphangiography, the portals encompassed the external iliac nodes. Dissected female pelvises revealed that the aortic bifurcation occurred at the level of the inferior L4 edge in 80% of the cadavers. There was no correlation between uterus flexion in MRIs and in cadavers. Conclusion: The design of the lateral fields of the four-field technique for the irradiation of the uterine cervix based on anatomic bone references failed to encompass the planning-target volume in a significant number of patients

  2. An anatomical study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to define the proximal-distal condylar length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite its possible role in knee arthroplasty, the proximal-distal condylar length (PDCL of the femur has never been reported in the literature. We conducted an anatomic study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to propose a method for measuring the PDCL. Materials and Methods: Inspection of dried bone specimens was carried out to assure the most proximal condylar margin (MPCM as the eligible starting point to measure the PDCL. Simulation surgery was performed on seven pairs of cadaveric knees to verify the clinical application of measuring the PDCL after locating the MPCM. Interobserver reliability of this procedure was also analyzed. Results: Observation of the bone specimens showed that the MPCM is a concavity formed by the junction of the distal end of the supracondylar ridge and the proximal margin of the medial condyle. This anatomically distinctive structure made the MPCM an unambiguous landmark. The cadaveric simulation surgical dissection demonstrated that the MPCM is easily accessed in a surgical setting, making the measurement of the PDCL plausible. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78, indicating good interobserver reliability for this technique. Conclusion: This study has suggested that the PDCL can be measured based on the MPCM in a surgical setting. PDCL measurement might be useful in joint line position management, selection of femoral component sizes, and other applications related to the proximal-distal dimension of the knee. Further investigation is required.

  3. Three-dimensional in vivo imaging of the murine liver: a micro-computed tomography-based anatomical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Various murine models are currently used to study acute and chronic pathological processes of the liver, and the efficacy of novel therapeutic regimens. The increasing availability of high-resolution small animal imaging modalities presents researchers with the opportunity to precisely identify and describe pathological processes of the liver. To meet the demands, the objective of this study was to provide a three-dimensional illustration of the macroscopic anatomical location of the murine liver lobes and hepatic vessels using small animal imaging modalities. We analysed micro-CT images of the murine liver by integrating additional information from the published literature to develop comprehensive illustrations of the macroscopic anatomical features of the murine liver and hepatic vasculature. As a result, we provide updated three-dimensional illustrations of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver and hepatic vessels using micro-CT. The information presented here provides researchers working in the field of experimental liver disease with a comprehensive, easily accessable overview of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver.

  4. L5 pedicle length is increased in subjects with spondylolysis: an anatomic study of 1072 cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Navkirat S; Toy, Jason O; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2012-11-01

    In spondylolisthesis, it is believed that as L5 slips on S1, the pedicle may become elongated in response to the instability in an attempt to bridge the defect. Whether patients with spondylolysis, which is largely developmental, also develop elongation of the pedicles is unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and quantify the increase in L5 pedicle length in subjects with spondylolysis as compared with normal healthy subjects. Nine hundred fifty-two human cadaveric specimens without spondylolysis and 120 specimens with spondylolysis from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection were examined by a single examiner. Baseline data, including age, sex, and race of specimens, were collected. Digital calipers were used to measure the pedicle lengths at the L5 level. Linear regression analysis was performed to compare the L5 pedicle lengths in healthy patients and patients with spondylolysis. Linear regression showed a significant association of increased L5 pedicle length in subjects with spondylolysis. The average L5 pedicle length in subjects with spondylolysis was greater compared with subjects without spondylolysis. In spondylolytic specimens, pedicles start to elongate after the age of 40 years. The pedicle lengths increase progressively from 5.6 mm at 40 years to 6.7 mm at 80 years with a 1% to 3% increment every decade. The pedicle lengths showed little variation in specimens from healthy subjects. In spondylolytic specimens, there is progressive elongation of L5 pedicle length after the third decade. An increase in L5 pedicle length in all age groups compared with the specimens from healthy subjects suggests that pathologic changes occur in bony anatomy of L5 vertebrae as early as adolescence when the condition develops.

  5. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age. The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r=0.91, p<0.001 between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x and indirect (y methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias.

  6. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Dombek, Małgorzata; Szpinda, Anna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.91, p hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. PMID:26413551

  7. COMPARATIVE GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF THE SKULL OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. U. Shahid and R. Kausar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The skull of camel when viewed from above was irregularly pentagonal in outline. It was widest in the frontal region and contained the orbits laterally. The occipital bone formed the entire nuchal surface and encroached upon the dorsal surface about 1.75 to 2 inches. It joined the parietal bone at transverse suture. A rough transverse ridge separated the parietal and nuchal surfaces. The mastoid foramen was very large and situated in a deep fossa in the occipital bone in contrast to ox, where it lay at the junction of occipital and temporal bones. The cornual processes were absent. The supraorbital foramen was in the form of a deep fissure, at the rostrolateral margin of the orbit. There was no maxillary tuberosity and facial crest. The pre maxilla had a dorsomedially concave and narrow pointed body. The nasal bones were notched rostromedially and nasal apertures were oval in outline. The body of mandible was long, narrow and concave dorsomedially. The intermandibular space was “V” shaped. The vertical ramus of mandible was thin and convex caudally and the angles were not pronounced, while the rostral border was thick and wide. The coronoid process was almost straight with caudal end slightly pointed. The condyliod process was large and its dorsal surface contained the extensive articular surfaces, which were convex. There was a shallow mandibular notch. The mandibular foramen was in the middle of the medial surface of the ramus of mandible.

  8. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  9. Hormonal profile in children with isolated hypospadias associates better with comprehensive score of local anatomical factors as compared to meatal location or degree of chordee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmi K Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate if hormonal profile of children with isolated hypospadias (IH associates better with comprehensive local anatomical factor score (LAFS than with clinically adjudged urethral meatus location or severity of chordee/k.j. Material and Methods: Ninety-nine children with IH were enrolled, as per inclusion criteria. Meatal location was recorded at first clinical examination in OPD; while LAFS was computed per-operatively using indigenously devised scale, except for neonates. Hypospadiacs were first classified into three standard meatal based groups and subsequently into LAFS based two groups (≤19, >19. For all participants, pre HCG and post HCG (96 hour post- injection estimation of serum gonadotropins, DHEA-S, estrogen (E, progesterone (P, testosterone (T and Dihydrotestosterone (DHT was done. Statistical tests were applied to assess significance of hormonal levels with respect to meatal location, chordee and LAFS. Results: Only FSH levels differed significantly among meatal based groups; while among LAFS groups, multiple hormonal differences were noted; with poor LAFS associated significantly with higher FSH, LH and lower E, T/DHT. Children with severe degree of chordee had poorer T output and a significantly lower LAFS as compared to those with moderate/mild chordee. Conclusion: Serotoli cell dysfunction, indirectly indicated by high FSH was found among midpenile hypospadiacs and those with poorer LAFS. Since groups based on LAFS revealed multiple intergroup hormonal differences than what was seen for meatal/chordee based groups; LAFS should be considered a better guide for prognostication and for deciding about hormonal supplementation. Lower androgenic output was particularly noted in children with severe chordee.

  10. [Reading the 'natural book': notes towards a history of anatomical and surgical studies in Buenos Aires (1870-1895)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pablo; Hurtado, Diego

    2010-12-01

    The article explores transformations in anatomical and surgical studies within the school of medical thought in Buenos Aires in the latter half of the nineteenth century, focusing on the tension between how this knowledge should be conveyed and the changing surgical worldviews of the most visible medical groups of the 1870s. The influence of European surgical traditions is analyzed within this context, particularly the influence of the Paris tradition, which can be linked to study abroad by young Ignacio Pirovano, who would later become professor of anatomy and major surgery in Buenos Aires. The article pays special attention to changes in forms of experiments and in the new material conditions afforded through the introduction of antiseptic surgery, some types of anesthesia, and bone resection.

  11. Comparison of radiofrequency body coils for MRI at 3 Tesla: a simulation study using parallel transmission on various anatomical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaotong; Tian, Jinfeng; Schmitter, Sebastian; Hanna, Brian; Strupp, John; Pfeuffer, Josef; Hamm, Michael; Wang, Dingxin; Nistler, Juergen; He, Bin; Vaughan, J. Thomas; Ugurbil, Kamil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois

    2015-01-01

    The performance of multichannel transmit coil layouts and parallel transmission (pTx) radiofrequency (RF) pulse design was evaluated with respect to transmit B1 (B1+) homogeneity and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) at 3 Tesla for a whole body coil. Five specific coils were modeled and compared: a 32-rung birdcage body coil (driven either in a fixed quadrature mode or a two-channel transmit mode), two single-ring stripline arrays (with either 8 or 16 elements), and two multi-ring stripline arrays (with 2 or 3 identical rings, stacked in the z-axis and each comprising eight azimuthally distributed elements). Three anatomical targets were considered, each defined by a 3D volume representative of a meaningful region of interest (ROI) in routine clinical applications. For a given anatomical target, global or local SAR controlled pTx pulses were designed to homogenize RF excitation within the ROI. At the B1+ homogeneity achieved by the quadrature driven birdcage design, pTx pulses with multichannel transmit coils achieved up to ~8 fold reduction in local and global SAR. When used for imaging head and cervical spine or imaging thoracic spine, the double-ring array outperformed all coils including the single-ring arrays. While the advantage of the double-ring array became much less pronounced for pelvic imaging with a substantially larger ROI, the pTx approach still provided significant gains over the quadrature birdcage coil. For all design scenarios, using the 3-ring array did not necessarily improve the RF performance. Our results suggest that pTx pulses with multichannel transmit coils can reduce local and global SAR substantially for body coils while attaining improved B1+ homogeneity, particularly for a “z-stacked” double-ring design with coil elements arranged on two transaxial rings. PMID:26332290

  12. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  13. Anatomical, germination and in vitro studies on shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa.) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddrisu, A.

    2013-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo germination and regeneration studies were conducted on the development of vitellaria paradoxa seedlings as an initial effort towards its domestication. However, to achieve this objective, the morphology and anatomy of the seeds were first studied because they influence germination. Although a smooth, brown coast enclosed a V. paradoxa seed, it did not impose dormancy on the embroyo. Transverse and longitudinal sections through the seed showed that the embrayo is surrounded by latex and fat-containing tissues which made its identification difficult. Thus, the embrayo was identified by immersing transversely cut seeds in 1.0 % tetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution for 24 hours which stained it red. When V. paradoxa seeds of similar size were sown on nursery beds, the resulting seedlings developed through seven stages namely sprouting, pseudoradicle elongation, bulging, appearance of the shoot on the pseudoradicle, shoot elongation, emergence and seedling establishment. The pseudoradicle is the fused petioles of the two cotyledons and a transverse section through it revealed an outer sheath and lactiferous vessels surrounding a central hollow tube. Longitudinal section also show the lactiferous vessels surrounding the central hallow tube in which the plumule moves through until it reaches the bulge of the pseudoradicle where it develops into a rudimentary shoot. The rudimentary shoot then pseudoradicle and grows upwards. Classifying seeds into three groups based on size significantly affected days to germination and the morphology of the resulting seedlings. Large seeds germinated within one week after sowing with vigorous growth compared to small and medium seeds. Although the seedcoat of V. paradoxa never imposed dormancy, deshelling (removal of the seedcoat) significantly led to early germination and synchronous seedling emergence compared to those for intact seeds (control). In vitro culture of intact and deshelled seeds on Muarashige and Skoog

  14. Anatomical features of skull base and oral cavity: a pilot study to determine the accessibility of the sella by transoral robotic-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelot, Aymeric; Trunet, Stephanie; Degos, Vincent; André, Olivier; Dionnet, Aurore; Cornu, Philippe; Hans, Stéphane; Chauvet, Dorian

    2015-10-01

    The role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the skull base emerges and represents the natural progression toward miniinvasive resections in confined spaces. The accessibility of the sella via TORS has been recently described on fresh human cadavers. An anatomic study is mandatory to know if this approach would be feasible in the majority of patients regardless of their oral morphological features. From 30 skull base CT scans from patients who were asked to open their mouth as wide as they can, we measured specific dimensions of the oral cavity and the skull base, such as length of the palate, mouth opening and distance from the sella to the palate. All data were acquired on a sagittal midline plane and on a 25° rotation plane, which simulated the axis of the robotic instruments. Looking at the projection of the dental palatine line on the sella, we studied possible predictive factors of sellar accessibility and tried to bring objective data for surgical feasibility. We also proposed an angle α to study the working angle at the skull base. We observed that the maximal mouth opening was a good predictive factor of sellar accessibility by TORS (p < 0.05). The mouth aperture threshold value for a good sensitivity, over 80 %, was comparable to the mean value of mouth opening in our series, 38.9 and 39.4 mm respectively. Moreover, we showed a statistically significant increase of the working angle α at the skull base comparing the lateral access to the midline one (p < 0.05). This seemed to quantitatively demonstrate that the robotic arms placed at the labial commissure of the mouth can reach the sella. From these anatomical features and previous cadaveric dissections, we assume that TORS may be feasible on a majority of patients to remove pituitary adenomas.

  15. Clinical applications of the superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flap: anatomical studies and preoperative perforator mapping with multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Moustapha; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Ulens, Sara; Van Hedent, Eddy; Roche, Nathalie; Monstrey, Stan

    2009-09-01

    Pedicled superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flaps can be raised to cover challenging thoracic defects. We present an anatomical study based on multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) scan findings of the SEA perforators in addition to the first reported clinical series of SEAP flaps in anterior chest wall reconstruction. (a) In the CT scan study, images of a group of 20 patients who underwent MDCT scan analysis were used to visualise bilaterally the location of musculocutaneous SEAP. X- and Y-axes were used as landmarks to localise the perforators. The X-axis is a horizontal line at the junction of sternum and xyphoid (JCX) and the Y-axis is at the midline. (b) In the clinical study, seven pedicled SEAP flaps were performed in another group of patients. MDCT images revealed totally 157 perforators with a mean of 7.85 perforators per patient. The dominant perforators (137 perforators) were mainly localised in an area between 1.5 and 6.5 cm from the X-axis on both sides and between 3 and 16 cm below the Y-axis. The calibre of these dominant perforators was judged as 'good' to 'very good' in 82.5% of the cases. The average dimension of the flap was 21.7x6.7 cm. All flaps were based on one perforator. Mean harvesting time was 110 min. There were no flap losses. Minor tip necrosis occurred in two flaps. One of them was treated with excision and primary closure. Our clinical experience indicates that the SEAP flap provides a novel and useful approach for reconstruction of anterior chest wall defects. CT-based imaging allows for anatomical assessment of the perforators of the superior epigastric artery (SEA).

  16. Anatomic study of the vascular perfusion of the sternum and its clinical relevance in deep sternal wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spindler, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deep sternal wound infections (DSWI are a rare but devastating complication after median sternotomy. Minor perfusion in bone and soft tissue, especially after recruiting the internal mammary artery for bypass supports the development of wound infection and nonunion of the sternal bone. The aim of the study was the macroscopic and radiological presentation of the vascular system supplying the sternum, in particular the compensating blood supply routes in the event that the internal mammary artery is no longer available after use as a bypass vessel.Method: This anatomic study was carried out on the anterior chest wall of 7 specimens. The thorax plates of 7 specimens were analyzed macroscopically after microsurgical preparation. Different anatomic preparations were produced using different contrast or form-giving substances. Radiological analysis and three-dimensional reconstructions were performed to show alternative, collateral sternal vessel perfusion under estimation of the loss of the internal thoracic artery due to a bypass.Results: The length of the ITA (internal thoracic artery, measured from the beginning of the first rib to the division into the superior epigastric artery and musculophrenic artery, was an average of 16.3 cm. On average, 18.5 branches were delivered from each artery, 10 medially to the sternum supply, and the intercostal muscle. Conclusion: Our analysis gives an overview of the macroanatomic vessel system supplying the sternal bone, describing especially a common trunk deriving from the ITA and supplying multiple branches and playing an important role in building a collateral circulation of the sternum.For better evaluation, in vivo CT analysis with contrast media should be performed in patients prior to the operation and directly after the use of the double ITA to demonstrate the change in perfusion of the sternum.In the future, preconditioning of the sternum by coiling the deriving branches could become an

  17. Prevalence and anatomic characteristics of infarct-like lesions on MR images of middle-aged adults: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R N; Cai, J; Burke, G; Hutchinson, R G; Liao, D; Toole, J F; Dagher, A P; Cooper, L

    1999-08-01

    MR imaging has revealed putative evidence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease (CVD) as reflected by white matter signal changes and infarct-like lesions (ILLs). Nonetheless, the prevalence of this condition in the general population has been defined only to a limited extent. We herein report the prevalence and anatomic characteristics of ILLs seen on cranial MR images obtained as part of a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults. These results are contrasted to those of previous similar studies, particularly those of an elderly population in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). This Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort consists of a probability sample of community-living persons who were 55 to 72 years old at the time of MR examination. MR imaging of 1890 participants was performed at two ARIC field centers, based on a common protocol. MR studies were evaluated by trained readers at the MR Reading Center using original digital data displayed on a high-resolution workstation. The measures of lesion size, anatomic location, and signal intensity were collected. The definition for an ILL was a non-mass, hyperintense region with an arterial vascular distribution on spin-density and T2-weighted images. Two hundred ninety participants had ILLs, for an overall prevalence of 15.3%. Eighty-two percent of participants with ILLs had lesions that were 3 mm or larger in maximal dimension, although 87% of these lesions were 20 mm or smaller in maximal dimension. The prevalence of ILLs increased with age, from 7.9% in the 55- to 59-year-old age group to 22.9% in the 65- to 72-year-old age group (P male and female participants. The basal ganglia and thalamic region was the most commonly affected anatomic site, accounting for 78.9% of the lesions. Considering that the prevalence of self-reported stroke or transient ischemic attack in ARIC participants is 1.5%, these results suggest that there is significantly more subclinical than

  18. Defining the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rustum, Reem S; Ziade, M Fouad; Abu-Rustum, Sameer E

    2012-09-01

    Our study aims at investigating the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus. This is a retrospective pilot study where three-dimensional and four-dimensional stored data sets were manipulated to retrieve eight anatomic planes starting from the midsagittal plane of the fetus. Standardization of volumes was performed at the level of the transverse abdominal circumference plane. Parallel shift was utilized and the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes were established. The median and the range were calculated for each of the planes, and they were evaluated as a function of the fetal crown-rump length. P planes were found to adhere to normal distribution curves, and most of the planes were in a definable relationship to each other with statistically significant correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the possible spatial relationships between eight two-dimensional anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus, utilizing a standardized approach. Defining these spatial relationships may serve as the first step for the potential future development of automation software for fetal anatomic assessment at 11+6 to 13+6 weeks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Kruse, R.R.; Reijnen, M.M.; Kozicz, T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and

  20. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  1. Comparative study Beamnrc VS Pinnacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Macias Jaen, J.; Jimenez Ortega, E.

    2013-01-01

    Has been developed in JAVA a software application called JJGAMMA, capable of manipulating the environment BEAMNRC and Pinnacle output formats 3 , comfortable, fast and accurately. As particular application you can use to compare dose distributions (plans for treatments, checking fields for modeling and clinical accelerators Commissioner) using, as objective criteria, function or Gamma index. (Author)

  2. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  3. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  4. Taxonomical, anatomical and chemotaxonomical studies of mosses from Jebel Marra (Darfur State, Sudan), with special reference to their localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2003-02-01

    This research represents taxonomical, anatomical, and chemotaxonomical studies of mosses of Jebel Marra, Darfour State, Sudan. This study and for the first time includes the bryoflora checklist of the Sudan which is gathered from many previous studies, in addition to the present study. The fully identified mosses for the study area are 12 species belonging to 8 different families and 10 different genera. Three genera from the family Bottiaceae, 2 from the family Bartramiaceae,2 from Funariaceae, and one genus recorded for each of the families: Ditrichaceae, Bryaceae,Thuidiaceae and Polytrichaceae. Key to the studied genera is constructed and full species description and illustrations of the most taxonomically important characters are included. In this study the genus Ceratodon Brid. Is recorded for the first time in Sudan, and to the specific level, 5 species are encountered for the time: Barbula Ehenbergii, Philonotis tenuis, Philonotis longiseta, Ceratodon Purpureus, and Thuidium furfurosum. For each species determination of the levels of the heavy metal: sodium, potassium, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese and iron are studied, in addition to nitrogen and chlorophyll content. ( Author)

  5. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  6. The Comparison of Learning Radiographic Extraoral Anatomic Landmarks through Lecture and blended method(Computer-Assisted teaching and Lecture:An interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T ahmine Razi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the main problems in learning extraoral radiographic anatomic indexes is the long interval between presentation of radiology and human anatomy courses, resulting in forgetting anatomic regions. Therefore, radiographic indexes are formed as complete abstract and transient images in students’ minds; as a result, their learning and retention decrease. The aim of this study was to compare lecture with combination of computer-assisted learning and lecture of extra-oral radiographic landmarks among dental students. Methods: This interventional study was carried out in 2009 on 51 dental students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated into two groups. The first group was taught through a teaching method which involved lectures in the classroom. In the second group, a CD was given to the students. The teaching was accomplished through presentation using skull. Six months after finishing the teaching, both groups took a similar test for evaluation of long term learning. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using U Mann-Whitney test. Results: There was no significant differences in the mean scores between the two groups in the first exam after teaching (P=0.13, yet it was significant in the second exam (regarding retention (P=0.006, and average of non-traditional teaching method group (20.89±10.23 was higher than that of lecture group (13.48±6.39. Conclusion: Based on the results, non-traditional technique of teaching was not more effective than the lecture in short-term learning but in longterm learning, non-traditional technique was more effective than the lecture.

  7. Neural Connectivity and Immunocytochemical Studies of Anatomical Sites Related to Nauseogenic and Emetic Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of neuroanatomical structures and neurochemical processes related to motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate neurochemical changes in the central nervous system that are related to motion sickness with the objective of defining neural mechanisms important to this malady. For purposes of exposition, the studies and research finding have been classified into five categories. These are: immunoreactivity in the brainstem, vasopressin effects, lesion studies of area postrema, role of the vagus nerve, and central nervous system structure related to adaptation to microgravity.

  8. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures, S.

    1984-01-01

    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Tyhurst, Janis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  10. Gendered health care labour markets? A case study of anatomical pathologists and haematologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suveera Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively explored the role of gender and related factors that influence medical doctors’ decisions in selecting a specialisation within medical laboratory medicine. This study is novel in that it disaggregates doctors by specialisation. It further focuses on non-clinical medical specialists who have been ignored in the global human resources for health literature. Hakim’s preference theory as well as socialisation theory is adapted to explain some of the reasons female doctors make certain career choices regarding specialisation within the medical field. The study focused on laboratory doctors in the public and private sector in KwaZulu- Natal. A qualitative approach was adopted given the small population size and the need for an interpretive approach to the data. The research design was an exploratory case study and thematic analysis was used to discover the relevant themes. The non-probability purposeful sample comprised a total of 20 participants, of which 11 were anatomical pathologists and 9 were haematologists, all based in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data collection was performed via in-depth interviews. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured through methods of credibility and triangulation. The key finding is that although gender is a significant factor in career choice (for specific disciplines, it is one of many factors that determine self-selection into a specific medical laboratory specialisation. The conclusions, although not generalisable, have implications for human resources for health policies targeted at achieving higher levels of recruitment in laboratory medicine as a profession.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  12. Prospective randomized comparison of rotational angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction and computed tomography merged with electro-anatomical mapping: a two center atrial fibrillation ablation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rishi; Gorev, Maxim V; Poghosyan, Hermine; Pothier, Lindsay; Matkins, John; Kotler, Gregory; Moroz, Sarah; Armstrong, James; Nemtsov, Sergei V; Orlov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and accuracy of rotational angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3DATG) image merged with electro-anatomical mapping (EAM) vs. CT-EAM. A prospective, randomized, parallel, two-center study conducted in 36 patients (25 men, age 65 ± 10 years) undergoing AF ablation (33 % paroxysmal, 67 % persistent) guided by 3DATG (group 1) vs. CT (group 2) image fusion with EAM. 3DATG was performed on the Philips Allura Xper FD 10 system. Procedural characteristics including time, radiation exposure, outcome, and navigation accuracy were compared between two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in total procedure duration or time spent for various procedural steps. Minor differences in procedural characteristics were present between two centers. Segmentation and fusion time for 3DATG or CT-EAM was short and similar between both centers. Accuracy of navigation guided by either method was high and did not depend on left atrial size. Maintenance of sinus rhythm between the two groups was no different up to 24 months of follow-up. This study did not find superiority of 3DATG-EAM image merge to guide AF ablation when compared to CT-EAM fusion. Both merging techniques result in similar navigation accuracy.

  13. Emphysema and pneumothorax after percutaneous tracheostomy: case reports and an anatomic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, B.G.; Veen, J.A. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Pickkers, P.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Hillen, B.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Part 1: To describe cases of emphysema (subcutaneous and/or mediastinal) and pneumothorax after percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in a series of 326 patients, and to review the existing literature describing the incidence and possible mechanisms. Part 2: To analyze the

  14. The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.B.

    1972-01-01

    In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:

    Alimentary canal

    The most anterior part of

  15. Anatomical and biochemical studies of anthocyanidins in flowers of Annagalis monelli L. (Primulaceae) hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quintana, A.; Albrechtová, Jana; Griesbach, R. J.; Freyre, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2007), s. 413-421 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600110507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : flower color * epidermis * structural study Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.694, year: 2007

  16. Anatomical and functional changes in the brain after simultaneous interpreting training : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Putte, Eowyn; De Baene, W.; García-Pentón, Lorna; Woumans, Evy; Dijkgraaf, Aster; Duyck, Wouter

    In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on

  17. Anatomic and pathologic features of third cranial nerve disorders according to magnetic resonance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Y.; Torres, J.; Ramos, M.; Caniego, J.L.; Manzanares, R.; Fresno, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of disorders involving the third cranial nerves. We have selected MR studies corresponding to patients with an anomaly affecting the third cranial nerves, whether alone or in combination with other cranial nerves. In order to better study the pathology of these cranial nerves, we considered four different segments of the nerves: mesencephalic, cisternal, cavernous and orbital. We present the MR features of the anatomy of the third cranial nerves and the most representative lesions affecting the different intracranial segments: infraction, multiple sclerosis, glioma and cavernoma in the mesencephalon; posterior communicating artery aneurysm, neuritis, neurinomas and meningioma in the cisternal segment; aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, cavernous carotid fistula, metastasis and meningioma in the cavernous sinus and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in the orbital apex. (Author) 11 refs

  18. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico [Dept. of Surgical and Oncological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina [Biomorphology and Biotechnologies, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio [Villa Santa Teresa, Diagnostica per Immagini, Palermo (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint.

  19. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  20. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galmes Belmonte, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  1. Anatomical bases of the surgical dissection of the interatrial septum: a morphological and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Marc; Nohra, Olivier; Sakka, Laurent; Chadeyras, Jean Baptiste; Da Costa, Valence; Naamee, Adel; Bailly, Patrick; Escande, Georges

    2008-06-01

    The interatrial septum (IAS) can be dissected to resect pulmonary tumors invading the left atrium. The aim of this study was to describe the dissected structures, and to expose the benefits, the limits, and the embryologic reasons of such dissection. We dissected the IAS of 11 fresh, non-embalmed human hearts. The dissected structures were described and the length and depth of the dissection were measured. A histological study was performed in four other fresh hearts to identify and differentiate between dissectible and non-dissectible structures. The dissection was performed through a fatty tissue located between two muscular walls. The depth limit of the IAS dissection was identified as the limbus of the fossa ovalis and the muscular roof of the atria. The section of the latter doubles the depth of the dissection at the level of the upper pulmonary veins. Mean length of the dissected IAS was 77 mm (55-90). Mean depths of the IAS were 41 mm (35-50) at the level of the left upper pulmonary vein, 27 mm (12-35) between the upper and lower pulmonary veins, and 14 mm (8-20) at the level of the left inferior pulmonary vein The surgical dissection of the IAS is performed through the septum secundum that appears as an infold of the atrial wall. The length of the resectable left atrial cuff reaches a mean of 40 mm at the level of the upper pulmonary vein.

  2. Anatomical Study of the Fingertip Artery in Tamai Zone I: Clinical Significance in Fingertip Replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yong Seok; Jun, Young Joon; Kim, In-Beom; Cho, Sung Hun; Han, Hyun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background  There are a few previous studies of the vascular anatomy of the fingertips. The aim of this study was to evaluate this anatomy and the distribution of fingertip arteries. Patients and Methods  A total of 31 cadaveric hands were used for evaluation of the vascular pattern of the fingertips on X-ray images obtained using a radiopaque material. We analyze the anatomy of the fingertip arteries, and classified it into three types in Tamai zone I. If only one dominant artery branched off from the distal transverse palmar arch, it was classified as type I. If the fingertip had branches of two dominant arteries, it was classified as type II, and if the fingertip had branches of three or more dominant arteries, it was classified as type III. Results  The incidence of type I was 27%, that of type II was 28%, and the incidence of type III was 45%, the latter being the most frequent. In addition, we analyzed the pattern in each finger. The frequency of type III decreased from the index finger to the little finger, and the frequencies of types I and II increased from the index finger to the little finger. Conclusion  Type III was the most common type in fingers, and its frequency decreased from the index finger to the little finger. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Continuous modelling study of numerical volumes - Applications to the visualization of anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goret, C.

    1990-12-01

    Several technics of imaging (IRM, image scanners, tomoscintigraphy, echography) give numerical informations presented by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. Since many years, 3-D mathematical tools have been developed and allow the 3 D images synthesis of surfaces. In first part, we give the technics of numerical volume exploitation and their medical applications to diagnosis and therapy. The second part is about a continuous modelling of the volume with a tensor product of cubic splines. We study the characteristics of this representation and its clinical validation. Finally, we treat of the problem of surface visualization of objects contained in the volume. The results show the interest of this model and allow to propose specifications for 3-D workstation realization [fr

  4. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  5. Anatomical and radiographical studies on the arterial supply of the udder in goat and their surgical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Adam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to show the arterial blood supply of the udder of the Egyptian native breed of goat (Baladi goat to be used as a guide during mastectomy and other surgical interferences. The study was carried out on the udder of twelve apparently healthy adult female Egyptian Baladi goats. Four goats were used for mastectomy, one specimen was used for radiography and the other specimens were subjected to gum-milk latex injection to clarify the origin, course and distribution of the main arteries supplying the udder. The results revealed that the udder of goat was supplied by the external pudendal artery and dorsal labial and mammary branch of the ventral perineal artery. The course of the external pudendal artery through the inguinal canal before reaching the base of the udder, as well as that of the dorsal labial and mammary branch of the ventral perineal artery in the perineal region, were briefly described to determine the appropriate site for ligation of these vessels before mastectomy. Moreover, the arterial interconnection between the two halves of the udder was emphasized to be highlighted during unilateral mastectomy. Vascular ligation of the main blood vessels supplying the udder on the basis of the anatomical description provided less traumatic surgery and reduced the severity of the blood loss.

  6. Carpal height and postoperative strength after proximal row carpectomy or four-corner arthrodesis: Clinical, anatomical and biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronde, Pascale; Christiaens, Nicolas; Aumar, Aurélien; Chantelot, Christophe; Fontaine, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) and four-corner arthrodesis (4CA) are the two most commonly performed surgical procedures to treat wrist arthritis. Postoperative strength is one of the criteria for choosing between the two techniques. Some authors believe that strength is correlated with residual carpal height. The goal of this study was to determine if postoperative carpal height was predictive of postoperative strength. This study consisted of two parts: a clinical evaluation of grip strength after 4CA or PRC; anatomical and radiological measurements of carpal height before and after 4CA or PRC. Grip strength was better preserved after PRC (87.5%) than after 4CA (76.1%), when expressed relative to the opposite hand (P=0.053). There was a significant decrease in carpal height for the PRC group with a Youm's index of 0.37 versus 0.50 for the 4CA group (P<0.0001). Our clinical results and analysis of the literature indicate that 4CA is not superior to PRC when it comes to grip strength, whereas carpal height is significantly decreased after PRC. The decreased tendon excursion after PRC is balanced by an increase in joint stresses after 4CA. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical study of the facial nerve canal in comparison to the site of the lesion in Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowsky, Krsto; Branica, Srećko; Batelja, Lovorka; Dawidowsky, Barbara; Kovać-Bilić, Lana; Simunić-Veselić, Anamarija

    2011-03-01

    The term Bell's palsy is used for the peripheral paresis of the facial nerve and is of unknown origin. Many studies have been performed to find the cause of the disease, but none has given certain evidence of the etiology. However, the majority of investigators agree that the pathophysiology of the palsy starts with the edema of the facial nerve and consequent entrapment of the nerve in the narrow facial canal in the temporal bone. In this study the authors wanted to find why the majority of the paresis are suprastapedial, i.e. why the entrapment of the nerve mainly occurs in the proximal part of the canal. For this reason they carried out anatomical measurements of the facial canal diameter in 12 temporal bones. By use of a computer program which measures the cross-sectional area from the diameter, they proved that the width of the canal is smaller at its proximal part. Since the nerve is thicker at that point because it contains more nerve fibers, the authors conclude that the discrepancy between the nerve diameter and the surrounding bony walls in the suprastapedial part of the of the canal would, in cases of a swollen nerve after inflammation, cause the facial palsy.

  8. Anatomical feasibility study of flexor hallucis longus transfer in treatment of Achilles tendon and posteromedial portal of ankle arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Haijiao; Wang, Linger; Dong, Wenwei; Liu, Zhenxin; Yin, Weigang; Xu, Dachuan; Wapner, Keith L

    2018-04-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of anatomical variations of the musculotendinous junction of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle, the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle at the level of the posterior ankle joint in human cadavers. Seventy embalmed feet from 20 male and 15 female cadavers, the cadavers' mean age was 65.4 (range from 14 to 82) years, were dissected and anatomically classified to observe FHL muscle morphology define the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle. The distance between the musculotendinous junction and the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle was determined. Three morphology types of FHL muscle were identified: a long lateral and shorter medial muscle belly, which was observed in 63 specimens (90%); equal length medial and lateral muscle bellies, this variant was only observed in five specimens (7.1%); one lateral and no medial muscle belly, which was observed in two specimens (2.9%). No statistically significant difference was observed according to gender or side (p > 0.05). Two patterns were identified and described between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle. Pattern 1, the distance between the neurovascular bundle and FHL tendon was 3.46 mm (range 2.34-8.84, SD = 2.12) which was observed in 66 specimens (94.3%); Pattern 2, there was no distance which was observed in four specimens (5.7%). Knowing FHL muscle morphology, variations provide new important insights into secure planning and execution of a FHL transfer for Achilles tendon defect as well as for the interpretation of ultrasound and magnetic resonance images. With posterior arthroscopic for the treatment of various ankle pathologies, posteromedial portal may be introduced into the posterior aspect of the ankle without gross injury to the tibial neurovascular structures because of the gap between the

  9. The intercondylar fossa of the normal canine stifle: an anatomic and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, Randall B.; Montgomery, Ronald D.; Milton, James L.; Garrett, Phillip D.; Kincaid, Steven A.; Wright, James C.; Terry, Glenn C.

    1995-01-01

    The intercondylar fossa (ICF) in dogs consists of a cranial outlet, intercondylar shelf, caudal arch, caudal outlet, a medial wall, and a lateral wall. The normal cranial outlet is bell-shape and, in mixed-breed dogs (mean body weight 19.2 kg, N = 21), measured 5.8 mm cranially, 8.1 mm centrally, and 10.3 mm caudally. The ICF is oriented 12 degree from the dorsal plane of the femoral diaphysis and obliqued 7 degree , proximolateral to distomedial, in the sagittal plane. To adjust for dog size, a fossa width index (FWI) was calculated by dividing the cranial outlet width by the distance between epicondyles. The normal FWI as determined in this study was 0.18 cranially, 0.25 centrally, and 0.32 caudally. The fossa height index was 0.31. Contact between the ICF and the cranial cruciate ligament began at about 115 degree of extension. The contact area moved cranially in the intercondylar fossa as the stifle was extended. Evaluation of the ICF can be performed radiographically but positioning is critical

  10. "In Situ Vascular Nerve Graft" for Restoration of Intrinsic Hand Function: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Zemoodeh, Hamid Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Owji, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles. Twenty fresh male cadavers were dissected in order to evaluate the feasibility of this modification of technique. The size of nerve branches, the number of axons and the tension at repair site were evaluated. This nerve transfer was technically feasible in all specimens. There was no significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient nerves Conclusions: The possible advantages of this modification include innervation of both median and ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic muscles, preservation of vascularity of the nerve graft which might accelerate the nerve regeneration, avoidance of leg incision and therefore the possibility of performing surgery under regional instead of general anesthesia. Briefly, this novel technique is a viable option which can be used instead of conventional nerve graft in some brachial plexus or combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries when restoration of intrinsic hand function by transfer of posterior interosseous nerve branches is attempted.

  11. Anatomically detailed and large-scale simulations studying synapse loss and synchrony using NeuroBox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eBreit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic or reconstruction to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g. new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations.

  12. Cadaver study of anatomic landmark identification for placing ankle arthroscopy portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibling, B; Koch, G; Clavert, P

    2017-05-01

    , cadaver study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun

    2007-08-01

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm 3 . However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm 3 . VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA

  14. A three dimensional anatomical view of oscillatory resting-state activity and functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease related dementia: An MEG study using atlas-based beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.M.; Stam, C.J.; Bosboom, J.L.W.; Berendse, H.W.; Hillebrand, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia (PDD) develops in up to 80% of PD patients. The present study was performed to further unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by applying a new analysis approach that uses an atlas-based MEG beamformer to provide a detailed anatomical mapping

  15. Anatomic study of juxta renal aneurysms: impact on fenestrated stent-grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaoui, Richard; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Maurel, Blandine; D'Elia, Piervito; Perrot, Céline; Bianchini, Aurélia; Guillou, Matthieu; Haulon, Stéphan

    2011-04-01

    Fenestrated stent-grafts allow for treatment of patients with juxtarenal aneurysms (JRA) when they present with contraindications for conventional treatment. The fenestrated module is a custom-made module, specially designed to fit a specific patient, using computed tomographic scan measurements, which entails manufacturing delay and high cost. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility to reproduce the interrenal aorta anatomy to design a standard fenestrated module that would fit the maximum number of patients with JRA. On a three-dimensional working station, we analyzed 289 preoperative computed tomographic scan results of patients with JRA and who were treated with fenestrated stent-grafts comprising two fenestrations for the renal arteries and a scallop for the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). On curvilinear reconstructions, we successively measured the interrenal aorta diameter, its orientation, as well as the height of each renal ostium, taking the ostium center of the SMA as a reference mark. Later, a statistical analysis of these measures distribution was performed so as to design a fenestrated module that would fit the maximum number of patients. The center of the left renal artery presented with a median orientation of 82.5° (range, 37.5-150) and a median distance of 9 mm (range, 0-30), in relation to the SMA ostium. The ostium center of the right renal artery presented with a median orientation of 285° (range, 240-337.5) and a median distance of 8 mm (range, 3-30), in relation to the SMA ostium. By positioning the current renal fenestrations (6-mm wide), on the basis of the calculated median positions, in our series, only 20% of the patients could be treated with a standard fenestrated module. Should the diameter of these fenestrations be increased by 10 mm, it would then be possible to treat 50% of our patients. The anatomy of the interrenal aorta and its branches is quite reproducible to design standard fenestrated stent-grafts that could

  16. Anatomic study on mental canal and incisive nerve canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Suo, Ning; Tian, Xiufen; Li, Fei; Zhong, Guangxin; Liu, Xiaoran; Bao, Yongxing; Song, Tao; Tian, Hua

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to detect the positions of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population to supply the reference data of the surgical safe zone in chin for clinicians. A total of 80 formalin-fixed semi-mandibles of Chinese adult cadavers were dissected, the positions and courses of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region were measured. The mental foramina were present in all cases (100 %), and most of them were located below 2nd premolar (58.75 %). Accessory mental foramina were observed in 5 %. The anterior end of mandibular canal, extending along the course of 7.37 ± 1.10 mm above the lower border of mandible to interforaminal region about 3.54 ± 0.70 mm medial to the mental foramen, most often ended below between the two premolars (73.75 %), where it continued as the incisive nerve canal (100 %) and the mental canal (96.25 %). Mental canal, with the wall formed by compact bone, being 2.60 ± 0.60 mm in diameter and 4.01 ± 1.20 mm in length, opened into mental foramen. Incisive nerve canal, with the wall formed by thin compact bone and/or partly or completely by spongy bone, being 1.76 ± 0.27 mm in diameter and 24.87 ± 2.23 mm in length, extended to the incisor region along the course of 9.53 ± 1.43 mm above the lower border of mandible, and most often ended below the lateral incisor (70.00 %). This research recommended for chin operations in Chinese population: the surgical safe zone could be set in the region about over 4 mm anterior to the mental foramen, and over 12 mm above inferior border of mandible for anterior alveolar surgery, or within 9 mm above inferior border of mandible for genioplasty.

  17. Anatomical study on The Arm Greater Yang Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Sik, Park

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to identify the component of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in human, dividing the regional muscle group into outer, middle, and inner layer. the inner part of body surface were opened widely to demonstrate muscles, nerve, blood vessels and the others, displaying the inner structure of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle. We obtained the results as follows; 1. Small Intestine Meridian Muscle is composed of the muscle, nerve and blood vessels. 2. In human anatomy, it is present the difference between a term of nerve or blood vessels which control the muscle of Meridian Muscle and those which pass near by Meridian Muscle. 3. The inner composition of meridian muscle in human arm is as follows ; 1 Muscle ; Abd. digiti minimi muscle(SI-2, 3, 4, pisometacarpal lig.(SI-4, ext. retinaculum. ext. carpi ulnaris m. tendon.(SI-5, 6, ulnar collateral lig.(SI-5, ext. digiti minimi m. tendon(SI-6, ext. carpi ulnaris(SI-7, triceps brachii(SI-9, teres major(SI-9, deltoid(SI-10, infraspinatus(SI-10, 11, trapezius(Sl-12, 13, 14, 15, supraspinatus(SI-12, 13, lesser rhomboid(SI-14, erector spinae(SI-14, 15, levator scapular(SI-15, sternocleidomastoid(SI-16, 17, splenius capitis(SI-16, semispinalis capitis(SI-16, digasuicus(SI-17, zygomaticus major(Il-18, masseter(SI-18, auriculoris anterior(SI-19 2 Nerve ; Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve(SI-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, br. of mod. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6, 7, br. of post. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6,7, br. of radial n.(SI-7, ulnar n.(SI-8, br. of axillary n.(SI-9, radial n.(SI-9, subscapular n. br.(SI-9, cutaneous n. br. from C7, 8(SI-10, 14, suprascapular n.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, intercostal n. br. from T2(SI-11, lat. supraclavicular n. br.(SI-12, intercostal n. br. from C8, T1(SI-12, accessory n. br.(SI-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, intercostal n. br. from T1,2(SI-13, dorsal scapular n.(SI-14, 15, cutaneous n. br. from C6, C7(SI-15, transverse cervical n.(SI-16, lesser occipital n. & great auricular n. from

  18. Newly designed anterolateral and posterolateral locking anatomic plates for lateral tibial plateau fractures: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengbo; Lu, Hua; Shen, Hao; Wang, Wei; Ni, Binbin; Chen, Jishizhan

    2017-02-23

    Lateral column tibial plateau fracture fixation with a locking screw plate has higher mechanical stability than other fixation methods. The objectives of the present study were to introduce two newly designed locking anatomic plates for lateral tibial plateau fracture and to demonstrate their characteristics of the fixation complexes under the axial loads. Three different 3D finite element models of the lateral tibial plateau fracture with the bone plates were created. Various axial forces (100, 500, 1000, and 1500 N) were applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during daily life. The equivalent maps of displacement and stress were output, and relative displacement was calculated along the fracture lines. The displacement and stresses in the fixation complexes increased with the axial force. The equivalent displacement or stress map of each fixation under different axial forces showed similar distributing characteristics. The motion characteristics of the three models differed, and the max-shear stress of trabecula increased with the axial load. These two novel plates could fix lateral tibial plateau fractures involving anterolateral and posterolateral fragments. Motions after open reduction and stable internal fixation should be advised to decrease the risk of trabecular microfracture. The relative displacement of the posterolateral fragments is different when using anterolateral plate and posterolateral plate, which should be considered in choosing the implants for different posterolateral plateau fractures.

  19. Long-Term Functional and Anatomical Outcome after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty: A Prospective Single-Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen van Rooij

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the long-term anatomical and functional outcomes of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. Methods. Prospective follow-up of 114 eyes (95 subjects after DSAEK for endothelial dysfunction. Measurements included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, straylight, endothelial cell density (ECD, and graft thickness. Results. The mean follow-up time was 5.1 ± 1.5 years. Four grafts ultimately failed (after 5 to 7 years. From baseline up to 1 year after DSAEK, mean BSCVA improved by 0.30 logMAR. This beneficial effect remained until the last follow-up (LFU. After DSAEK, straylight was reduced. ECD sharply dropped by 900 cells/mm2 (33% immediately after surgery and, thereafter, steadily decreased at a rate of 11 cells/mm2 per month. No significant correlation was observed between graft thickness at 3 years and BSCVA. Conclusions. We observed a low graft failure rate and a normalization of graft thickness. Postoperative straylight remained elevated relative to the normal population. The sharp initial and the subsequent more gradual ECD decline are consistent with other studies. A significant and prolonged functional gain can be achieved by posterior lamellar grafting for endothelial dysfunction.

  20. Magnetic resonance study on the anatomical relationship between the posterior proximal region of the tibia and the popliteal artery ☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Franco de Araujo Goes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To analyze and describe the distance from the popliteal artery to three specific areas of the proximal region of the tibia, with the knee extended, by means of magnetic resonance. METHODS: Images of 100 knees of patients who underwent magnetic resonance examinations were analyzed. The location of the popliteal artery was measured in three different areas of the posterior proximal region of the tibia. The first measurement was made at the level of the knee joint (tibial plateau. The second was 9 mm distally to the tibial plateau. The third was at the level of the anterior tuberosity of the tibia (ATT. RESULTS: The distances between the popliteal artery and the tibial plateau and ATT region were significantly greater in males than in females. The distances between the popliteal artery and the regions 9 mm distally to the tibial plateau and the ATT were significantly greater in the age group over 36 years than in the group ≤36 years. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the anatomical position of the popliteal artery, as demonstrated through magnetic resonance studies, is of great relevance in planning surgical procedures that involve the knee joint. In this manner, devastating iatrogenic injuries can be avoided, particularly in regions that are proximal to the tibial plateau and in young patients.

  1. Neurovascular Content of the Mandibular Canal and Its Clinical Relevance: A Literature Review of the Related Anatomical and Radiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliades Apostolos N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In literature, anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar nerve branches (infratemporal, extraosseous and intraosseous are reported and their importance in clinical practice is discussed too. The spatial vessels’ position in relationship with the nerve in the mandibular canal was explored, which is of clinical significance in impacted third molar and implant surgery. It is believed that the neurovascular content of the main mandibular canal follows any variations of the mandibular canal i.e. bifid mandibular, retromolar and accessory mental canals. Retrospective studies and case reports reported the presence of multiple foramina on the medial surface of the ramus, near the main mandibular foramen. In some cases, one supplementary mandibular foramen was found to be connected with the lower third molar, which is called “temporal crest canal”. Others found an accessory mandibular foramen that led into a second mandibular canal which joined the main mandibular canal (double anteriorly. The bony canals contained a terminal branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve or a branch of inferior alveolar nerve before it entered the mandibular foramen.

  2. Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875, (Characiformes: Anostomidae: An anatomical, histological and histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tracts of 44 specimens of Schizodon knerii were studied using anatomical, histological and histochemical techniques. The mouth has terminal position, the lip epithelium is squamous stratified with mucous, claviform cells and taste buds, teeth have an incisive form and the tongue has a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The oropharynx cavity is formed by gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth. The oesophagus presented pleated mucosa, a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells, oesophageal glands and taste buds. The stomach presented cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions, simple prismatic epithelium with tubular glands, with none in the pyloric region. The intestine contains 11-15 pyloric caeca, a simple prismatic epithelium with brush border, goblet cells and lymphocytes. Mucosal cells, oesophageal glands and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. Gastric prismatic cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, but only those in the pyloric region reacted positively to Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. The results improve the understanding of the anatomy of S. knerii feeding habits and the presence of mucosubstances in the epithelium, highlights the importance of glycoproteins for passing food through the digestive tract.

  3. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi [Fukushima Medical Coll., Matsuoka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L{sub 5} radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author).

  4. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L 5 radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author)

  5. Is the posterior cruciate ligament destabilized after the tibial cut in a cruciate retaining total knee replacement? An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabaud, Barthelemy; Patrick, David A; Geller, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Cruciate retaining total knee replacement has been shown to effectively improve pain and quality of life. Successful outcomes depend on many factors, including the maintenance of a competent posterior cruciate ligament. This study sought to anatomically analyze the percentage of PCL injured during a full transverse, tibial cut, thus altering normal function. One hundred and thirty five consecutive knee MRIs taken from 2006 to 2011 were selected from a single surgeon's database for this study. Only subjects with non-arthritic knees were considered for this study; the lack of degenerative joint disease (DJD) was confirmed via a radiological report. The optimal view of the PCL's tibial attachment was observed using the sagittal view of the knee, with a T1 signal. One hundred and twenty two usable images were viewed electronically, and measurements were made using the standardized transverse cut implant guidelines. The percentage of PCL remaining following the cut was categorized into five different groups: 0% (no PCL undermined), 1-49%, 50-74%, 75-99% and 100% (PCL undermined entirely). Overall only 9.0% (n=11) would have not endured any damage to the PCL with a transverse tibial saw cut, while 79.6% (n=98) would have had 50% or more of the PCL undermined. Of the 98 patients with more than 50% resected, 52.1% (n=51 patients) presented complete destabilization of the PCL. The percentage of PCL destabilized was not significant across age groups (p=0.280), gender (p=0.586), or operative side (p=0.460). Independent of age, gender, and operative side, a majority of PCLs are more than 50% destabilized following the standard transverse tibial cut. II. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomic features of the neck as predictive markers of difficult direct laryngoscopy in men and women: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaskou, Chara; Chara, Liaskou; Vouzounerakis, Eleftherios; Eleftherios, Vouzounerakis; Moirasgenti, Maria; Maria, Moirasgenti; Trikoupi, Anastasia; Anastasia, Trikoupi; Staikou, Chryssoula; Chryssoula, Staikou

    2014-03-01

    Difficult airway assessment is based on various anatomic parameters of upper airway, much of it being concentrated on oral cavity and the pharyngeal structures. The diagnostic value of tests based on neck anatomy in predicting difficult laryngoscopy was assessed in this prospective, open cohort study. We studied 341 adult patients scheduled to receive general anaesthesia. Thyromental distance (TMD), sternomental distance (STMD), ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) and neck circumference (NC) were measured pre-operatively. The laryngoscopic view was classified according to the Cormack-Lehane Grade (1-4). Difficult laryngoscopy was defined as Cormack-Lehane Grade 3 or 4. The optimal cut-off points for each variable were identified by using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each test. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression, including all variables, was used to create a predictive model. Comparisons between genders were also performed. Laryngoscopy was difficult in 12.6% of the patients. The cut-off values were: TMD ≤7 cm, STMD ≤15 cm, RHTMD >18.4 and NC >37.5 cm. The RHTMD had the highest sensitivity (88.4%) and NPV (95.2%), while TMD had the highest specificity (83.9%). The area under curve (AUC) for the TMD, STMD, RHTMD and NC was 0.63, 0.64, 0.62 and 0.54, respectively. The predictive model exhibited a higher and statistically significant diagnostic accuracy (AUC: 0.68, P < 0.001). Gender-specific cut-off points improved the predictive accuracy of NC in women (AUC: 0.65). The TMD, STMD, RHTMD and NC were found to be poor single predictors of difficult laryngoscopy, while a model including all four variables had a significant predictive accuracy. Among the studied tests, gender-specific cut-off points should be used for NC.

  7. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  8. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, Martin E.; Alharbi, Fawaz; Chawla, Tanya P.; Moshonov, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  9. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  10. Noninvasive study of anatomic variations of the bile and pancreatic duct using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; Estudio no invasivo de variantes anatomicas de la via biliar y pancreatica mediante colangiopancreatografia por resonancia magnetica (CPRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Falco, J.; Campo, R.; Martin, J.; Brullet, E. [SDI-UDIAT Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain); Espinos, J. [Hospital Mutua de Tarrasa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To identify anatomic variations of the bile duct and pancreatic duct and papillary anomalies by means of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and determine their correlation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings. Eighty-five patients were selected by means of a prospective study comparing MRCP and ERCP. Coronal and axial HASTE images and coronal and oblique coronal RARE images were acquired in all the patients. Four of the studies (6%) were excluded because of poor technical quality. Anatomic variations were observed in 26 cases (30.5%), including trifurcation (n=7; 27%), right hepatic duct draining into left hepatic duct (n=2, 7.7%), right hepatic duct draining into common bile duct (n=4; 15.4%), extrahepatic confluence (n=2; 7.7%), medial cystic duct (n=2; 7.7%), parallel cystic duct (n=3; 11.5%), juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (n=3; 11.5%) and pancreas divisum (n=3; 11.5%). A good correlation was observed between the MRCP and ERCP findings. The introduction of MRCP into the noninvasive study of biliary disease may be useful in the detection of anatomic variations relevant to laparoscopic surgery and other endoscopic and interventional techniques. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Usefulness and radiological evaluation of accuracy of innovative "Smart" hand technique for pedicle screw placement: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comert, Ayhan; Dogan, İhsan; Çaglar, Y Sukru

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to use a smartphone application during pedicle screw placement navigation and examine the accuracy of this application on anatomical dry vertebrae model. 76 dry vertebrae were used for this study and pedicle entry points, projections of pedicle screw trajectory lines in lateral and superior aspect of vertebral body were identified and drawn for each vertebra bilaterally. In each position, all angulations were measured directly before the procedure manually. 152 pedicle screws were inserted as a simulation of screw placement with the guidance of angle-meter smart app. Accuracy of the method was tested according to the occurrence of bone penetration and angular deviation of the inserted screws was evaluated in computed tomography images. Mean deviation of pedicle screws of 76 pedicle screws in right side in horizontal plane was measured 2.30°±1.78°; in sagittal plane 2.17°±1.57° and in left side in horizontal plane 3.01°±1.83°; in sagittal plane 2.38°±1.68°. No bone penetration was occurred during 152 pedicle screw placements. According to the t-test results, there were significant differences between two groups in craniocaudal direction of the right side pedicle screws and in craniocaudal direction of left side pedicle screws. The free smartphone application presented here as angle-meter can be interpreted as a safe digital device for spinal instrumentation procedures. As a prototype of future pedicle screw fixation systems, it should be improved in terms of its feasibility and compatibility with screw probes. This may lead to apply mobile digital angle meter in spinal procedure.

  12. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range—A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320

  13. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  14. Are the anatomy textbooks wrong? A clinical patho-anatomic study of foveal vessels in the round ligament of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, John W; Sodhi, Nipun; Ali, Muzaffar; Khlopas, Anton; Sultan, Assem A; Kee, James R; Holmes, Kristopher A; Hariri, Omar; Newman, Jared M; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    The foveal vessels of the ligamentum teres are an anterior branch of the posterior division of the obturator artery, providing blood to the capitis of the femoral head. However, the basic anatomic description of foveal vasculature in the ligamentum teres of the hip is widely variable, with some studies reporting that the vessels are not patent in roughly one third of all adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of foveal vessels in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients. Specifically, we evaluated: (I) if the foveal vessels were intact; and we (II) correlated foveal vessel status with (i) patient demographics, including gender and age; as well as (ii) perioperative data, such as operative time and blood loss. The macroscopic status of the foveal vessels in the ligamentum teres femoris was documented in 266 patients at the time of primary unilateral THA performed between August 2015 and April 2017. The vessels were considered to be intact if active bleeding was directly visible from the acetabular stump of the severed ligamentum teres femoris. Demographics including age, gender, and preoperative diagnosis were collected. The perioperative outcome variables included estimated blood loss (EBL) and operative time. Foveal vessel status defined as intact or not intact, was also correlated with patient demographics and perioperative data. A student's t -test was used to compare the continuous variables and a chi square test was used for categorical variables. The foveal vessels were intact in 161 patients (61%) and not intact in 105 patients (39%). The mean age for patients with intact foveal vessels was found to be 64 years (range, 18 to 94 years) vs. 65 years (range, 29 to 94 years) (P>0.05) for not intact. No correlation was found between preoperative diagnosis, gender, operative time, and EBL and foveal vessel status. The results of this clinical patho-anatomic study of the foveal vessels in the ligamentum teres femoris of the hip

  15. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

  16. Risk of Damage to the Somatic Innervation of the Penis during the AdVanceProcedure: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogewoning, Cornelis R C; Elzevier, Henk W; Pelger, Rob C M; Bekker, Milou D; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2015-08-01

    One of the methods to treat post radical prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence is the AdVance (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA) male sling procedure. During this procedure, the somatic innervation of the penis may be at risk for injury. Six AdVance procedures were performed in six donated bodies at the Anatomy and Embryology Department of the Leiden University Medical Centre. The pelves were dissected and the shortest distance between the sling and the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) was documented. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relation between the AdVance male sling and penile nerves based on the dissection of six adult male pelves. The AdVance male sling procedure was conducted in six donated male bodies. After placement, the pelves were dissected and the shortest distance between sling and the DNP was documented. The main outcome measure was the distance between the AdVance male sling and the DNP. The mean distance of the sling to the DNP was 4.1 mm and was found situated directly next to the nerve (distance 0 mm) in 4 out of 12 (33%) hemipelves. The distance of the sling to the obturator neurovascular bundle was 30 mm or more in all six bodies. Damage to the DNP caused by the AdVance male sling procedure appears to be an extremely rare complication, which has not been described in current literature. The proximity of the AdVance to the DNP could, however, pose a risk that should be taken into consideration by physicians and patients when opting for surgery. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Comparative Osteometric Study of Long Bones in Yankasa Sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A morphometric study was undertaken on the long bones in two predominant breeds of small ruminant in Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria, to determine their anatomical differences, and thus, provide a means of differentiating the remains of these two species during zooarchaeological studies and gross anatomy ...

  18. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  19. Neurotization of the phrenic nerve with accessory nerve for high cervical spinal cord injury with respiratory distress: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ce; Zhang, Ying; Nicholas, Tsai; Wu, Guoxin; Shi, Sheng; Bo, Yin; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Xuhui; Yuan, Wen

    2014-01-01

    High cervical spinal cord injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Traditional treatments carry various complications such as infection, pacemaker failure and undesirable movement. Thus, a secure surgical strategy with fewer complications analogous to physiological ventilation is still required. We hope to offer one potential method to decrease the complications and improve survival qualities of patients from the aspect of anatomy. The purpose of the study is to provide anatomic details on the accessory nerve and phrenic nerve for neurotization in patients with high spinal cord injuries. 38 cadavers (76 accessory and 76 phrenic nerves) were dissected in the study. The width, length and thickness of each accessory nerve and phrenic nerve above clavicle were measured. The distances from several landmarks on accessory nerve to the origin and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were measured too. Then, the number of motor nerve fibers on different sections of the nerves was calculated using the technique of immunohistochemistry. The accessory nerves distal to its sternocleidomastoid muscular branches were 1.52 ± 0.32 mm ~1.54 ± 0.29 mm in width, 0.52 ± 0.18 mm ~ 0.56 ± 0.20mm in thickness and 9.52 ± 0.98 cm in length. And the phrenic nerves above clavicle were 1.44 ± 0.23 mm ~ 1.45 ± 0.24 mm in width, 0.47 ± 0.15 mm ~ 0.56 ± 0.25 mm in thickness and 6.48 ± 0.78 cm in length. The distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and phrenic nerve were 3.24 ± 1.17 cm, and the distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were 8.72 ± 0.84 cm. The numbers of motor nerve fibers in accessory nerve were 1,038 ± 320~1,102 ± 216, before giving out the sternocleidomastoid muscular branches. The number of motor nerve fibers in the phrenic nerve was 911 ± 321~1,338 ± 467. The accessory nerve and the phrenic were similar in width, thickness and the number of motor nerve fibers. And

  20. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  1. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  2. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Ziemińska

    Full Text Available Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications.Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3. Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm, vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity.Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001. Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.35, P < 0.05 or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P < 0.05. However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P < 0.001. Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component.Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  4. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  5. Study of the anatomical position of the femoral nerve by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with fractured neck of femur: relevance to femoral nerve block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehmood, Shehzad

    2012-01-31

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the anatomical location of the femoral nerve in patients who have sustained fracture of the neck of femur, and its relevance to femoral nerve block technique. DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Orthopedic and Radiology departments of a regional hospital. SUBJECTS: 10 consecutive adult ASA physical status II and III patients (mean age, 78.5 yrs) and 4 adult healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed of both upper thighs in patients and healthy volunteers successfully. MEASUREMENTS: The distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral artery and the midpoint of the femoral nerve, and the distance of the femoral nerve from the skin was measured at the mid-inguinal ligament, the pubic tubercle, and at the mid-inguinal crease. Data are shown as means (SD). Differences between both sides were compared using paired Student\\'s t-tests. P < 0.05 was significant. MAIN RESULTS: In patients the mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of femoral artery at the mid-inguinal crease on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 10.7 and 11.0, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the mid-inguinal ligament on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 9.64 and 12.5, respectively (P = 0.03). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the pubic tubercle on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 8.74 and 10.49, respectively (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of the femoral nerve may be easier to perform at the mid-inguinal crease in patients with fractured neck of femur.

  6. A multi-center retrospective study of single-port versus multi-port video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy and anatomic segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunyu; Xiang, Yangwei; Pagliarulo, Vincenzo; Lee, Jangming; Sihoe, Alan D L; Kim, HyunKoo; Zhang, Xuefei; Wang, Zhexin; Zhao, Weigang; Feng, Jian; Fang, Wentao

    2017-10-01

    To assess the feasibility and perioperative outcomes of single-port (SP) and multi-port (MP) approaches for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy and anatomical segmentectomy. Retrospective data from 458 patients who received VATS lobectomy or anatomical segmentectomy at Shanghai Chest Hospital, Korea University Guro Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of National Taiwan University, University of Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital and Shenzhen Hospital were collected. Patients were divided into SP group and MP group according to the surgical approach. Perioperative factors such as operation time, blood loss during surgery, conversion rate, the number and stations of lymph nodes harvested, postoperative chest tube drainage time, postoperative hospitalization time, perioperative morbidity and mortality, and pain scores during the first 3 days after surgery were compared between the two groups. There were no differences in the number (P=0.278) and stations (P=0.564) of lymph nodes harvested, postoperative morbidity (P=0.414) or mortality(P=0.246), and pain score on the third day (P=0.630) after surgery between the two groups. The SP group had a longer operation time (P=0.042) and greater intraoperative blood loss (P<0.001), but the conversion rate was even higher in the MP group (P=0.018). Patients in the SP group had shorter chest tube removal time (P=0.012) and postoperative hospitalization time (P=0.005). Pain scores were lower on the first (P=0.014) and second (P=0.006) day after surgery in the SP group. SP VATS lobectomy and anatomical segmentectomy is technologically more demanding than MP VATS. It can be safe and feasible in the hands of experienced surgeons, with comparable preoperative outcomes to MP VATS, but less pain in the early postoperative period.

  7. Familial intracranial aneurysms: is anatomic vulnerability heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jason; Brown, Robert D; Moomaw, Charles J; Hornung, Richard; Sauerbeck, Laura; Woo, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew L; Meissner, Irene; Anderson, Craig; Rouleau, Guy; Connolly, E Sander; Deka, Ranjan; Koller, Daniel L; Abruzzo, Todd; Huston, John; Broderick, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that family members with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) often harbor IAs in similar anatomic locations. IA location is important because of its association with rupture. We tested the hypothesis that anatomic susceptibility to IA location exists using a family-based IA study. We identified all affected probands and first-degree relatives (FDRs) with a definite or probable phenotype in each family. We stratified each IA of the probands by major arterial territory and calculated each family's proband-FDR territory concordance and overall contribution to the concordance analysis. We then matched each family unit to an unrelated family unit selected randomly with replacement and performed 1001 simulations. The median concordance proportions, odds ratios (ORs), and P values from the 1001 logistic regression analyses were used to represent the final results of the analysis. There were 323 family units available for analysis, including 323 probands and 448 FDRs, with a total of 1176 IAs. IA territorial concordance was higher in the internal carotid artery (55.4% versus 45.6%; OR, 1.54 [1.04-2.27]; P=0.032), middle cerebral artery (45.8% versus 30.5%; OR, 1.99 [1.22-3.22]; P=0.006), and vertebrobasilar system (26.6% versus 11.3%; OR, 2.90 [1.05-8.24], P=0.04) distributions in the true family compared with the comparison family. Concordance was also higher when any location was considered (53.0% versus 40.7%; OR, 1.82 [1.34-2.46]; PIA development, we found that IA territorial concordance was higher when probands were compared with their own affected FDRs than with comparison FDRs, which suggests that anatomic vulnerability to IA formation exists. Future studies of IA genetics should consider stratifying cases by IA location.

  8. Customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology. A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 3065 physician surveys from 94 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J; Nakhleh, Raouf E; Walsh, Molly

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has recently become a requirement of health care accreditation agencies in the United States. To our knowledge, this is the first customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services to provide a standardized tool and benchmarks for subsequent measures of satisfaction. This Q-Probes study assessed physician satisfaction with anatomic pathology laboratory services and sought to determine characteristics that correlate with a high level of physician satisfaction. In January 2001, each laboratory used standardized survey forms to assess physician customer satisfaction with 10 specific elements of service in anatomic pathology and an overall satisfaction rating based on a scale of rankings from a 5 for excellent to a 1 for poor. Data from up to 50 surveys returned per laboratory were compiled and analyzed by the College of American Pathologists. A general questionnaire collected information about types of services offered and each laboratory's quality assurance initiatives to determine characteristics that correlate with a high level of physician satisfaction. Hospital-based laboratories in the United States (95.8%), as well as others from Canada and Australia. Ninety-four voluntary subscriber laboratories in the College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program participated in this survey. Roughly 70% of respondents were from hospitals with occupied bedsizes of 300 or less, 65% were private nonprofit institutions, just over half were located in cities, one third were teaching hospitals, and 19% had pathology residency training programs. Overall physician satisfaction with anatomic pathology and 10 selected aspects of the laboratory service (professional interaction, diagnostic accuracy, pathologist responsiveness to problems, pathologist accessibility for frozen section, tumor board presentations, courtesy of secretarial and technical staff, communication of

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  10. Anatomical changes in the pharyngeal constrictors after chemo-irradiation of head and neck cancer and their dose-effect relationships: MRI-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovtzer, Aron; Cao Yue; Feng, Felix Y.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dysfunction of pharyngeal constrictors (PCs) after chemo-irradiation of head and neck (HN) cancer has been proposed as major cause of dysphagia. We conducted prospective MRI study to evaluate anatomical changes in the PCs after chemo-irradiation, to gain insight of the mechanism of their dysfunction and their dose-effect relationships. The PCs were compared to the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCMs), which receive high doses but do not relate to swallowing. Patients and methods: Twelve patients with stage III-IV HN cancer underwent MRI before and 3 months after completing chemo-irradiation. T1- and T2-weighted signals and muscle thickness were evaluated for PCs (superior, middle, and inferior), and SCMs. Mean muscle doses were determined after registration with the planning CT. Results: T1-weighted signals decreased in both PCs and SCMs receiving >50 Gy (p 2 = 0.34, p = 0.01). The T2 signal changes in the PCs were significantly higher than the T2 changes in the SCMs (p 50 Gy gaining significantly more thickness than PCs receiving lesser doses (p = 0.02). In contrast, the SCM thickness decreased post-therapy (p = 0.002). Conclusions: These MRI-based findings, notably the differences between PCs and SCMs, suggest that underlying causes of PC dysfunction are inflammation and edema, likely consequential to acute mucositis affecting the submucosa-lying PCs. These results support reducing mean PC doses to ≤50 Gy, as well as reducing acute mucositis, to improve long-term dysphagia.

  11. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  12. The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations: a computational study based on a patient-specific three-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Yuan, Qi; Yang, Jian; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis (CoW) under anatomical and pathological variations. In the current study, a patient-specific three-dimensional computational model of the CoW was reconstructed based on the computed tomography (CT) images. The Carreau model was applied to simulate the non-Newtonian property of blood. Flow distributions in five common anatomical variations coexisting with different degrees of stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (RICA) were investigated to obtain detailed flow information. With the development of stenosis in unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), the cerebral blood supply decreased when the degree of stenosis increased. The blood supply of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) was most affected by the stenosis of ICA. The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) functioned as the important collateral circulation channels when unilateral stenosis occurred. The blood flow of the anterior circulation and the total cerebral blood flow (CBF) reached to the minimum in the configuration of the contralateral proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) absence coexisting with unilateral ICA stenosis. Communicating arteries provided important collateral channels in the complete CoW when stenosis in unilateral ICA occurred. The cross-flow in the ACoA is a sensitive indicator of the morphological change of the ICA. The collateral function of the PCoA on the affected side will not be fully activated until a severe stenosis occurred in unilateral ICA. The absence of unilateral A1 coexisting with the stenosis in the contralateral ICA could be the most dangerous configuration in terms of the total cerebral blood supply. The findings of this study would enhance the understanding of the collateral mechanism of the CoW under different anatomical variations.

  13. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  14. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  15. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Page 1. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence characteristics around translation initiation codon in four eukaryotes. Qingpo Liu and Qingzhong Xue. J. Genet. 84, 317–322. Table 1. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 39 base positions around the AUG codon in the four eukaryotic species studied.

  16. Anatomic Severity, Midfacial Growth, and Speech Outcomes in Van der Woude/Popliteal Pterygium Syndromes Compared to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Jeffrey B; Brustowicz, Katherine A; Marrinan, Eileen M; Mulliken, John B; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics and surgical and speech outcomes for patients with Van der Woude/popliteal pterygium syndromes (VWS/PPS) and to compare them with a historic cohort of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip/cleft palate (CL/P). Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care center. All patients with VWS/PPS seen at Boston Children's Hospital from 1979 to 2012: 28 patients with VWS (n = 21)/PPS (n = 7) whose mean age was 17.3 ± 10.4 years, including 18 females (64%) and 10 males (36%); 18 patients (64%) had a family history of VWS/PPS. Cleft type, operative procedures, speech, and midfacial growth. Data were compared with historic cohorts of patients with nonsyndromic CL/P treated at one tertiary care center. There were 24 patients (86%) with CP±L, Veau types I (n = 4, 17%), II (n = 4, 17%), III (n = 5, 21%), and IV (n = 11, 46%). Nine patients (38%) had palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Fourteen of 23 (61%) patients with CL/P age 5 years or older had midfacial retrusion, and 10 (43%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency. Fisher's exact test demonstrated higher frequencies of Veau type IV CP±L (P = .0016), bilateral CL±P (P = .0001), and complete CL±P (P palatal fistula (P clefting and higher incidences of midfacial retrusion, palatal fistula, and velopharyngeal insufficiency following primary repair as compared with nonsyndromic CL/P.

  17. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  18. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  19. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  20. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  1. Evaluation of 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Tyagi; Schlafly, Millicent; Reed, Kyle B

    2017-07-01

    This case study compares a transfemoral amputee's gait while using the existing Ossur Total Knee 2000 and our novel 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee is 3D printed out of a carbon-fiber and nylon composite that has a gear-mesh coupling with a hard-stop weight-actuated locking mechanism aided by a cross-linked four-bar spring mechanism. This design can be scaled using anatomical dimensions of a human femur and tibia to have a unique fit for each user. The transfemoral amputee who was tested is high functioning and walked on the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) at a self-selected pace. The motion capture and force data that was collected showed that there were distinct differences in the gait dynamics. The data was used to perform the Combined Gait Asymmetry Metric (CGAM), where the scores revealed that the overall asymmetry of the gait on the Ossur Total Knee was more asymmetric than the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee had higher peak knee flexion that caused a large step time asymmetry. This made walking on the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee more strenuous due to the compensatory movements in adapting to the different dynamics. This can be overcome by tuning the cross-linked spring mechanism to emulate the dynamics of the subject better. The subject stated that the knee would be good for daily use and has the potential to be adapted as a running knee.

  2. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  3. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Diemling, Markus; Kremser, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM) chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie) into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Through an adequate choice of acupuncture material (gold needles) as well as of

  4. Outpatient- and inpatient-based buckling surgery: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jin Cheol Lee,* Yu Cheol Kim*Department of Ophthalmology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, Korea *Both authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of ambulatory buckling surgery, comparing outpatient- with inpatient-based surgery.Methods: The authors performed a retrospective study of 80 consecutive cases of rhegmato genous retinal detachment from January 2009 to December 2011 treated by scleral buckling surgery. Two groups of patients were defined according to inpatient (group 1 or outpatient (group 2 surgery, and a comparison of several parameters between these two groups was performed.Results: Of the 80 subjects in this study, the average age of group 1 (50 patients was 49.7 years, and that of group 2 (30 patients was 47.5 years. There were no statistically significant differences in the average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution-visual acuity, the condition of the lens, or the presence of retinal lattice degeneration prior to the surgery between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the patterns of tear or retinal detachment or in surgical procedure between the groups. Comparing the best-corrected visual acuity after 6 months with that prior to the surgery, the changes in group 1 and group 2 were 0.26 and 0.31, respectively. The functional success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 90% and 93%, respectively, and the anatomical success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 94% and 96%, respectively, but these were also statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Hospitalization is not essential for buckling surgery in uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.Keywords: ambulatory, scleral buckling, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

  5. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  6. [Anatomical study and clinical application of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Hao, X; Goan, M

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the blood supply patterns and the clinical liability of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Fresh cadaver legs with thirty-two in infants and two in adults were anatomically examined after the intravenous injection of the red Chlorinated Poly Vingl Choride (CPVC). Five patients with the soft tissue defects were selected for the treatment with the flap pedicle-included with the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Four main cutaneous nerves were found in the leg after they perforated the deep fascia out. They were companioned with their concomitant vessels with different blood-supply pateeerns, which the upper part of the leg was in an axial pattern and the lower part was in a "chain-type anastomosing" pattern. Following the above-mentioned findings, five cases were successfully treated with this led flap. The leg flap should be designed along the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. When the flap is applied in the area of blood supply with "chain-type anastomosing" pattern, the deep fascia should also be included in the flap.

  7. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  8. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  9. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo; Lopez, Jorge A.

    2004-01-01

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature

  10. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  11. Small and similar amounts of micromotion in an anatomical stem and a customized cementless femoral stem in regular-shaped femurs. A 5-year follow-up randomized RSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, Mona; Foss, Olav A; Klaksvik, Jomar; Benum, Pål; Haugan, Kristin; Husby, Otto Schnell; Aamodt, Arild

    2014-04-01

    High primary stability is important for long-term survival of uncemented femoral stems. Different stem designs are currently in use. The ABG-I is a well-documented anatomical stem with a press-fit design. The Unique stem is designed for a tight customized fit to the cortical bone of the upper femur. This implant was initially developed for patients with abnormal anatomy, but the concept can also be used in patients with normal femoral anatomy. We present 5-year radiostereometric analysis (RSA) results from a randomized study comparing the ABG-I anatomical stem with the Unique femoral stem. 100 hips with regular upper femur anatomy were randomized to either the ABG-I stem or the Unique femoral stem. RSA measurements were performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months. RSA measurements from 80 hips were available for analysis at the 5-year follow-up. Small amounts of movement were observed for both stems, with no statistically significant differences between the 2 types. No improvement in long-term stability was found from using a customized stem design. However, no patients with abnormal geometry of the upper femur were included in this study.

  12. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BAS, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...

  13. The Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad: Anatomical Study of the New Flap for Skull Base Defect Reconstruction After Endoscopic Endonasal Transpterygoid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbin, Denis A.; Lasunin, Nikolay V.; Cherekaev, Vasily A.; Polev, Georgiy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants: 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures: Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad–Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results: Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space. PMID:28180047

  14. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  15. A comparative study of various advanced fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, H.; Tomita, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p- 11 B and p- 6 Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)

  16. Passive vs. active virtual reality learning: the effects on short- and long-term memory of anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrew; Fritchle, Alicia; Hoffman, Helene

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compares the differences in learning outcomes when students are presented with either an active (student-centered) or passive (teacher-centered) virtual reality-based anatomy lesson. The "active" lesson used UCSD's Anatomic VisualizeR and enabled students to interact with 3D models and control presentation of learning materials. The "passive" lesson used a digital recording of an anatomical expert's tour of the same VR lesson played back as a QuickTime movie. Subsequent examination of the recall and retention of the studied anatomic objects were comparable in both groups. Issues underlying these results are discussed.

  17. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  18. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  19. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  20. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR

    2005-01-01

    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  1. Comparative Study on Water Impact Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liang; Yang, Hao; Yan, Shiqiang; Ma, Qingwei; Bihnam, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative numerical study for the water impact problems due to dropping of triangular wedges or ship sections. In the numerical investigation, both the dynamic mesh technique and immersed boundary method adopting fixed Cartesian grids have been adopted in order to conform to the motion of the structure. For the former, a multiple-phase solver with the volume of fluid for identifying the free surface is implemented. In the simulation using this method, both the compress...

  2. Posterolateral supporting structures of the knee: findings on anatomic dissection, anatomic slices and MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, M. de; Shahabpour, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium); Roy, F. van [Dept. of Experimental Anatomy, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    In this article we study the ligaments and tendons of the posterolateral corner of the knee by anatomic dissection, MR-anatomic correlation, and MR imaging. The posterolateral aspect of two fresh cadaveric knee specimens was dissected. The MR-anatomic correlation was performed in three other specimens. The MR images of 122 patients were reviewed and assessed for the visualization of different posterolateral structures. Anatomic dissection and MR-anatomic correlation demonstrated the lateral collateral, fabellofibular, and arcuate ligaments, as well as the biceps and popliteus tendons. On MR images of patients the lateral collateral ligament was depicted in all cases. The fabellofibular, arcuate, and popliteofibular ligaments were visualized in 33, 25, and 38% of patients, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a detailed appreciation of the posterolateral corner of the knee. (orig.)

  3. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  4. A comparative study of two shovel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, A; Asfour, S S; Waly, S M; Koshy, J G

    1993-10-01

    In the present study a modified shovel design with two perpendicular shafts is presented. This modified, two-shaft shovel was compared with a regular shovel. The modified shovel was evaluated and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using surface electromyography recorded from the lumbar paraspinal muscles. The new shovel design was also tested in a field study using ratings of perceived exertion. The results indicate that there was a significant reduction in EMG values of the lumbar paraspinal muscles and a consistent reduction in perceived exertion ratings while the modified shovel was being used for removing dirt in digging trenches up to 90 cm in depth.

  5. [Nonprocess autism in children: comparative etiopathogenetic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, V E

    1979-01-01

    Etiopathogenesis of the childhood autism syndrome of a non-process nature is discussed on the basis of a comparative study of 156 children aged from 3 to 16 years. In the etiological complex there is a prevalence of early exogenous-organic noxious factors, which is reflected in disturbances of mental divelopment, maturation of the system of hemispheric pair work. The data of follow-up studies and treatment confirm a conclusion about a residual-organic basis in the syndrome of childhood autism.

  6. Changes of wood anatomical characters of selected species of Araucaria- during artificial charring - implications for palaeontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Carla Osterkamp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Charcoal is widely accepted as evidence of the occurrence of palaeo-wildfire. Although fossil charcoal remains have been used in many studies, investigation into the anatomical changes occurring during charring are few. The present study analyses changes in selected anatomical characters during artificial charring of modern wood of three species of the genus Araucaria (i.e. Araucaria angustifolia, Araucaria bidwillii and Araucaria columnaris. Wood samples of the studied species was charred under controlled conditions at varying temperatures. Measurements of anatomical features of uncharred wood and artificial charcoal were statistically analysed. The anatomical changes were statistically correlated with charring temperatures and most of the parameters showed marked decreases with increasing charring temperature. Compared to the intrinsic variability in anatomical features, both within and between growth rings of an individual plant, the changes induced by temperature account only for a comparatively small percentage of the observed variability. Regarding Araucaria charcoal, it seems possible that at least general taxonomic and palaeoenvironmental implications can be drawn from such material. However, it is not clear so far whether these results and interpretations based on only three taxa, can be generalized for the entire family and anatomically similar fossil taxa or not.

  7. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eUrgesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  8. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  9. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  10. Segmentation of anatomical structures in chest radiographs using supervised methods: a comparative study on a public database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ginneken, Bram; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Loog, Marco

    2006-01-01

    classification method that employs a multi-scale filter bank of Gaussian derivatives and a k-nearest-neighbors classifier. The methods have been tested on a publicly available database of 247 chest radiographs, in which all objects have been manually segmented by two human observers. A parameter optimization...

  11. SU-F-J-201: Validation Study of Proton Radiography Against CT Data for Quantitative Imaging of Anatomical Changes in Head and Neck Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammi, A; Weber, D; Lomax, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, the advantage of the characteristic sharp dose fall-off after the Bragg Peak (BP) becomes a disadvantage if the BP positions of a plan’s constituent pencil beams are shifted, eg.due to anatomical changes. Thus, for fractionated PBS proton therapy, accurate knowledge of the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of the traversed anatomy is critical. In this work we investigate the feasibility of using 2D proton range maps (proton radiography, PR) with the active-scanning gantry at PSI. Methods: We simulated our approach using Monte Carlo methods (MC) to simulate proton beam interactions in patients using clinical imaging data. We selected six head and neck cases having significant anatomical changes detected in per-treatment CTs.PRs (two at 0°/90°) were generated from MC simulations of low-dose pencil beams at 230MeV. Each beam’s residual depth-dose was propagated through the patient geometry (from CT) and detected on exiting the patient anatomy in an ideal depth-resolved detector (eg. range telescope). Firstly, to validate the technique, proton radiographs were compared to the ground truth, which was the WEPL from ray-tracing in the patient CT at the pencil beam location. Secondly, WEPL difference maps (per-treatment – planning imaging timepoints) were then generated to locate the anatomical changes, both in the CT (ground truth) and in the PRs. Binomial classification was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the technique relative to CT. Results: Over the projections simulated over all six patients, 70%, 79% and 95% of the grid points agreed with the ground truth proton range to within ±0.5%, ±1%, and ±3% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy were high (mean±1σ, 83±8%, 87±13%, 95±10%, 83±7% respectively). Conclusion: We show that proton-based radiographic images can accurately monitor patient positioning and in vivo range verification, while providing

  12. An anatomical study of wormian bones from the eastern part of India: is genetic influence a primary determinant of their morphogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar; Biswas, Sudipa; Sharma, Suranjali; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2017-06-01

    Over the years a number of investigators have analysed the morphology of wormian bones in different population groups across the world. There have been significant variations between findings reported in these studies, and this has prompted researchers to focus on the influence of genetic factors on the morphology of these bones. In the light of the above observation, we considered it justified to conduct anatomical studies on wormian bones in different population groups; hence, we undertook the present study to look into the morphological details of these bones among a population in the eastern part of India. We observed a total of 120 adult dry human skulls of unknown age and sex, and noted the anatomical details of wormian bones when present. It was observed that wormian bones were present in 45 % of skulls, and that 30 % of skulls had more than one wormian bone. We also found that 2.5 % of the skulls had ten or more wormian bones, which is considered as pathognomonic. Maximum incidence (53.33 %) was observed at the lambdoid suture and minimum incidence at the bregma and metopic suture (0.61 % in each case). We noted a high incidence (21.21 %) of Inca bone/lambdoid ossicle, and bilaterally symmetrical wormian bones were present in 12.5 % study skulls. There were statistically significant (P variations between the findings of the present study and values reported in previous studies conducted in other regions of India and different parts of the world. Our observations favour the view that genetic influence primarily determines the morphology of wormian bones.

  13. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  14. Comparison of in vivo vs. frozen vs. Thiel cadaver specimens in visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle on proton density Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; McNulty, J.; Gatt, A.; Formosa, C.; Chockalingam, N.; Evanoff, M.G.; Rainford, L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The use of cadavers for medical education purposes and for radiology research methodologies which involve subjective image quality evaluation of anatomical criteria is well documented. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of cadaver tissue preservation in producing MR images that are representative of living tissue by comparing the visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle obtained from live and cadaver (fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed) specimens through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study. Methods: A VGA study was conducted on an image data set consisting of 4 coronal proton density weighted (PDw) sequences obtained from ankles of a live patient and those of a cadaveric specimen, of which the right ankle was frozen and the left Thiel embalmed. Results: Comparison of the image quality scores obtained from: the live patient vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the scores in favour of the Thiel specimen; between the live patient vs. the frozen specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the frozen specimen and between the frozen vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the Thiel specimen. Conclusions: The advantages of the use of cadavers (frozen or Thiel embalmed) has been shown to also apply for use with proton density (PD) MR imaging. The preservation of cadavers especially using Thiel is a suitable alternative for MRI optimisation and protocol development purposes. - Highlights: • Thiel preservation: a better alternative compared to frozen methods for MR image analysis. • VGA demonstrated an efficient research study design for the investigation of embalming methods. • Thiel embalmed cadavers: an acceptable alternative from patients for MR imaging optimisation. • Additional MR sequences and increased sample sizes are recommended for further investigation.

  15. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Ariani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  17. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  18. Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval using fMRI. I. Retrieval effort versus retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, D L; Wagner, A D; Rosen, B R

    1998-04-01

    A number of recent functional imaging studies have identified brain areas activated during tasks involving episodic memory retrieval. The identification of such areas provides a foundation for targeted hypotheses regarding the more specific contributions that these areas make to episodic retrieval. As a beginning effort toward such an endeavor, whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine 14 subjects during episodic word recognition in a block-designed fMRI experiment. Study conditions were manipulated by presenting either shallow or deep encoding tasks. This manipulation yielded two recognition conditions that differed with regard to retrieval effort and retrieval success: shallow encoding yielded low levels of recognition success with high levels of retrieval effort, and deep encoding yielded high levels of recognition success with low levels of effort. Many brain areas were activated in common by these two recognition conditions compared to a low-level fixation condition, including left and right prefrontal regions often detected during PET episodic retrieval paradigms (e.g., R. L. Buckner et al., 1996, J. Neurosci. 16, 6219-6235) thereby generalizing these findings to fMRI. Characterization of the activated regions in relation to the separate recognition conditions showed (1) bilateral anterior insular regions and a left dorsal prefrontal region were more active after shallow encoding, when retrieval demanded greatest effort, and (2) right anterior prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in episodic retrieval, was most active during successful retrieval after deep encoding. We discuss these findings in relation to component processes involved in episodic retrieval and in the context of a companion study using event-related fMRI.

  19. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  20. The Effects of Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation on Anatomical and Functional Parameters in Patients with Primary Angle Closure: A Prospective Study. (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Cutolo, Carlo Alberto

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the clinical, anatomical, and patient-reported outcomes of phacoemulsification (PE) with intraocular lens implantation performed to treat primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 6 months after PE. The examination included visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field, optic nerve head, endothelial cell count (ECC), aqueous depth, and ocular biometric parameters. Patient-reported visual function and health status were assessed. Coprimary outcome measures were IOP changes, angle widening, and patient-reported visual function; secondary outcome measures were visual acuity changes, use of IOP-lowering medications, and complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of IOP change. Thirty-nine cases were identified, and postoperative data were analyzed for 59 eyes, 39 with PACG and 20 with PAC. Globally, PE resulted in a mean reduction in IOP of -6.33 mm Hg (95% CI, -8.64 to -4.01, P <.001). Aqueous depth and angle measurements improved ( P <.01), whereas ECC significantly decreased ( P <.001). Both corrected and uncorrected visual acuity improved ( P <.01). The EQ visual analog scale did not change ( P =.16), but VFQ-25 improved ( P <.01). The IOP-lowering effect of PE was greater in the PACG compared to the PAC group ( P =.04). In both groups, preoperative IOP was the most significant predictor of IOP change ( P <.01). No sight-threatening complications were recorded. Our data support the usefulness of PE in lowering the IOP in patients with PAC and PACG. Although PE resulted in several anatomical and patient-reported visual improvements, we observe that a marked decrease in ECC should be carefully weighed before surgery.

  1. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  2. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  3. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  4. Anatomical and Radiographic Study on the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. All of the characteristic features of various standards views of the skulls bones, including dorsal, lateral, caudal and midsagittal, and the lateral and caudal views of the mandibles as well as the foramina of the skulls and mandibles were described and discussed. Each skull was divided into long facial and short cranial regions. No supraorbital foramen was observed in the skulls. The tympanic bulla was absent while there was the tympanic process of the alisphenoid. The temporal process of the zygomatic bone, zygomatic process of maxilla, and zygomatic process of the squamosal bone formed the zygomatic arch. The dental formula was confirmed. The bones and foramina of the skull and mandible were similar to other marsupial species and were homologue to that of other mammals.

  5. Functional and anatomical differences between continent and incontinent men post radical prostatectomy on urodynamics and 3T MRI: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Suskind, Anne M; Neer, Charlene; Hussain, Hero; Montgomery, Jeffrey; Latini, Jerilyn M; DeLancey, John O

    2015-08-01

    There are competing hypotheses about the etiology of post prostatectomy incontinence (PPI). The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomical and functional differences between men with and without PPI. Case-control study of continent and incontinent men after radical prostatectomy who underwent functional and anatomic studies with urodynamics and 3.0 Tesla MRI. All men were at least 12 months post prostatectomy and none had a history of pelvic radiation or any prior surgery for incontinence. Baseline demographics, surgical approach, and pathology were similar between incontinent (cases) (n = 14) and continent (controls) (n = 12) men. Among the cases, the average 24 hr pad weight was 400.0 ± 176.9 g with a mean of 2.4 ± 0.7 pads per day. Urethral pressure profiles at rest did not significantly differ between groups; however, with a Kegel maneuver the rise in urethral pressure was 2.6 fold higher in controls. On MRI, the urethral length was 31-35% shorter and the bladder neck was 28.9° more funneled in cases. There were no differences in levator ani muscle size between groups. There was distortion of the sphincter area in 85.7% of cases and in 16.7% of controls (P = 0.001). Men with PPI were not able to increase urethral pressure with a Kegel maneuver despite similar resting urethral pressure profiles. Additionally, incontinent men had shorter urethras and were more likely to have distortion of the sphincter area. All suggesting that the sphincter in men with PPI is both diminutive and poorly functional. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparative study on skin dose measurement using MOSFET and TLD for pediatric patients with acute lymphatic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, Huda I; Mahyoub, Fareed H; Moftah, Belal A

    2010-07-01

    The object of this study was to compare the difference of skin dose measured in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (mobile MOSFET dose verification system (TN-RD-70-W) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 chips, Harshaw/ Bicron, OH, USA). Because TLD has been the most-commonly used technique in the skin dose measurement of TBI, the aim of the present study is to prove the benefit of using the mobile MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements during the total body irradiation (TBI) over thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The measurements involved 10 pediatric patients ages between 3 and 14 years. Thermoluminescent dosimeters and MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 9 different anatomic sites on each patient. The present results show there is a variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD in all patients, and for every anatomic site selected, there is no significant difference in the dose delivered using MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. However, there is a significant difference for every anatomic site using TLD compared with either the prescribed dose or MOSFET. The results indicate that the dosimeter measurements using the MOSFET gave precise measurements of prescribed dose. However, TLD measurement showed significant increased skin dose of cGy as compared to either prescribed dose or MOSFET group. MOSFET dosimeters provide superior dose accuracy for skin dose measurement in TBI as compared with TLD.

  7. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  8. The effects of healing abutments of different size and anatomic shape placed immediately in extraction sockets on peri-implant hard and soft tissues. A pilot study in foxhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Patricia J; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Boquete-Castro, Ana; Aguilar-Salvatierra Raya, Antonio; Martínez-González, José M; Calvo-Guirado, José L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this animal study was to compare the effects of narrow, concave-straight and wide anatomic healing abutments on changes to soft tissues and crestal bone levels around implants immediately placed into extraction sockets in foxhound dogs. Forty-eight titanium implants (Bredent Medical GMBH, Germany) of the same dimensions were placed in six foxhound dogs. They were divided into two groups (n = 24): test (implants with anatomic abutment) and control (implants with concave-straight abutment). The implants were inserted randomly in the post extraction sockets of P2 , P3 , P4, and M1 bilaterally in six dogs. After eight and twelve weeks, the animals were sacrificed and samples extracted containing the implants and the surrounding soft and hard tissues. Soft tissue and crestal bone loss (CBL) were evaluated by histology and histomorphometry. All implants were clinically and histologically osseointegrated. Healing patterns were examined microscopically at eight and twelve weeks. After eight and twelve weeks, for hard tissues, the distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone-to-implant contact (IS-C) was higher for control group in the lingual aspect with statistical significance (P < 0.05). For soft tissues (STL), the distance from the top of the peri-implant mucosa to the apical portion of the junction epithelium (PM-Je) was significantly less on the lingual aspect in the test group (with wider abutment) at eight and twelve weeks (P < 0.05). The distance from the top of the apical portion of the junction epithelium to the first bone-to-implant contact (Je-C) was significantly higher in the test group (wider abutment) in the lingual aspect at eight and twelve weeks (P < 0.05). There was no connective tissue contact with any abutment surface. Within the limitations of this animal study, anatomic healing abutments protect soft and hard tissues and reduce crestal bone resorption compared with concave-straight healing abutments. © 2014 John Wiley

  9. A quantitative comparison of the electrical and anatomical definition of the pulmonary vein ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Florian; Kühne, Michael; Reichlin, Tobias; Osswald, Stefan; Sticherling, Christian; Knecht, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Anatomically guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, the position where to confirm electrical isolation is ill-defined. The aim of the current study was to quantify the relationship between the anatomical and electrical definition of the pulmonary vein ostium. We analyzed 20 patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing PVI using radiofrequency energy and an electroanatomical mapping system. The anatomical ostium was defined based on the geometry obtained from preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The electrical ostium was defined at the position with a far-field atrial signal preceding a sharp pulmonary vein (PV) signal without any isoelectric interval in between. The electrically defined ostia were 8.4 ± 4.7 mm more distal in the PV compared to the anatomically defined ostia. The distances varied considerably between the four PVs and were 10.5 ± 6.5 mm, 7.4 ± 4.3 mm, 5.3 ± 4.0 mm, and 8.3 ± 3.4 mm for the left superior, left inferior, right superior, and right inferior PVs, respectively (P  =  0.009). The position of the electrical and anatomical ostium differs markedly. The site of the electrical ostium is variable within the PV but always more distal in the PV compared to the site of the anatomical ostium. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  11. What Is the Rate of Incomplete Fetal Anatomic Surveys During a Second-Trimester Scan? Retrospective Observational Study of 4000 Nonobese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Francesco; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Capriglione, Stella; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Cignini, Pietro; Mastrandrea, Maria Luisa; D'Emidio, Laura; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the rate of incomplete fetal anatomic surveys during a second-trimester scan due to an unfavorable fetal position in a nonobese population. All pregnant women who came to the Altamedica Fetal-Maternal Medical Center, a specialized center for prenatal diagnosis, for a routine second-trimester scan between January 2012 and April 2013 were retrospectively included in the analysis. Patients with a body mass index higher than 30.0 kg/m(2) or anterior fibroids larger than 5 cm were not included in the study. Of 4000 pregnant women admitted for a second-trimester scan, 169 (4.2%) came back within 2 weeks to complete the examination because of an unfavorable fetal position. In particular, 104 (2.6%) needed visualization of only 1 view, and 65 (1.6%) needed more than 1 view. The most difficult organ to visualize was the corpus callosum, in 73 cases (1.8%); the face was not visualized in 69 cases (1.7%); the cerebellar vermis was not seen in 47 fetuses (1.1%); and the heart could not be completely examined in 40 fetuses (1.0%). Of the 4000 women, 169 (4.2%) had a nonexhaustive scan; 149 (3.7%) needed a second scan to complete the second-trimester survey; 14 (0.35%) needed a third scan; and 2 (0.05%) remained with a not completely exhaustive scan. There is always a small percentage of incomplete fetal anatomic surveys during a second-trimester scan, which cannot be modified by the sonographer's skill or by technical sonographic innovations. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Proposed Optimal Fluoroscopic Targets for Cooled Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Sacral Lateral Branches to Improve Clinical Outcomes: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Alison; Dreyfuss, Paul; Swain, Nathan; Roberts, Shannon; Loh, Eldon; Agur, Anne

    2017-11-23

    Current sacroiliac joint (SIJ) cooled radiofrequency (RF) is based on fluoroscopic anatomy of lateral branches (LBs) in three specimens. Recent studies confirm significant variation in LB positions. To determine if common fluoroscopic needle placements for cooled SIJ RF are adequate to lesion all S1-3 LBs. If not, would different targets improve lesion accuracy? The LBs of 20 cadavers were dissected bilaterally (40 SIJs), and 26 G radiopaque wires were sutured to the LBs. With a 10-mm radius ruler centered at each foramen, standard targets were assessed, as judged by a clockface on the right, for S1 and S2 at 2:30, 4:00, and 5:30 positions and at S3 at 2:30 and 4:00. Mirror image targets were assessed on the left. Assuming an 8-mm lesion diameter, the percentage of LBs that would not be ablated for each level was determined. Imaging through the superior end plate of S1 was compared against segment specific (SS) imaging. Nine point four percent of LBs would not be ablated at S1 vs 0.99% at S2 vs 35% at S3, and 60% of the 40 SIJs would be completely denervated using current targets. SS imaging did not improve results. Alternate target locations could improve the miss rate to 2.8% at S1 and 0% at S3 and would ablate all LBs in 95% of SIJs. Using a conservative 8-mm lesion measurement, contemporary cooled RF needle targets are inadequate to lesion all target LBs. Modifications to current targets are recommended to increase the effectiveness of the procedure. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  14. Laproscopic versus open appendectomy: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, B.; Naureen Ali, N.; Shamim, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the results of open with laparoscopic appendectomy in terms of postoperative pain, rate of wound infection and hospital stay. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Department of Surgery, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, over a period of six months. Patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis were randomly assigned into one of the two groups (A or B) after obtaining written and informed consent. In Group-A patients underwent open appendectomy and in Group B laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Post operatively pain chart and wound infection was recorded and, at the time of discharge, number of days in hospital was calculated. Result: Sixty patients (38 male, 22 female), with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis based on Alvarado score of six and above, were included in the study. They were randomized into 2 groups of A and B with 30 patients in each group. Group-A comprised open appendectomy procedure and Group-B comprised laparoscopic appendectomy. Mean comparison of postoperative pain by visual analogue scale, was significantly low in Group B, compared with Group A, on day 0, 1 and 2. Number of days in Hospital was 4.1 +- 0.8 days in Group A and 1.5 +- 0.06 days in Group B. None of the patients in Group B, while 8 (26.67%) patients in-Group A, developed postoperative wound infection at 1 week follow up. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and effective. Wound infection and postoperative pain is significantly lower after this mode of surgery. (author)

  15. A computed tomographic anatomical study of the upper sacrum. Application for a user guide of pelvic fixation with iliosacral screws in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubory, Arnaud; Bouloussa, Houssam; Riouallon, Guillaume; Wolff, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Widely used in traumatic pelvic ring fractures, the iliosacral (IS) screw technique for spino-pelvic fixation remains anecdotal in adult spinal deformity. The objective of this study was to assess anatomical variability of the adult upper sacrum and to provide a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws in adult spinal deformity. Anatomical variability of the upper sacrum according to age, gender, height and weight was sought on 30 consecutive pelvic CT-scans. Thus, a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws was modeled and assessed on ten CT-scans as described below. Two invariable landmarks usable during the surgical procedure were defined: point A (corresponding to the connector binding the IS screw to the spinal rod), equidistant from the first posterior sacral hole and the base of the S1 articular facet and 10 mm-embedded into the sacrum; point B (corresponding to the tip of the IS screw) located at the junction of the anterior third and middle third of the sacral endplate in the sagittal plane and at the middle of the endplate in the coronal plane. Point C corresponded to the intersection between the A-B direction and the external facet of the iliac wing. Three-dimensional reconstructions modeling the IS screw optimal direction according to the A-B-C straight line were assessed. Age had no effect on the anatomy of the upper sacrum. The distance between the base of the S1 superior articular facet and the top of the first posterior sacral hole was correlated with weight (r = 0.6; 95% CI [0.6-0.9]); p guide of spinopelvic fixation with IS screws seems to be reliable and reproducible independently of age, gender and morphologic characteristics but needs clinical assessment. Level IV.

  16. A comparative study of modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy versus conventional transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Eduardo Damous; Caixeta, Juliana Alves; de Souza Nery, Ana Carla; Limongi, Roberto Murillo; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2017-08-01

    External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the gold standard surgical technique for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO). However, new techniques such as endoscopic DCR and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (T-DCR) are being studied in an attempt to reduce surgical time, avoid external scarring and preserve the lacrimal pump while achieving the same efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy between conventional T-DCR and modified transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (MT-DCR) in patients with PANDO. MT-DCR is performed to remove nasal mucosa prior to laser osteotomy. This is a comparative, prospective, interventionist and randomized study. Patients with PANDO were selected to undergo MT-DCR or T-DCR by blocked randomization. PANDO was diagnosed based on clinical presentation, dye disappearance test and dacryocystography. All of the procedures were performed by the same surgery team members. Anatomical success outcome was defined as positive lacrimal syringing and functional success outcome was defined as the absence or improvement of epiphora. A total of 44 surgical procedures were performed (22 MT-DCR and 22 T-DCR). In the case of MT-DCR, the anatomical and functional success rates after 12 months were 90 and 86%, respectively. After T-DCR, these rates were 77 and 72%, respectively (p = 0.162). MT-DCR and T-DCR are both safe and fast procedures with low morbidity and well-tolerated.

  17. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  18. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence.

  20. Diagnostic value of MRI for nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. Clinical and anatomic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Kageyama, Kazuhiro; Katakura, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken in 26 patients with surgically proven nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. The findings on coronary images were compared with those of selective radiculography to assess the diagnostic ability of MRI to determine the site of nerve root compression. Intermission and partial defect, which reflect nerve root compression, were seen in only 5 (19.2%) of 26 nerve roots on MRI, as compared with 20 (76.9%) on radiculography. Thus MRI alone was difficult to diagnose nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. Furthermore, the optimum angle of coronary views was determined in 13 cadavers. Para-sagittal views were found to be optimal for the observation of the whole running of the nerve root. Three-dimensional MRI was found to have a potential to diagnose nerve root compression in the intervertebral foramen and the distal part of the intervertebral foramen. (N.K.)

  1. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  2. Comparative studies of stellarator and tokamak transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U; Burhenn, R; Geiger, J; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H J; Kuehner, G; Ledl, L; Simmet, E E; Walter, H [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); ECRH Team; W7-AS Team

    1997-09-01

    Transport properties in the W7-AS stellarator and in tokamaks are compared. The parameter dependences and the absolute values of the energy confinement time are similar. Indications are found that the density dependence, which is usually observed in stellarator confinement, can vanish above a critical density. The density dependence in stellarators seems to be similar to that in the linear ohmic confinement regime, which, in small tokamaks, extends to high density values, too. Because of the similarity in the gross confinement properties, transport in stellarators and tokamaks should not be dominated by the parameters which are very different in the two concepts, i.e. magnetic shear, major rational values of the rotational transform and plasma current. A difference in confinement is that there exists evidence for pinches in the particle and, possibly, energy transport channels in tokamaks whereas in stellarators no pinches have been observed, so far. In order to study the effect of plasma current and toroidal electric fields, stellarator discharges were carried out with an increasing amount of plasma current. From these experiments, no clear evidence of a connection of pinches with these parameters is found. The transient response in W7-AS plasmas can be described in terms of a non-local model. As in tokamaks, also cold pulse experiments in W7-AS indicate the importance of non-local transport. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  4. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  5. A Comparative Study of Human Saposins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Garrido-Arandia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Saposins are small proteins implicated in trafficking and loading of lipids onto Cluster of Differentiation 1 (CD1 receptor proteins that in turn present lipid antigens to T cells and a variety of T-cell receptors, thus playing a crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. Despite their low sequence identity, the four types of human saposins share a similar folding pattern consisting of four helices linked by three conserved disulfide bridges. However, their lipid-binding abilities as well as their activities in extracting, transporting and loading onto CD1 molecules a variety of sphingo- and phospholipids in biological membranes display two striking characteristics: a strong pH-dependence and a structural change between a compact, closed conformation and an open conformation. In this work, we present a comparative computational study of structural, electrostatic, and dynamic features of human saposins based upon their available experimental structures. By means of structural alignments, surface analyses, calculation of pH-dependent protonation states, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and molecular dynamics simulations at three pH values representative of biological media where saposins fulfill their function, our results shed light into their intrinsic features. The similarities and differences in this class of proteins depend on tiny variations of local structural details that allow saposins to be key players in triggering responses in the human immune system.

  6. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed

  7. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  8. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  9. Anatomical studies of the coronary system in elasmobranchs: II. Coronary arteries in hexanchoid, squaloid, and carcharhinoid sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrés, A V; Muñoz-Chápuli, R; Sans-Coma, V; García-Garrido, L

    1992-07-01

    Coronary artery anatomy was studied in 16 shark species belonging to 9 families of the orders Hexanchiformes, Squaliformes, and Carcharhiniformes. The study included 101 specimens and used an injection-corrosion technique that obtained internal casts of the main trunks and coronary arterial branches. The results showed 2 main patterns of coronary arterial arrangement: the dorsoventral coronary trunk pattern, shared by lamnoid and advanced carcharhinoid sharks, and the lateral coronary trunk pattern, shown by hexanchoid and squaloid sharks. Scyliorhinus and Galeus had intermediate arrangements of their vessels.

  10. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  11. An anatomical study of variations in termination of brachial artery, with its embryological basis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T. K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial artery is the main artery of the arm. It begins as the continuation of 3rd part of axillary artery, at the level of inferior border of teres major muscle. It ends at the level of the neck of radius by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. In the present study we found higher division of brachial artery at mid arm level into its terminal branches with superficial course of radial artery. The present study was done on 51 cadavers from our dept. of Anatomy. The upper limbs of the cadaver were dissected and observed for any variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery. In the present study, a total number of 51 cadaver’s, 102 upper limbs were studied. In one male cadaver we found bilateral higher division of brachial artery, trifurcation on left side and bifurcation on right side brachial artery, with superficial course of radial artery. The knowledge of variation in origin and course of brachial artery is useful for orthopaedicians, physicians, radiologist, vascular and plastic surgeons.

  12. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  13. Anatomic and histological study of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing and surgical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, V-E; Langonnet, S; Pierrefeu, A; Chaux-Bodard, A-G

    2014-10-01

    The rabbit is one of the most widely used models for studying bone remodeling or dental implant osseointegration but very few data are available about the rabbit's mandible. The aim of this work was to describe the anatomy of the rabbit mandible and to estimate the available bone volume for experimental studies. First, with a dissection, the morphology of the mandible was described and the mental foramen, the position of the main salivary glands and muscular insertions were located. Then, by X-ray imaging, the position of the inferior alveolar canal, the dental root courses and volume and bone density were described. Finally, with frontal sections of the mandible body, the rabbit's dental and alveolar bone histological structure were assessed. Thus, the relevance of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing or surgical therapies was discussed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Development of an Anatomically Accurate Finite Element Human Ocular Globe Model for Blast-Related Fluid-Structure Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    nucleus green ) is attached to the shell of the eye via the zonule fibers (orange) and the ciliary body (pink). The zonule fibers are approximated in our...as shown in the literature.13,24 (a and b) A study conducted by Norman et al.24 with images from normal human subjects sectioned into 15 equal...Fig. 13 Scleral thickness variation procedure in the model: a) scleral thickness variation contours with thickness values noted from Norman et al

  15. Celiac artery in New Zealand rabbit: anatomical study of its origin and arrangement for experimental research and surgical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abidu-Figueiredo,Marcelo; Xavier-Silva,Bárbara; Cardinot,Themis M.; Babinski,Márcio A.; Chagas,Maurício A.

    2008-01-01

    Rabbits have been used as an experimental model in many diseases and for the study of toxicology, pharmacology and surgery in many universities. However, some aspects of their macro anatomy need a more detailed description, especially the abdominal and pelvic arterial vascular system, which has a huge variability in distribution and trajectory. Thirty cadaveric adult New Zealand rabbits, 13 male and 17 female, with an average weight and rostrum-sacral length of 2.5 kg and 40cm, respectively, ...

  16. Anatomical study of the nerve regeneration after selective neurectomy in the rabbit: clinical application for esthetic calf reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Yoo, Ja-Young; Lee, Ju-Young; Gil, Young-Chun; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were therefore to characterize the degeneration and regeneration of nerves to the calf muscles after selective neurectomy, both macroscopically and microscopically, and to determine the incidence of such regeneration in a rabbit model. Seventy four New Zealand white rabbits were used. Selective neurectomy to the triceps surae muscles was performed, and the muscles were subsequently harvested and weighed 1-4 months postneurectomy. The gastrocnemius muscles were stain...

  17. Anatomic and Radiologic Study of Renal Avascular Plane (Brödel's Line) and Its Potential Relevance on Percutaneous and Surgical Approaches to the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Picardi, Edgardo; Inferrera, Antonino; Porzionato, Andrea; Crestani, Alessandro; Novara, Giacomo; De Caro, Raffaele; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present anatomic and radiologic study was to evaluate the location, extension, and characteristics of the Brödel's plane and eventually define its different patterns. We evaluated 15 human normal kidneys sampled from unembalmed cadavers without clinical history or anatomical evidence of renal diseases. Kidneys with the surrounding perirenal fat tissue were removed en bloc with the abdominal segment of the aorta. The renal artery was injected with acrylic and radiopaque resins. A CT examination of the injected kidneys was performed. After the imaging acquisition, the specimens were treated with sodium hydroxide for removal of the parenchyma to obtain the vascular casts. All the CT images were elaborated using dedicated three-dimensional (3D) software with the aim to improve the possibility to identify the Brödel's plane. The avascular plane was identified directly on the vascular casts and confirmed on the corresponding 3D images. The avascular plane was located in all cases medially to the lateral convex border of the kidneys. The recorded mean distance was 2.04 cm (range 1.8-2.4 cm). Three patterns of distribution of the Brödel's line were identified. In five (33.3%) cases the avascular plane was extended from the apical to the inferior segment of the kidneys (type 1); in six (40%) from the superior to the inferior segment (type 2); and in four (26.7%) from the apical to the middle segment (type 3). Fourth and fifth order vessels crossing the Brödel's line were detected in all the analyzed cases. The renal avascular plane showed a different extension allowing us to cluster three different patterns. Preoperative identification of the Brödel's line patterns could help surgeons to minimize hemorrhagic complications during percutaneous and surgical procedures requiring an incision of the renal parenchyma such as traditional or robot-assisted nephrolithotomy or partial nephrectomy for endophytic renal tumors. Radiologic studies validated that

  18. Visual and anatomical outcomes following idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzadi, B.; Rizvi, S.F.; Latif, K.; Naz, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the visual and anatomical outcomes following idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane (IERM) surgery. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Layton Rehmatulla Benevolent Trust (L.R.B.T), Free Base Eye Hospital, Karachi, from January 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Thirty eyes of thirty patients affected with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane stage 2 were enrolled in this study. They subsequently underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with epiretinal membrane removal without internal limiting membrane peeling. The visual outcome was measured as improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of at least two or more lines on ETDRS chart as compared to preoperative BCVA. The anatomical outcome was measured as decrease in foveal thickness on Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Patients were followed for a period of 06 months. Results: At the end of follow-ups, 23 (76%) eyes out of 30 gained 2 or more lines of vision. In 05 (16%) eyes, BCVA remained same and only 02 (6.6%) eyes showed worsening of vision. Mean preoperative foveal thickness was 392 ± 20 micro m, whereas mean postoperative thickness was 305 ± 16 micro m with an average decrease of 87 micro m, in foveal thickness. Recurrence of ERM was found to be the most frequent complication. Conclusion: IERM surgery is a safe procedure and beneficial in achieving significant visual acuity improvement and anatomical recovery in the majority of cases. (author)

  19. Anatomical Evaluation of the Proximity of Neurovascular Structures During Arthroscopically Assisted Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Daniel; Pickell, Michael; Wilson, Evan; Ducsharm, Melissa; Hesse, Daniel; Easteal, Ron; Bardana, Davide D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of an arthroscopic technique for acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) reconstruction by investigating its proximity to important neurovascular structures. Six shoulders from 4 cadaveric specimens were used for ACJ reconstruction in this study. The procedure consists of performing an arthroscopic acromioclavicular (AC) reduction with a double button construct, followed by coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction without drilling clavicular tunnels. Shoulders were subsequently dissected in order to identify and measure distances to adjacent neurovascular structures. The suprascapular artery and nerve were the closest neurovascular structures to implanted materials. The mean distances were 8.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 3.6) mm to the suprascapular nerve and 5.6 (SD = 4.2) mm to the suprascapular artery. The mean distance of the suprascapular nerve from implants was found to be greater than 5 mm (P = .040), while the distance to the suprascapular artery was not (P > .5). Neither difference was statistically significant (P = .80 for artery; P = .08 for nerve). Mini-open, arthroscopically assisted ACJ reconstruction safely avoids the surrounding nerves, with no observed damage to any neurovascular structures including the suprascapular nerve and artery, and may be a viable alternative to open techniques. However, surgeons must remain cognizant of possible close proximity to the suprascapular artery. This study represents an evaluation of the safety and feasibility of a minimally invasive ACJ reconstruction as it relates to the proximity of neurovascular structures. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Studies on Some Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils. The percentage ...

  1. A comparative study of fingerprint thinning algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available are compared in terms of the quality of the skeletons they produce (i.e. connectivity and spurious branches) as well as the time complexity associated with each algorithm. Results show that faster algorithms have difficulty preserving connectivity. Zhang...

  2. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  3. Calcaneal fracture classification: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Patka, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Comparing different types of calcaneal fractures, associated treatment options, and outcome data is currently hampered by the lack of consensus regarding fracture classification. A systematic search for articles dealing with calcaneal fracture was performed, and the prevalence of use of each

  4. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  5. The right intercostobronchial trunk: anatomical study in respect of posterior intercostal artery origin and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocbek, Lidija; Rakuša, Mateja

    2018-01-01

    The right bronchial artery usually arises from the descending thoracic aorta as a common trunk with the right intercostal artery and forms the right intercostobronchial trunk. Both, the third right posterior intercostal artery and the right intercostobronchial trunk, are described as the most constant vessels. The focus of the study was to determine the characteristics of the right intercostobronchial trunk regarding the origins of the posterior intercostal arteries from the thoracic aorta. Posterior intercostal arteries and the right bronchial arteries were dissected in 43 human cadavers, preserved after Thiel's embalming method with intraarterial infusion of red colored latex. Postmortem examination gave valued information on the right intercostobronchial trunk present in 58% of cases. The right intercostobronchial trunk was mapped and new classification regarding the origin of the posterior intercostal arteries from the thoracic aorta suggested type A, B and C, the latter ones into subtypes 1 and 2. Type A was proportional to the origin level of the PIA and its corresponding intercostal space. Size of outer diameter at the origin did not indicate the right bronchial artery branch. In subtype 2 of type B the proximal posterior intercostal artery diameter that gave off right bronchial artery was thicker than distal one. The right bronchial artery originates from the second to the fifth posterior intercostal artery forming the right intercostobronchial trunk. Various origin and types of origin, diameter and course of the right intercostobronchial trunk described and analyzed in the study offer valuable information on the procedures involving the right intercostobronchial trunk.

  6. Clinical and anatomic pathology effects of serial blood sampling in rat toxicology studies, using conventional or microsampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Bartels, T; Dorchies, O; Gury, T; Chalier, Catherine; Benning, Véronique

    2015-08-01

    As a general practice in rodent toxicology studies, satellite animals are used for toxicokinetic determinations, because of the potential impact of serial blood sampling on toxicological endpoints. Besides toxicological and toxicokinetic determinations, blood samples obtained longitudinally from a same animal may be used for the assessment of additional parameters (e.g., metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety biomarkers) to maximize information that can be deduced from rodents. We investigated whether removal of up to 6 × 200 μL of blood over 24h can be applied in GLP rat toxicology studies without affecting the scientific outcome. 8 week-old female rats (200-300 g) were dosed for up to 1 month with a standard vehicle and subjected or not (controls) to serial blood sampling for sham toxicokinetic/ancillary determinations, using miniaturized methods allowing collection of 6 × 50, 100 or 200 μL over 24h. In-life endpoints, clinical pathology parameters and histopathology of organs sensitive to blood volume reduction were evaluated at several time points after completion of sampling. In sampled rats, minimal and reversible changes in red blood cell mass (maximally 15%) and subtle variations in liver enzymes, fibrinogen and neutrophils were not associated with any organ/tissue macroscopic or microscopic correlate. Serial blood sampling (up to 6 × 200 μL over 24h) is compatible with the assessment of standard toxicity endpoints in adult rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medial extent of the anterior Gerota's fascia: An anatomic study using cadaver and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ho Kyun; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    To study the anatomy of the perirenal space, authors dissected two cadavers and reviewed 50 computed tomographic (CT) scans, laying special emphasis on the medial extent of the anterior layer of Gerota's fascia. It is concluded that, below the renal hilus level, anterior layers of the right and left Gerota's fascia fuse each other across the midline anterior to the aorta and inferior vena cava. Above the hilus level, anterior layers are very weak and seem to fuse with the parietal peritoneum or adjacent organs. Therefore, the right and left perirenal space may communicate across the midline, anterior to the lower aorta and vena cava. Thus, at least in some subjects, the perirenal fluid or blood of the right or left perirenal space may extend to the opposite perirenal space through the narrow midline extension of each perirenal spaces anterior to the vertebral body.

  8. Studies on anatomical characters indicating C3 and C4 photosynthetic metabolism in the genus Boerhavia L. (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in dicotyledons were investigated with the four species of Boerhavia occurring in Nigeria using light microscopy. The study is not yet well reported on dicotyledons as done for monocotyledons. The features cross-examined were stomata index, stomata size, inter-stomatal distance, stomatal density, interveinal distance, intercellular air spaces, leaf thickness, mesophyll thickness, Kranz tissue, one cell distant count criterion, maximum lateral cell count criterion, vein density and vein distance. Based on these features, these species (B. erecta, B. coccinea and B. repens were grouped into C4 while B. diffusa was grouped as a C3 plant. In particular, interveinal distance less than 166µm and maximum lateral count ranging 2 to 6 will help in grouping C4 dicotyledons species while those that were greater than these values are useful in grouping C3 and plants.

  9. Estudo anatômico do ligamento patelofemoral lateral em joelho de cadáveres Anatomical study of the lateral patellofemoral ligament in cadaver knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schmidt Navarro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o ligamento patelofemoral lateral (LPFL por meio de dissecação anatômica de joelhos de cadáveres frescos. Na literatura existe particular interesse pelo LPFL. Essa especial atenção é dada pela sua importância anatômica, biomecânica e pela necessidade da sua reconstrução nos casos de instabilidade medial da patela. MÉTODOS: O LPFL foi estudado em 20 joelhos de 20 cadáveres frescos por meio de dissecações anatômicas. As dissecações foram padronizadas e os dados anotados enviados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O LPFL apresentou em média 16,05mm de largura (desvio-padrão: 2,48, 42,10mm de comprimento (desvio-padrão: 8,84. Sua inserção femoral mostrou-se no epicôndilo femoral lateral e com expansão em forma de leque das suas fibras, predominantemente na região posterior e proximal ao epicôndilo lateral. Na patela a inserção encontrada foi na região súpero-lateral (na metade do terço superior no plano coronal, também com expansão das fibras, mas com menor intensidade. No plano sagital, o ligamento situava-se na metade posterior da borda da patela. O LPFL foi isolado na segunda camada retinacular lateral, o retináculo transverso profundo. CONCLUSÃO: O LPFL situa-se na camada retinacular transversa profunda, com a presença de uma expansão das suas fibras em forma de leque, tanto na inserção femoral quanto na patelar. No epicôndilo femoral a inserção encontra-se mais posterior e proximalmente e na patela está na metade posterior da borda patelar (plano sagital e no aspecto súpero-lateral.OBJECTIVES: To describe the lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL after anatomical dissection of fresh cadaver knees. The literature shows a particular interest for the LPFL. Such special attention is due to its anatomical and biomechanical importance, and also due to the need to reconstruct the ligament in the cases of medial patellar instability. METHODS: The LPFL was studied in 20 knees of 20

  10. Anatomic Correlation of the Mini-Mental State Examination: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinomais, Mickael; Celle, Sebastien; Duval, Guillaume T; Roche, Frederic; Henni, Samir; Bartha, Robert; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2016-01-01

    The clinical utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its shorter version (SMMSE) is still debated. There is a need to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of these cognitive tests. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower MMSE and SMMSE scores correlated with focal brain volume reduction in older adults. Participants from the GAIT study (n = 207; mean, 70.9±5.9 years; 57% female; mean MMSE 26.2±3.9; mean SMMSE 5.1±1.1) were evaluated using the MMSE and SMMSE and received a 1.5-Tesla MRI scan of the brain. Cortical gray and white matter subvolumes were automatically segmented using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Age, gender, education level, and total intracranial volume were included as potential confounders. We found correlations between the MMSE score and specific cortical regions of the limbic system including the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, independently of the diagnostic category (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease or controls). Regarding correlations with the SMMSE score, only one cluster in the left hippocampus was identified, which overlapped with the cluster that was positively correlated with the MMSE score. There were no correlations with the volume of white matter. In conclusion, worse MMSE and SMMSE scores were associated with gray matter atrophy mainly in the limbic system. This finding highlights that atrophy of specific brain regions are related to performance on the MMSE and the SMMSE tests, and provides new insights into the cognitive function probed by these tests.

  11. The sensory-motor bridge neurorraphy: an anatomic study of feasibility between sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and deep branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubier, Jean-Noel; Teboul, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    Restoring elbow flexion remains the first step in the management of total palsy of the brachial plexus. Non avulsed upper roots may be grafted on the musculocutaneous nerve. When this nerve is entirely grafted, some motor fibres regenerate within the sensory fibres quota. Aiming potential utilization of these lost motor fibres, we attempted suturing the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The objective of our study was to assess the anatomic feasibility of such direct suturing of the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The study was carried out with 10 upper limbs from fresh cadavers. The sensory branch of the musculocutaneous muscle was dissected right to its division. The motor branch of the radial nerve was identified and dissected as proximally as possible into the radial nerve. Then, the distance separating the two nerves was measured so as to assess whether direct neurorraphy of the two branches was feasible. The excessive distance between the two branches averaged 6 mm (1-13 mm). Thus, direct neurorraphy of the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve was possible. When the whole musculocutaneous nerve is grafted, some of its motor fibres are lost amongst the sensory fibres (cutaneous lateral antebrachial nerve). By suturing this sensory branch onto the deep branch of the radial nerve, "lost" fibres may be retrieved, resulting in restoration of digital extension. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Anatomic relationship of the optic nerve channel with sphenoid al sinus: a computed tomography study; Relacao anatomica do nervo optico com o seio esfenoidal: estudo por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo Cesar J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Albernaz, Pedro Luiz M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Disturbios da Comunicacao Humana; Yamashida, Helio K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2004-09-15

    The sphenoid sinus, out of the facial sinuses, is certainly the most neglected as far as diagnosis is concerned. The surgical approach requires a detailed anatomical knowledge, considering the serious complications resulting from injuries of vital structures adjacent to this region. Aim: the objective of our research is to evaluate the anatomic relationship of the optic nerve with the sphenoid sinus making use of the computed tomography. Study design: series report. Material and method: the authors present a retrospective analysis of 203 computed tomographies of facial sinus belonging to individuals of both sexes aged 14 and over. The examinations were evaluated observing the course of the optic nerve, obtained through the degree of its projection on the wall of the sphenoid sinus. The method used was the modified classification of Delano, evaluating the absence of bone reduction (dehiscence) of the optic nerve in the sphenoid sinus. We analysed the degree of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, using Hammer's classification adapted by Guerrero, apart from the pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process and pterigoid and the presence of the Onodi cell. Results: most of the patients (78.96%) presented their optic nerve with a type 1 course. Type 2 was observed in 16.83% of the patients, type 3 in 3.47% and type 4 in 0.74%. The presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve in the wall of the sphenoid sinus was evidenced in 21.29% of the cases. Related to pneumatization, we noticed that the pre-selar type was observed in 6.44%, the post-selar type appeared in 39.11%, the selar type appeared in 54.45%, and the apneumatized type was not observed in any of the cases. The pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process was verified in 10.64% of the cases, while the pterigoid process was apparent in 21.29% of the cases. The Onodi cell (sphenoetmoidal) was found in 7.92% of the cases. Conclusion: the presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve is related with the

  13. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists: The Association of Pathology Chairs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Parslow, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC) databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization's methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical "full-time faculty" (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above). The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs-reported median work relative value unit productivity

  14. Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Filiz; Uysal, Ismihan Ilknur; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Fazliogullari, Zeliha; Unver Dogan, Nadire; Karabulut, Ahmet Kagan

    2018-03-01

    The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched. The presence of lingual vascular canals, and the number of median and lateral canals was determined, and the length of the median lingual vascular canals measured. All measurement parameters were analyzed by gender, side and age group. Eleven patients demonstrated a total of 15 accessory mental foramen. Median lingual vascular canals were observed in 100% of cases, with lateral lingual vascular canals determined in 32%. Significant differences were observed in the results of different gender groups (P mental foramen was determined mostly in males, and unilaterally on the right side; also, the distances of mental foramen, except the distance from the back border of the mandible (P mental foramen, as well as the presence, position and size of lingual vascular canals can be clearly investigated by multidetector computed tomography. A preoperative knowledge of the positions of neurovascular and bone structures is very important for preventing complications that may occur during or after operations.

  15. Variability of Measurement of Patellofemoral Indices with Knee Flexion and Quadriceps Contraction: An MRI-Based Anatomical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Edward; Bali, Navi; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Almallah, Faris; Kundra, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of varying knee flexion and quadriceps activity on patellofemoral indices measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods MRI of the knee was performed in 20 patients for indications other than patellar or patellofemoral pathology. Axial and sagittal sequences were performed in full extension of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, full extension of the knee with the quadriceps contracted, 30° flexion of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, and 30° flexion with the quadriceps contracted. Bisect offset, patella tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were measured. Results With the knee flexed to 30° and quadriceps relaxed, the mean values of patellar tilt angle, bisect offset, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were all within normal limits. With the knee extended and quadriceps contracted, the mean patellar tilt angle (normal value, patellofemoral indices. MRI taken with the knee in 30° of flexion allows more reliable assessment of the patellofemoral joint and minimises the confounding effect of quadriceps contraction. PMID:27894177

  16. Anatomic Assessment of K-Wire Trajectory for Transverse Percutaneous Fixation of Small Finger Metacarpal Fractures: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandizio, Louis C; Speeckaert, Amy; Kozick, Zach; Klena, Joel C

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study is to evaluate the trajectory of percutaneous transverse Kirschner wire (K-wire) placement for fifth metacarpal fractures relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for the treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. Using 12 unmatched fresh human upper limbs, we evaluated the trajectory of percutaneous transverse K-wire placement relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. The midpoint of the small and ring finger metacarpals in the sagittal plane was identified at 3 points. At each point, a K-wire was inserted from the small finger metacarpal into the midpoint of the ring finger metacarpal ("center-center" position). The angle of the transverse K-wire relative to the table needed to achieve a center-center position averaged 20.8°, 18.9°, and 16.7° for the proximal diaphysis, middiaphysis, and the collateral recess, respectively. Approximately 80% of transversely placed K-wires obtained purchase in the long finger metacarpal. These results can serve as a guide to help surgeons in the accurate placement of percutaneous K-wires for small finger metacarpal fractures and may aid in surgeon training.

  17. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2010-01-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their shape...... of the most important findings made by Strahl including work on placentation in carnivores and higher primates that remains unsurpassed....

  18. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimami, K.S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (W PP ) and peak-to-peak signal height (H PP ). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic. - Highlights: ► Several EPR dosimeters were suggested based on SO 3 − radical. ► Taurine, homotaurine, sulfanilic, and sulfamic acid all possess simple EPR spectra. ► Dosimeters were compared to each other in terms of the dosimetric point of view. ► Energy dependence curves of the selected dosimeters were compared to eachother

  19. A membranous structure separating the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis: an anatomical study and its clinical application for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Tao; Qi, Song-Tao; Xu, Jia-Ming; Pan, Jun; Shi, Jin

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT This study aimed to identify the membranous septation between the adeno- and neurohypophysis. The clinical impact of this septation in the surgical removal of infradiaphragmatic craniopharyngioma (Id-CP) is also clarified. METHODS The sellar regions from 8 fetal and 6 adult cadavers were dissected. After staining first with H & E and then with picro-Sirius red, the membranous structures were observed and measured under normal light and polarization microscopy. The pre- and postsurgical images and intraoperative procedures in 28 cases of childhood Id-CP were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS There is a significant membranous septation (termed the adenoneurohypophysis septation [ANHS]) lying behind the intermediate lobe to separate the adeno- and neurohypophysis. The average thicknesses are 21.9 ± 16.9 μm and 79.1 ± 43.2 μm in fetal and adult heads, respectively. The median segment of the septation is significantly thicker than the upper and lower segments. The ANHS extends from the suprasellar pars tuberalis to the sellar floor, where it is fused with the pituitary capsule. During Id-CP surgery performed via a transcranial approach, the ANHS can be identified to reserve the neurohypophysis. Moreover, by understanding the anatomy of this membrane, the pituitary stalk was preserved in 3 patients (10.7%). CONCLUSIONS There is a significant membrane separating the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, which lies behind the intermediate lobe. Understanding the anatomy of this septation is important for identifying and preserving the neurohypophysis and pituitary stalk during Id-CP surgery.

  20. A New Composite Eyeball-Periorbital Transplantation Model in Humans: An Anatomical Study in Preparation for Eyeball Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, Maria; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Zor, Fatih; Kulahci, Yalcin; Uygur, Safak; Ozturk, Can; Djohan, Risal; Papay, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation offers a new hope for restoration of orbital content and perhaps vision. The aim of this study was to introduce a new composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation model in fresh cadavers in preparation for composite eyeball allotransplantation in humans. The composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation flap borders included the inferior border, outlined by the infraorbital rim; the medial border, created by the nasal dorsum; the lateral border, created by the lateral orbital rim; and the superior border, created by the superior part of the eyebrow. The pedicle of the flap included the facial artery, superficial temporal artery, and external jugular vein. The skin and subcutaneous tissues of the periorbital region were dissected and the bony tissue was reached. A coronal incision was performed and the frontal lobe of the brain was reached by means of frontal osteotomy. Ophthalmic and oculomotor nerves were also included in the flap. After a "box osteotomy" around the orbit, the dissection was completed. Methylene blue and indocyanine green injection (SPY Elite System) was performed to show the integrity of the vascular territories after facial flap harvest. Adequate venous return was observed within the flap after methylene blue dye injection. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography identified a well-defined vascular network within the entire composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation flap. For the first time, a novel composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation model in human cadavers was introduced. Good perfusion of the flap confirmed the feasibility of composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation in the clinical setting. Although harvesting of the flap is challenging, it introduces a new option for reconstruction of the periorbital region including the eyeball.

  1. Anatomic variants of the pancreatic duct and their clinical relevance: an MR-guided study in the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, Robin; Thiel, Robert; Thamm, Patrick; Messner, Philip; Hosten, Norbert; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia; Voelzke, Henry

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of pancreatic duct (PD) variants and their effect on pancreatic exocrine function in a population-based study using non-invasive secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (sMRCP). Nine hundred and ninety-five volunteers, 457 women and 538 men, aged 51.9 ± 13.4 years, underwent navigator-triggered, T2-weighted, 3D turbo spin echo MRCP on a 1.5 T system after 1 unit/kg secretin administration. Two readers evaluated images for PD variants. Pancreatic exocrine function and morphological signs of chronic pancreatitis such as abnormalities of the main PD, side branch dilatation, and pancreatic cysts were evaluated and related to PD variants using a Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc analysis. Of all sMRCP, 93.2 % were of diagnostic quality. Interobserver reliability for detection of PD variants was found to be kappa 0.752 (95 %CI, 0.733 - 0.771). Normal PD variants were observed in 90.4 % (n = 838/927). Variants of pancreas divisum was identified in 9.6 % (n = 89/927). Abnormalities of the main PD, side branch dilatation, and pancreatic cysts were observed in 2.4 %, 16.6 %, and 27.7 %, respectively, and were not significantly different between pancreas divisum and non-divisum group (P = 0.122; P = 0.152; P = 0.741). There was no association between PD variants and pancreatic exocrine function (P = 0.367). PD variants including pancreas divisum are not associated with morphological signs of chronic pancreatitis or restriction of pancreatic exocrine function. (orig.)

  2. Anatomical study of the motor branches of the median nerve to the forearm and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Catalina; Leclercq, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The median nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of most of the muscles usually involved in upper limb spasticity. Selective neurectomy is one of the treatments utilized to reduce spasticity. The purpose of this study was to describe the variations of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm and draw recommendations for an appropriate planning of selective neurectomy. The median nerve was dissected in the forearm of 20 fresh cadaver upper limbs. Measurements included number, origin, division, and entry point of each motor branch into the muscles. One branch for the pronator teres was the most common pattern. In 9/20 cases, it arose as a common trunk with other branches. A single trunk innervated the flexor carpi radialis with a common origin with other branches in 17/20 cases. Two, three or four branches innervated the flexor digitorum superficialis, the first one frequently through a common trunk with other branches. They were very difficult to identify unless insertions of pronator teres and flexor digitorum superficialis were detached. The flexor digitorum profundus received one to five branches and flexor pollicis longus one to two branches from the anterior interosseous nerve. There is no regular pattern of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm. Our findings differ in many points from the classical literature. Because of the frequency of common trunks for different muscles, we recommend the use of peroperative electrical stimulation. Selective neurotomy of flexor digitorum superficialis is technically difficult, because the entry point of some of their terminal branches occurs just below the arch and deep to the muscle belly.

  3. Sex differences in the branching position of the nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle: an anatomical study of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Ohmichi, Mika; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMM nerve) is the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve or originates directly from the posterior tibial nerve. Damage to the ADMM nerve is a cause of heel pain and eventually results in ADMM atrophy. It is known that ADMM atrophy occurs more often in females than in males, and the reason remains unclear. This study aimed to explore sex differences in the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. Forty-two cadavers (20 males, 22 females) were dissected at Aichi Medical University between 2011 and 2015. Cases of foot deformity or atrophy were excluded and 67 ft (30 male, 37 female) were examined to assess the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. The branching positions of the ADMM nerve were superior to the malleolar-calcaneal axis (MCA) in 37 ft (55 %), on the MCA in 10 ft (15 %), and inferior to the MCA in 20 ft (30 %). There was no case among male feet in which the ADMM nerve branched inferior to the MCA, whereas this pattern was observed in 19 of 37 female feet (51 %). The branching position of the ADMM nerve was significantly closer to the MCA in female feet than in male feet. There were no significant sex differences in the branching pattern and angle of the ADMM nerve. The ADMM nerve sometimes branches off inferior to the MCA in females, but not in males. This difference may be the reason for the more frequent occurrence of ADMM atrophy in females than in males.

  4. Anatomic variants of the pancreatic duct and their clinical relevance: an MR-guided study in the general population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Robin; Thiel, Robert; Thamm, Patrick; Messner, Philip; Hosten, Norbert; Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia [University Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Division of Gastroenterology and Department of Medicine A, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    To investigate the frequency of pancreatic duct (PD) variants and their effect on pancreatic exocrine function in a population-based study using non-invasive secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (sMRCP). Nine hundred and ninety-five volunteers, 457 women and 538 men, aged 51.9 ± 13.4 years, underwent navigator-triggered, T2-weighted, 3D turbo spin echo MRCP on a 1.5 T system after 1 unit/kg secretin administration. Two readers evaluated images for PD variants. Pancreatic exocrine function and morphological signs of chronic pancreatitis such as abnormalities of the main PD, side branch dilatation, and pancreatic cysts were evaluated and related to PD variants using a Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc analysis. Of all sMRCP, 93.2 % were of diagnostic quality. Interobserver reliability for detection of PD variants was found to be kappa 0.752 (95 %CI, 0.733 - 0.771). Normal PD variants were observed in 90.4 % (n = 838/927). Variants of pancreas divisum was identified in 9.6 % (n = 89/927). Abnormalities of the main PD, side branch dilatation, and pancreatic cysts were observed in 2.4 %, 16.6 %, and 27.7 %, respectively, and were not significantly different between pancreas divisum and non-divisum group (P = 0.122; P = 0.152; P = 0.741). There was no association between PD variants and pancreatic exocrine function (P = 0.367). PD variants including pancreas divisum are not associated with morphological signs of chronic pancreatitis or restriction of pancreatic exocrine function. (orig.)

  5. Comparative transport studies of ''1212'' superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapud, Albert; Wu, Judy; Yan, Shaolin; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Kang, Byeongwon; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6+δ (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7-δ (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density

  6. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  8. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  9. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  10. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...

  11. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  12. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo, Mariano; Meli, Francisco; Lambre, Hector; Blessing, Ricardo; Gigy Traynor, Ignacio; Miguez, Victor

    2002-01-01

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  13. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  14. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  15. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt

  16. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  17. Anatomic relationships of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints articulating surface areas, and of the radius and ulna bone volumes – implications for biomechanical studies of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints and forearm bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S C Malone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that transmitted forces across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ are similar though not identical under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit.MethodsThe articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test, and Bland Altman analysis.ResultsThe findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and yet strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p<0.05. The PRUJ articulating surface area was marginally larger than the DRUJ with a PRUJ : DRUJ ratio of 1.02. Paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the two bone volumes (p<0.01 with a radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average 4% greater than ulna volume.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data

  18. War And Reconstruction: Four Comparative Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four case studies are taken from four different continents, four different wars under .... and revolutionary changes in the structures and power relations in society and ..... general public accept nowadays that although states' rights were the ...

  19. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Objectives: In this study, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of ... of resistance in bacteria previously susceptible to ... increase in antibiotic resistance in hospitals and ..... extraction process (Masoko et al., 2008). Use of ...

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HONEY COLLECTED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... content, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, color intensity ... used in this study on the basis of date of harvest, geographical origin. ... The determination of physical and chemical parameters such as content of water, ...

  1. [Application of polyguanidine solution for fixation of biological and anatomical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkov, N M; Danilova, I A; Riabinin, I A; Kipenko, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new method for fixation of biological material is described, and its effectiveness is compared to that one of formalin fixation. As an embalming agent, polyhexamethylenguanidine (PHMG) hydrochloride was used. Using the proposed method of fixation, the anatomical and histological preparations of human organs and of chick embryos at developmental 12 days, were produced. The anatomical preparations obtained show the appearance, similar to that of the recently removed organs. Histological preparations were free from significant distortions of the microscopic characteristics of the specimens, which are typical to the material fixed with formalin. The results of the study suggest the possibility of PHMG application in the morphological studies.

  2. A comparative study between pancreas scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic parenchymography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Ryuji; Yoshimoto, Shinjiro; Tadokoro, Jiro; Sugimura, Kazuo; Ushio, Keiji.

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen patients with a suspected pancreatic disease were examined by both pancreatic scintigraphy using 75 Se-selenomethionine and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic parenchymography (ERPP). These two diagnostic procedures have different mechanism of parenchymal imaging. In scintigraphy, uptake of 75 Se-selenomethionine depends on metabolic activity of the pancreatic parenchyma while in ERPP visualization of pancreatic tissue depends on patency of the pancreatic duct, permeability of the periductal tissue and cell function of the pancreatic parenchyma. In comparative study, excellent concordance of findings occurred in 11 of 15 cases. An interesting difference of finding occurred in a case of chronic pancreatitis who had marked involvement of pancreatic duct. In this case, scintigraphy visualized entire pancreas though uptake of the radioisotope was diffusely diminished, while ERPP failed to visualize the body and tail. Another interesting finding was difference of image of pancreatic body. In scintigraphy, a relatively cold area is often seen in body of the pancreas in norma