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Sample records for comparable anti-androgenic effects

  1. Comparative anti-androgenic actions of vinclozolin and flutamide on transgenerational adult onset disease and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D; Rekow, Stephen S; Skinner, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    Exposure of gestating female rats to the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has been shown to induce transgenerational adult onset disease phenotypes. The current study, was designed to compare the actions of vinclozolin to the known anti-androgenic compound flutamide. The gestating female rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections during embryonic day 8-14 (E8-E14) to 100mg/kg/day vinclozolin or flutamide at either 5mg or 20mg/kg/day. As previously observed, vinclozolin induced a transgenerational testis phenotype of increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis and decreased epididymal sperm number. In contrast, the flutamide exposures resulted in a testis phenotype of increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis and decreased epididymal sperm numbers in the F1 generation only, and not the F2 and F3 generation adult males. Interestingly, some of the low dose (5mg/kg) flutamide F2 generation offspring developed spinal agenesis and supernummery development (polymelia) of limbs. Although the actions of vinclozolin and flutamide appear similar in the F1 generation males, the transgenerational effects of vinclozolin do not appear to be acting through the same anti-androgenic mechanism as flutamide.

  2. Comparative anti-androgenic actions of vinclozolin and flutamide on transgenerational adult onset disease and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Anway, Matthew D.; Rekow, Stephen S.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of gestating female rats to the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has been shown to induce transgenerational adult onset disease phenotypes. The current study, was designed to compare the actions of vinclozolin to the known anti-androgenic compound flutamide. The gestating female rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections during embryonic day 8–14 (E8–E14) to 100 mg/kg/day vinclozolin or flutamide at either 5mg or 20 mg/kg/day. As previously observed, vinclozolin i...

  3. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Summary Background: Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation during the in utero and early postnatal development. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that counteract androgen action at some stage in these periods can permanently demasculinise male foetuses and lead......?  Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......-androgens either alone or in mixtures during pregnancy and lactation. The endpoints examined for anti-androgenic effects in the offspring were: Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR), and external (morphological) malformations in pups and sexually mature male rats. Furthermore, the effects of the anti...

  4. Vinclozolin--no transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects after maternal exposure during organogenesis via the intraperitoneal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steffen; Marxfeld, Heike; Gröters, Sibylle; Buesen, Roland; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the potential transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects induced by Vinclozolin administered intraperitoneally to pregnant Wistar rats (Crl:WI[Han]). Dams were dosed with Vinclozolin at 0, 4 or 100mg/kg bw/d on gestation days 6-15. Male offspring of F1-F3 generations were bred with untreated females to yield F2-F4 offspring. No evident anti-androgenic effects were observed at 4mg/kg bw/d, but a case of hypospadias as well as delayed sexual maturation in F1 male offspring was observed as a sign of anti-androgenicity at 100mg/kg bw/d. However, F1-F3 males developed normally to sexual maturity and were able to mate and to generate healthy progeny. Sperm count, morphology and motility were not affected in F1-F4 generation male offspring. In conclusion, transgenerational inheritance of Vinclozolin's anti-androgenic effects was not evident in outbred Wistar rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal exposure to anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, has no effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in male rats of subsequent generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Doi, Yuko; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Abe, Jun; Kawamura, Satoshi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0 = day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.

  6. Maternal exposure to anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, has no effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in male rats of subsequent generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Doi, Yuko; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Abe, Jun; Kawamura, Satoshi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-06-01

    To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0=day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.

  7. Effect of the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on embryonic testis cord formation and postnatal testis development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Skinner, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is that transient embryonic exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor at the time of testis determination alters testis development and subsequently influences adult spermatogenic capacity and male reproduction. The effects of vinclozolin on embryonic testicular cord formation in vitro were examined, as well as the effects of transient in utero vinclozolin exposure on postnatal testis development and function. Embryonic day 13 (E13, sperm-positive vaginal smear day = E0) gonads were cultured in the absence or presence of vinclozolin (50-500microM). Vinclozolin treated gonads had significantly fewer cords (P vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day) between embryonic days 8 and 14 (E8-E14) of development. Testis morphology and function were analyzed from postnatal day (P) 0, pubertal P20, and adult P60. No significant effect of vinclozolin on testis histology or germ cell viability was observed in P0 testis. The pubertal P20 testis from vinclozolin exposed animals had significantly higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells (P vinclozolin exposed males (P vinclozolin exposed animals was higher in adult P60 animals. Observations demonstrate that vinclozolin can effect embryonic testicular cord formation in vitro and that transient in utero exposure to vinclozolin increases apoptotic germ cell numbers in the testis of pubertal and adult animals. This correlated to reduced sperm motility in the adult. In conclusion, transient exposure to vinclozolin during the time of testis differentiation (i.e. cord formation) alters testis development and function. Observations indicate that transient exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor during embryonic development causes delayed effects later in adult life

  8. Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Galassi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2...

  9. Anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin on the amino- and carboxyl-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-xia; Li, Yan-fang; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Jin-peng; Wang, Hong-mei; Li, Jing; Xu, Li-chun

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both the known AR antagonist nilutamide and the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction in the mammalian two-hybrid assay. However, cypermethrin was a weaker androgen antagonist than nilutamide. Highlights: ► We have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assay. ► The assay displayed appropriate response to DHT and nilutamide. ► The N/C interaction was induced by DHT in a dose-dependent manner. ► Nilutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. ► Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. -- Abstract: The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been demonstrated to be an environmental anti-androgen in the androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene assay. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction is required for transcription potential of the AR. In order to characterize the anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin involved in the N/C interaction of AR, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-ARLBD and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The assay displayed appropriate response to the potent, classical AR agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and known AR antagonist nilutamide. The N/C interaction was induced by DHT from 10 −11 M to 10 −5 M in a dose-dependent manner. Nilutamide did not activate N/C interaction, while inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction at the concentrations from 10 −7 M to 10 −5 M. Treatment of CV-1 cells with cypermethrin alone did not activate the reporter CAT. Cypermethrin significantly decreased the DHT-induced reporter CAT expression at the higher concentration of 10 −5 M. The mammalian two-hybrid assay provides a promising tool both for defining mechanism involved in AR N/C interaction of EDCs and for screening of chemicals with androgen agonistic and antagonistic activities. Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on the DHT-induced AR N

  10. In vivo and in vitro anti-androgenic effects of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, T.E.; Cooper, R.L.; Lambright, C.S.; Wilson, V.S.; Furr, J.; Gray, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised concerns about possible health effects. Recently, we showed that the PBDE mixture, DE-71, delayed puberty and suppressed the growth of androgen-dependent tissues in male Wistar rat following a peri-pubertal exposure. These effects suggested that DE-71 may be either inducing steroid hormone metabolism or acting as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. To elucidate the potential anti-androgenic effects of this mixture, we evaluated DE-71 in several in vivo assays, which are responsive to alterations in androgen activity. In a pubertal exposure study designed to further evaluate the delay in preputial separation (PPS), we observed a dose-dependent delay in PPS with 60 and 120 mg/kg/day of DE-71 (4 and 5 days) and a corresponding suppression of ventral prostate (VP) and seminal vesicle growth at both doses. Adult males exposed to 60 mg/kg DE-71 for 3 days resulted in a significant increase in luteinizing hormone and a non-significant increase in testosterone, androstenedione and estrone. DE-71 also tested positive for anti-androgenic activity in an immature rat Hershberger assay, with decreases in mean VP and seminal vesicle weight following doses of 30-240 mg/kg. DE-71 and the individual BDE congeners which comprise the mixture (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154) were also evaluated in vitro. First, AR binding was evaluated in a competitive binding assay using rat VP cytosol. In addition, we evaluated gene activation in a transcriptional activation assay using the MDA-kb2 cell line which contains an endogenous human AR and a transfected luciferase reporter. DE-71 and BDE-100 (2, 4, 6-pentaBDE) both inhibited AR binding, with IC50s of approximately 5 μM. In addition, DE-71 and two of the congeners (BDE

  11. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products and is known to disturb the development of the male reproductive system in rats. The mechanisms by which DEHP exerts these effects are not yet fully elucidated, though some of the effects are related to reduced fetal...... in the downregulation of steroidogenic factors and testosterone levels and thereby underlie the disturbed development of the male reproductive system. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved......., 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP. In male fetuses examined at GD 21, testicular testosterone production ex vivo and testicular testosterone levels were reduced significantly at the highest dose. Histopathological effects on gonocytes were observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day, whereas Leydig cell...

  12. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borch, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Brokken, Leon; Dalgaard, Majken

    2006-01-01

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products and is known to disturb the development of the male reproductive system in rats. The mechanisms by which DEHP exerts these effects are not yet fully elucidated, though some of the effects are related to reduced fetal testosterone production. The present study investigated the effects of four different doses of DEHP on fetal testicular histopathology, testosterone production and expression of proteins and genes involved in steroid synthesis in fetal testes. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged from GD 7 to 21 with vehicle, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP. In male fetuses examined at GD 21, testicular testosterone production ex vivo and testicular testosterone levels were reduced significantly at the highest dose. Histopathological effects on gonocytes were observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day, whereas Leydig cell effects were mainly seen at 300 mg/kg bw/day. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed reduced testicular mRNA expression of the steroidogenesis related factors SR-B1, StAR, PBR and P450scc. Additionally, we observed reduced mRNA expression of the nuclear receptor SF-1, which regulates certain steps in steroid synthesis, and reduced expression of the cryptorchidism-associated Insl-3. Immunohistochemistry showed clear reductions of StAR, PBR, P450scc and PPARγ protein levels in fetal Leydig cells, indicating that DEHP affects regulation of certain steps in cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis. The suppression of testosterone levels observed in phthalate-exposed fetal rats was likely caused by the low expression of these receptors and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. It is conceivable that the observed effects of DEHP on the expression of nuclear receptors SF-1 and PPARγ are involved in the downregulation of steroidogenic factors and testosterone levels and thereby underlie the disturbed development of the male reproductive system

  13. An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  14. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  15. Man is not a big rat: concerns with traditional human risk assessment of phthalates based on their anti-androgenic effects observed in the rat foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates provide one of the most documented example evidencing how much we must be cautious when using the traditional paradigm based on extrapolation of experimental data from rodent studies for human health risk assessment of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Since foetal testis is known as one of the most sensitive targets of EDs, phthalate risk assessment is routinely based on the capacity of such compounds to decrease testosterone production by the testis or to impair masculinization in the rat during foetal life. In this paper, the well-established inhibiting effects of phthalates of the foetal Leydig cells function in the rat are briefly reviewed. Then, data obtained in humans and other species are carefully analysed. Already in January 2009, using the organotypic culture system named Fetal Testis Assay (FeTA) that we developed, we reported that phthalates might not affect testosterone production in human foetal testes. Several recent experimental studies using xenografts confirm the absence of detectable anti-androgenic effect of phthalates in the human foetal testes. Epidemiological studies led to contradictory results. Altogether, these findings suggest that phthalates effects on foetal Leydig cells are largely species-specific. Consequently, the phthalate threshold doses that disturb foetal steroidogenesis in rat testes and that are presently used to define the acceptable daily intake levels for human health protection must be questioned. This does not mean that phthalates are safe because these compounds have many deleterious effects upon germ cell development that may be common to the different studied species including human. More generally, the identification of common molecular, cellular or/and phenotypic targets in rat and human testes should precede the choice of the toxicological endpoint in rat to accurately assess the safety threshold of any ED in humans.

  16. Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Burkard T; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Galassi, Silvana; Gnass, Katarina; Kusk, Kresten O; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Wollenberger, Leah

    2016-11-09

    The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) for 21 days covering a full life cycle are described. Histological alterations were studied with a focus on reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands. Exposure to ≥1.2 µg L(-1) CPA caused degeneration of spermatocytes and deformation of the spermatophore in males. In a single male exposed to 33 µg L(-1) CPA, an ovotestis was observed. In CPA exposed females, enhancement of oogenesis, increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation occurred. Exposure of males to ≥12 µg L(-1) LIN caused degenerative effects in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and at 4.7 µg L(-1) LIN, the spermatophore wall displayed an irregular formation. In LIN exposed females, no such structural alterations were found; however, the proliferation index was reduced at 29 µg L(-1) LIN. At an exposure concentration of ≥100 µg L(-1) VIN, distinct areas in male gonad were stimulated, whereas others displayed a disturbed spermatogenesis and a deformed spermatophore wall. In VIN exposed female A. tonsa, no effects were observed. Male A. tonsa exposed to p,p'-DDE displayed an impairment of spermatogenesis in all stages with increased degrees of apoptosis. In p,p'-DDE-exposed females, a statistical significant increase of the proliferation index and an intensification of oogenesis were observed at 0.0088 µg L(-1).

  17. Does anti-androgen, flutamide cancel out the in vivo effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone on sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) are canceled out by the anti-androgen, flutamide. Fish (60 days post hatch) were exposed to 250ng/L of DHT, 25μg/L of flutamide (Flu-low), 250μg/L of flutamide (Flu-high), DHT+Flu low and DHT+Flu high. After 35 days of exposure, lengths and weights of the fish were measured and the condition factor (CF) calculated; vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were measured in tail tissue; sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2] and 11-keto testosterone [11-KT]) were measured in the head tissue and abdominal regions were used in histological investigation of the gonads. Treatment with DHT reduced the body-length of both male and female fish, an effect which was canceled out by low and high concentrations of flutamide. However, flutamide (low or high) could not nullify the DHT-induced reduction in the CF in either sex. The E2 levels were reduced only in female fish after exposure to DHT but returned to normal after treatment with Flu-high. DHT increased the levels of 11-KT and decreased the E2/11-KT ratio in both sexes. Flu-high, but not Flu-low, could nullify these effects. Both DHT and flutamide (low or high) induced VTG production and this effect persisted when both chemicals were co-administered. Treatment with DHT did not affect gonadal cell development in the testes. However, the female fish treated with DHT contained ovaries in early-vitellogenic stage in comparison to the pre-vitellogenic ovaries in control fish. Co-treatment with flutamide (low or high) resulted in oocyte atresia. The results from the present study suggest that treatment with Flu-high could cancel out DHT-induced effects only on the hormonal profile and body-length in both male and female fish. Juvenile fish co-treated with DHT and flutamide (low or high) had high VTG levels and low CF. In addition, the ovaries

  18. Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ravi Kumar; M, Siva Selva Kumar; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Soy is the main source of phytoestrogens, which has long been used as traditional food. One major subtype of phytoestrogens includes isoflavones and they are scientifically validated for their beneficial actions on many hormone-dependent conditions. The present study examines the effect of soy isoflavones on letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. PCOS was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with of 1 mg/kg letrozole, p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Soy isoflavones (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after PCOS induction. Physical parameters (body weight, oestrous cycle determination, ovary and uterus weight) metabolic parameters (oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol), steroidal hormone profile (testosterone and 17β-oestradiol), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD), oxidative stress and histopathology of ovary were studied. Soy isoflavones (100 mg/kg) treatment significantly altered the letrozole-induced PCOS symptoms as observed by decreased body weight gain (p PCOS rats resulted in well-developed antral follicles and normal granulosa cell layer in rat ovary. Treatment with soy isoflavones exerts beneficial effects in PCOS rats (with decreased aromatase activity) which might be due to their ability to decrease testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood. Analysis of physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that soy isoflavones may be beneficial in PCOS.

  19. Specific interaction of radioactive anti-androgen TSAA-291 with androgen receptor in rat prostates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, K.; Yoshida, K.; Nakayama, R.

    1982-01-01

    A steroidal anti-androgen TSSA-291 (16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) bound to a macromolecular component in the cytosol of rat ventral prostates with high affinity (Kdsub(d) = 5.0 x 10 -9 M) and in a saturable manner. The number of binding sites was comparable to that for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). [ 3 H]TSAA-291 binding was effectively displaced by unlabelled 5α-DHT, 19-nortestosterone and cyproterone acetate but to a lesser degree by corticosterone. Glycerol density-gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that the sedimentation coefficient of the [ 3 H]-TSAA-291-macromolecule complex was 3-4.5 S. However, when the unlabelled cytosol was fractionated by glycerol density-gradient centrifugation before the binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was examined, specific binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was observed in fractions corresponding to 8-10 S. Binding of the [ 3 H]TSAA-291-macromolecules comples to prostatic nuclei and DNA-cellulose was considerably less than binding by the [ 3 H]5α-DHT-macromolecule complex. Instability of the TSAA-291 binding coponent on heat treatment before and after complex formation was also revealed and the results are discussed in terms of the anti-androgenic activity of TSAA-291. (author)

  20. Anti-androgenic activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC and Tribulus terrestris L. and their beneficial effects on polycystic ovary syndrome-induced rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandeep, Palakkil Mavilavalappil; Bovee, Toine F.H.; Sreejith, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major hyperandrogenic disorder. Many drugs prescribed specifically to treat PCOS have side effects; however, previous studies suggest that natural therapeutics including botanicals may be less invasive and equally effective for the management of

  1. Anti-Androgenic Activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC and Tribulus terrestris L. and Their Beneficial Effects on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Palakkil Mavilavalappil; Bovee, Toine F H; Sreejith, Krishnan

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major hyperandrogenic disorder. Many drugs prescribed specifically to treat PCOS have side effects; however, previous studies suggest that natural therapeutics including botanicals may be less invasive and equally effective for the management of PCOS. In the present study, plants were screened for antiandrogenic activity using the RIKILT yeast Androgen bioAssay (RAA). Selected positive plants were subsequently tested for their efficacy against PCOS induced by estradiol valerate (EV) in rat models. RAA revealed the antiandrogenic property of Nardostachys jatamansi DC (NJ), Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), and Embelia tsjeriam-cottam DC (EJ), whereas Whithania somnifera Dunal (WS), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (SR), and Helicteres isora L. (HI) exhibited androgenic properties. EJ also exhibited mild androgenic activity and therefore was excluded from further study. EV administration reduced the weight gain and disrupted cyclicity in all rats. NJ and TT extract treatment normalized estrous cyclicity and steroidal hormonal levels and regularized ovarian follicular growth. The in vitro antiandrogenic activity of plant extracts and their positive effects on different parameters of PCOS were proved in vivo.

  2. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...

  3. Verification of responses of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to anti-androgens, vinclozolin and flutamide, in short-term assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ataru; Takanobu, Hitomi; Tamura, Ikumi; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2014-05-01

    Various testing methods for the detection of the endocrine disruptive activities of chemicals have been developed in freshwater fish species. However, a few relatively easier specific methods for detecting anti-androgenic activities are available for fish. The aim of this study was to verify the papillary process in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as an indicator of the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals. Japanese medaka were exposed to two types of anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin and flutamide, using two short-term assays; one was conformed to the existing short-term reproduction assay using adult fish (adult test) and the other was a test based on the same methods but using juvenile fish at the beginning of exposure (juvenile test). Significant decreases in male papillary processes were observed in the juvenile test treated with the highest concentration of both antiandrogens (640 µg l(-1) vinclozolin and 1000 µg l(-1) flutamide); however, no significant effects were observed in the adult test. Consequently, our results indicate that papillary processes in Japanese medaka can be used as the end-point for screening the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals using juvenile fish for a specific period based on the existing short-term reproduction assay. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDe Falco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic phthalates. This review describes the main effects of these substances on male reproductive system.

  5. Anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Milla, Sylvain; Křišťan, Jiří; Golshan, Mahdi; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, vinclozolin (VZ) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. In aquatic animals, the VZ effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. To understand VZ adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal VZ concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/L) and alternations in gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sperm quality were investigated compared to the solvent control. One group was exposed to E(2) (nominal concentration of 5 μg/L), an estrogenic compound, as a negative control. Following one month exposure, GSI and HSI were unchanged in all VZ treated groups compared to solvent control. Sperm volume, motility and velocity were reduced in fish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ. This was associated with the decrease in 11-KT level, suggesting direct VZ effects on testicular androgenesis and sperm functions. In goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ, 11-KT was increased but E(2) remained unchanged. This is, probably, the main reason for unchanged sperm quality at 100 μg/L VZ. In goldfish exposed to E(2), GSI and 11-KT were decreased, E(2) was increased and no sperm was produced. The present study shows different dose-dependent VZ effects, which lead to impairment in sperm quality via disruption in steroidogenesis. In addition to VZ effects through competitive binding to AR, our data suggests potential effects of VZ by direct inhibition of 11-KT biosynthesis in fish as well as abnormalities in sperm morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K.; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator. PNP is also a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. We used uterotrophic and Hershberger assays to study the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of PNP in-vivo. In ovariectomized immature female rats injected subcutaneously with 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg PNP daily for 7 days, significant (P < 0.05) increases in uterine weight were seen in only those receiving 10 or 100 mg/kg PNP. Furthermore, in castrated immature male rats implanted with a silastic tube (length, 5 mm) containing crystalline testosterone and injected subcutaneously with 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg PNP daily for 5 days, those receiving the doses of 0.1 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) weight decreases in seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, and glans penis. Plasma FSH and LH levels did not change in female rats but were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in male rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg PNP. These results clearly demonstrated that PNP has estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in-vivo. Our results therefore suggest that diesel exhaust emissions and the degradation of parathion can lead to accumulation of PNP in air, water, and soil and thus could have serious deleterious effects on wildlife and human health

  7. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Wichmann, Arne; Kriehuber, Ralf; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) is in many cases associated with an unpredictable hazard for wildlife and human health. The identification of endocrine disruptive properties of chemicals certain to enter the aquatic environment relies on toxicity tests with fish, assessing adverse effects on reproduction and sexual development. The demand for quick, reliable ED assays favored the use of fish embryos as alternative test organisms. We investigated the application of a transcriptomics-based assay for estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals with zebrafish embryos. Two reference compounds, 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide, were tested to evaluate the effects on development and the transcriptome after 48h-exposures. Comparison of the transcriptome response with other estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds (genistein, bisphenol A, methylparaben, linuron, prochloraz, propanil) showed commonalities and differences in regulated pathways, enabling us to classify the estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies. This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolite profiles of striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole are consistent with altered steroidogenesis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L; Carroll, Anthony R

    2018-06-01

    Amphibians use wetlands in urban and agricultural landscapes for breeding, growth and development. Fungicides and other pesticides used in these areas have therefore been identified as potential threats that could contribute towards amphibian population declines. However, relatively little is known about how such chemicals influence sensitive early life-stages or how short episodic exposures influence sub-lethal physiological and metabolic pathways. The present study applied untargeted metabolomics to evaluate effects in early post-hatch amphibian larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole. Recently hatched (Gosner developmental stage 25) striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) larvae were exposed for 96 h to vinclozolin at 17.5, 174.8 and 1748.6 nM and propiconazole at 5.8, 58.4 and 584.4 nM. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on polar metabolites obtained from whole-body extracts. Both fungicides altered metabolite profiles compared to control animals at all concentrations tested, and there were notable differences between the two chemicals. Overall responses were consistent with altered steroidogenesis and/or cholesterol metabolism, with inconsistent responses between the two fungicides likely reflecting minor differences in the mechanisms of action of these chemicals. Broad down-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was also observed and is indicative of oxidative stress. Interestingly, formic acid was significantly increased in larvae exposed to vinclozolin but not propiconazole, suggesting this metabolite may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure to androgen-receptor binding anti-androgenic contaminants. This study demonstrates the power of untargeted metabolomics for distinguishing between similarly acting, but distinct, pollutants and for unraveling non-endocrine responses resulting from exposure to known endocrine active contaminants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with [3H]-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing [3H]-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus

  10. Severe gynecomastia due to anti androgens intake: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentli Farida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is the most bothersome side effect in men taking antiandrogens. It is exceptionally severe and distressing physically and mentally as in the reported case. A man, aged 63, with a history of a well-treated macroprolactinoma, was referred in 2004 for gynecomastia that appeared after treatment by microsurgery, radiotherapy and flutamide for a lesion suspected to be prostate cancer. Clinical examination was normal except for huge enlargement of the breasts. Mammography and breasts MRI did not show any tumor. There was not any metastasis of the supposed prostate cancer and prostatic acid phosphates were within normal ranges. Hormonal exploration showed subclinical hypogonadism [testosterone: 7.4 ng/ml (n: 3-9, FSH: 14.9 mu/ml (n: 0.7-11 and LH: 9.7 mu/ml (n: 0.8-7.6]. Testes ultrasounds were normal. Radiological and hormonal adrenal explorations were normal [Cortisol: 76 ng/ml (n: 50-250, DHEA-S: 59 μg/ml (n: 50-560, E2:40.2 pg/ml (n < 50]. Body scan was normal too. The discussed etiologies were post radiation subclinical hypogonadism, and treatment with anti androgens. After flutamide withdraw, there was not any sign of prostate cancer recurrence, and gynecomastia decreased significantly, but did not disappear probably because of fibrosis.

  11. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  12. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examine...

  13. Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, M.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2008-01-01

    of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male...

  14. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY DETERMINATION OF ANTI-ANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS METABOLITES IN RAT SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a chromatographic method for the analysis of the anti-androgen vinclozolin (V) and its butenoic acid (M1) and enanilide (M2) metabolites in rat serum. V, M1, M2 and M3 were resolved using an HPLC gradient program with a mobile phase con...

  15. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; van der Voet, H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three

  16. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Voet, van der H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three

  17. QSAR models for anti-androgenic effect - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gunde Egeskov; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Wedebye, Eva Bay

    2011-01-01

    Three modelling systems (MultiCase (R), LeadScope (R) and MDL (R) QSAR) were used for construction of androgenic receptor antagonist models. There were 923-942 chemicals in the training sets. The models were cross-validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 77-81%, specificity of 78...... of the model for a particular application, balance of training sets, domain definition, and cut-offs for prediction interpretation should also be taken into account. Different descriptors in the modelling systems are illustrated with hydroxyflutamide and dexamethasone as examples (a non-steroid and a steroid...

  18. Comparison of anti-androgenic activity of flutamide, vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and p, p'-DDE in rodent 10-day Hershberger assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il Hyun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kim, In Young; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kil, Kwang Sup; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi Sook; Han, Soon Young

    2004-07-01

    The rodent Hershberger assay proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is in the process of the validating a test method to detecting the androgenic or anti-androgenic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-androgenic properties of flutamide, vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and p,p'-DDE in a 10-day Hershberger assay. In the present study, we used immature Sprague-Dawley male rats castrated at 6 weeks of age. Testosterone propionate (TP) was subcutaneously injected for 10 consecutive days at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg/kg per day. To compare the anti-androgenic activity of test compounds, flutamide (1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg per day), a pure androgen antagonist was used as a positive control, and administered by oral gavage after TP (0.4 mg/kg per day) treatment. In addition, vinclozolin (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), procymidone (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), linuron (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), and p,p '-DDE (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day) were also administered by oral gavage after TP (0.4 mg/kg per day) treatment. As expected, TP dose-dependently increased accessory sex organ weights, and statistically significant effects were observed at doses of 0.1 (only seminal vesicles) or 0.2mg/kg per day and above. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly at 0.4 mg/kg per day and above, while serum LH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Flutamide significantly inhibited the TP-induced re-growth of seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, and Levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC) at 1mg/kg per day and above, and Cowper's glands and glans penis at 5mg/kg per day and above. In contrast to accessory sex organ weights, flutamide did not affect the serum testosterone levels compared to the control at any concentration, but serum LH levels were significantly increased at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg per day. Similar to flutamide, vinclozolin caused a statistically significant decrease in

  19. Combined Exposure to Dissimilarly Acting Anti-Androgens causes Markedly Increased Frequency of Hypospadias in the Rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Scholze, Martin

    2007-01-01

    , a combination of doses of each chemical that on its own did not produce clear sign of hypospadias (DEHP, finasteride and prochloraz) or a frequency around 14% (vinclozolin) induced a 100% frequency of hypospadias. In conclusion, doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce only low frequencies of hypospadias...... when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens....

  20. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three......) and the fraction of individuals with IMoEs vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz is not likely to be of concern for the reproductive development of their male foetuses. However...

  1. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  2. Update of monotherapy trials with the new anti-androgen, Casodex (ICI 176,334). International Casodex Investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1994-01-01

    Casodex (ICI 176,334) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen, which has a half-life compatible with once-daily oral dosing. In an open, phase II study on 267 patients given Casodex, 50 mg/day, an overall objective response (i.e. partial regression) was seen in 55.5% of patients (146 of 263) with a furt...

  3. The influence of androgens, anti-androgens, and castration on cell proliferation in the jejunal and colonic crypt epithelia, and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    Androgenic hormones have previously been shown to promote cell proliferation in the small intestine of rat and androgen receptors have been demonstrated in carcinomata of the large intestine of rat. In this study the influence of testosterone and of castration on epithelial cell proliferation in the small intestine, the large intestine and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours is compared. Cell proliferation in the small intestine and in colonic tumours was accelerated by testosterone treatment, and cell proliferation in colonic tumours, but not in the small intestine, was retarded following castration. Cell proliferation in colonic tumours was also inhibited by the anti-androgenic drug, Flutamide. Testosterone and castration each failed to influence cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium of both normal and carcinogen-treated animals.

  4. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  5. The potential anti-androgenic effect of agricultural pesticides used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... Pesticides, particularly fungicides, have been shown to competitively ..... Pesticide active ingredients indicated with an asterisk (*) are anti-fungal pesticides. ..... ticide volatility, enhancing degradation time, or enhancing the.

  6. Anti-androgenic activity of absorption-enhanced 3, 3’-diindolylmethane in prostatectomy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Clara; Sethi, Seema; Heilbrun, Lance K; Gupta, Nilesh S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Sakr, Wael A; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Smith, Daryn W; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer. Antineoplastic effects of cruciferous vegetables are attributable to bioactive indoles, most prominently, 3, 3’-diindolylmethane (DIM). In addition to effects on proliferation and apoptosis, DIM acts as an antiandrogen in prostate cancer cell lines. This study characterized the effects of prostatic DIM on the androgen receptor (AR) in patients with prostate cancer. Men with localized prost...

  7. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC 50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC 50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R 2 between 0.83 and 0.97, p pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  9. Anti-androgenic activities of diuron and its metabolites in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto da; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; Almeida, Eduardo Alves de

    2015-07-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a widely used herbicide which has been frequently detected in surface waters throughout the world. In vivo bioassay guided fractionation studies indicated that diuron may have estrogenic activity augmented by biotransformation. This study evaluated the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites on plasma hormone concentrations and spermatogenesis of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sexually mature male fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 200ng/L. Testosterone levels were decreased by diuron, but had limited effects on gonadal histology. Diuron metabolites, however, caused significant decreases in testosterone and in 11-ketotestosterone, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules and in the mean percentages of germ cells (spermatids and spermatozoa). We conclude that these metabolites have antiandrogenic activity to male Nile tilapia, potentially causing reproductive impairment in male fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alterations in ubiquitin ligase Siah-2 and its corepressor N-CoR after P-MAPA immunotherapy and anti-androgen therapy: new therapeutic opportunities for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Apolinário, Letícia Montanholi; Böckelmann, Petra Karla; da Silva Nunes, Iseu; Duran, Nelson; Fávaro, Wagner José

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the role of the ubiquitin ligase Siah-2 and corepressor N-CoR in controlling androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) signaling in an appropriate animal model (Fischer 344 female rats) of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), especially under conditions of anti-androgen therapy with flutamide. Furthermore, this study describes the mechanisms of a promising therapeutic alternative for NMIBC based on Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) intravesical immunotherapy combined with flutamide, involving the interaction among steroid hormone receptors, their regulators and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Our results demonstrated that increased Siah-2 and AR protein levels and decreased N-CoR, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and estrogen receptors levels played a critical role in the urothelial carcinogenesis, probably leading to escape of urothelial cancer cells from immune system attack. P-MAPA immunotherapy led to distinct activation of innate immune system TLRs 2 and 4-mediated, resulting in increase of interferon signaling pathway, which was more effective in recovering the immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment and in recovering the bladder histology features than BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) treatments. The AR blockade therapy was important in the modulating of downstream molecules of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway, decreasing the inflammatory cytokines signaling and enhancing the interferon signaling pathway when associated with P-MAPA. Taken together, the data obtained suggest that interferon signaling pathway activation and targeting AR and Siah-2 signals by P-MAPA intravesical immunotherapy alone and/ or in combination with AR blockade may provide novel therapeutic approaches for NMIBC.

  11. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTI-ANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised conce...

  12. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Hass, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, u.v.-filters, bisphenol A, parabens, and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high-end human exposure, or 450-times a mixture of nine predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

  13. Monitoring of dioxin-like, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in sediments of the Bizerta lagoon (Tunisia) by means of in vitro cell-based bioassays: contribution of low concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louiz, I; Kinani, S; Gouze, M-E; Ben-Attia, M; Menif, D; Bouchonnet, S; Porcher, J M; Ben-Hassine, O K; Aït-Aïssa, S

    2008-09-01

    We used an array of in vitro cell-based bioassays to assess dioxin-like, estrogenic and (anti-)androgenic activities in organic extracts of sediments from the Bizerta lagoon, one of the largest Tunisian lagoons subjected to various anthropogenic and industrial pressures. The sediments were sampled both in winter and summer 2006 in 6 stations differently impacted and in one reference station located in the seawards entrance of Ghar el Melh lagoon. Chemical analyses of the 16 priority PAHs showed that the sediments were low to moderately contaminated (2-537 ng/g dry weight). By using the estrogen- (MELN) and androgen-responsive (MDA-kb2) reporter cell lines, significant estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were detected only in the Menzel Bourguiba (MB) site, the most contaminated site, both in winter and summer. By using 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in the fish PLHC-1 cell line after both 4 and 24 h of cell exposure, dioxin-like activities were detected in all analysed samples. Dioxin-like activities were higher after 4 h exposure, and varied according to the sites and the sampling season. While highly significant correlation was observed between bioassay- and chemical analyses-derived toxic equivalents (TEQs), PAHs accounted for only a small part (up to 4%) of the detected biological activities, suggesting that other readily metabolised EROD-inducing compounds were present. This study argues for the use of short time exposure to assess biological TEQs in low contaminated samples and provides new induction equivalent factors (IEF(4h)) for 16 PAHs in the PLHC-1 cell line. Finally, our results stress the need to further characterise the nature of organic chemical contamination as well as its long-term impacts on aquatic wildlife in the Bizerta lagoon.

  14. A study of temporal effects of the model anti-androgen flutamide on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) treated with the model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide. Reproductively-mature fish were exposed in a flow-through, meas...

  15. Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (PFHxS) and a Mixture of Endocrine Disrupters Reduce Thyroxine Levels and Cause Anti-Androgenic Effects in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramhøj, Louise; Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is largely unknown despite widespread environmental contamination and presence in human serum, tissues and milk.To thoroughly investigate PFHxS toxicity in developing rats and to mimic a realistic human exposure situation, we examined...

  16. A study of temporal effects of the model anti-androgen flutamide on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult fathead minnows

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnow treated with the model androgen receptor (AR)...

  17. EFFECT OF THE ANTI-ANDROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN ON EMBRYONIC TESTIS CORD FORMATION AND POSTNATAL TESTIS DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION. (R827405)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is...

  18. SOT Risk Assessment: Complex mixtures of anti-androgens at concentrations below individual chemical effect levels produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is an invited webinar to the Society of Toxicology Risk Assessment Specialty Section (co-hosted by the Mixtures Specialty Section) as part of their monthly webinar series. The webinar is scheduled for 3:00PM on Wednesday September 13th.

  19. Complex mixtures of anti-androgens at concentrations below individual chemical effect levels produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a powerpoint presentation for use in two invited talks (webinars) as part of the CSS RAP. There is no abstract to attach as this is not a conference presentation and an abstract was not required or prepared. The CSS NPD talk will be August 14 and the CSS AOPDD We...

  20. A mixture of 18 anti-androgens at concentrations below individual chemical effect levels produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a regional conference abstract and award application. The abstract primarily serves as the application for the NCSOT PARC Award and secondarily as a poster abstract for the fall meeting of NCSOT at NIEHS.

  1. Reproductive and behavioral effects of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in perinatally exposed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2011-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a plasticizer abundantly used in consumer products as a substitute for other plasticizers prohibited in certain products due to reproductive toxicity. As anti-androgenic effects of DINP are suspected, DINP effects on reproduction and sexually dimorphic behavior were...

  2. Cummulative and antagonistic effects of a mixture of the antiandrogrens vinclozolin and iprodione in the pubertal male rat:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin and iprodione are dicarboximide fungicides that display anti-androgenic effects in the male rat, which suggests co-exposure to these fungicides would lead to cumulative effects on androgen-sensitive endpoints. Iprodione is a steroid synthesis inhibitor, but AR antagon...

  3. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2014-01-01

    ). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than...... controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450...... group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence...

  4. The cardiometabolic effect of current management of polycystic ovary syndrome: strategies of prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya; Kasum, Miro

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age, which is characterized by reproductive and cardiometabolic disturbances with long-term health repercussions. Insulin resistance (IR), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), obesity and dyslipidemia occur more in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Long term data regarding risks or benefits of medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS are lacking. Therapies, such as oral contraceptives (OCPs) and anti-androgenic medications used to manage the reproductive manifestations of PCOS, may themselves be the cause of cardiometabolic perturbations. Hence, strategies regarding the management of reproductive issues in PCOS encompass a patient-specific tailored approach. Factors that influence the cardiometabolic side effects arising during treatment of the reproductive manifestations of PCOS (hirsutism/anovulation) are also discussed in this paper in order to build future strategies to minimize the overall cardiometabolic risk.

  5. The Role of ERK1/2 in the Progression of Anti-Androgen Resistance of MtDNA Deficient Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    important to note that PCa is an ageing disorder that exhibits classical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent advances in the ability to quantify...PCa tumors was sensitive to the pharmacological inhibition of the hypothalamo- pituitary -gonadal axis. In other words, Huggins discovered that PCa was...Huggins C, Stevens RE, Jr. , Hodges CV. Studies on prostatic cancer: II. The effects of castration on advanced carcinoma of the prostate gland . Arch

  6. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...... of antiandrogen (flutamide, Anandron, or cyproterone acetate) added to castration. This paper reviews the different types of heterogeneity that might exist among trials that are involved in the overview: study design, randomization procedure, treatment evaluation, statistical evaluation, and data maturity....... In order to overcome these various types of heterogeneity and to compare like with like, the treatment comparison should be stratified a posteriori by question (i.e., type of castration or type of anti-androgen studied) and by study. In this way, one may draw valid conclusions. Of course, those trials...

  7. Comparability Effects of Mandatory IFRS Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2012-01-01

    The mandatory adoption of IFRS by many countries worldwide fuels the expectation that financial accounting information might become more comparable across countries. This expectation is opposed to an alternative view that stresses the importance of incentives in shaping accounting information. We provide early evidence on this debate by investigating the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information around the world. Using two comparability proxie...

  8. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Sexual brain differentiation is a potential EDC target. It depends on a combination of estrogen receptor- and androgen receptor-mediated effects in males and on estrogens in females. It is not known how these processes are affected by real-world mixtures of EDCs. We investigated the effect of three...... EDC mixtures on gene expression in developing brain. Amix (8 anti-androgenic chemicals), Emix (4 estrogenic chemicals) and Tmix (Amix + Emix + paracetamol recently identified as anti-androgenic) were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestational day 7 until weaning, at doses corresponding...... to 450×, 200× and 100× high end human intakes (S. Christiansen et al., 2012. International Journal of Andrology 35, 303). At postnatal day 6, during the last part of sexual brain differentiation, exon microarray analyses were performed in medial preoptic area (MPO) in the highest dose group, and real...

  9. Why do winners keep winning? Androgen mediation of winner but not loser effects in cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui F.; Silva, Ana; Canário, Adelino V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal conflicts are influenced by social experience such that a previous winning experience increases the probability of winning the next agonistic interaction, whereas a previous losing experience has the opposite effect. Since androgens respond to social interactions, increasing in winners and decreasing in losers, we hypothesized that socially induced transient changes in androgen levels could be a causal mediator of winner/loser effects. To test this hypothesis, we staged fights between dyads of size-matched males of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). After the first contest, winners were treated with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate and losers were supplemented with 11-ketotestosterone. Two hours after the end of the first fight, two contests were staged simultaneously between the winner of the first fight and a naive male and between the loser of first fight and another naive male. The majority (88%) of control winners also won the second interaction, whereas the majority of control losers (87%) lost their second fight, thus confirming the presence of winner/loser effects in this species. As predicted, the success of anti-androgen-treated winners in the second fight decreased significantly to chance levels (44%), but the success of androgenized losers (19%) did not show a significant increase. In summary, the treatment with anti-androgen blocks the winner effect, whereas androgen administration fails to reverse the loser effect, suggesting an involvement of androgens on the winner but not on the loser effect. PMID:19324741

  10. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina ... Both plant infusions inhibited viability and cell growth of SW480 and SW620 cells. .... 100 g of dry extract, from a gallic acid calibration curve [9]. ..... antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of colon.

  11. Comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide and bumetanide on ingestive behavior in rodents. Twelve groups (with six in each group) of male mice (25 to 35 g) were used in the experiments. They were housed in labelled plastic cages in the departmental ...

  12. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina and Ilex paraguariensis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Cytotoxic ...

  13. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  14. Preliminary Competencies for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Jodi B.; Kapoor, Wishwa; Carey, Timothy; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Murray, Michael D.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Schumock, Glen; Jonas, Daniel; Steinman, Michael; Weinberger, Morris; Filart, Rosemarie; Selker, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Workgroup for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Education, Training, and Workforce Development identified a need to delineate the competencies that practitioners and users of CER for patient centered outcomes research, should acquire. With input from CTSA representatives and collaborators, we began by describing the workforce. We recognize the workforce that conduct CER and the end users who use CER to improve the health of individual...

  15. Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovey David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  16. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Radiation effects, nuclear energy and comparative risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy had a promising start as an unlimited, inexpensive and environmentally benign source of energy for electricity generation. However, over the decades its growth was severely retarded due to concerns about its possible detrimental effects on the well-being of mankind and the environment. Since such concerns are essentially due to the gigantic magnitude of radioactivity and ionizing radiations associated with nuclear energy, this article starts with a comprehensive account of effects of the ionizing radiation on living systems. Quantitative description of types of radiation exposure and their varied effects is given. The origin, type and magnitude of mutagenic effects of radiation are described. The concept of radiation risk factors, basis for their evaluation and their currently accepted values are presented. With this background, origin and magnitude of radioactivity and associated ionizing radiations in nuclear reactors are presented and the elaborate measures to contain them are described. It is recognized that notwithstanding all the measures taken in the nuclear industry, certain amount of radiation exposure, however small, is inevitable and the values, based on the experience world over, are presented. Estimated health risk due to such exposures is evaluated. For a comparative analysis, risks in other options of electricity generation such as hydel and fossil-fuelled plants are described. It is seen that on an overall basis, the nuclear option is no more risky than the other commonly employed options, and is in fact, significantly less. Lastly, since every option of electricity generation entails some risk, the case of 'no addition of electricity, and its impact on the society are considered. Based on the analysis of extensive data provided by UNDP on the human development parameters for different countries in the world, it is shown that at least for developing countries, any option of addition of electricity would be far more desirable than the

  18. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  19. A pilot study on the sexual side effects of finasteride as related to hand preference for men undergoing treatment of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Baconi, Daniela L; Dimcevici, Nicoleta P; Paunica, Stana; Constantin, Vlad D; Balalau, Cristian

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between pharmacologically induced deprivation of dihydrotestosterone, sexual arousal, libido and hand preference, by comparing the self-reported sexual response prior to and during reception of the anti-androgen finasteride in men undergoing treatment for male pattern baldness. In total, 33 sexually healthy Romanian men participated in this study. Patients prospectively provided information regarding their sexual functioning (over 4 weeks), as measured by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) prior to and after commencing treatment with 1 mg finasteride for male pattern baldness. Overall IIEF scores as well as the erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire and overall satisfaction subscales showed group, treatment and group by treatment effects. The intercourse satisfaction subscale showed group and group by treatment effects. On most subscales, right-handed men showed no effect or lower sexual function whereas left-handed men reported no effect or improved sexual function, primarily. These results suggest that the sexual effects of dihydrotestosterone deprivation may depend on handedness--a proxy variable that may represent cognitive style--which lends further support to the idea of two distinct neuroendocrine psychosexual axes. They further suggest that detection of such sexual effects may be enhanced by using research methodologies and communication strategies that increase patients' sensitization to such effects. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  20. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Kaur

    Full Text Available Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  1. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Conventional Rote Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...

  3. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F-value of 9.84 and 10.11 recorded for the two categories of farmers respectively, and being significant at 1 percent each, led to the rejection of the hypothesis of inputs having no significant effect on output. It is thus concluded that credit could bring about higher productivity and profit in agricultural production, hence, this ...

  4. Basin sidewall effects during comparable boom testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVitis, D.S.; Hannon, L.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative investigation of the effects of boom sidewall clearance during first and gross oil loss speed tests was discussed. A second measure of sidewall was quantified in terms of flow characteristics at specific location in the boom apex. The test boom was rigged in 5 different configurations. First oil loss and gross oil loss tow speeds, and relative horizontal flow velocities within the boom apex were obtained for each configuration. Flow velocities of 0.5 to 1.5 knots in 0.25 knot increments were measured. Flow velocities illustrated similar flow characteristics within the apex regardless of side wall clearance. The results of the study illustrated that boom to basin sidewall clearance may be an independent test parameter without a significant bias. 5 tabs., 8 figs.,

  5. What drives the comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information. Using two comparability proxies based on De Franco et al. [2011] and a comparability proxy based on the degree of information transfer, our results suggest that the overall comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption is marginal. We hypothesize that firm-level heterogeneity in IFRS compliance explains the limited comparability effect. To test this conjecture, we first hand-colle...

  6. Vinclozolin--the lack of a transgenerational effect after oral maternal exposure during organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steffen; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Buesen, Roland; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible transgenerational effect of the fungicide vinclozolin on the male reproductive system following oral exposure since this effect was reported by Anway et al. [Anway MD, Cupp AS, Uzumcu M, Skinner MK. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science 2005;308(5727 (June 3)):1466-9] after intraperitoneal administration. Pregnant Wistar rats were dosed by oral gavage with vinclozolin 0, 4 or 100mg/(kg bw day) on days 6-15 post coitum (p.c.). F1 male offspring was mated with untreated females to produce F2, which were then similarly mated to produce F3 offspring. F0 maternal treatment had no effect on mating and fertility indices or male offspring sexual development, mean sperm parameters, or histopathology of the sexual organs in F1, F2 or F3 males (at age 127-134 days). Apoptotic germ cell counts were statistically significantly lower in F1, F2 and F3 generations, however, control values showed a pronounced variance over time. Also, as anti-androgenic compounds are more likely to induce the opposite effect (increased apoptosis), this observation is not considered to be treatment related. Consequently, spermatogenesis was not affected by vinclozolin exposure in utero. As vinclozolin has been shown to induce clear anti-androgenic effects in offspring following treatment with 100mg/(kg bw day) during entire gestation, the lack of effects in this study indicates that the window of sensitivity for anti-androgenic effects is from days 16-20 p.c. No transgenerational effect on the male reproductive system was found. The NOAEL was >100mg/(kg bw day) for fertility and reproductive performance, for systemic parental and developmental toxicity in F1, F2 and F3 males.

  7. Endocrine disrupting activities and immunomodulatory effects in lymphoblastoid cell lines of diclofenac, 4-hydroxydiclofenac and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, Ivana; Markovič, Tijana; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2018-05-16

    A critical literature review reveals that knowledge of side effects of pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol is extremely important because of their widespread use and occurrence in the environment. In order to delineate whether these compounds have endocrine activity and influence on the immune system, we assessed the potential endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities of: diclofenac (DIC), its metabolite 4-hydroxydiclofenac (4-HD) and paracetamol (PAR). Herein, we report on their impact on estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR). The endocrine disrupting effects were assessed in vitro in MDA-kb2 and GH3.TRE-Luc cell lines and by the XenoScreen YES/YAS assay. Moreover, binding affinity to nuclear receptors (GR and AR) was also measured. Immunomodulatory properties of the compounds were evaluated in lymphoblastoid cell lines. All the tested compounds showed endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities. The results revealed that both DIC and its metabolite 4-HD exhibited significant estrogenic, anti-androgenic (in YAS assay), (anti)-androgenic, (anti)-glucocorticoid and anti-thyroid hormonal activities (in luciferase reporter gene assays). DIC showed direct binding to the GR, while its metabolite 4-HD to the GR and AR. Only metabolite 4-HD showed estrogenic, androgenic (in YAS assay) and thyroid-hormonal activities. PAR had anti-androgenic activity and anti-thyroid hormonal activity. PAR displayed GR agonist activity with competition to its receptor and agonistic activity to AR. All of the compounds significantly modulated pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine production in lymphoblastoid cell lines and were thus proven immunomodulatory. The study is useful in determining toxicological effects and contributes to the knowledge of possible side effects of diclofenac, its metabolite and paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Ya; Zhao Jinping; Halike, A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P 0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

  9. Classifying chemical mode of action using gene networks and machine learning: a case study with the herbicide linuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species. © 2013.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program (GEP) ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  11. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves ( Hyptis suaveolens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  12. Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.

    2002-01-01

    multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...

  13. Comparing Effectiveness of Undergraduate Course Delivery: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education students can and do take courses delivered in a variety of ways. But, to date, little research has been done on the effectiveness of different delivery modes. This study sought to fill that void by comparing the effectiveness of three undergraduate course delivery modes: classroom, online, and video conference at a technical…

  14. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  15. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European Youth Olympic Festival (2011) ... The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. ... Sample group views on both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Types of Cervical Laminoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, John G.; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical ...

  18. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  19. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M. Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial. PMID:20354968

  20. Possibilities for application of comparative advertising and its effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been evident that one form of competitive advertising gained in its importance - comparative advertising. Although its extensive use has probably been inspired by the belief that the perception of relative superiority of a brand compared to competition could be encouraged in that way, research evidence suggested mixed conclusions about its effectiveness. The paper summarizes the results of previous studies in this area, and in particular those which point out the factors that can influence effectiveness of comparative advertising. Additionally,, the paper summarizes the opinions of some authors about the long-term influence of this form of advertising on brand, and gives the recommendations for its more effective use. .

  1. Comparative study on the pathogenic effects of Diminazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of .... membrane was examined, the rectal temperature of the goats was recorded ... the plasma layer, the content was expressed on the slide and covered with slip. ... measure analysis of variance in SPSS version 15.0 (2000). ..... Canadanian Journal of.

  2. Comparative Effects of Tri-Polar Eclectic Teaching Approach on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an experimental study that examined the comparative effects of Tripolar Interactionist teaching strategy on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School III students of Adeyemi Demonstration secondary School Ondo in social studies. The instrument used for the study includes scheme of work, lesson notes ...

  3. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  4. Comparative Effect of Graphic Organiser and Expository teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the comparative effects of graphic organiser and expository teaching strategies on the achievement of senior secondary school students in Economics. Graphic organiser is a teaching strategy used to visualise the structure of knowledge, instead of describing all concepts and their relations in text as in ...

  5. Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation in chlorinated and combined chlorine-chloraminated water systems. ... The capability of bacterial regrowth occurring on the surface of test pipe materials during this period was linked to the depletion of the concentration of monochloramine residual.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  7. Comparative Clinical Study on the Effectiveness of Homeopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of homeopathic combination remedy compared with standard maintenance therapy for the treatment of dengue fever. Method: A total of 50 patients with dengue fever were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 was treated with homeopathic combination remedy for consecutive 6 ...

  8. Comparing the effect of bioflocculant with synthetic polymers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at introducing a novel bioflocculant to enhance anaerobic granulation in a UASB reactor for lowstrength synthetic wastewater and comparing the effect with synthetic polymers. A laboratory-scale study was undertaken to achieve this goal. Four identical UASB reactors were operated in parallel in the ...

  9. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  10. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  11. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATION TO NURSING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Su-Yeon Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This in-depth integrative literature review aimed to investigate comparative effectiveness research (CER methodologies applicable to nursing research and to propose a CER design relevant to nursing education. Integration and synthesis were conducted from August 20 to December 15, 2013 and from October 20 to December 05, 2015 using electronic databases and refereed published books. The key words were “comparative effectiveness research,” “education,” “patient outcomes,” “effectiveness,” “cost-effectiveness,” and “efficiency.” All selected literatures were initially scrutinized by the principal investigator in terms of scientific rigor and then synthesized on an ongoing basis. CER methodologies in nursing research were presented to be significant in terms of enabling the distinctiveness of the nursing profession to stand out. Three CER methodologies applicable to nursing research—a Pragmatic Clinical Trial, Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research and Cost Effectiveness Research—revealed each of their distinguishable strengths and weaknesses compared to the Randomized Controlled Trial. For ethical considerations, the importance of ensuring “equipoise” was identified. Lastly, in a head to head comparison of two nursing education programs, a single blind, randomized crossover study design was proposed as a type of Pragmatic Clinical Trial utilizing cost-utility analysis. A mixed method Analysis of Covariance and a Doubly Multivariate Repeated Analysis of Covariance were suggested as relevant statistical analyses. Considering that CER is still inchoate in nursing research and nurse scientists’ endeavors to address the gap are urgent, this study is compelling in that it proposed a rigorous CER design not only directly applicable to nursing education, but also to other disciplines in education.

  13. The policy debate over public investment in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C

    2009-06-01

    Policy makers across the political spectrum, as well as many clinicians and physician professional associations, have proposed that better information on comparative clinical effectiveness should be a key element of any solution to the US health-care cost crisis. This superficial consensus hides intense disagreements over critical issues essential to any new public effort to promote more comparative effectiveness research (CER). This article reviews the background for these disputes, summarizes the different perspectives represented by policy makers and advocates, and offers a framework to aid both practicing and academic internists in understanding the key elements of the emerging debate. Regarding the fundamental question of "what is CER," disagreements rage over whether value or cost effectiveness should be a consideration, and how specific patient perspectives should be reflected in the development and the use of such research. The question of how to pay for CER invokes controversies over the role of the market in producing such information and the private (e.g., insurers and employers) versus public responsibility for its production. The financing debate further highlights the high stakes of comparative effectiveness research, and the risks of stakeholder interests subverting any public process. Accordingly there are a range of proposals for the federal government's role in prioritization, development, and dissemination of CER. The internal medicine community, with its long history of commitment to scientific medical practice and its leadership in evidence-based medicine, should have a strong interest and play an active role in this debate.

  14. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  15. A call for action: comparative effectiveness research in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Schatz, Michael X.; Apter, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received considerable research attention in recent months, and efforts to promote CER are part of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In this paper, we define CER, how it complements traditional efficacy research in asthma, and discuss how CER can help provide the basis for rational decision-making about the care of individual patients with asthma and how best to deliver this care in real-world settings. We present informa...

  16. PRIVATE MANUFACTURERS’ THRESHOLDS TO INVEST IN COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS TRIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Anirban; Meltzer, David

    2012-01-01

    The recent rush of enthusiasm for public investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) in the United States has focused attention on these public investments. However, little attention has been given to how changing public investment in CER may affect private manufacturers’ incentives for CER, which has long been a major source of CER. In this work, based on a simple revenue maximizing economic framework, we generate predictions on thresholds to invest in CER for a private manufactur...

  17. Comparative effectiveness of the SNaP™ Wound Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, David W; Sheehan, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Diabetic lower extremity wounds cause substantial burden to healthcare systems, costing tens of thousands of dollars per episode. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) devices have been shown to be cost-effective at treating these wounds, but the traditional devices use bulky electrical pumps that require a durable medical equipment rental-based procurement process. The Spiracur SNaP™ Wound Care System is an ultraportable NPWT system that does not use an electric pump and is fully disposable. It has superior healing compared to standard of care with modern dressings and comparable healing to traditional NPWT devices while giving patients greater mobility and giving clinicians a simpler procurement process. We used a mathematical model to analyse the costs of the SNaP™ system and compare them to standard of care and electrically powered NPWT devices. When compared to standard of care, the SNaP™ system saves over $9000 per wound treated and more than doubles the number of patients healed. The SNaP system has similar healing time to powered NPWT devices, but saves $2300 in Medicare payments or $2800 for private payers per wound treated. Our analysis shows that the SNaP™ system could save substantial treatment costs in addition to allowing patients greater freedom and mobility. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Practical guide to understanding Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, J Gail; Sharon, Jeffrey D; Graboyes, Evan M; Paniello, Randal C; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grindler, David J; Dassopoulos, Themistocles

    2013-12-01

    "Comparative effectiveness research" (CER) is not a new concept; however, recently it has been popularized as a method to develop scientifically sound actionable data by which patients, physicians, payers, and policymakers may make informed health care decisions. Fundamental to CER is that the comparative data are derived from large diverse populations of patients assembled from point-of-care general primary care practices and that measured outcomes include patient value judgments. The challenge is to obtain scientifically valid data to be acted upon by decision-making stakeholders with potentially quite diversely different agenda. The process requires very thoughtful research designs modulated by complex statistical and analytic methods. This article is composed of a guiding narrative with an extensive set of tables outlining many of the details required in performing and understanding CER. It ends with short discussions of three example papers, limitations of the method, and how a practicing physician may view such reports.

  20. Simulating changes to emergency care resources to compare system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Wolff, Catherine S; Williams, Justin; Margolis, Gregg; Carr, Brendan G

    2013-08-01

    To apply systems optimization methods to simulate and compare the most effective locations for emergency care resources as measured by access to care. This study was an optimization analysis of the locations of trauma centers (TCs), helicopter depots (HDs), and severely injured patients in need of time-critical care in select US states. Access was defined as the percentage of injured patients who could reach a level I/II TC within 45 or 60 minutes. Optimal locations were determined by a search algorithm that considered all candidate sites within a set of existing hospitals and airports in finding the best solutions that maximized access. Across a dozen states, existing access to TCs within 60 minutes ranged from 31.1% to 95.6%, with a mean of 71.5%. Access increased from 0.8% to 35.0% after optimal addition of one or two TCs. Access increased from 1.0% to 15.3% after optimal addition of one or two HDs. Relocation of TCs and HDs (optimal removal followed by optimal addition) produced similar results. Optimal changes to TCs produced greater increases in access to care than optimal changes to HDs although these results varied across states. Systems optimization methods can be used to compare the impacts of different resource configurations and their possible effects on access to care. These methods to determine optimal resource allocation can be applied to many domains, including comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  2. Comparative effectiveness of non-print media and live CME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an integral ingredient of professional development of health care providers. The educational activity can be delivered by different modes. Here we share our experience of using Digital Video Disc (DVD of a CME on Sleep Medicine as an alternative and cost effective mode.Objective: To assess improvement in knowledge and competencies in terms of comparative effectiveness of a model CME program using validated non-print medium for medical education.Methods: Recorded and validated DVD of talks delivered at NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine was played to the participants in presence of one of the content experts. Video scripts of talk were also distributed to the participants. The assessment of participants and program evaluation of this CME was compared to the previously held live CME.Results: Eighty nine participants completed both pre and post test. Mean score increased from 9.91± 3.5 to 14.09 ± 2.85. Pass percentage based on an arbitrary cut off of 50%, increased from 8.3 to 43.8 (p< 0.001. Among the live CME group, mean score improved from 12.1±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8. Comparative analysis between live and DVD based CME showed improvement in scores of 6.17 and 4.18 respectively while pass percentage of 84.7 and 43.8 post CME among two modes were significant. The program evaluation showed identical level of satisfaction in all parameters except they were less satisfied vis-a-vis 'organizers made use of any critical comments I made' since all locally available resource persons were not present. Activity could be completed at just half the cost of live CME.Conclusions: The educational background and selection process of UG students between two medical institutes were strikingly different. While students at one institute were selected by highly competitive exam at All India level, the students at other institute were selected through state level competitive examination. In spite of that, results showed

  3. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  4. Comparing interactive videodisc training effectiveness to traditional training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Videodisc skills training programs developed by Industrial Training Corporation are being used and evaluated by major industrial facilities. In one such study, interactive videodisc training programs were compared to videotape and instructor-based training to determine the effectiveness of videodisc in terms of performance, training time and trainee attitudes. Results showed that when initial training was done using the interactive videodisc system, trainee performance was superior to the performance of trainees using videotape, and approximately equal to the performance of those trained by an instructor. When each method was used in follow-up training, interactive videodisc was definitely the most effective. Results also indicate that training time can be reduced using interactive videodisc. Attitudes of both trainees and instructors toward the interactive videodisc training were positive

  5. Comparative effectiveness of different types of cervical laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, John G; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical laminoplasty? KQ2: In adults with cervical myelopathy from OPLL or spondylosis, are postoperative complications, including pain and infection, different for the use of miniplates versus the use of no plates following laminoplasty? KQ3: Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Materials and Methods A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and March 11, 2013. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating (1) open door cervical laminoplasty and French door cervical laminoplasty and (2) the use of miniplates or no plates in cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers (A.L.R., J.R.D.) assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results We identified three studies (one of class of evidence [CoE] II and two of CoE III) meeting our inclusion criteria comparing open door cervical laminoplasty with French door laminoplasty and two studies (one CoE II and one CoE III) comparing the use of miniplates with no plates. Data from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two retrospective cohort

  6. Comparative effectiveness of correction strategies in connected discourse tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunato, K E; Weisenberger, J M

    1994-10-01

    The effectiveness of four correction strategies commonly used in connected discourse tracking was investigated in the present study. The strategies were 1) verbatim repetition of a word or phrase; 2) use of antonyms or synonyms as cues; 3) use of phonemic cues, with no whole word repetition; and 4) going back or ahead in the text, with no repetition of the missed segment. Four normal-hearing adults served as listeners. Live-voice presentation of text by two female talkers was employed for all conditions. Listeners were tested in two stimulus presentation modes, speechreading alone and speechreading plus a multichannel tactile aid. Results indicated that strategy 1, repetition of the missed segment, produced the highest tracking rates, significantly higher than any of the other strategies. Strategy 2 produced the lowest tracking rates. Strategies 1 and 3 yielded the lowest percentage of initially missed words, or blockages, and strategy 4 the highest percentage. Significantly higher tracking rates were found under the speechreading plus tactile aid presentation mode, compared with speechreading alone. Further, tracking rates increased significantly from the beginning to the end of training. Data were compared with a more typical CDT task, in which all correction strategies were operative, and results showed little difference in tracking rates between this task and the constrained CDT employing only strategy 1. Overall, results suggest that simple repetition of missed segments is an effective correction strategy for CDT and argue for its inclusion in computer-assisted tracking implementations.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  8. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  9. Comparing the effect of pressure and temperature on ion mobilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Rouholahnejad, Fereshteh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on ion mobilities has been investigated and compared with that of temperature. In this connection, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) cell, which employs a corona discharge as the ionization source, has been designed and constructed to allow varying pressure inside the drift region. IMS spectra were recorded at various pressures ranging from 15 Torr up to atmospheric pressure. The results show that IMS peaks shift perfectly linear with pressure which is in excellent agreement with the ion mobility theory. However, experimental ion mobilities versus temperature show deviation from the theoretical trend. The deviation is attributed to formation of clusters. The different behaviour of pressure and temperature was explained on the basis of the different impact of pressure and temperature on hydration and clustering of ions. Pressure affects the clustering reactions linearly but temperature affects it exponentially

  10. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie M.S.,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli. Heterakis gallinarum was not affected by the pumpkin oil. Parazitol have a moderate efficacy (36%, while levamisole and albendazole were very efficient (100%. The treatments with albendazole upon the cestods belonging to the genus Raillietina have had a 100% efficacy. In cestods, Parazitol had a better efficacy (57% than the pumpkin oil (14%.

  12. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  13. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Adalatkhah,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,3 1Department of Dermatology, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Treatment of melasma is unsatisfactory most of the times. Hormonal role is shown to exist in pathogenesis of the melasma, and sex-hormone related drugs may have an effect on melasma.Aim: To investigate efficacy of 1% flutamide cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream on melasma.Methods: In a parallel randomized clinical trial, 74 women with melasma were allocated to receive a sunscreen along with 4% hydroquinone cream or 1% flutamide cream. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, mexameter melanin assay, and patient satisfaction were investigated.Results: Mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Mean length of time suffering from Melasma was 96.3 months. The subjects reported in average 1.1 hours per day of exposure to sunlight. Mean standardized total patient satisfaction score was 28.8 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2 in flutamide group patients versus 18 (SD 15.5 in control group (P<0.01. Regardless of treatment group, the skin darkness assessed upon MASI scales was reduced over the treatment course (P<0.001. Using mixed effects, longitudinal modeling showed better treatment efficacy based on MASI scale for flutamide group compared to the hydroquinone group (P<0.05. However, longitudinal analysis of mexameter scores did not reveal any significant difference in melanin measurements between flutamide and hydroquinone.Conclusion: Topical flutamide appeared as effective as topical hydroquinone in treating melasma using mexameter assessment but with a better MASI improvement trend and higher patient satisfaction in flutamide treatment versus topical hydroquinone. As the present study is possibly the

  14. Evaluation of serum PSA after cyproterone compound treatment compared with oral contraceptive pill in hirsute polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taheripanah

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Serum free PSA and free testosterone and FG score were decreased after treatment with OCP and cyproterone compound but there was no preference between the two groups of anti-androgen treatment.

  15. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Data sources for heart failure comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H

    2013-01-01

    Existing data sources for heart failure research offer advantages and disadvantages for CER. Clinical registries collect detailed information about disease presentation, treatment, and outcomes on a large number of patients and provide the "real-world" population that is the hallmark of CER. Data are not collected longitudinally, however, and follow-up is often limited. Large administrative datasets provide the broadest population coverage with longitudinal outcomes follow-up but lack clinical detail. Linking clinical registries with other databases to assess longitudinal outcomes holds great promise. The Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research recommends further efforts on longitudinal linking of administrative or EHR-based databases, patient registries, private sector databases (particularly those with commercially insured populations that are not covered under federal and state databases), and other relevant data sources containing pharmacy, laboratory, adverse events, and mortality information. Advancing the infrastructure to provide robust, scientific data resources for patient-centered CER must remain a priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A tool for assessing the feasibility of comparative effectiveness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker AM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexander M Walker,1 Amanda R Patrick,2 Michael S Lauer,3 Mark C Hornbrook,4 Matthew G Marin,5 Richard Platt,6 Véronique L Roger,7 Paul Stang,8 Sebastian Schneeweiss21World Health Information Science Consultants, Newton, MA; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; 3National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; 4The Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR; 5Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; 6Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 7Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; 8Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: Comparative effectiveness research (CER provides actionable information for health care decision-making. Randomized clinical trials cannot provide the patients, time horizons, or practice settings needed for all required CER. The need for comparative assessments and the infeasibility of conducting randomized clinical trials in all relevant areas is leading researchers and policy makers to non-randomized, retrospective CER. Such studies are possible when rich data exist on large populations receiving alternative therapies that are used as-if interchangeably in clinical practice. This setting we call “empirical equipoise.”Objectives: This study sought to provide a method for the systematic identification of settings it in which it is empirical equipoise that offers promised non-randomized CER.Methods: We used a standardizing transformation of the propensity score called “preference” to assess pairs of common treatments for uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and new-onset heart failure in a population of low-income elderly people in Pennsylvania, for whom we had access to de-identified insurance records. Treatment

  18. Comparative study on effect of blending, thermal barrier coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions of both diesel and UOME and its blends were measured before and after coating and the results are compared. B20 fuelled biodiesel and PSZ coated engine provides almost comparable ...

  19. Cell viability and PSA secretion assays in LNCaP cells: a tiered in vitro approach to screen chemicals with a prostate-mediated effect on male reproduction within the ReProTect project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Stefano; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility; nevertheless, prostate was so far overlooked in reproductive toxicity assays. Within the EU project ReProTect, the human prostate cell line LNCaP was utilized to identify molecules targeting prostate function by the integrated assessment of cell viability (MTS assay) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion as specific marker; a training set - five (anti)androgenic chemicals - and a ReProTect feasibility set - ten chemicals - were used. Several compounds reduced PSA only at cytotoxic concentrations. Androgens (DHT, MT) markedly increased PSA as did the herbicide glufosinate ammonium, not known as androgen agonist. Anti-androgens (2OH-flutamide, linuron, vinclozolin, di-n-butyl phthalate) also increased PSA, but the effect of magnitude was much lower than for androgens. The ER-binder bisphenol A reduced PSA, while increasing cell viability. At this stage, the approach can identify chemicals able to interfere with prostate function: further refinements may allow to include prostate effects in reproductive toxicity in vitro testing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of tramadol/paracetamol compared with etoricoxib as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paracetamol combination when compared with etoricoxib as postoperative analgesia following day care surgery. Design: This was a prospective, randomised, single-blind study. Setting and subjects: Sixty-two patients were randomised to receive ...

  1. Comparative Potential Protect Effect of HSCAS, Diatomite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mdenli

    bentonite (Rosa et al., 2001), zeolite (Miazzo et al., 2000), hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (HSCAS) ... Due to these properties diatomite was selected for use in this experiment to compare ..... Aflatoxins in animal and human health.

  2. Comparing the effects of community service and imprisonment on reconviction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compares reconviction rates for Danish offenders sentenced to community service and imprisonment. A large general sample of offenders (n=1602) is examined. Methods The study relies on a quasi-experimental design and uses propensity score matching as well as logistic regression...... Imprisonment is associated with a higher rate of recidivism and the result is statistically significant at conventional statistical levels. Conclusions Community service (CS) compared to imprisonment appears to cause a lower reconviction rate in general. Additional research is needed to shed light...

  3. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  4. Comparative effects of X and gamma radiations on rice plantules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumberra, R.; Gonzalez, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Results on effects of 60C o X and gamma ray on rice plantules from irradiated seeds in the dosage interval ranging from zero to 1000Gy in low level sources are shown in this work. A similar effect within the same range of radiations, with some difference in its biological efficiency was observed

  5. Comparative effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 50g glucose challenge test and risk factor based screening in detection of ... Mean maternal and gestational ages at recruitment were 30.8+1.2 years and ... Predictive Value, PPV - 20%) compared to risk factors only (PPV- 11.1%).

  6. A comparative analysis of badminton game instructions effect of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drop shot and smash in doubles game play, ANCOVA and ANOVA statistics indicated significant improved performance via NP compared to LP. Conclusion, implementing NP in schools would further strengthen TGfU as teachers can adjust tactics, skill tasks to the performer's abilities and situated learning environment.

  7. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrathecal adjuvants are added to local anaesthetics to improve the quality of neuraxial blockade and prolong the duration of analgesia during spinal anaesthesia. Used intrathecally, fentanyl improves the quality of spinal blockade as compared to plain bupivacaine and confers a short duration of post ...

  8. Comparing the Effect of Diets Treated with Different Organic Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to compare the growth and economics of adding organic acids to diets of broiler chickens. The organic acids were sorbic benzoic lactic and propionic acids. 150 day old Hubbard chicks were used. There were five treatments. Diet 1 which served as control contained no organic acid. Diets 2, 3 ...

  9. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  10. Comparative Effect of Forward and Backward Stair Climbing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olagbegi

    The groups were not significantly different (p> 0.05) in their cardiovascular parameters at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The FSC group had ... KEY WORDS: Stair climbing, blood pressure, cardiovascular endurance ... significantly greater metabolic responses compared to ... This was taken with the subject in sitting position, with the.

  11. comparative effects of the leaves of gongronema latifolium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    levels are strongly influenced by the amount and type of ... diabetes, hypertension, stomach upsets and pains, and. 319 .... Table 2: Effects of Gongronema latifolium and Telfairia occidentalis Diet Preparations on the .... and Molecular Biology.

  12. 241 Comparative Effectiveness of Certain Antimicrobial Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... effectiveness of antimicrobial preservation during storage life of preparations ... The low cost and long history of safe use probably explains the .... In Hugo, W.B and Rusell, A.D. Pharmaceutical.

  13. Effectiveness of tramadol/paracetamol compared with etoricoxib as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choy Y. Choy

    Day care surgery is cost-effective and forms 70% of hospital- based surgical ... more major procedures, e.g. laparoscopic cholecystectomy and ... Nonpharmacological methods of pain control, e.g. ..... Open unilateral inguinal hernia repair. 8. 7.

  14. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...... the performance of the studied PV plants with others, the efficiency of the systems has been estimated by both conventional Performance Ratio and Corrected Performance Ratio...

  15. Comparing the effectiveness of virtual and traditional forestry field tours

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Elissa C.; Fletcher, Richard A.; Jensen, Edward C.; Rickenbach, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Virtual tours are among the many new Internet-based tools with potential applications in natural resource education. While technology exists to create virtual tour Web sites, little is understood about how they meet educational objectives and whether they can be complementary alternatives for traditional field tours. The Sustainable Forestry Partnership and the Forestry Media Center at Oregon State University created parallel virtual and field tours to compare these teaching techniques. Both ...

  16. Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian

    2016-01-13

    We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of open versus minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledonio, Charles Gt; Polly, David W; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Cummings, John T

    2014-01-01

    The mainstay of sacroiliac joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis therapy has been nonoperative management. This nonoperative management often includes a regimen of physical therapy, chiropractic treatment, therapeutic injections, and possibly radiofrequency ablation at the discretion of the treating physician. When these clinical treatments fail, sacroiliac joint fusion has been recommended as the standard treatment. Open and minimally invasive (MIS) surgical techniques are typical procedures. This study aims to compare the perioperative measures and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) outcomes associated with each of these techniques. A comparative retrospective chart review of patients with sacroiliac joint fusion and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was performed. Perioperative measures and ODI scores were compared using the Fisher's exact test and two nonparametric tests, ie, the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results are presented as percent or median with range, as appropriate. Forty-nine patients from two institutions underwent sacroiliac joint fusion between 2006 and 2012. Ten patients were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 39 evaluable patients, of whom 22 underwent open and 17 underwent MIS sacroiliac joint fusion. The MIS group was significantly older (median age 66 [39-82] years) than the open group (median age 51 [34-74] years). Surgical time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the MIS group than in the open group. Preoperative ODI was significantly greater in the open group (median 64 [44-78]) than in the MIS group (median 53 [14-84]). Postoperative improvement in ODI was statistically significant within and between groups, with MIS resulting in greater improvement. The open and MIS sacroiliac joint fusion techniques resulted in statistically and clinically significant improvement for patients with degenerative sacroiliitis refractory to nonoperative management. However, the number of patients

  18. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative effect of pesticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Carvalho, Elba Veronica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2012-12-15

    Monitoring of pesticides based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition in vitro avoids interference of detoxification defenses and bioactivation of some of those compounds in non-target tissues. Moreover, environmental temperature, age and stress are able to affect specific enzyme activities when performing in vivo studies. Few comparative studies have investigated the inter-specific differences in AChE activity in fish. Screening studies allow choosing the suitable species as source of AChE to detect pesticides in a given situation. Brain AChE from the tropical fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized and their activities were assayed in the presence of pesticides (the organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate- TEPP and the carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC₅₀ and Ki) for each species were found and compared with commercial AChE from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. A. gigas AChE retained 81% of the activity after incubation at 50 °C for 30 min. The electric eel enzyme was more sensitive to the compounds (mainly carbofuran, IC₅₀ of 5 nM), excepting the one from A. gigas (IC₅₀ of 9 nM) under TEPP inhibition. These results show comparable sensitivity between purified and non-purified enzymes suggesting them as biomarkers for organophosphorus and carbamate detection in routine environmental and food monitoring programs for pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  1. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Tetracarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening and the effects of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of T. conophorum on the biochemical parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. The Biochemical parameters were assayed using Randox Diagnostic kits, Phenophthalin and colorimetric methods. The phytochemical screening was ...

  2. Comparative assessment of the effect of Moringa extracts, NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera extracts, NPK fertilizer and Poultry manure on Soil properties and growth performance of Solanium melongena in the Giri area of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replicates was used. Data collected ...

  3. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The duration of effective analgesia was longer in the midazolam group ... There was no significant difference (P 0.4047). ... events, peripheral vasoconstriction, and metabolic acido- .... determined and recorded every hour. ..... scriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of ... Long-term intrathecal adminis-.

  4. comparative effects of theobromine and cocoa bean shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. Oluyemi

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES VOL 14, NO. 3, 2008: 253 - 255 ... (Received 12, July 2007; Revision Accepted 26, March 2008) .... in membrane achitecture of the cells leasing to spillage into serum (Bell et al ... analysis of vegetable drugs. Farmaa's ... Plasma lipid profile and target organ effect of.

  5. The Comparative Effects of Simulation Games and Brainstorming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... Faculty of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. E-mail: ... on innovative methods that aim at seeking the truth which include problem ... attitudinal dimension, the benefits include: more positive attitude towards the ... focused on the evaluation of educational effectiveness of games. Other.

  6. Comparative effects of organic compost and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-treatment and post planting soil samples were taken for laboratory soil analysis of soil chemical properties for a comparison of the assessment of the cumulative effects of organic compost and inorganic fertilizer in improving soil fertility over a period of three years. The organic matter increased by 23.3% and 0.6% in the ...

  7. randomised double blind study to compare effectiveness of honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... EAsT AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. February 2014 .... based randomised double- blinded clinical trial evaluating effectiveness of ... study drugs was undertaken following a random ... included sodium citrate, citric acid monohydrate, ... post-hoc test to carry out pair-wise comparisons of .... self-care market.

  8. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The immunomodulatory effect of Carotenoid complex from Golden Neo-Life Dynamite (GNLD) and carrot extracted Carotenoid was assessed using 24 albino Wistar rats. The rats were assigned to 4 groups of 6 rats each consisting of group 1(control group treated with distilled water), group 2 (treated with olive oil) ...

  9. Framing effects over time: comparing affective and cognitive news frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Matthes, J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of scholars examine the duration of framing effects. However, duration is likely to differ from frame to frame, depending on how strong a frame is. This strength is likely to be enhanced by adding emotional components to a frame. By means of an experimental survey design (n = 111),

  10. [Comparative effectiveness of different treatment methods of liver failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, D E; Vershinina, M G; Pasechnik, I N; Sal'nikov, P S

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the results of treatment of 217 patients (139 men, 78 women) with chronic liver failure in case of liver cirrhosis of various etiology for study of degree of hepatic encephalopathyregression. All patients were divided into 3 groups. In the first group the drug therapy was used. In the second group additionallyplasma exchange was performed, in the third group - alsomolecular absorbent recirculating system was used (effectiveness of MARS-therapy).The results showed that the use of extracorporeal treatment techniques can effectively reduce the severity of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. MARS-therapy improved the neurological status of patientsmore significantly in this case. It is considered that the inclusion of MARS-therapy in the combined treatment of patients leads to a significant reduction of hepatic encephalopathyseverity (1-2 points), in comparison with other methods of treatment.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of faecal microbiota transplant by route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundacker, N D; Tamhane, A; Walker, J B; Morrow, C D; Rodriguez, J M

    2017-08-01

    The optimal route of delivery for faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is unknown. This observational single-centre study analysed the two-week cure rates for all patients who received FMT from 2013 to 2016 according to route of delivery. Overall, nasogastric delivery of FMT was less effective than lower endoscopic delivery. When patients were stratified by illness severity, nasogastric delivery achieved similar cure rates in healthier individuals, whereas lower endoscopic delivery was preferred for relatively ill individuals. Nasogastric delivery may be less effective than lower endoscopic delivery; however, when taking the cost, preparation and potential risk into account, this difference may not be clinically significant for patients with mild disease. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental effects on hormonal regulation of testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2006-01-01

    cause some cases of undescended testis. Similarly, androgen insensitivity or androgen deficiency can cause cryptorchidism. Estrogens have been shown to down regulate INSL3 and thereby cause maldescent. Thus, a reduced androgen-estrogen ratio may disturb testicular descent. Environmental effects changing......Regulation of testicular descent is hormonally regulated, but the reasons for maldescent remain unknown in most cases. The main regulatory hormones are Leydig cell-derived testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the secretion of these hormones...... hypothesize that an exposure to a mixture of chemicals with anti-androgenic or estrogenic properties (either their own activity or their effect on androgen-estrogen ratio) may be involved in cryptorchidism....

  13. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  14. Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of water, sulphuric acid and sodium benzoate as additives on the micelle-catalyzed aquation reactions of the complexes:Fe(Me2Phen)3 2+ and FE(Me4Phen) were studied in acetone using Triton X-100 (TX-100), as the surfactant-catalyst. FE(Me4Phen)2+ equates faster than FE(Me2Phen)2+ in the ...

  15. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  16. Comparative effectiveness of open versus minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledonio CGT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles GT Ledonio,1 David W Polly Jr,1 Marc F Swiontkowski,1 John T Cummings Jr2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, 2Community Neurosurgical Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: The mainstay of sacroiliac joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis therapy has been nonoperative management. This nonoperative management often includes a regimen of physical therapy, chiropractic treatment, therapeutic injections, and possibly radiofrequency ablation at the discretion of the treating physician. When these clinical treatments fail, sacroiliac joint fusion has been recommended as the standard treatment. Open and minimally invasive (MIS surgical techniques are typical procedures. This study aims to compare the perioperative measures and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI outcomes associated with each of these techniques. Methods: A comparative retrospective chart review of patients with sacroiliac joint fusion and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was performed. Perioperative measures and ODI scores were compared using the Fisher's exact test and two nonparametric tests, ie, the Mann–Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results are presented as percent or median with range, as appropriate. Results: Forty-nine patients from two institutions underwent sacroiliac joint fusion between 2006 and 2012. Ten patients were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 39 evaluable patients, of whom 22 underwent open and 17 underwent MIS sacroiliac joint fusion. The MIS group was significantly older (median age 66 [39–82] years than the open group (median age 51 [34–74] years. Surgical time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the MIS group than in the open group. Preoperative ODI was significantly greater in the open group (median 64 [44–78] than in the MIS group (median 53 [14–84]. Postoperative improvement in ODI was statistically significant within and between groups, with MIS

  17. Comparative effects of coal and nuclear fuel on mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    A key part of risk assessment is estimation of population exposure. This might ideally be a compilation of the number and characteristics of people exposed to given kinds, levels, and combinations of risk. The compilation ideally would be sufficiently disaggregated to allow calculation of the joint frequency of various combinations of risk to which a single population might be exposed. The number of people exposed at each level of risk is important since the true health damage function (or dose-response function) is likely to be nonlinear. At this point, in our models, we are not considering synergisms. We attempt to define the population exposed, and the degree of exposure, but treat the population at each exposure level as a single class. We also use linear damage functions. While these probably do not adequately represent the true effects over a wide range of exposure, we believe they are adequate to predict the effect of small changes of exposure within the general range of previous observation. Moreover, in our air pollution models we are generally allocating part of the total effect of air pollution to a specific source. A linear model seems completely appropriate for this use. We measure mortality in excess or attributable deaths per power-plant year. Excess deaths is a convenient way to express changes in mortality rates

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  20. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  1. Effect of orthostasis on endothelial function: a gender comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Goswami

    Full Text Available As the vascular endothelium has multiple functions, including regulation of vascular tone, it may play a role in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. We investigated the effect of orthostasis on endothelial function using EndoPAT®, a non-invasive and user-independent method, and across gender. As sex steroid hormones are known to affect endothelial function, this study examined the potential effect of these hormones on the endothelial response to orthostasis by including females at different phases of the menstrual cycle (follicular and luteal-where the hormone balance differs, and females taking an oral contraceptive. A total of 31 subjects took part in this study (11 males, 11 females having normal menstrual cycles and 9 females taking oral contraceptive. Each subject made two visits for testing; in the case of females having normal menstrual cycles the first session was conducted either 1-7 (follicular or 14-21 days (luteal after the start of menstruation, and the second session two weeks later, i.e., during the other phase, respectively. Endothelial function was assessed at baseline and following a 20-min orthostatic challenge (active standing. The EndoPAT® index increased from 1.71 ± 0.09 (mean ± SEM at baseline to 2.07 ± 0.09 following orthostasis in females (p<0.001. In males, the index increased from 1.60 ± 0.08 to 1.94 ± 0.13 following orthostasis (p<0.001. There were no significant differences, however, in the endothelial response to orthostasis between females and males, menstrual cycle phases and the usage of oral contraceptive. Our results suggest an increased vasodilatatory endothelial response following orthostasis in both females and males. The effect of gender and sex hormones on the endothelial response to orthostasis appears limited. Further studies are needed to determine the potential role of this post orthostasis endothelial response in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance.

  2. Comparing the effectiveness of laser vs. conventional endoforehead lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Jen; Yu, De-Yi; Chang, Shu-Ying; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of laser versus conventional endoforehead lifting. Over a period of 12 years (January 2000-January 2012), a total of 110 patients with hyperactive muscles over the frontal region have been collected for a retrospective study. The SurgiLase 150XJ CO 2 laser system, in conjunction with the flexible FIBERLASE, was used. The endoscope was 4 mm in diameter with an angle of 30°. The primary efficacy measurement was the assessment of the final outcome for using laser vs. conventional methods. Both groups were observed at three weeks, six weeks and six months after surgery. The most common complication in early convalescence (three weeks) was swelling. This was followed by local paraesthesia, ecchymosis, localized hematomas and scar with alopecia. All these problems disappeared completely after the 6-month study period. Based on a chi-square analysis, there were clinically and statistically significant differences favouring the laser endoforehead surgery in the operative time, early and late complications. All patients achieved significant improvement after both laser and conventional endoforehead surgery in the final outcome. However, the early and late complications indicated a greater difference in the laser group.

  3. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yamada, Yuji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the toxicological mechanism of transuranic elements, such as plutonium, involved in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis, toxic effects of several inhaled dusts and mineral particles were examined in rats. Pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) was responsible for retention and behavior of inhaled asbestos fibers or silica particles and their transfer to the lymph nodes. PAM exhibited prominent phagocytosis of particles, followed by a significant release of lactic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase. Multinucleated or Ia-positive PAM was frequently observed in rats presenting with pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis that was induced by inhaled asbestos or silica particles was associated with significant production and release of cytokines. This indicated a close correlation with inflammatory or proliferating responses of fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Such reactions observed in PAM depended on toxicity of particles involved in phagocytosis (i.e., the ability of particles to induce pulmonary fibrosis), suggesting heterogeneity in the population of PAM. (Namekawa, K)

  4. Comparing headphone and speaker effects on simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T M; Nilsson, T H

    1990-12-01

    Twelve persons drove for three hours in an automobile simulator while listening to music at sound level 63dB over stereo headphones during one session and from a dashboard speaker during another session. They were required to steer a mountain highway, maintain a certain indicated speed, shift gears, and respond to occasional hazards. Steering and speed control were dependent on visual cues. The need to shift and the hazards were indicated by sound and vibration effects. With the headphones, the driver's average reaction time for the most complex task presented--shifting gears--was about one-third second longer than with the speaker. The use of headphones did not delay the development of subjective fatigue.

  5. Effective permittivity of random composite media: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Ashutosh; Prasad, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, experimental data for effective permittivity of amorphous, polycrystalline thick films, and ceramic form of samples, taken from the literature, have been chosen for their comparison with those yielded by different mixture equations. In order to test the acceptability of dielectric mixture equations for high volume fractions of the inclusion material in the mixture, eleven such equations have been chosen. It is found that equations given by Cuming, Maxwell-Wagner, Webmann, Skipetrov and modified Cule-Torquato show their coherence and minimal deviation from the experimental results of permittivity for all the chosen test materials almost over the entire measurement range of volume fractions. It is further found that Maxwell-Wagner, Webmann, and Skipetrov equations yielded equivalent results and consequently they have been combined together and reckoned as a single equation named MWWS. The study revealed that the Cuming equation had the highest degree of acceptability (errors <±1-5%) in all the cases

  6. Comparing effectiveness and efficiency in technical specifications and maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, Sebastian; Sanchez, Ana; Carlos, Sofia; Serradell, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of technical specification requirements and maintenance (TS and M) has been found interesting from the very beginning at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). However, the resolution of such a kind of optimization problem has been limited often to focus only on individual TS and M-related parameters (STI, AOT, PM frequency, etc.) and/or adopting an individual optimization criterion (availability, costs, plant risks, etc.). Nevertheless, a number of reasons exist (e.g. interaction, similar scope, etc.) that justify the interest to focus on the coordinated optimization of all of the relevant TS and M-related parameters based on multiple criteria. The purpose of this paper is on signifying benefits and improvement areas in performing the coordinated optimization of TS and M through reviewing the effectiveness and efficiency of common strategies for optimizing TS and M at system level. A case of application is provided for a stand-by safety-related system to demonstrate the basic procedure and to extract a number of conclusions and recommendations from the results achieved. Thus, it is concluded that the optimized values depend on the particular TS and M-related parameters being involved and the solutions with the largest benefit (minimum risk or minimum cost) are achieved when considering the simultaneous optimization of all of them, although increased computational resources are also required. Consequently, it is necessary to analyze not only the value reached but also the performance of the optimization procedure through effectiveness and efficiency measures which lead to recommendations on potential improvement areas

  7. Comparing the Effectiveness of Online Sunrise/Sunset Calculators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlips, Alan; Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn

    2018-01-01

    The USNO is responsible for providing information through its website on various types of natural phenomena, including times of sunrise and sunset for any given day and location. Alternative websites were explored to see what options are available in case the USNO can no longer support this on-line tool in the future. Websites with sunrise/sunset calculators were examined to see what algorithm they cited, if any. A large percentage of the websites took their calculations from three main sources (USNO, Meeus, and Schlyter). For ease of comparison, one website with an Application Programming Interface (API) for each algorithm was used to generate sunrise/sunset times for 2 dates per year for 24 years at latitudes from the equator to each pole along the prime meridian. Additionally, dates on which only one phenomenon was expected (first and last day of polar day and night) were tested to examine how each algorithm would perform for these extreme edge cases. At mid-latitudes, all of the algorithms agreed within 1 minute of each other but their predictions began to diverge as they approached the poles. Close to the poles, all three differed by more than a minute. While the algorithms diverged well before reaching the poles, Schlyter did so at much lower latitudes compared to the other two. In the edge cases, Schlyter and Meeus did not correctly document the missing sunrise/sunsets. Until a set of arctic or antarctic observations of sunrise and sunset times can be analyzed, we cannot ascertain which algorithm is the most accurate. However, the USNO algorithm handled cases of continuous day and night better than the others. There currently seems to be no better alternative to provide robust sunrise/set times than the USNO Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneDay.php).

  8. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  9. A comparative effectiveness analysis of three continuous glucose monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M; Russell, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    To compare three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices in subjects with type 1 diabetes under closed-loop blood glucose (BG) control. Six subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 52 ± 14 years, diabetes duration 32 ± 14 years) each participated in two 51-h closed-loop BG control experiments in the hospital. Venous plasma glucose (PG) measurements (GlucoScout, International Biomedical) obtained every 15 min (2,360 values) were paired in time with corresponding CGM glucose (CGMG) measurements obtained from three CGM devices, the Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care), the Seven Plus (DexCom), and the Guardian (Medtronic), worn simultaneously by each subject. Errors in paired PG-CGMG measurements and data reporting percentages were obtained for each CGM device. The Navigator had the best overall accuracy, with an aggregate mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of all paired points of 11.8 ± 11.1% and an average MARD across all 12 experiments of 11.8 ± 3.8%. The Seven Plus and Guardian produced aggregate MARDs of all paired points of 16.5 ± 17.8% and 20.3 ± 18.0%, respectively, and average MARDs across all 12 experiments of 16.5 ± 6.7% and 20.2 ± 6.8%, respectively. Data reporting percentages, a measure of reliability, were 76% for the Seven Plus and nearly 100% for the Navigator and Guardian. A comprehensive head-to-head-to-head comparison of three CGM devices for BG values from 36 to 563 mg/dL revealed marked differences in performance characteristics that include accuracy, precision, and reliability. The Navigator outperformed the other two in these areas.

  10. Observational studies in systematic [corrected] reviews of comparative effectiveness: AHRQ and the Effective Health Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Susan L; Atkins, David; Bruening, Wendy; Fox, Steven; Johnson, Eric; Kane, Robert; Morton, Sally C; Oremus, Mark; Ospina, Maria; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Schoelles, Karen; Shekelle, Paul; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Systematic reviewers disagree about the ability of observational studies to answer questions about the benefits or intended effects of pharmacotherapeutic, device, or procedural interventions. This study provides a framework for decision making on the inclusion of observational studies to assess benefits and intended effects in comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs). The conceptual model and recommendations were developed using a consensus process by members of the methods workgroup of the Effective Health Care Program of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. In considering whether to use observational studies in CERs for addressing beneficial effects, reviewers should answer two questions: (1) Are there gaps in the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)? (2) Will observational studies provide valid and useful information? The latter question involves the following: (a) refocusing the study questions on gaps in the evidence from RCTs, (b) assessing the risk of bias of the body of evidence of observational studies, and (c) assessing whether available observational studies address the gap review questions. Because it is unusual to find sufficient evidence from RCTs to answer all key questions concerning benefit or the balance of benefits and harms, comparative effectiveness reviewers should routinely assess the appropriateness of inclusion of observational studies for questions of benefit. Furthermore, reviewers should explicitly state the rationale for inclusion or exclusion of observational studies when conducting CERs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yamada, Yuji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone metabolism of normal beagle dogs, from 3 months to 17 years of age, were examined by morphometric and serum biochemical values. From 3 months to 2 years of age, bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Th. Tb.) in the iliac trabecular bone, labeled with tetracycline and calcein, increased rapidly with an increase of body weight. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR, equivalent to bone turnover rate) decreased. The BFR at 3 months was approximately 11 times in males and 15 times in females higher than that at 2 years when bone metabolism was of adult type. From 2 to 10 years of age, BV/TV or Th. Tb. did not remarkably change, whereas both MAR and BFR had a tendency to decrease gradually with age. Parathyroid hormone level increased from 3 months to 17 years. Testosterone level increased up to 2 years and remained almost constant thereafter. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and phosphorus decreased rapidly up to 2 years, although calcium did not change with age. Effects of swimming (exercise) and lactate calcium on osteoporotic bones in rats were examined. The BV/TV and Th. Tb. increased, but the MAR and BFR were improved to be sustained. These changes were promoted by the administration of calcium and vitamin D 3 . Toxicological study on DTPA revealed the following results: (1) Both hypocalcemia, following an increase of blood pressure, and heart failure were observed by iv injection of Zn-DTPA, but not observed by iv injection of Ca-DTPA. When DTPA was given orally, Ca-DTPA was more toxic than Zn-DTPA. DTPA toxicity induced dysfunction of the kidney and liver, hemorrhage and congestion in the lamina propria, and vascular expansion of the small intestine. Vascular permeability was also enhanced by either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA. DTPA toxicity was found to be manifested by disturbed cardiovascular system. (Namekawa, K)

  12. The value-based medicine comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Richard H; Lass, Jonathan H; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M

    2008-10-01

    To perform a base case, comparative effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness (cost-utility) analysis of penetrating keratoplasty for patients with severe keratoconus. Visual acuity data were obtained from a large, retrospective multicenter study in which patients with keratoconus with less than 20/40 best corrected visual acuity and/or the inability to wear contact lenses underwent penetrating keratoplasty, with an average follow-up of 2.1 years. The results were combined with other retrospective studies investigating complication rates of penetrating keratoplasty. The data were then incorporated into a cost-utility model using patient preference-based, time trade-off utilities, computer-based decision analysis, and a net present value model to account for the time value of outcomes and money. The comparative effectiveness of the intervention is expressed in quality-of-life gain and QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years), and the cost-effectiveness results are expressed in the outcome of $/QALY (dollars spent per QALY). Penetrating keratoplasty in 1 eye for patients with severe keratoconus results in a comparative effectiveness (value gain) of 16.5% improvement in quality of life every day over the 44-year life expectancy of the average patient with severe keratoconus. Discounting the total value gain of 5.36 QALYs at a 3% annual discount rate yields 3.05 QALYs gained. The incremental cost for penetrating keratoplasty, including all complications, is $5934 ($5913 discounted at 3% per year). Thus, the incremental cost-utility (discounted at 3% annually) for this intervention is $5913/3.05 QALYs = $1942/QALY. If both eyes undergo corneal transplant, the total discounted value gain is 30% and the overall cost-utility is $2003. Surgery on the second eye confers a total discounted value gain of 2.5 QALYs, yielding a quality-of-life gain of 11.6% and a discounted cost-utility of $2238/QALY. Penetrating keratoplasty for patients with severe keratoconus seems to be a

  13. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided

  14. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  15. The hormonal effects of long-term DDT exposure on malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Lou Thompson, Mary; Dyer, Silke; Robins, T.G.; Omar, Shaheed; Riebow, John; Molekwa, Josef; Kruger, Phillip; Millar, R.

    2004-01-01

    DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] compounds, used in many developing countries, including South Africa, for the control of malaria vectors, have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in vitro and in vivo. The study hypothesis was that male malaria vector-control workers highly exposed to DDT in the past should demonstrate clinically significant exposure-related anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects that should be reflected in abnormalities in reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study of 50 workers from three camps situated near the Malaria Control Center (MCC) in Tzaneen was performed. Tests included blood sampling before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge (100 μg). Serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD and basal and post-GnRH challenge hormone levels, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol (E2), and inhibin, were measured. The mean number of years worked at the MCC was 15.8±7.8 years and the mean serum DDT was 94.3±57.1 μg/g of lipid. Mean baseline E2 levels (62.4±29.9 pg/mL) exceeded the laboratory reference range. Associations between DDT exposure measures (years worked at the MCC and DDT compounds) and hormonal outcomes were weak and inconsistent. The most important finding was a positive relationship of baseline E2 and baseline testosterone with DDT compounds, especially with p'p'-DDT and -DDD. The strongest association found, adjusted for age and SHBG, was between baseline estradiol and p'p'-DDT (β-circumflex=1.14±0.33 pg/mL/μg/g lipid, P=0.001, R 2 =0.31, n=46). An overall anti-androgenic mechanism best explains the results, but with a number of inconsistencies. Associations might be due to chance, as multiple comparisons were made. The results therefore do not suggest an overt anti-androgenic or estrogenic effect of long-term DDT exposure on hormone levels, but correlations do exist in a manner that is not

  16. Stakeholder participation in comparative effectiveness research: defining a framework for effective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Esmail, Laura C; Ramsey, Scott D; Veenstra, David L; Tunis, Sean R

    2012-03-01

    AIMS: Stakeholder engagement is fundamental to comparative effectiveness research (CER), but lacks consistent terminology. This paper aims to define stakeholder engagement and present a conceptual model for involving stakeholders in CER. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: The definitions and model were developed from a literature search, expert input and experience with the Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics, a proof-of-concept platform for stakeholder involvement in priority setting and CER study design. RESULTS: Definitions for stakeholder and stakeholder engagement reflect the target constituencies and their role in CER. The 'analytic-deliberative' conceptual model for stakeholder engagement illustrates the inputs, methods and outputs relevant to CER. The model differentiates methods at each stage of the project; depicts the relationship between components; and identifies outcome measures for evaluation of the process. CONCLUSION: While the definitions and model require testing before being broadly adopted, they are an important foundational step and will be useful for investigators, funders and stakeholder groups interested in contributing to CER.

  17. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Design Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Setting Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. Participants 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient’s global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. Results FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient’s global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with

  18. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-03-21

    To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient's global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient's global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with the same intensity and duration (24 weeks, twice weekly) had greater benefit (between group

  19. A Study of the Social Effects in a Comparative Assessment among the Electricity Generating Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    A comparative assessment among 7 electricity generating systems by considering their environmental impacts, risks, health effects, and social effects was studied last year. The compared electricity generating systems are nuclear, coal, LNG, hydro, oil, wind, photovoltaic (=solar) ones. In last year's work, the social effects were handled by a public acceptance based on an aversion. However, in this paper, the social effects were also studied by a preference in view of the 'willingness to pay' (WTP). With the new social effects study, a comparative analysis of the 7 electricity generation systems was performed in this paper

  20. Cutting-edge technology for public health workforce training in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-06-01

    A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.

  1. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  2. 75 FR 41867 - Request for Information on Development of an Inventory of Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research, which defined CER as the: Conduct and... stakeholders; and assist in identifying priorities and gaps for future research. The goal is to routinize the... Comparative Effectiveness Research AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation...

  3. A Comparative Effectiveness Education Trial for Lifestyle Health Behavior Change in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Purnell, Joseph; Rogers, Rodney; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a…

  4. Composite scores in comparative effectiveness research: counterbalancing parsimony and dimensionality in patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Patrick, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    When planning a comparative effectiveness study comparing disease-modifying treatments, competing demands influence choice of outcomes. Current practice emphasizes parsimony, although understanding multidimensional treatment impact can help to personalize medical decision-making. We discuss both sides of this 'tug of war'. We discuss the assumptions, advantages and drawbacks of composite scores and multidimensional outcomes. We describe possible solutions to the multiple comparison problem, including conceptual hierarchy distinctions, statistical approaches, 'real-world' benchmarks of effectiveness and subgroup analysis. We conclude that comparative effectiveness research should consider multiple outcome dimensions and compare different approaches that fit the individual context of study objectives.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE ANTIANDROGENIC PROPERTIES OF VINCLOZOLIN IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-androgens are an important class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, however, little is known concerning their effects in fish. This presentation will detail the effects of a known mammalian anti-androgen, vincolozin, on reproduction in a model small fish species, the fathea...

  6. Prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning provision for Australian community aged care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Karen Margaret; Carter, Rachel Zoe; Sellars, Marcus William; Lewis, Virginia; Sutton, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-12-01

    Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week. CMs were recruited via their organisations, sequentially allocated to a group and received education based on the group allocation. They were expected to initiate ACP with all clients and to facilitate ACP or refer for ACP. Outcomes were quantity of new ACP conversations and quantity and quality of new advance care directives (ACDs). 30 CMs (16 Facilitator, 14 Referral) completed the study; all 784 client's files (427 Facilitator, 357 Referral) were audited. ACP was initiated with 508 (65%) clients (293 Facilitator, 215 Referral; p<0.05); 89 (18%) of these (53 Facilitator, 36 Referral) and 41 (46%) (13 Facilitator, 28 Referral; p<0.005) completed ACDs. Most ACDs (71%) were of poor quality/not valid. A further 167 clients (facilitator 124; referral 43; p<0.005) reported ACP was in progress at study completion. While there were some differences, overall, models achieved similar outcomes. ACP was initiated with 65% of clients. However, fewer clients completed ACP, there was low numbers of ACDs and document quality was generally poor. The findings raise questions for future implementation and research into community ACP provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Mitsunobu, F.; Hanamoto, K.; Tanizaki, Y.; Sugita, K.; Kohima, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon ( 222 Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  8. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Hansen, Julie B; Klokker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    administered analgesics for pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews was searched for meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies comparing exercise or analgesics with a control group (placebo or usual care) and with pain as an outcome. Individual study......AIM: Evidence of comparative effectiveness of different treatment approaches is important for clinical decision-making, yet absent for most recommended treatments of knee osteoarthritis pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus orally...... estimates were identified and effect sizes were calculated from group differences. We combined study-level effects on pain with a random effects meta-analysis and compared effect sizes between exercise trials and trials with analgesic interventions. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane reviews (four...

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of Androgen Receptor Antagonists Flutamide and Vinclozolin in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of genomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research of the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of acti...

  10. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation Modalities: A Case Study of Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three…

  11. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Angeles-Soto, Esperanza; de Lourdes López-González, Ma; Harrison, Randy A; Hughes, Michael F

    2012-03-01

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, M1 and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by interacting with the androgen receptor. Data on V, M1 and M2 biotransformation are limited. Our objective was to characterize V metabolism by rat liver microsomes. V was incubated with non-treated adult male Long-Evans rat liver microsomes and NADPH. Several metabolites were detected following the extraction of incubate with acetonitrile and analysis by HPLC/DAD/MSD. One metabolite was identified as [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione] (M4), which was gradually converted to 3',5'-dichloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutylanilide (M5). Both co-eluted in the same HPLC peak. Another metabolite ([M7]) was detected by UV but was unstable for mass spectral analysis. The K(M app) for co-eluted M4/M5 and [M7] was 53.7 and 135.4 μM, the V(max app) was 0.812 and 0.669 nmoles/min/mg protein, and CL(int) was 15.1 and 4.9 ml/min/g protein, respectively. Pilocarpine, orphenadrine and proadifen and anti-rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A, 2B and 3A antibodies inhibited M4/M5 and [M7] formation. These results indicate that V is efficiently metabolized by CYP. Determination of the metabolites of V will provide further insight into the relationship between toxicity and tissue dose of V and its metabolites.

  12. Prostate cancer treated by anti-androgens: is sexual function preserved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, F. H.; Collette, L.; de Reijke, T. M.; Whelan, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the EORTC protocol 30892, an open, prospective, randomized study of 310 patients with previously untreated metastatic prostate cancer with favourable prognostic factors who were treated by either flutamide (FLU) or cyproterone acetate (CPA) monotherapy The final

  13. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (Ml) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, Ml and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by in...

  14. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of the anti-androgen vinclozolin after oral administration inthe rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide with antiandrogenic properties. To determine the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of V, adult male rats were administered an oral dose of V (100 mg/kg) in corn oil and sacrificed over time after dosing. V and its metabolites were analyzed in serum and...

  15. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loymans, Rik J. B.; Gemperli, Armin; Cohen, Judith; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Reddel, Helen K.; Jüni, Peter; ter Riet, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate.

  16. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities .... and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  17. Comparative effect of paracetamol, NSAIDs or their combination in postoperative pain management: a qualitative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, M; Jones, S; Pedersen, J L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative reviews of postoperative pain management have demonstrated that the number of patients needed to treat for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief (NNT) is 2.7 for ibuprofen (400 mg) and 4.6 for paracetamol (1000 mg), both compared with placebo. However, direct...... comparisons between paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have not been extensively reviewed. The aims of this review are (i) to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of paracetamol with those of other NSAIDs in postoperative pain, (ii) to compare the effects of combined...... paracetamol and NSAID with those of either drug alone, and (iii) to discuss whether the adverse effects of NSAIDs in short-term use are justified by their analgesic effects, compared with paracetamol. METHODS: Medline (1966 to January 2001) and the Cochrane Library (January 2001) were used to perform...

  18. 75 FR 990 - HHS Intent To Publish Grant and Contract Solicitations for Comparative Effectiveness Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, (2) 100 Institute of Medicine topic... Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research (FCC), and the Institute of Medicine Report on CER...

  19. Comparative effectiveness of Tai Chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective: To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy f...

  20. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Hass, Ulla; Lesné, Laurianne

    2011-01-01

    ; BACKGROUND: More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male ...... results suggest that intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders.......; BACKGROUND: More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male...... reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the potential endocrine disrupting properties of mild analgesics. ; METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study...

  1. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This volume presents the collations tables of a six volume comparative epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose. Data are collated for the effects observed in the following irradiated groups:- Preconception irradiation, intra-uterine irradiation, childhood irradiation, adult irradiation. (UK).

  2. Faculty Satisfaction with Distance Education: A Comparative Analysis on Effectiveness of Undergraduate Course Delivery Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education faculty can and do teach courses delivered in a variety of ways. But, to date, little research has been done on the effectiveness of different delivery modes. This study sought to fill that void by comparing the effectiveness of three undergraduate course delivery modes: classroom, online, and video conference at a technical…

  3. The Effect of External Representations on Compare Word Problems: Supporting Mental Model Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu; Rosales, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of external representations presented together with compare word problems, and whether such effectiveness was moderated by working memory. Participants were 49 secondary school students. Each participant solved 48 problems presented in 4 presentation types that included 2 difficulty treatments (number of steps…

  4. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of cardiotocography plus ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram compared with cardiotocography only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Westerhuis, Michelle E. M. H.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Moons, Karl G. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Oei, Guid S.; van Geijn, Herman P.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Willekes, Christine; Nijhuis, Jan G.; van Beek, Erik; Graziosi, Giuseppe C. M.; Schuitemaker, Nico W. E.; van Lith, Jan M. M.; van den Akker, Eline S. A.; Drogtrop, Addy P.; van Dessel, Hendrikus J. H. M.; Rijnders, Robbert J. P.; Oosterbaan, Herman P.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Kwee, Anneke

    2011-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of addition of ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG; STAN) to cardiotocography (CTG) for fetal surveillance during labor compared with CTG only. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a randomized clinical trial on ST analysis of the fetal ECG. Obstetric

  6. We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effective dose concept was designed to compare the generic risks of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radiation-induced cancer risks. For various reasons, effective dose represents flawed science: for instance, the tissue-specific weighting factors used to calculate effective dose are a subjective mix of different endpoints; and the marked and differing age and gender dependencies for different health detriment endpoints are not taken into account. This paper suggests that effective dose could be replaced with a new quantity, ‘effective risk’, which, like effective dose, is a weighted sum of equivalent doses to different tissues. Unlike effective dose, where the tissue-dependent weighting factors are a set of generic, subjective committee-defined numbers, the weighting factors for effective risk are simply evaluated tissue-specific lifetime cancer risks per unit equivalent dose. Effective risk, which has the potential to be age and gender specific if desired, would perform the same comparative role as effective dose, be just as easy to estimate, be less prone to misuse, be more directly understandable, and would be based on solid science. An added major advantage is that it gives the users some feel for the actual numerical values of the radiation risks they are trying to control.

  7. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    of 13 estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals, including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben and paracetamol, and the mixture ratio was chosen to reflect high-end human intakes. Groups received combined exposures of 0,100, 150, 200 or 450 times high-end human intake levels......Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted....... Additionally, groups received mixtures including only the anti-androgens or estrogens at 200 or 450 times human intake. Female offspring exposed to the high dose mixture of all 13 chemicals showed earlier reproductive aging measured as early onset of irregular estrous cycle as compared to controls...

  8. Modern needs in health technology assessment: a study of comparative effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlysh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health technology assessment is a key component of healthcare decision making in most of the developed countries. Comparative effectiveness research as one of the elements of such assessment is becoming increasingly important in recent years. It is based on the effectiveness analysis of health technologies in real clinical practice setting. The authors have analyzed publications dedicated to these issues and showed the main methods of such study, its peculiarities, advantages and disadvantages. It has been revealed that the most frequently used designs of expert analysis are observational and pragmatic randomized studies. The main recommendations on analyzing comparative effectiveness are given in view of the literary data.

  9. The economics of comparative effectiveness studies: societal and private perspectives and their implications for prioritizing public investments in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David; Basu, Anirban; Conti, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) can provide valuable information for patients, providers and payers. These stakeholders differ in their incentives to invest in CER. To maximize benefits from public investments in CER, it is important to understand the value of CER from the perspectives of these stakeholders and how that affects their incentives to invest in CER. This article provides a conceptual framework for valuing CER, and illustrates the potential benefits of such studies from a number of perspectives using several case studies. We examine cases in which CER provides value by identifying when one treatment is consistently better than others, when different treatments are preferred for different subgroups, and when differences are small enough that decisions can be made based on price. We illustrate these findings using value-of-information techniques to assess the value of research, and by examining changes in pharmaceutical prices following publication of a comparative effectiveness study. Our results suggest that CER may have high societal value but limited private return to providers or payers. This suggests the importance of public efforts to promote the production of CER. We also conclude that value-of-information tools may help inform policy decisions about how much public funds to invest in CER and how to prioritize the use of available public funds for CER, in particular targeting public CER spending to areas where private incentives are low relative to social benefits.

  10. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  11. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nurina Tyagita; Taufiqurrachman Nasihun; Titiek Sumarawati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR) or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effec...

  12. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m 3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m 3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTUM EFFECTS IN NANOSCALE MULTIGATE MOSFETS USING VARIATIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. PALANICHAMY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs is analysed using variational approach including quantum effects. An analytical model is derived to accounting the quantum effects at the silicon (Si/silicon dioxide (SiO2 interface. A general procedure is used for calculating the quantum inversion charge density. Using this inversion charge density, the drain current is obtained. Our model results are compared with the simulation results and its shows very good agreement. Our results highlighted that cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET is a good candidate to obtain the high drain current compared with other two devices.

  15. Essure hysteroscopic sterilization versus interval laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation: a comparative effectiveness review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounelli, Myrsini; Reaven, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    A comparative effectiveness analysis was performed to examine the risks and benefits of laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation compared with hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure Permanent Birth Control System (Bayer HealthCare AG, Whippany, NJ). Existing evidence shows that both LBTL and Essure are safe and effective methods of female sterilization. Both have high rates of efficacy and low rates of complications although when complications do occur, those related to the Essure procedure are more likely to be minor in nature. The analysis was limited by the restricted number of studies involving head-to-head comparisons of the 2 approaches. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: Evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balkrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally.

  17. Comparing Usage and Cost- Effectiveness Analysis of English Printed and Electronic Books for University of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Davoud Haseli; Nader Naghshineh; fatemeh Fahimnia

    2014-01-01

    Libraries operate in a competitive environment, and this is essentially needed to prove its benefits for stockholders, and continuously evaluate and compare advantages for printed and electronic resources. In these cases, economic evaluation methods such as cost- effectiveness analysis, is one of the best methods, because of a comprehensive study of the use and cost of library sources. The purpose of this study is to discovery of use and cost- effectiveness analysis of English printed and ebo...

  18. Comparative effects of partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation on growth and physiology of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD, deficit irrigation (DI, and full irrigation (FI on tomato physiology were investigated. In PRD and DI plants, leaf water potential values and stomatal conductance were significantly lower, while xylem ABA concentration was greater compared to FI plants. Photosynthesis was similar for all treatments. Water use efficiency was improved by PRD and DI, which reduced fruit dry weight, but had no effect on dry weight of leaves and stems.

  19. Comparative animal experimental studies of the effects of different radiopharmaceuticals on the electroencephalogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschneider, T.; Gundlach, H.J.; Krueger, M.; Reincke, R.; Schwebke, R.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the radiopharmaceuticals recently recommended for isotope cisternography were compared as to their effects on the bioelectric activity. Relaxed cats did not reveal any effects of 198 Au or 169 Yb-Ca-DTPA on the bioelectric activity. Following suboccipital administration, 169 Yb-DTPA and 131 I-HSA caused changes of the electroencephalogram in one of 7 and 6 cases, respectively. (author)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of Bezlotoxumab Compared With Placebo for the Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Vimalanand S; Dubberke, Erik R; Dorr, Mary Beth; Elbasha, Elamin; Cossrow, Nicole; Jiang, Yiling; Marcella, Stephen

    2018-01-18

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most commonly recognized cause of recurrent diarrhea. Bezlotoxumab, administered concurrently with antibiotics directed against C. difficile (standard of care [SoC]), has been shown to reduce the recurrence of CDI, compared with SoC alone. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of bezlotoxumab administered concurrently with SoC, compared with SoC alone, in subgroups of patients at risk of recurrence of CDI. A computer-based Markov health state transition model was designed to track the natural history of patients infected with CDI. A cohort of patients entered the model with either a mild/moderate or severe CDI episode, and were treated with SoC antibiotics together with either bezlotoxumab or placebo. The cohort was followed over a lifetime horizon, and costs and utilities for the various health states were used to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to test the robustness of the results. The cost-effectiveness model showed that, compared with placebo, bezlotoxumab was associated with 0.12 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and was cost-effective in preventing CDI recurrences in the entire trial population, with an ICER of $19824/QALY gained. Compared with placebo, bezlotoxumab was also cost-effective in the subgroups of patients aged ≥65 years (ICER of $15298/QALY), immunocompromised patients (ICER of $12597/QALY), and patients with severe CDI (ICER of $21430/QALY). Model-based results demonstrated that bezlotoxumab was cost-effective in the prevention of recurrent CDI compared with placebo, among patients receiving SoC antibiotics for treatment of CDI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. How well do commonly used data presentation formats support comparative effectiveness evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G; Qian, Feng; Veazie, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Good decisions depend on an accurate understanding of the comparative effectiveness of decision alternatives. The best way to convey data needed to support these comparisons is unknown. To determine how well 5 commonly used data presentation formats convey comparative effectiveness information. The study was an Internet survey using a factorial design. Participants consisted of 279 members of an online survey panel. Study participants compared outcomes associated with 3 hypothetical screening test options relative to 5 possible outcomes with probabilities ranging from 2 per 5000 (0.04%) to 500 per 1000 (50%). Data presentation formats included a table, a "magnified" bar chart, a risk scale, a frequency diagram, and an icon array. Outcomes included the number of correct ordinal judgments regarding the more likely of 2 outcomes, the ratio of perceived versus actual relative likelihoods of the paired outcomes, the intersubject consistency of responses, and perceived clarity. The mean number of correct ordinal judgments was 12 of 15 (80%), with no differences among data formats. On average, there was a 3.3-fold difference between perceived and actual likelihood ratios (95% confidence interval = 3.0-3.6). Comparative judgments based on flowcharts, icon arrays, and tables were all significantly more accurate and consistent than those based on risk scales and bar charts (P charts, and flow diagrams. None of the data presentation formats studied can reliably provide patients, especially those with low subjective numeracy, with an accurate understanding of comparative effectiveness information.

  2. Is the perceived placebo effect comparable between adults and children? A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiaud, Perrine; Cornu, Catherine; Lajoinie, Audrey; Djemli, Amina; Cucherat, Michel; Kassai, Behrouz

    2017-01-01

    A potential larger perceived placebo effect in children compared with adults could influence the detection of the treatment effect and the extrapolation of the treatment benefit from adults to children. This study aims to explore this potential difference, using a meta-epidemiological approach. A systematic review of the literature was done to identify trials included in meta-analyses evaluating a drug intervention with separate data for adults and children. The standardized mean change and the proportion of responders (binary outcomes) were used to calculate the perceived placebo effect. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to test for the difference between adults and children of the perceived placebo effect. For binary outcomes, the perceived placebo effect was significantly more favorable in children compared with adults (β = 0.13; P = 0.001). Parallel group trials (β = -1.83; P < 0.001), subjective outcomes (β = -0.76; P < 0.001), and the disease type significantly influenced the perceived placebo effect. The perceived placebo effect is different between adults and children for binary outcomes. This difference seems to be influenced by the design, the disease, and outcomes. Calibration of new studies for children should consider cautiously the placebo effect in children.

  3. A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Zoology Prerequisites at Slippery Rock State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William Sechler

    This study compared the effectiveness of three sequences of prerequisite courses required before taking zoology. Sequence 1 prerequisite courses consisted of general biology and human biology; Sequence 2 consisted of general biology; and Sequence 3 required cell biology. Zoology students in the spring of 1972 were pretest and a posttest. The mean…

  4. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  5. Comparative effectiveness of personalized lifestyle management strategies for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Chu (Paula); A. Pandya; J.A. Salomon (Joshua A); S.J. Goldie (Sue J); Hunink, M.G.M. (M.G. Myriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year

  6. Comparative Effect of Memory and Cognitive Strategies Training on EFL Intermediate Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisaeid, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…

  7. Comparative effects of commercial lime (CaCO 3 ) and ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of commercial lime (CaCO3) and ground eggshell on the uptake of calcium and dry matter yield of maize in an ultisol of Southeastern Nigeria using maize (variety Oba supper 92) as the test crop. The soil was acidic and deficient in N, O.C., K, Ca and ...

  8. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Group B was administered 50 ml of regular soda (RS), and group C was administered 50 ml of diet soda (DS) each per day for 21 days, and the rats were ...

  9. SNARC Effects with Numerical and Non-Numerical Symbolic Comparative Judgments: Instructional and Cultural Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaki, Samuel; Petrusic, William M.; Leth-Steensen, Craig

    2012-01-01

    With English-language readers in an experiment requiring pairwise comparative judgments of the sizes of animals, the nature of the association between the magnitudes of the animal pairs and the left or right sides of response (i.e., the SNARC effect) was reversed depending on whether the participants had to choose either the smaller or the larger…

  10. Predicting the Effects of Comparable Worth Programs on Female Labor Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao

    1989-01-01

    Surveys theories in labor economics about how the female labor supply is affected by the wage offers that women receive. Summarizes the implications concerning expected effects of comparable worth wage adjustments on female labor supply. Examines empirical evidence pertaining to the theory of female labor supply. (JS)

  11. The effects of physiotherapy for female urinary incontinence: individual compared with group treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a randomized trial, the effects of individual and group physiotherapy for urinary incontinence in women referred by their general practitioner (GP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included women of all ages (mean 47.8 years) with stress, urge or mixed incontinence; 126

  12. The effects of physiotherapy for female urinary incontinence: individual compared with group treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a randomized trial, the effects of individual and group physiotherapy for urinary incontinence in women referred by their general practitioner (GP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included women of all ages (mean 47.8 years) with stress, urge or mixed incontinence; 126

  13. Comparing treatment effects after adjustment with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and propensity score methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Edwin P; de Boer, Anthonius; Pestman, Wiebe R; Belitser, Svetlana V; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Klungel, Olaf H

    PURPOSE: To compare adjusted effects of drug treatment for hypertension on the risk of stroke from propensity score (PS) methods with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) regression in an observational study with censored data. METHODS: From two prospective population-based cohort

  14. The Varied Educational Effects of Parent-Child Communication: A Comparative Study of Fourteen Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the ways in which parent-child communication--a major indicator of parental involvement--influences children's educational achievement across 14 countries. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the author examines the extent to which social class differences in the effect of…

  15. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter- and ozone-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to compare the cardiac effects of particulate matter (PM)-enhanced and ozone(O3)-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice. We hypothesized that O3-enhanced smog would cause greater cardiac dysfunction than PM-enhanced smog due to the higher concentrations of irr...

  16. Comparative Effects Of “Do It” Creativity And Emotional Mastery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the comparative effects of “DO IT” creativity and Emotional Mastery techniques in fostering emotional intelligence among adolescents with physical impairments in Oyo State, Nigeria. There were ninety participants randomly selected from three special institutions in the state, namely: Cheshire High ...

  17. What Are the Perceived Effects of Telecollaboration Compared to Other Communication-Scenarios with Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Elke

    2016-01-01

    What are the perceived effects of Telecollaboration (TC), compared to other types of communication-scenarios with peers (i.e. local peers in small groups and Erasmus students abroad)? This is the question this exploratory study tackles within a blended language learning course. The analysis of students' perceptions paints a rather contrastive…

  18. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of female albino Wistar rats was ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities consumed5. Caffeine is linked ... consumption might result in seizures, memory loss, dizziness, headache and ...

  19. Quantifying and Comparing Effects of Climate Engineering Methods on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana; Kracher, Daniela; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian H.; Schmidt, Hauke

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to a quantitative comparison of climate engineering (CE) methods, we assess atmosphere-, ocean-, and land-based CE measures with respect to Earth system effects consistently within one comprehensive model. We use the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) with prognostic carbon cycle to compare solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection and two carbon dioxide removal methods: afforestation and ocean alkalinization. The CE model experiments are designed to offset the effect of fossil-fuel burning on global mean surface air temperature under the RCP8.5 scenario to follow or get closer to the RCP4.5 scenario. Our results show the importance of feedbacks in the CE effects. For example, as a response to SRM the land carbon uptake is enhanced by 92 Gt by the year 2100 compared to the reference RCP8.5 scenario due to reduced soil respiration thus reducing atmospheric CO2. Furthermore, we show that normalizations allow for a better comparability of different CE methods. For example, we find that due to compensating processes such as biogeophysical effects of afforestation more carbon needs to be removed from the atmosphere by afforestation than by alkalinization to reach the same global warming reduction. Overall, we illustrate how different CE methods affect the components of the Earth system; we identify challenges arising in a CE comparison, and thereby contribute to developing a framework for a comparative assessment of CE.

  20. Use of comparative effectiveness research in drug coverage and pricing decisions: a six-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2010-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has assumed an increasing role in drug coverage and, in some cases, pricing decisions in Europe, as decision-makers seek to obtain better value for money. This issue brief comparatively examines the use of CER across six countries--Denmark, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. With CER gaining traction in the United States, these international experiences offer insights and potential lessons. Investing in CER can help address the current gap in publicly available, credible, up-to-date, and scientifically based comparative information on the effectiveness of drugs and other health interventions. This information can be used to base coverage and pricing decisions on evidence of value, thereby facilitating access to and public and private investment in the most beneficial new drugs and technologies. In turn, use of CER creates incentives for more efficient, high-quality health care and encourages development of innovative products that offer measurable value to patients.

  1. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  2. Comparing the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic studies: a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, D.D.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Wellish, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a model to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two or more diagnostic tests. The model defines a cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) for a diagnostic test as the ratio of effective cost to base cost, only dollar costs considered. Effective cost includes base cost, cost of dealing with expected side effects, and wastage due to imperfect test performance. Test performance is measured by diagnostic utility (DU), a measure of test outcomes incorporating the decision-analytic variables sensitivity, specificity, equivocal fraction, disease probability, and outcome utility. Each of these factors affecting DU, and hence CER, is a local, not universal, value; these local values strongly affect CER, which in effect becomes a property of the local medical setting. When DU = +1 and there are no adverse effects, CER = 1 and the patient benefits from the test dollar for dollar. When there are adverse effects effective cost exceeds base cost, and for an imperfect test DU 1. As DU approaches 0 (worthless test), CER approaches infinity (no effectiveness at any cost). If DU is negative, indicating that doing the test at all would be detrimental, CER also becomes negative. We conclude that the CER model is a useful preliminary method for ranking the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests, and that the comparisons would best be done using local values; different groups might well arrive at different rankings. (Author)

  3. Facilitating comparative effectiveness research in cancer genomics: evaluating stakeholder perceptions of the engagement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Armstrong, Joanne; Gorman, Mark; Hole-Curry, Leah; O'Leary, James; Ruffner, B W; Watkins, John; Veenstra, David L; Baker, Laurence H; Unger, Joseph M; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-07-01

    The Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics completed a 2-year stakeholder-guided process for the prioritization of genomic tests for comparative effectiveness research studies. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of engagement procedures in achieving project goals and to identify opportunities for future improvements. The evaluation included an online questionnaire, one-on-one telephone interviews and facilitated discussion. Responses to the online questionnaire were tabulated for descriptive purposes, while transcripts from key informant interviews were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. A total of 11 out of 13 stakeholders completed both the online questionnaire and interview process, while nine participated in the facilitated discussion. Eighty-nine percent of questionnaire items received overall ratings of agree or strongly agree; 11% of responses were rated as neutral with the exception of a single rating of disagreement with an item regarding the clarity of how stakeholder input was incorporated into project decisions. Recommendations for future improvement included developing standard recruitment practices, role descriptions and processes for improved communication with clinical and comparative effectiveness research investigators. Evaluation of the stakeholder engagement process provided constructive feedback for future improvements and should be routinely conducted to ensure maximal effectiveness of stakeholder involvement.

  4. Differences among consumer segments with regard to perceptions of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sunyna S; Frost, Sloane L

    2014-11-01

    To examine differences among health-related decision-making consumer segments with regard to knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors pertinent to comparative effectiveness research. Data were collected via an online survey from 603 adults with chronic conditions. Consumer segment was determined using a two-item tool. Active consumers (high skills and motivation) reported the highest levels of engagement in various behaviors. Passive consumers (low skills and motivation) reported the lowest levels of engagement in various behaviors. High-effort consumers (low skills, high motivation) reported more positive attitudes and opinions and more engagement in various behaviors than did complacent consumers (high skills, low motivation). Effective translation and dissemination of comparative effectiveness research will require the development of approaches tailored to consumers with varying levels of skills and motivation.

  5. MODELLING OF FINANCIAL EFFECTIVENESS AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Aleksey Alekseevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of extension and development of tools for methodological evaluation of effectiveness of public-private partnership (PPP projects both individually and in comparison of effectiveness of various mechanisms of projects realization on the example of traditional public procurement. The author proposed an original technique of modelling cash flows of private and public partners when realizing the projects based on PPP and on public procurement. The model enables us promptly and with sufficient accuracy to reveal comparative advantages of project forms of PPP and public procurement, and also assess financial effectiveness of the PPP projects for each partner. The modelling is relatively straightforward and reliable. The model also enables us to evaluate public partner's expenses for availability, find the terms and thresholds for interest rates of financing attracted by the partners and for risk probabilities to ensure comparative advantage of PPP project. Proposed criteria of effectiveness are compared with methodological recommendations provided by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. Subject: public and private organizations, financial institutions, development institutions and their theoretical and practical techniques for effectiveness evaluation of public-private partnership (PPP projects. Complexity of effectiveness evaluation and the lack of unified and accepted methodology are among the factors that limit the development of PPP in the Russian Federation nowadays. Research objectives: development of methodological methods for assessing financial efficiency of PPP projects by creating and justifying application of new principles and methods of modelling, and also criteria for effectiveness of PPP projects both individually and in comparison with the public procurement. Materials and methods: open database of ongoing PPP projects in the Russian Federation and abroad was used. The

  6. Antiseptic mouth rinses: an update on comparative effectiveness, risks and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osso, Diane; Kanani, Nehal

    2013-02-01

    Antiseptic mouth rinses are widely recommended and marketed to improve oral health. This article summarizes current studies on the comparative effectiveness of selected antiseptic mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily exposure, including salivary flow rate, oral cancer and wear of composite restorations. Electronic database searches were conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to identify articles comparing the effectiveness of 4 commercially marketed antiseptic mouth rinses differing in active ingredients (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, essential oils (menthol, thymol and eucalyptol) and methyl salicylate, 0.7% cetylpyridinium chloride and 20% aloe vera gel) for controlling plaque and gingivitis. Criteria for inclusion included controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews appearing in English language publications evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily usage. The majority of studies have shown mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate or essential oils and methyl salicylate provide clinically significant anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits. Cetylpyridinium chloride has been found to provide only limited clinical benefits compared to inactive control mouth rinse. Inadequate evidence is available to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera gel. Chlorhexidine, essential oils and cetylpyridinium have been found to be safe. However, limited data are available on the effects of the mouth rinse on wear patterns of dental restorations. Studies reviewed reported no significant difference in salivary flow rate related to alcohol based mouth rinse. Research supports the effectiveness of antiseptic mouth rinses in reducing plaque and gingivitis as an adjunct to home care. Insufficient evidence is available to support the claim that oral antiseptics can reduce the risk of developing periodontitis or the

  7. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness. PMID:25632398

  9. Methodological considerations in observational comparative effectiveness research for implantable medical devices: an epidemiologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Ritchey, Mary Elizabeth; Mi, Xiaojuan; Chen, Chih-Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H; Setoguchi, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Medical devices play a vital role in diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases and are an integral part of the health-care system. Many devices, including implantable medical devices, enter the market through a regulatory pathway that was not designed to assure safety and effectiveness. Several recent studies and high-profile device recalls have demonstrated the need for well-designed, valid postmarketing studies of medical devices. Medical device epidemiology is a relatively new field compared with pharmacoepidemiology, which for decades has been developed to assess the safety and effectiveness of medications. Many methodological considerations in pharmacoepidemiology apply to medical device epidemiology. Fundamental differences in mechanisms of action and use and in how exposure data are captured mean that comparative effectiveness studies of medical devices often necessitate additional and different considerations. In this paper, we discuss some of the most salient issues encountered in conducting comparative effectiveness research on implantable devices. We discuss special methodological considerations regarding the use of data sources, exposure and outcome definitions, timing of exposure, and sources of bias. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-01-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  11. Effects of stimulus order on discrimination processes in comparative and equality judgements: data and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyjas, Oliver; Ulrich, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In typical discrimination experiments, participants are presented with a constant standard and a variable comparison stimulus and their task is to judge which of these two stimuli is larger (comparative judgement). In these experiments, discrimination sensitivity depends on the temporal order of these stimuli (Type B effect) and is usually higher when the standard precedes rather than follows the comparison. Here, we outline how two models of stimulus discrimination can account for the Type B effect, namely the weighted difference model (or basic Sensation Weighting model) and the Internal Reference Model. For both models, the predicted psychometric functions for comparative judgements as well as for equality judgements, in which participants indicate whether they perceived the two stimuli to be equal or not equal, are derived and it is shown that the models also predict a Type B effect for equality judgements. In the empirical part, the models' predictions are evaluated. To this end, participants performed a duration discrimination task with comparative judgements and with equality judgements. In line with the models' predictions, a Type B effect was observed for both judgement types. In addition, a time-order error, as indicated by shifts of the psychometric functions, and differences in response times were observed only for the equality judgement. Since both models entail distinct additional predictions, it seems worthwhile for future research to unite the two models into one conceptual framework.

  12. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Aim: Using cervical collars is one of the treatment methods for releaving cervical pain. The effect of limb orthotics on proprioception and postural stability has been suggested. There is not sufficient studies about the effect of cervical collars on static and dynamic stability, and the effect of soft and hard collars have not been compared with one another. The objective of this study is investigating and comparing the immediate effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural stability in healthy young subjects. Methods & Materials: In standing position on firm surface with closed eyes, both soft and hard collars decreased the stability and there was not any significant difference among collars. In standing positions on soft surface with closed and opened eyes, using none of the soft and hard collars did not change the stability. This quasi experimental study through repeated measure method has been conducted on 65 healthy young male and female college students. Static stability was evaluated by modified Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB in conditions without collar and by soft and hard cervical collars and were compared between the conditions. Results: Conclusion: Our results suggest that in static conditions, without vision, both collars decrease the stability in healthy young subjects. So considering the evaluation of stability and prevention of balance disturbance during the collar prescription seems to be necessary.

  14. Comparative clinical effectiveness of management strategies for sciatica: systematic review and network meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ruth A; Williams, Nefyn H; Sutton, Alex J; Burton, Kim; Din, Nafees Ud; Matar, Hosam E; Hendry, Maggie; Phillips, Ceri J; Nafees, Sadia; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Rickard, Ian; Wilkinson, Clare

    2015-06-01

    There are numerous treatment approaches for sciatica. Previous systematic reviews have not compared all these strategies together. To compare the clinical effectiveness of different treatment strategies for sciatica simultaneously. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. We searched 28 electronic databases and online trial registries, along with bibliographies of previous reviews for comparative studies evaluating any intervention to treat sciatica in adults, with outcome data on global effect or pain intensity. Network meta-analysis methods were used to simultaneously compare all treatment strategies and allow indirect comparisons of treatments between studies. The study was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment program; there are no potential conflict of interests. We identified 122 relevant studies; 90 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs. Interventions were grouped into 21 treatment strategies. Internal and external validity of included studies was very low. For overall recovery as the outcome, compared with inactive control or conventional care, there was a statistically significant improvement following disc surgery, epidural injections, nonopioid analgesia, manipulation, and acupuncture. Traction, percutaneous discectomy, and exercise therapy were significantly inferior to epidural injections or surgery. For pain as the outcome, epidural injections and biological agents were significantly better than inactive control, but similar findings for disc surgery were not statistically significant. Biological agents were significantly better for pain reduction than bed rest, nonopioids, and opioids. Opioids, education/advice alone, bed rest, and percutaneous discectomy were inferior to most other treatment strategies; although these findings represented large effects, they were statistically equivocal. For the first time, many different treatment strategies for sciatica have been compared in the

  15. Comparative effectiveness research (CER): a summary of AHRQ's CER on therapies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, Gary M; Balfe, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the U.S. government has designated funding of several large-scale initiatives for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in health care. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 apportioned more than $1 billion to support CER programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). CER is generally defined as the undertaking of original research or systematic reviews of published literature in order to compare the benefits and risks of different approaches to preventing, diagnosing, or treating diseases. These approaches may include diagnostic tests, medications, medical devices, and surgeries. The overall goals of CER are to support informed health care decisions by patients, clinicians, payers, and policy makers and to apply its evidence to ultimately improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of health care. To (a) provide managed care professionals with general definitions of CER, specifically as it is administered by AHRQ; (b) discuss the importance of CER to clinical and managed care pharmacists; and (c) summarize key methods and findings from AHRQ's 2007 comparative effectiveness review on therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As supported by AHRQ, CER is conducted in order to synthesize comprehensive evidence on the comparative benefits and harms of treatment interventions. The findings from comparative effectiveness reviews can thus contribute to informing therapeutic strategies and treatment decisions. In 2007, a multitude of RA treatment options and studies motivated AHRQ to commission a systematic comparative effectiveness review. Conducted by investigators at the RTI-University of North Carolina Evidence-Based Practice Center, the review included comparisons of synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic agents, synthetic DMARDs versus biologic agents, and various

  16. Investigating the visual span in comparative search: the effects of task difficulty and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomplun, M; Reingold, E M; Shen, J

    2001-09-01

    In three experiments, participants' visual span was measured in a comparative visual search task in which they had to detect a local match or mismatch between two displays presented side by side. Experiment 1 manipulated the difficulty of the comparative visual search task by contrasting a mismatch detection task with a substantially more difficult match detection task. In Experiment 2, participants were tested in a single-task condition involving only the visual task and a dual-task condition in which they concurrently performed an auditory task. Finally, in Experiment 3, participants performed two dual-task conditions, which differed in the difficulty of the concurrent auditory task. Both the comparative search task difficulty (Experiment 1) and the divided attention manipulation (Experiments 2 and 3) produced strong effects on visual span size.

  17. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed

  18. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme compared with other smoking cessation interventions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Fernández, Esteve; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful...... did not want further contact, who intentionally were not followed up or who lacked information about the intervention they received were excluded. A total of 46 287 smokers were included. Interventions: Various real-life smoking cessation interventions were identified and compared: The Gold Standard...... smokers. The follow-up rate was 74%. Women were less likely to remain abstinent, OR 0.83 (CI 0.79 to 0.87). Short interventions were more effective among men. After adjusting for confounders, the Gold Standard Programme was the only intervention with significant results across sex, increasing the odds...

  19. Comparative costs and cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Justine; Zinsou, Cyprien; Parkhurst, Justin; N'Dour, Marguerite; Foyet, Léger; Mueller, Dirk H

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a

  20. Effectiveness of the homeopathic preparation Zeel compared with carprofen in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Stephan; Stolt, Pelle; Braun, Gabriele; Hellmann, Klaus; Reinhart, Erich

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared the symptomatic effectiveness of a complex homeopathic preparation Zeel (1-3 tablets orally per day depending on body weight) to carprofen (4 mg/kg body weight) in dogs (n=68) aged >1 yr diagnosed with osteoarthritis in a multicenter, prospective, observational open-label cohort study in 12 German veterinary clinics. The active treatment period was 56 days. Symptomatic effectiveness, lameness, stiffness of movements, and pain on palpation were evaluated by treating veterinarians and owners. Clinical signs of osteoarthritis improved significantly (Pcarprofen group.

  1. The comparative study of the effect of some radionuclides on chlorella populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvobene, R.Ya.; Marchyulenene, D.P.; Shuliene, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    In this report the data are presented of the comparative study of physiological and genetic effects on chlorella populations (Chlorella vUlgaris Beijer, strain LARG-1) of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce (equal concentrations) distinguished by the radiation dose produced, the physico-chemical properties, and the levels of accumulation and deposition thereof in plant cells. The effects of the radionuclides on chlorella populations were estimated with a reference to the rate of photosynthesis, cell density, and the number of mutant and lethally affected cells

  2. Iohexol and iopamidol myelography in the dog: a clinical trial comparing adverse effects and myelographic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Blevins, W.E.; Jakovljevic, S.; Teclaw, R.F.; Han, C.M.; Hurd, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In a blind clinical trial, adverse effects after iohexol and iopamidol myelography were evaluated in 151 dogs. Eighty-one dogs were given iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and 70 dogs were given iopamidol (200 mgI/ml) by pre-determined assignment. Each dog was evaluated postmyelographically for seizures, hyperthermia, prolonged recovery from anesthesia and intensification of pre-existing neural signs. Myelographic quality was evaluated with a subjective scoring method. In comparing iohexol and iopamidol groups, there was not a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects or in myelographic quality. Iopamidol and iohexol appeared to be equally efficacious for routine canine myelography

  3. Comparing the effects of negative and mixed emotional messages on predicted occasional excessive drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages) could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.

  4. Degradation of natural habitats by roads: Comparing land-take and noise effect zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Hossein; Moradi, Hossein; Soffianian, Alireza; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul; Senn, Josef; Geneletti, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Roads may act as barriers, negatively influencing the movement of animals, thereby causing disruption in landscapes. Roads cause habitat loss and fragmentation not only through their physical occupation, but also through traffic noise. The aim of this study is to provide a method to quantify the habitat degradation including habitat loss and fragmentation due to road traffic noise and to compare it with those of road land-take. Two types of fragmentation effects are determined: structural fragmentation (based on road land-take only), and functional fragmentation (noise effect zone fragmentation, buffer using a threshold of 40 dB). Noise propagation for roads with a traffic volume of more than 1000 vehicles per day was simulated by Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) model. Habitat loss and fragmentation through land-take and noise effect zone were calculated and compared in Zagros Mountains in western Iran. The study area is characterized by three main habitat types (oak forest, scattered woodland and temperate grassland) which host endangered and protected wildlife species. Due to topographic conditions, land cover type, and the traffic volume in the region, the noise effect zone ranged from 50 to 2000 m which covers 18.3% (i.e. 516,929.95 ha) of the total study area. The results showed that the habitat loss due to noise effect zone is dramatically higher than that due to road land-take only (35% versus 1.04% of the total area). Temperate grasslands lost the highest proportion of the original area by both land-take and noise effect zone, but most area was lost in scattered woodland as compared to the other two habitat types. The results showed that considering the noise effect zone for habitat fragmentation resulted in an increase of 25.8% of the area affected (316,810 ha) as compared to using the land-take only (555,874 ha vs. 239,064 ha, respectively). The results revealed that the degree of habitat fragmentation is increasing by considering the noise

  5. Specific spheres of application of ionising radiation effects, some realized results and comparative advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderac, R.

    2007-01-01

    The papers discusses some results of ionizing radiation effects in realization of non-destructive methods, achieved progress from the aspect of innovation, comparative results with previously used methods, etc. A review is given of methods based on alpha-radiography, auto-alpha radiography, beta-radiography, X-ray-fluorescent analysis, X- and gamma radiography, and photos of specific samples of neutron radiography [sr

  6. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Yavarikia; Mahnaz Shahnazi; Samira Hadavand Mirzaie; Yousef Javadzadeh; Razieh Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding.Methods: This w...

  7. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yavarikia, Parisa; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hadavand Mirzaie, Samira; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Lutfi, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding.

  8. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Johannes; Wilhelm, Erik; Schenler, Warren

    2014-01-01

    In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduc...

  9. Comparative Effects of Injectable and Oral Hormonal Contraceptives on Lipid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayor Adegoke; Pascal C. Eneh; Roseanne Okafor; Benjamin N. Okolonkwo; Solomon A. Braide; Chukwubike U.Okeke; Holy Brown; Ngozika B. Okwandu

    2012-01-01

    Background and AimsThe continual use of hormonal contraceptives among women within reproductive age has been on the increase. The effects of these contraceptives on lipid metabolism vary depending on the type of hormonal contraceptive. This study was carried out among Nigerian women, to compare theeffects of injectable hormonal contraceptives to that of combined oral contraceptives on lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipo-pro...

  10. Thermo-Kinetic Investigation of Comparative Ligand Effect on Cysteine Iron Redox Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Teshima, Norio; Maqsood, Syed Raashid; Akhoon, Showket Ahmad; Peerzada, Ghulam Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal ions in their free state bring unwanted biological oxidations generating oxidative stress. The ligand modulated redox potential can be indispensable in prevention of such oxidative stress by blocking the redundant bio-redox reactions. In this study we investigated the comparative ligand effect on the thermo-kinetic aspects of biologically important cysteine iron (III) redox reaction using spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The results were corroborated...

  11. Comparing the effects of reflexology and foot bath on sleep quality in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyedrasooli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common mental problems reported among elders. It seems some non-pharmacological interventions, can improve their sleep quality. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions, reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people. Methods: This is a clinical trial without control group, conducted on 46 elderly men in two groups of reflexology and foot bath. Written informed consent was completed by subjects. Reflexolo...

  12. CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch (CYCORE): improving data from cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Kevin; Wolszon, Laura; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Prokhorov, Alex V; Barrera, Stephanie; Baru, Chaitan; Farcas, Emilia; Krueger, Ingolf; Palmer, Doug; Raab, Fred; Rios, Phil; Ziftci, Celal; Peterson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Improved approaches and methodologies are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) in oncology. While cancer therapies continue to emerge at a rapid pace, the review, synthesis, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions across clinical trials lag in comparison. Rigorous and systematic testing of competing therapies has been clouded by age-old problems: poor patient adherence, inability to objectively measure the environmental influences on health, lack of kn...

  13. Comparing the Effects of Negative and Mixed Emotional Messages on Predicted Occasional Excessive Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Mu?oz, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating t...

  14. Comparing the effects of negative and mixed emotional messages on predicted occasional excessive drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Levillain, Pilar; Caballero González, Amparo; Muñoz Cáceres, María Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating t...

  15. Comparative research on decommissioning disposal effect of two uranium mines at home and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuke; Peng Daofeng; Liu Qingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Taking two typical decommissioned uranium mines at home and abroad for an example, disposal means and effects of two uranium mines were compared and analyzed in three aspects of waste dump disposal, mine sealing treatment, and wastewater disposal. The results showed that two uranium mines were basically identical in the disposal standards and disposal means, but the works in the source survey, wastewater disposal and long-term supervision done by oversea uranium mine were more detailed than domestic uranium mine. (authors)

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Two Walking Interventions on Participation, Step Counts, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Heller, Debbie; Vernisi, Kristin; Gulick, Diana; Cruz, Samantha; Snyder, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    To (1) compare the effects of two worksite-based walking interventions on employee participation rates; (2) compare average daily step counts between conditions, and; (3) examine the effects of increases in average daily step counts on biometric and psychologic outcomes. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in which six employer groups were randomly selected and randomly assigned to condition. Four manufacturing worksites and two office-based worksite served as the setting. A total of 474 employees from six employer groups were included. A standard walking program was compared to an enhanced program that included incentives, feedback, competitive challenges, and monthly wellness workshops. Walking was measured by self-reported daily step counts. Survey measures and biometric screenings were administered at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months after baseline. Analysis used linear mixed models with repeated measures. During 9 months, participants in the enhanced condition averaged 726 more steps per day compared with those in the standard condition (p women (-2.1 lbs.), and reductions in body mass index (-0.41 men, -0.31 women). Higher step counts were also associated with improvements in mood, having more energy, and higher ratings of overall health. An enhanced walking program significantly increases participation rates and daily step counts, which were associated with weight loss and reductions in body mass index.

  17. Comparison of in vitro hormone activities of novel flame retardants TBB, TBPH and their metabolites TBBA and TBMEPH using reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, Ivana; Skledar, Darja Gramec; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-10-01

    The anti-androgenic and anti-thyroid hormonal activities of the two novel brominated flame retardants, TBB and TBPH and of their metabolites TBBA and TBMEPH have been compared using the luciferase reporter gene assays. Only the parent compounds TBB and TBPH exhibited anti-glucocorticoid activity with IC50 values of 1.9 μM and 0.3 μM. Furthermore, mode of action for these two compounds is by direct competing to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with IC50 values of 0.03 μM and 0.002 μM. All four tested compounds possess anti-androgenic and anti-thyroid hormonal activities, without agonist activities on the respective receptors. Anti-androgenic activities with IC50 values of 43.5 μM, 0.1 μM, 47.5 μM and 1.3 μM were found for TBB, TBPH, TBBA and TBMEPH. The anti-thyroid hormonal IC50 values of 37.5 μM, 0.1 μM, 22.8 μM and 32.3 μM for TBB, TBPH, TBBA and TBMEPH, together with the above quoted results, indicate that metabolism can modify anti-androgenic, anti-glucocorticoid and anti-thyroid hormonal effects of these novel brominated flame retardants. Furthermore, the parent flame retardants are shown to be able to disrupt the function of the GR as antagonists by direct competition to the receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative antibacterial effectiveness of alcohol and herbal based commercially available hand antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vipin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human skin is a reservoir of numerous microorganisms. Even though hand washing with soap and water alone reduces the microbial load, the complementary uses of hand antiseptics enhance the antimicrobial effect. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of two commercially available hand antiseptics, routinely used in dental practice, after hand washing with antiseptic soap. Method: A clinical trial with cross over design was carried out on 12 health care workers (HCWs. The antibacterial effectiveness of two hand antiseptics (Alcohol based -Sterillium and Herbal Based-Himalaya′s ′Pure Hands′ compared using fingerprint contact sampling on blood agar. Bacterial samples were obtained before and after hand washing (with antiseptic soap and after hand disinfection. The data was tabulated and analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc test for pair-wise comparison. Result: There was a slight decrease in the Colony forming units (CFUs count following use of antiseptic soap when compared to the baseline values. A statistically significant reduction (p<0.000 in the CFUs count was seen following use of both hand antiseptics but the mean number of CFUs reduction was more in case of alcohol based hand antiseptic(sterillium than herbal based hand antiseptic(Himalaya′s ′PureHands". Conclusion: Using alcohol based antiseptic soap before hygienic hand disinfection will provide maximum benefit in reducing the microbial count.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of indwelling pleural catheter compared with talc in malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfert, Jordan A P; Penz, Erika D; Manns, Braden J; Mishra, Eleanor K; Davies, Helen E; Miller, Robert F; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Gao, Song; Rahman, Najib M

    2017-05-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is associated with morbidity and mortality. A randomized controlled trial previously compared clinical outcomes and resource use with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) and talc pleurodesis in this population. Using unpublished quality of life data, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of IPC compared with talc pleurodesis. Healthcare utilization and costs were captured during the trial. Utility weights produced by the EuroQol Group five-dimensional three-level questionnaire and survival were used to determine quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated over the 1-year trial period. Sensitivity analysis used patient survival data and modelled additional nursing time required per week for catheter drainage. Utility scores, cost and QALYs gained did not differ significantly between groups. The ICER for IPC compared with talc was favorable at $US10 870 per QALY gained. IPC was less costly with a probability exceeding 95% of being cost-effective when survival was pleural effusion in patients without history of prior pleurodesis, with consideration for patient survival, support and preferences. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Comparing the Effectivities of Chitosan Citrate and Chitosan Acetate in Eradicating Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalavanna Witedja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adequate biomechanical preparations, antibacterial irrigants, and intracanal medications to promote the elimination of bacteria and their products are required to succeed root canal treatment. Enterococcus faecalis with its biofilm is known as an important etiological agent in endodontic treatment failures. Chitosan, as a natural product, has an antibacterial activity and is considered less toxic to the periapical tissue than other irrigants. However, the use of this natural product needs to be examined to determine its effectiveness as a root canal irrigant in endodontic treatment; this can be done by comparing it with the most common endodontic irrigant (NaOCl 5.25% as a positive control. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness between 1–3% chitosan acetate (CA and 1–3% chitosan citrate (CC against E. faecalis biofilm formation after treatment for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Methods: The study was conducted using 12 groups, including 1–3% CA, 1–3% CC, and control groups. E. faecalis biofilms in 96-well plates were exposed to each sample for 15, 30, or 60 minutes. Subsequently, the biofilms were stained with crystal violet solution, and the optical density value was measured using a microtiter plate reader at a wavelength of 600nm. Results: CA and CC were effective in eradicating E. faecalis biofilm. However, the levels of effectiveness of CC and CA depended on the concentration and application time. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA showed a significant difference between the irrigants (F = 5.92; p<0.05 and three application times (F = 6.50; p< 0.05. The CA was effective in eradicating biofilm after 15 minutes of application, whereas the CC was more effective after 30 and 60 minutes of application. Conclusion: CC and CA are both effective in eradicating E. faecalis biofilm.

  1. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  2. Comparing the effects of shallomin lotion and cryotherapy on treating plane warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yaaghubi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wart is a common transferable skin disease that is caused by human papilloma virus. Choosing the best treatment method can vary based on age, therapeutic goal, complications, and wart place. Due to antibacterial effect of shallomin (hirtifolium Boiss extract and since its effect has not been studied yet, it was compared to cryotherapy therapeutic methods for treating patients with plane warts. Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial that was carried out on 40 patients. Sampling was conducted simply by 4 block randomization method. The selected patients were assigned into two Groups of A and B. Data analysis was conducted by descriptive methods, and then, statistical tests including Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and t-test were run to determine the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables. In so doing, SPSS software version 16.0 was utilized. Results: Comparing the means showed that as opposed to cryotherapy, shallomin could not lead to a significant decrease in the size and number of warts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, which is the first and the only investigation into the effects of shallomin on treating plane warts, it can be stated that despite of its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-herpetic properties, shallamin cannot be a clinically effective option for treating plane warts.

  3. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Does Acupuncture Needling Induce Analgesic Effects Comparable to Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Controls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schliessbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC is described as one possible mechanism of acupuncture analgesia. This study investigated the analgesic effect of acupuncture without stimulation compared to nonpenetrating sham acupuncture (NPSA and cold-pressor-induced DNIC. Forty-five subjects received each of the three interventions in a randomized order. The analgesic effect was measured using pressure algometry at the second toe before and after each of the interventions. Pressure pain detection threshold (PPDT rose from 299 kPa (SD 112 kPa to 364 kPa (SD 144, 353 kPa (SD 135, and 467 kPa (SD 168 after acupuncture, NPSA, and DNIC test, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and NPSA at any time, but a significantly higher increase of PPDT in the DNIC test compared to acupuncture and NPSA. PPDT decreased after the DNIC test, whereas it remained stable after acupuncture and NPSA. Acupuncture needling at low pain stimulus intensity showed a small analgesic effect which did not significantly differ from placebo response and was significantly less than a DNIC-like effect of a painful noninvasive stimulus.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of guidelines for the management of hyperlipidemia and hypertension for type 2 diabetes patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay D Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients exist in North America, Europe, and Australia. Their ability to achieve this goal efficiently is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Decision analysis was used to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of international contemporary guidelines for the management of hypertension and hyperlipidemia for patients aged 40-80 with type 2 diabetes. Measures of comparative effectiveness included the expected probability of a coronary or stroke event, incremental medication costs per event, and number-needed-to-treat (NNT to prevent an event. All guidelines are equally effective, but they differ significantly in their medication costs. The range of NNT to prevent an event was small across guidelines (6.5-7.6 for males and 6.5-7.5 for females; a larger range of differences were observed for expected cost per event avoided (ranges, $117,269-$157,186 for males and $115,999-$163,775 for females. Australian and U.S. guidelines result in the highest and lowest expected costs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: International guidelines based on the same evidence and seeking the same goal are similar in their effectiveness; however, there are large differences in expected medication costs.

  6. Comparing antifungal effects of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum extract with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite all the progress that has been made in the manufacture of synthetic drugs, herbal drugs are increasingly taken into account. This is due to the growing belief that they have fewer side effects compared to synthetic ones. Objective: To compare the antifungal effects of extracts of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum with Nystatin on Candida Albicans. Methods: This inviro trial accomplished in the school of dentistry of Tehran University in 2012. From the mouths of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were sampled using sterile swabs. Candida Albicans strains were isolated from samples and standard Candida Albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured too. Then extract of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum to be obtained and antifungal of extract studied with disk diffusion method. Antifungal power of each of the extracts on the inhibition zone diameter was created in the medium. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Friedman statistical tests. Findings: Results showed extracts of Zataria and pomegranate flowers have antifungal significant effects (P<0.001. Diameter of inhabitation zone was 17.66±./75 mm in Nystatin group and in the Zataria and pomegranate flowers extracts groups was lower (P<0.001. None of the negative control disc did inhibition zone in the medium. Conclusion: With due attention of Zataria and pomegranate flowers extracts exhibited antifungal effects on Candida Albincans.

  7. Comparative Research of Residents’ Effect Perception and Participation Capacity and Willingness on Pro-poor Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Hong; SHU

    2014-01-01

    In this article,comparative research on residents’ effect perception,participation capacity and willingness on Pro-poor Tourism( PPT) is given based on the questionnaire carried out in Wulong County and Fengjie County in Three Gorges Area,Chongqing,China. Some technologies,such as SPSS 13. 0,ANOVA and T-test are applied to analyze the data and results show Wulong residents’ perception behavior is better than that of Fengjie residents. Moreover,the residents with different demographic characteristics have different participation behavior.Finally,multiple regression analysis is applied to identify the key factors influencing residents’ perception behavior,that is participation willingness and positive economic effect perception,positive social and cultural effect perception and participation capacity.

  8. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I--from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II--from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3.

  9. Genre Matters: A Comparative Study on the Entertainment Effects of 3D in Cinematic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qihao; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-09-01

    Built upon prior comparative studies of 3D and 2D films, the current project investigates the effects of 2D and 3D on viewers' perception of enjoyment, narrative engagement, presence, involvement, and flow across three movie genres (Action/fantasy vs. Drama vs. Documentary). Through a 2 by 3 mixed factorial design, participants (n = 102) were separated into two viewing conditions (2D and 3D) and watched three 15-min film segments. Result suggested both visual production methods are equally efficient in terms of eliciting people's enjoyment, narrative engagement, involvement, flow and presence, no effects of visual production method was found. In addition, through examining the genre effects in both 3D and 2D conditions, we found that 3D works better for action movies than documentaries in terms of eliciting viewers' perception of enjoyment and presence, similarly, it improves views' narrative engagement for documentaries than dramas substantially. Implications and limitations are discussed in detail.

  10. Comparative effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on peroxide formation in phosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, S.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine was irradiated in the state of a film or liposome with gamma-rays or electron beams, and the amount of peroxide was determined to compare the effects of the two types of radiation. The amounts of peroxide formed in both the film and liposome with gamma-rays were significantly larger than those with electron beams, when the samples were irradiated at the same dose. Proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin reduced the degree of peroxide formation in liposome, and the effect of gamma-rays was much larger than that of electron beams, even in the presence of protein. The results of the present investigation indicate that the effects of gamma-rays on peroxide formation in phosphatidylcholine were significantly larger than those of electron beams, irrespective of the state of the lipid

  11. Comparative effectiveness of combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for women with dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L; Tosteson, Anna N A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Ramsey, Scott D; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of combined biennial digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening, compared with biennial digital mammography screening alone, among women with dense breasts. An established, discrete-event breast cancer simulation model was used to estimate the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biennial screening with both digital mammography and tomosynthesis versus digital mammography alone among U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts from a federal payer perspective and a lifetime horizon. Input values were estimated for test performance, costs, and health state utilities from the National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, Medicare reimbursement rates, and medical literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the implications of varying key model parameters, including combined screening sensitivity and specificity, transient utility decrement of diagnostic work-up, and additional cost of tomosynthesis. For the base-case analysis, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by adding tomosynthesis to digital mammography screening was $53 893. An additional 0.5 deaths were averted and 405 false-positive findings avoided per 1000 women after 12 rounds of screening. Combined screening remained cost-effective (less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) over a wide range of incremental improvements in test performance. Overall, cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the additional cost of tomosynthesis. Biennial combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts is likely to be cost-effective if priced appropriately (up to $226 for combined examinations vs $139 for digital mammography alone) and if reported interpretive performance metrics of improved specificity with tomosynthesis are met in routine practice.

  12. Design of VA Cooperative Study #591: CERV-PTSD, comparative effectiveness research in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Paula P; Chard, Kathleen M; Ruzek, Josef I; Chow, Bruce K; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resick, Patricia A; Foa, Edna B; Marx, Brian P; Huang, Grant D; Lu, Ying

    2015-03-01

    CERV-PTSD is a randomized controlled trial of two of the most effective treatments for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Despite solid evidence that both treatments are effective, there is limited evidence about their effectiveness relative to one another. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing PTSD symptom severity in a healthcare system that offers both treatments. The secondary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing the severity of comorbid mental health problems and service utilization as well as improving functioning and quality of life. The tertiary objective is to examine whether discrepancy between patient preferences and treatment assignment reduces the effectiveness of each treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine whether demographic and clinical characteristics predict differential response to PE and CPT. The study is designed to randomize 900 male and female veterans with PTSD due to any traumatic military event to receive PE or CPT. The standard dose of treatment is 12 weekly sessions but veterans who improve more rapidly may finish in fewer sessions and veterans who improve more slowly may have additional sessions. The primary outcome is improvement in PTSD symptoms, measured during and after treatment and then 3 and 6 months later. As a large multi-site trial with men and women, CERV-PTSD is designed to advance the delivery of care for PTSD by providing conclusive information about whether one treatment is better than the other, overall, and for different types of patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, the health effects of low-level doses of radiation are considered by reference to published epidemiological surveys. The work was carried out with three objectives in mind: 1. to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the subject; 2. to seek consistent indications of particular health effects by collating results and comparing with those from surveys at moderate-level doses; 3. to provide an authoritative view on the epidemiology of low-level radiation-induced health effects. Vol E (DRAFT A) is appended and contains group collation tables. Epidemiological surveys can be conveniently divided into four classes (A, B, C, D) according to the phase of life when irradiation occurs or the effect is diagnosed. The first of the classes (A) is addressed here; this class is concerned with possible effects arising from radiation received by a parent before conception. Possible effects of preconception irradiation were identified under four broad groupings. These are Down's syndrome, ''Indicators of Reproductive Damage'' (mainly Primary Sterility, Congenital Abnormalities, Sex Ratio, Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality), Childhood Malignancies, and Chromosomal Changes in Abortuses. Information about each survey, and comparisons with results from moderate-level dose surveys, are contained in synopses that are set out in the Appendix. (author)

  14. Comparative study on effects of two different types of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Costa, Carla; Sharma, Vyom; Kiliç, Gözde; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Dhawan, Alok; Laffon, Blanca

    2013-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) are among most frequently used nanoparticles (NPs). They are present in a variety of consumer products, including food industry in which they are employed as an additive. The potential toxic effects of these NPs on mammal cells have been extensively studied. However, studies regarding neurotoxicity and specific effects on neuronal systems are very scarce and, to our knowledge, no studies on human neuronal cells have been reported so far. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of two types of TiO₂ NPs, with different crystalline structure, on human SHSY5Y neuronal cells. After NPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the viability, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative damage in TiO₂ NP-exposed SHSY5Y cells. Results obtained showed that the behaviour of both types of NPs resulted quite comparable. They did not reduce the viability of neuronal cells but were effectively internalized by the cells and induced dose-dependent cell cycle alterations, apoptosis by intrinsic pathway, and genotoxicity not related with double strand break production. Furthermore, all these effects were not associated with oxidative damage production and, consequently, further investigations on the specific mechanisms underlying the effects observed in this study are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Candida-albicans compared with Nystatin: an in-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Babaii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Curcumin is the active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa. Curcumin has a surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. on basis of recent studies; it has antifungal and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was in-vitro evaluation of antifungal effect of curcumin on candida albicans and comparing it with nystatin. Methods: after preparing curcumin powder, 3 laboratory methods were used to evaluate antifungal effect. The first method was cell count technique, used to evaluate the amount of candida albicans after time, in different concentrations of curcumin in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The second was cup bioassay, in which inhibitory a zone of curcumin in DMSO was evaluated in sabouraud culture plates; and in third method, inhibitory zones of dried disks; which contained curcumin in DMSO were evaluated. Results: the result of all three methods showed that curcumin has antifungal effect and this effect increases in more concentrations. Conclusion: curcumin has apparent and dose dependent antifungal effect on candida albicans.

  17. comparative study on the effects of cadmium and gamma radiation on three aspergillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.M.; Abulyazid, I.; Fathi, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on the ability of fungi to survive in the rhizosphere of Ambrosia miritima plant at different concentrations was studied. With respect to the frequency of occurrence of Aspergillus species in the field even at the highest Cd concentration, the following sequence of decreasing tolerance to Cd was obtained: A. tamarii > A. sydowi > A. niger. On studying the effect of different concentrations of Cd in vitro culture on the growth parameters (dry weight and mycelial linear growth) of these three selected fungi, it was noticed that the most tolerant fungus was A. tamarii, while A. sydowi was moderately tolerant and A. niger was sensitive to the effect of Cd. Amino acids analysis revealed that Cd treatment was accompanied with increasing in the total free amino acids contents of both A. tamarii and A. sydowi compared to A. niger cells, where a reduction in this component was observed. Moreover, SDS-PAGE indicated high content of protein under Cd stress compared to non-treated culture of both A. tamarii and A. sydowi. In contrast, a decrease in protein content in Cd-treated cells of A. niger was recorded. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE revealed that Cd treated fungal cells of A. tamarii can synthesized new three stress proteins (hsp 's) while A. sydowi synthesized new four stress proteins. In cell culture of A. niger, cadmium induced new four stress proteins. Regarding the nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content, it is clear that presence of Cd led to significant decrease in the RNA contents of the three tested fungi, while only the DNA content of A. niger was significantly decreased by Cd treatment compared to the corresponding control. The data also showed that Cd-gamma radiation combination acted synergistically at the low doses of gamma radiation, while an antagonistic effect was recorded at the higher one for both A. tamarii and A. sydowi. Both treatments acted synergistically at all doses of gamma radiation on the growth of A. niger

  18. Antibacterial properties of tualang honey and its effect in burn wound management: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Nur-Azida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of honey as a natural product of Apis spp. for burn treatment has been widely applied for centuries. Tualang honey has been reported to have antibacterial properties against various microorganisms, including those from burn-related diagnoses, and is cheaper and easier to be absorbed by Aquacel dressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antibacterial properties of tualang honey dressing and to determine its effectiveness as a partial thickness burn wound dressing. Methods In order to quantitate the bioburden of the swabs, pour plates were performed to obtain the colony count (CFU/ml. Swabs obtained from burn wounds were streaked on blood agar and MacConkey agar for bacterial isolation and identification. Later, antibacterial activity of Aquacel-tualang honey, Aquacel-Manuka honey, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel- plain dressings against bacteria isolated from patients were tested (in-vitro to see the effectiveness of those dressings by zone of inhibition assays. Results Seven organisms were isolated. Four types of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., and three Gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS and Streptococcus spp., were isolated. Total bacterial count decreased on day 6 and onwards. In the in-vitro antibacterial study, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel-Manuka honey dressings gave better zone of inhibition for Gram positive bacteria compared to Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. However, comparable results were obtained against Gram negative bacteria tested with Aquacel-Manuka honey and Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. Conclusions Tualang honey has a bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic effect. It is useful as a dressing, as it is easier to apply and is less sticky compared to Manuka honey. However, for Gram positive bacteria, tualang honey is not as effective as usual care

  19. Comparative effectiveness of mepolizumab and omalizumab in severe asthma: An indirect treatment comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockle, Sarah M; Stynes, Gillian; Gunsoy, Necdet B; Parks, Daniel; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Wex, Jaro; Bradford, Eric S; Albers, Frank C; Willson, Jenny

    2017-02-01

    Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease. Patients with both eosinophilic and allergic asthma phenotypes may be eligible for treatment with mepolizumab and omalizumab. Evidence on the relative effectiveness of these treatments in this 'overlap' population would be informative for clinical and payer decision making. A systematic literature review and indirect treatment comparison (Bayesian framework) were performed to assess the comparative effectiveness and tolerability of mepolizumab and omalizumab, as add-ons to standard of care. Studies included in the primary analysis were double-blind, randomized controlled trials, ≥12 weeks' duration enrolling patients with severe asthma with a documented exacerbation history and receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus ≥1 additional controller. Two populations were examined: patients potentially eligible for 1) both treatments (Overlap population) and 2) either treatment (Trial population). In the Overlap population, no differences between treatments in clinically significant exacerbations and exacerbations requiring hospitalization were found, although trends favored mepolizumab (rate ratio [RR]:0.66 [95% credible intervals (Crl):0.37,1.19]; 0.19[0.02,2.32], respectively). In the Trial population, mepolizumab treatment produced greater reductions in clinically significant exacerbations (RR:0.63 [95% CrI:0.45,0.89]) but not exacerbations requiring hospitalization compared with omalizumab (RR:0.58 [95% Crl: 0.16,2.13]), although the trend favored mepolizumab. Both treatments had broadly comparable effects on lung function, and similar tolerability profiles. Whilst this analysis has limitations due to a restricted evidence base and residual heterogeneity, it showed that in patients with severe asthma, mepolizumab seems to be at least as effective as omalizumab and that the tolerability profiles of the two treatments did not meaningfully differentiate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Atkinson, Fiona S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-07-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are intrinsically insulin resistant and have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Weight loss improves risk factors, but the optimal diet composition is unknown. Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets are recommended without evidence of their clinical effectiveness. We compared changes in insulin sensitivity and clinical outcomes after similar weight losses after consumption of a low-GI diet compared with a conventional healthy diet in women with PCOS. We assigned overweight and obese premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 96) to consume either an ad libitum low-GI diet or a macronutrient-matched healthy diet and followed the women for 12 mo or until they achieved a 7% weight loss. We compared changes in whole-body insulin sensitivity, which we assessed using the insulin sensitivity index derived from the oral-glucose-tolerance test (ISI(OGTT)); glucose tolerance; body composition; plasma lipids; reproductive hormones; health-related quality of life; and menstrual cycle regularity. The attrition rate was high in both groups (49%). Among completers, ISI(OGTT) improved more with the low-GI diet than with the conventional healthy diet (mean +/- SEM: 2.2 +/- 0.7 compared with 0.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; P = 0.03). There was a significant diet-metformin interaction (P = 0.048), with greater improvement in ISI(OGTT) among women prescribed both metformin and the low-GI diet. Compared with women who consumed the conventional healthy diet, more women who consumed the low-GI diet showed improved menstrual cyclicity (95% compared with 63%, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the biochemical measures, only serum fibrinogen concentrations showed significant differences between diets (P < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first objective evidence to justify the use of low-GI diets in the management of PCOS.

  1. Cost effectiveness of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a comparative assessment of decision-making tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Somkrua, Ratchadaporn; Hutubessy, Raymond; Henao, Ana Maria; Hombach, Joachim; Melegaro, Alessia; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2011-05-12

    Several decision support tools have been developed to aid policymaking regarding the adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into national pediatric immunization programs. The lack of critical appraisal of these tools makes it difficult for decision makers to understand and choose between them. With the aim to guide policymakers on their optimal use, we compared publicly available decision-making tools in relation to their methods, influential parameters and results. The World Health Organization (WHO) requested access to several publicly available cost-effectiveness (CE) tools for PCV from both public and private provenance. All tools were critically assessed according to the WHO's guide for economic evaluations of immunization programs. Key attributes and characteristics were compared and a series of sensitivity analyses was performed to determine the main drivers of the results. The results were compared based on a standardized set of input parameters and assumptions. Three cost-effectiveness modeling tools were provided, including two cohort-based (Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) ProVac Initiative TriVac, and PneumoADIP) and one population-based model (GlaxoSmithKline's SUPREMES). They all compared the introduction of PCV into national pediatric immunization program with no PCV use. The models were different in terms of model attributes, structure, and data requirement, but captured a similar range of diseases. Herd effects were estimated using different approaches in each model. The main driving parameters were vaccine efficacy against pneumococcal pneumonia, vaccine price, vaccine coverage, serotype coverage and disease burden. With a standardized set of input parameters developed for cohort modeling, TriVac and PneumoADIP produced similar incremental costs and health outcomes, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Vaccine cost (dose price and number of doses), vaccine efficacy and epidemiology of critical endpoint (for example

  2. Endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review of safety and effectiveness compared to esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Darren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several new endoscopic treatments have been used to treat patients with Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia. This systematic review aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of these treatments compared with esophagectomy. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify studies of endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus or early stage esophageal cancer. Information from the selected studies was extracted by two independent reviewers. Study quality was assessed and information was tabulated to identify trends or patterns. Results were pooled across studies for each outcome. Safety (occurrence of adverse events and effectiveness (complete eradication of dysplasia were compared across different treatments. Results The 101 studies that met the selection criteria included 8 endoscopic techniques and esophagectomy; only 12 were comparative studies. The quality of evidence was generally low. Methods and outcomes were inconsistently reported. Protocols, outcomes measured, follow-up times and numbers of treatment sessions varied, making it difficult to calculate pooled estimates. The surgical mortality rate was 1.2%, compared to 0.04% in 2831 patients treated endoscopically (1 death. Adverse events were more severe and frequent with esophagectomy, and included anastomotic leaks (9.4%, wound infections (4.1% and pulmonary complications (4.1%. Four patients (0.1% treated endoscopically experienced bleeding requiring transfusions. The stricture rate with esophagectomy (5.3% was lower than with porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (18.5%, but higher than aminolevulinic acid (ALA 60 mg/kg PDT (1.4%. Dysphagia and odynophagia varied in frequency across modalities, with the highest rates reported for multipolar electrocoagulation (MPEC. Photosensitivity, an adverse event that occurs only with photodynamic therapy, was experienced by 26.4% of patients who received porfimer sodium. Some

  3. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Christine M; Berkman, Nancy D; Lohr, Kathleen N; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bann, Carla M; Cullen, Katherine; Quattlebaum, Mary J; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    Psychological and pharmacological interventions for binge-eating disorder have previously demonstrated efficacy (compared with placebo or waitlist control); thus, we aimed to expand that literature with a review of comparative effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE,® EMBASE,® Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL® for binge-eating disorder treatment articles and selected studies using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were sufficient for network meta-analysis comparing two pharmacological interventions; psychological interventions were analysed qualitatively. In all, 28 treatment comparisons were included in this review: one pharmacological comparison (second-generation antidepressants versus lisdexamfetamine) and 26 psychological comparisons. Only three statistically significant differences emerged: lisdexamfetamine was better at increasing binge abstinence than second-generation antidepressants; therapist-led cognitive behavioural therapy was better at reducing binge-eating frequency than behavioural weight loss, but behavioural weight loss was better at reducing weight. The majority of other treatment comparisons revealed few significant differences between groups. Thus, patients and clinicians can choose from several effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Antiproliferative effects of an analog of curcumin in Hep-2 cells: a comparative study with curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Mohankumar; Sankar, Pajaniradje; Latha, Periyasamy; Benson, Chellakan S; Rukkumani, Rajagopalan

    2013-02-01

    Curcumin, the major active principle of Curcuma longa, is one of the promising, plant-derived, chemopreventive agents being studied for its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Hence, in our study, we aimed at testing the antiproliferative efficacy of an o-hydroxyl substituted analog of curcumin, bis demethoxy curcumin analog (BDMC-A), and comparing its efficacy with that of curcumin. BDMC-A was synthesised with a yield of 78% and 98% purity. Hep-2 cells and the MTT cell viability assay were used to examine cell proliferation. LDH assay and cell counts were performed to assess the cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects of the compound, respectively. Flow cytometry followed by Western blot were performed to investigate the cell cycle distribution. BDMC-A inhibited cell proliferation at a much lower concentration (IC50 20 microM) than curcumin (IC50 50 microM). Similar effects were observed in the LDH release and cell count assays. Flow cytometric studies using propidium iodide showed accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase and the arrest was further confirmed by immunoblotting of protein cyclin D1. BDMC-A was more potent in inhibiting the cells at a lower dose when compared with curcumin. Our results showed that the analog of curcumin is likely to possess more efficacy compared with curcumin in inhibiting cancer.

  6. The joint flanker effect and the joint Simon effect: On the comparability of processes underlying joint compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Bossert, Marie-Luise; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. However, recent research on the joint Simon and joint flanker effect suggests alternative non-social interpretations. To which degree both joint effects are driven by the same underlying processes is the question of the present study, and it was scrutinized by manipulating the visibility of the co-actor. While the joint Simon effect was not affected by the visibility of the co-actor, the joint flanker effect was reduced when participants did not see their co-actors but knew where the co-actors were seated. These findings provide further evidence for a spatial interpretation of the joint Simon effect. In contrast to recent claims, however, we propose a new explanation of the joint flanker effect that attributes the effect to an impairment in the focusing of spatial attention contingent on the visibility of the co-actor.

  7. Firm insoles effectively reduce hemolysis in runners during long distance running - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Kamal; Shenoy, Shweta; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2011-06-09

    Shock absorbing insoles are effective in reducing the magnitude and rate of loading of peak impact forces generated at foot strike during running, whereas the foot impact force during running has been considered to be an important cause of intravascular hemolysis in long distance runners. Objective of this study was to evaluate the intravascular hemolysis during running and compare the effect of two different types of insoles (Soft and Firm) on hemolysis. Twenty male long and middle distance runners volunteered to participate in this study. We selected two insoles (Soft and Firm) according to their hardness level (SHORE 'A' scale). Participants were randomly assigned to the soft insole (group 1) and firm insole (group 2) group with ten athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%). Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjucated bilirubin (mg/dl), lactate dehydrogenase (μ/ml), hemoglobin (g/l) and serum ferritin (ng/ml) as indicators of hemolysis. Our study revealed a significant increase in the mean values of unconjucated bilirubin (P firm insoles effectively reduces the amount of hemolysis in runners compared to soft insoles.

  8. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  9. Comparing the effects of Calendula officinalis and clotrimazole on vaginal Candidiasis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Elnaz; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Adibpour, Mohammad; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This triple-blind trial examined the effects of Calendula officinalis vaginal cream on the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis (primary outcome) and sexual function (secondary outcome). Married women aged 18-45 years with vaginal Candidiasis (n = 150) were recruited from April to October 2014 and randomized into Calendula and clotrimazole groups, using 5-g vaginal cream every night for seven nights. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted at 10-15 and 30-35 days after intervention and the female sexual function index was assessed at 30-35 days. Six women were lost to follow-up. The frequency of testing negative for Candidiasis in the Calendula group was significantly lower at the first (49% vs. 74%; odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.67) but higher at the second (77% vs. 34%; OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.2) follow-up compared to the clotrimazole group. The frequency of most signs and symptoms were almost equal in the two groups at the first follow-up, but were significantly lower in the Calendula group at the second follow-up. Sexual function had almost equal significant improvement in both groups. Calendula vaginal cream appears to have been effective in the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis and to have a delayed but greater long-term effect compared to clotrimazole.

  10. Effects of microwaves on changes in foodstuffs as compared with conventional heat treatment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, M.; Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.

    1980-01-01

    It is purpose of this study to contribute to the discussion and to answer the question as to whether changes are caused by microwave-heating of foodstuffs, which differ from those caused by conventional heating. This is achieved by summarizing extensive test materials. In the relevant literature, a great number of tests are listed on the cooking and reheating of foodstuffs by means of micro-waves, as compared to conventional methods. The subject of these tests is the determination of quantitative changes of certain ingredients (vitamins, fatty acids etc.) and sensory characteristics (flavour, colour etc.) due to the different heating methods. In addition to cooking and heating, a more comprehensive use of microwaves in preparation of food is discussed in this study. Works on the thawing, blanching, freeze-drying, and pasteurization are taken into account when comparing the different heating methods. Moreover, this study includes a comaprison as to the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, the thermic decomposition of pesticide residues, and the physiological effect of lipids. It was determined that there is no indication of radiation-specific effects, i. e. athermic effects, of microwaves contained in any of the studies reviewed up to now. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of stroke units in France compared with conventional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, R; Giroud, M; Mégnigbêto, A C; Le Lay, K; Présenté, G; Mahagne, M H; Durand, I; Gaudin, A F

    2004-03-01

    The incidence of stroke in France is estimated at between 120 000 and 150 000 cases per year. This modeling study assessed the clinical and economic benefits of establishing specialized stroke units compared with conventional care. Data from the Dijon stroke registry were used to determine healthcare trajectories according to the degree of autonomy and organization of patient care. The relative risks of death or institutionalization or death or dependence after passage through a stroke unit were compared with conventional care. These risks were then inserted with the costing data into a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of stroke units. Patients cared for in a stroke unit survive more trimesters without sequelae in the 5 years after hospitalization than those cared for conventionally (11.6 versus 8.28 trimesters). The mean cost per patient at 5 years was estimated at 30 983 for conventional care and 34 638 in a stroke unit. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for stroke units of 1359 per year of life gained without disability was estimated. The cost-effectiveness ratio for stroke units is much lower than the threshold (53 400 ) of acceptability recognized by the international scientific community. This finding justifies organizational changes in the management of stroke patients and the establishment of stroke units in France.

  12. [Comparative study of the central nervous system effect of the beta receptor blockaders pindolol and bisoprolol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtelmeyer, R; Klingmann, I

    1985-01-01

    In a total of 36 volunteers with cardiac hyperreaction, investigations were carried out on the effect of bisoprolol (designated tradename: Concor), pindolol and placebo on central nervous functions with the aid of a reaction test, spiral aftereffect, tremor test and mood and sleep questionnaires. In the randomized double-blind study performed with 3 independent groups the volunteers received placebo, 2 X daily 10 mg of pindolol or 1 X daily 10 mg of bisoprolol for a period of 14 days. Bisoprolol is a new highly beta 1-selective adrenoceptor blocker with moderate lipophilia and without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA). When compared to placebo neither of the beta-adrenoceptor blockers induced any significant changes in mood, vigilance, tremor and reaction times. Moreover, under bisoprolol no negative effect on sleep quality or feeling refreshed after sleep was determined. Under pindolol, on the other hand, a significant impairment of sleep quality was observed after acute dosage and a decrease in feeling refreshed after sleep, continuing up to day 14 of treatment. It is presumed that, as bisoprolol and pindolol have comparable lipophilia, the different intensity with which the two preparations act on the central nervous system is connected with the ISA of pindolol. In the selected doses bisoprolol had a stronger effect on diastolic blood pressure and heart rate than pindolol and placebo.

  13. Relations and effects of transformational leadership: a comparative analysis with traditional leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Cuadrado, Isabel; Navas, Marisol; Morales, J Francisco

    2007-11-01

    This study has two main goals: (a) to compare the relationship between transformational leadership and other important leadership styles (i.e., democratic versus autocratic or relations- and task-oriented leadership) and (b) to compare the effects of transformational leadership and the other styles on some important organizational outcomes such as employees' satisfaction and performance. For this purpose, a sample of 147 participants, working in 35 various work-teams, was used. Results show high correlations between transformational leadership, relations-oriented, democratic, and task-oriented leadership. On the other hand, according to the literature, transformational leadership, especially high levels, significantly increases the percentage of variance accounted for by other leadership styles in relevant organizational outcome variables (subordinates' performance, satisfaction and extra effort).

  14. The effective atomic numbers of some biomolecules calculated by two methods: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, L. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka 585 106 (India); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark)

    2009-01-15

    The effective atomic numbers Z{sub eff} of some fatty acids and amino acids have been calculated by two numerical methods, a direct method and an interpolation method, in the energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. The notion of Z{sub eff} is given a new meaning by using a modern database of photon interaction cross sections (WinXCom). The results of the two methods are compared and discussed. It is shown that for all biomolecules the direct method gives larger values of Z{sub eff} than the interpolation method, in particular at low energies (1-100 keV) At medium energies (0.1-5 MeV), Z{sub eff} for both methods is about constant and equal to the mean atomic number of the material. Wherever possible, the calculated values of Z{sub eff} are compared with experimental data.

  15. The effective atomic numbers of some biomolecules calculated by two methods: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, L.

    2009-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers Z eff of some fatty acids and amino acids have been calculated by two numerical methods, a direct method and an interpolation method, in the energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. The notion of Z eff is given a new meaning by using a modern database of photon interaction cross sections (WinXCom). The results of the two methods are compared and discussed. It is shown that for all biomolecules the direct method gives larger values of Z eff than the interpolation method, in particular at low energies (1-100 keV) At medium energies (0.1-5 MeV), Z eff for both methods is about constant and equal to the mean atomic number of the material. Wherever possible, the calculated values of Z eff are compared with experimental data.

  16. Comparing the effects of relaxation technique and inhalation aromatherapy on fatigue in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammadali; Kiani, Fatemeh; Bouya, Salehoddin; Zarei, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of relaxation techniques on fatigue in hemodialysis patients. This clinical trial study was conducted on 105 hemodialysis patients. The subjects were categorized into three groups as: relaxation, aromatherapy and control. In the relaxation group, Benson muscle relaxation techniques were employed; in the aromatherapy group, the inhalation of two drops of 5% lavender essential oil used and the control group only received regular healthcare actions. Data collected by using brief fatigue inventory, before and after the intervention. Results of the current study indicated significant differences in the mean of changes in fatigue scores before and after the intervention between the relaxation and aromatherapy groups, but the difference was insignificant in the control group. Aromatherapy with lavender essential oil can decrease the level of fatigue in the patients undergoing hemodialysis compared to Benson relaxation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of organoclay type on morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene films: comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, D.B.; Calado, J.F.; Duarte, I.S.; Silva, S.M.L.; Andrade, D.L.A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the effect of the type of organoclay on morphological and mechanical properties of polypropylene films. Thus, were employed two organobentonite synthesized by NanoPol/UFCG (APOC and APOCF) and a organo montmorillonite Cloisite 20A (C20A) from Southern Clay Products (Texas/USA). The PP films and the PP/organoclay hybrids were prepared in a ChillRoll extruder - 16 AX Plastics and characterized by X-ray diffraction and mechanical properties. The results indicate that the incorporation of organobentonite (APOC and APOCF) and organo montmorillonite (C20A) resulted in the formation of PP nanocomposites with predominantly intercalated morphologies. Also indicate that the mechanical behavior of the films obtained with the three clays (APOC APOCF and C20A) was similar suggesting that the organobentonite, modified with national technology, raw material of low cost when compared to commercial organo montmorillonite, can be a viable alternative in the preparation of PP films. (author)

  18. Comparing welfare effects of different regulation schemes: An application to the electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli

    2010-01-01

    We compare the welfare effects of different regulation schemes of electricity distribution utilities. The compared regulation schemes are Fixed Price regulation, Cost of Service regulation, Menu of Cost-Contingent Contracts and Simple Menu of Contracts. In our calculations we utilize the information of a firm's potential to improve cost efficiency. The firm-specific cost information of Finnish electricity distribution utilities is obtained by using various Stochastic Frontier models. Our basic result is that welfare can be improved by changing the Cost of Service regulation scheme to the Menu of Contracts regulation. Welfare also increases in the case of Fixed Price regulation and Simple Menu of Contract regulation. There is however, a significant difference among regulation regimes on how this improved welfare is distributed to consumers and producers.

  19. Hepatitis C Treatment Regimens Are Cost-Effective: But Compared With What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Slejko, Julia F; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Numerous economic models have been published evaluating treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but none provide a comprehensive comparison among new antiviral agents. Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of all recommended therapies for treatment of genotypes 1 and 4 chronic HCV. Using data from clinical trials, observational analyses, and drug pricing databases, Markov decision models were developed for HCV genotypes 1 and 4 to compare all recommended drugs from the perspective of the third-party payer over a 5-, 10-, and 50-year time horizon. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted by assigning distributions for clinical cure, age entering the model, costs for each health state, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each health state in a Monte Carlo simulation of 10 000 repetitions of the model. In the lifetime model for genotype 1, effects ranged from 18.08 to 18.40 QALYs and total costs ranged from $88 107 to $184 636. The lifetime model of genotype 4 treatments had a range of effects from 18.23 to 18.43 QALYs and total costs ranging from $87 063 to $127 637. Grazoprevir/elbasvir was the optimal strategy followed by velpatasvir/sofosbuvir as the second-best strategy in most simulations for both genotypes 1 and 4, with drug costs and efficacy of grazoprevir/elbasvir as the primary model drivers. Grazoprevir/elbasvir was cost-effective compared with all strategies for genotypes 1 and 4. Effects for all strategies were similar with cost of drug in the initial year driving the results.

  20. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  1. Multisystemic Therapy and Functional Family Therapy Compared on their Effectiveness Using the Propensity Score Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeren, Hester V; Goossens, Lucas M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Busschbach, Jan J V; van der Rijken, Rachel E A

    2018-01-09

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Functional Family Therapy (FFT) have overlapping target populations and treatment goals. In this study, these interventions were compared on their effectiveness using a quasi-experimental design. Between October, 2009 and June, 2014, outcome data were collected from 697 adolescents (mean age 15.3 (SD 1.48), 61.9% male) assigned to either MST or FFT (422 MST; 275 FFT). Data were gathered during Routine Outcome Monitoring. The primary outcome was externalizing problem behavior (Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report). Secondary outcomes were the proportion of adolescents living at home, engaged in school or work, and who lacked police contact during treatment. Because of the non-random assignment, a propensity score method was used to control for observed pre-treatment differences. Because the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model guided treatment assignment, effectiveness was also estimated in youth with and without a court order as an indicator of their risk level. Looking at the whole sample, no difference in effect was found with regard to externalizing problems. For adolescents without a court order, effects on externalizing problems were larger after MST. Because many more adolescents with a court order were assigned to MST compared to FFT, the propensity score method could not balance the treatment groups in this subsample. In conclusion, few differences between MST and FFT were found. In line with the RNR model, higher risk adolescents were assigned to the more intensive treatment, namely MST. In the group with lower risk adolescents, this more intensive treatment was more effective in reducing externalizing problems.

  2. Comparative study of the antitumor effect of natural monoterpenes: relationship to cell cycle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeslam Jaafari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes have been identified as responsible of important therapeutic effects of plant-extracts. In this work, we try to compare the cytotoxic effect of six monoterpenes (carvacrol, thymol, carveol, carvone, eugenol and isopulegol as well as their molecular mechanisms. The in vitro antitumor activity of the tested products, evaluated against five tumor cell lines, show that the carvacrol is the most cytotoxic monoterpene. The investigation of an eventual synergistic effect of the six natural monoterpenes with two anticancer drugs revealed that there is a significant synergy between them (p<5%. On the other hand, the effect of the tested products on cell cycle progression was examined by flow cytometry after DNA staining in order to investigate the molecular mechanism of their cytotoxic activity. The results revealed that carvacrol and carveol stopped the cell cycle progression in S phase; however, thymol and isopulegol stopped it in G0/G1 phase. Regarding carvone and eugenol, no effect on cell cycle was observed.

  3. Recent controversies on comparative effectiveness research investigations: Challenges, opportunities, and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Haresh; Truog, William E; D'Angio, Carl T; Cotten, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information about which currently available interventions and practices are most effective for patients. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) are the hallmark of scientific proof, and have been used to compare interventions used in variable ways by different clinicians (comparative effectiveness RCTs, CER-RCTs). But such CER-RCTs have at times generated controversy. Usually the background for the CER-RCT is a range of "standard therapy" or "standard of care." This may have been adopted on observational data alone, or pilot data. At times, such prior data may derive from populations that differ from the population in which the widely variable standard approach is being applied. We believe that controversies related to these CER-RCTs result from confusing "accepted" therapies and "rigorously evaluated therapies." We first define evidence-based medicine and consider how well neonatology conforms to that definition. We then contrast the approach of testing new therapies and those already existing and widely adopted, as in CER-RCTs. We next examine a central challenge in incorporating the control arm within CER-RCTs and aspects of the "titrated" trial. We finally briefly consider some ethical issues that have arisen, and discuss the wide range of neonatology practices that could be tested by CER-RCTs or alternative CER-based strategies that might inform practice. Throughout, we emphasize the lack of awareness of the lay community, and indeed many researchers or commentators, in appreciating the wide variation of standard of care. There is a corresponding need to identify the best uses of available resources that will lead to the best outcomes for our patients. We conclude that CER-RCTs are an essential methodology in modern neonatology to address many unanswered questions and test unproven therapies in newborn care. Copyright © 2016

  4. Creating a Common Data Model for Comparative Effectiveness with the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHenry, F; Resnic, F S; Robbins, S L; Denton, J; Nookala, L; Meeker, D; Ohno-Machado, L; Matheny, M E

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of a common data model across health systems is a key infrastructure requirement to allow large scale distributed comparative effectiveness analyses. There are a growing number of common data models (CDM), such as Mini-Sentinel, and the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDMs. In this case study, we describe the challenges and opportunities of a study specific use of the OMOP CDM by two health systems and describe three comparative effectiveness use cases developed from the CDM. The project transformed two health system databases (using crosswalks provided) into the OMOP CDM. Cohorts were developed from the transformed CDMs for three comparative effectiveness use case examples. Administrative/billing, demographic, order history, medication, and laboratory were included in the CDM transformation and cohort development rules. Record counts per person month are presented for the eligible cohorts, highlighting differences between the civilian and federal datasets, e.g. the federal data set had more outpatient visits per person month (6.44 vs. 2.05 per person month). The count of medications per person month reflected the fact that one system's medications were extracted from orders while the other system had pharmacy fills and medication administration records. The federal system also had a higher prevalence of the conditions in all three use cases. Both systems required manual coding of some types of data to convert to the CDM. The data transformation to the CDM was time consuming and resources required were substantial, beyond requirements for collecting native source data. The need to manually code subsets of data limited the conversion. However, once the native data was converted to the CDM, both systems were then able to use the same queries to identify cohorts. Thus, the CDM minimized the effort to develop cohorts and analyze the results across the sites.

  5. Recent Controversies on Comparative Effectiveness Research Investigations: Challenges, Opportunities and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Haresh; Truog, William E.; D'Angio, Carl T.; Cotten, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information about which currently available interventions and practices are most effective for patients. While Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) are the hallmark of scientific proof, when they have been used to compare interventions used in variable ways by different clinicians (Comparative Effectiveness RCTs, CER RCTs) they have at times, generated controversy. Usually the background for the CER RCT is a range of ‘standard therapy’ or ‘standard of care’. This may have been adopted on observational data alone, pilot data. At times, such prior data may derive from populations that differ from the population in which the widely variable standard approach is being applied. We believe controversies related to these CER-RCTs result from confusing ‘accepted’ therapies and ‘rigorously evaluated therapies”. We first define evidence based medicine, and consider how well neonatology conforms to that definition. We then contrast the approach of testing new therapies and those already existing and widely adopted, as in CER-RCTs. We next examine a central challenge in incorporating the control arm within CER, and aspects of the ‘titrated’ trial. We finally briefly consider some ethical issues that have arisen, and briefly discuss the wide range of neonatology practices that could be subject to CER-RCTs or alternative CER-based strategies that might inform practice in the absence of RCTs. Throughout, we emphasize the lack of awareness of the lay community, and indeed many researchers or commentators, in appreciating the wide variation of standard of care. There is a corresponding need to identify the best uses of available resources that will lead to the best outcomes for our patients. We conclude that CER is an essential methodology in modern neonatology to address many unanswered questions and test unproven therapies in

  6. Effect of S186 for decoporated radiostrontium compared with BADE in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meizhen; Luo Meichu; Chen Guibao; Liu Shijing; Tong Shungao; Sun Meizhen

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of S186 for decorporated radiostrontium compared with BADE in rats was studied. The experimental results showed that administered S186 (in 100∼800 mg/kg) increased the 85+89 Sr excretion in urine and reduced 85+89 Sr retention in body being distinctly superior to that of the equal dose BADE (P<0.05). When administered the dose of S186 that was the half dose of BADE could produce the same effect of BADE for removing radiostrontium

  7. Cold Nuclear Matter effects on J/psi production at RHIC: comparing shadowing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /SLAC; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2009-06-19

    We present a wide study on the comparison of different shadowing models and their influence on J/{psi} production. We have taken into account the possibility of different partonic processes for the c{bar c}-pair production. We notice that the effect of shadowing corrections on J/{psi} production clearly depends on the partonic process considered. Our results are compared to the available data on dAu collisions at RHIC energies. We try different break up cross section for each of the studied shadowing models.

  8. Cost-effective cloud computing: a case study using the comparative genomics tool, roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudtarkar, Parul; Deluca, Todd F; Fusaro, Vincent A; Tonellato, Peter J; Wall, Dennis P

    2010-12-22

    Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource-Roundup-using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon's computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing infrastructure.

  9. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  10. Comparative placental transfer, localization, and effects of radionuclides in experimental animal and human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Traub, R.J.; Meznarich, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Estimating radiation doses to the human embryo/fetus from radionuclides and predicting effects requires extrapolation of data from studies of laboratory species with scaling for species-specific developmental stage and gestational time relationships and maturities at birth. Combinations of fetal-to-maternal ratios of concentrations, patterns of deposition, transfer kinetics, and compartmental and physiologic models are used to predict radioactivity levels and radiation doses to the conceptus. There is agreement between values expressing fractional transfer across the placenta with values for fractional absorption from gastrointestinal tract or lung for most substances. Information about three elements - cesium, strontium, and iodine - serve to present comparative approaches to predicting radiation dose and effect. 25 refs., 11 figs., tab

  11. Comparative SPR study on the effect of nanomaterials on the biological activity of adsorbed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Q.; Chen, Y.; Hong, J.; Chen, H.; Ding, X.; Yin, Y.; Koh, K.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactivity of proteins is evaluated to test the adverse effects of nanoparticles interjected into biological systems. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy detects binding affinity that is normally related to biological activity. Utilizing SPR spectroscopy, a concise testing matrix is established by investigating the adsorption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA on the surface covered with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA); magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), respectively. The immunoactivity of BSA on MNPs and SWCNT decreased by 18 % and 5 %, respectively, compared to that on the gold film modified with MUA. This indicates that MNPs cause a considerable loss of biological activity of adsorbed protein. This effect can be utilized for practical applications on detailed biophysical research and nanotoxicity studies. (author)

  12. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  13. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, Charles [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Balan, Venkatech [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Falls, Matthew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Hames, Bonnie [Ceres Corporation, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ladisch, Michael R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lee, Y. Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mosier, Nathan [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Pallapolu, Venkata R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Shi, Jian [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Warner, Ryan E. [Genencor, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-06-16

    Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facil-itated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of a common supply of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase also eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated switchgrass. Adding beta-glucosidase was effective early in enzy-matic hydrolysis while cellobiose levels were high but had limited effect on longer term yields at the enzyme loadings applied. Adding xylanase improved yields most for higher pH pretreatments where more xylan was left in the solids. Harvest time had more impact on performance than switchgrass variety, and microscopy showed changes in different features could impact performance by different pretreatments.

  14. Stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness research: how will we measure success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Danielle C; Williams, Carla J; Tambor, Ellen S; Deverka, Patricia A

    2012-09-01

    Stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness research continues to gain national attention. While various methods are used to gather stakeholder expertise and form recommendations, evaluation of the stakeholder experience is often missing. The lack of evaluation prohibits assessing how effective and meaningful engagement practices are for enhancing research efforts and limits the ability to identify areas for future improvement. We propose that an evaluation plan of engagement processes be developed before stakeholder involvement begins and be required as part of a request for proposal or research grant where stakeholder input is being sought. Furthermore, we recommend the inclusion of six meta-criteria that represent normative goals of multiple studies: respect, trust, legitimacy, fairness, competence and accountability. To aid in the development of future evaluations, we have developed definitions for and matched specific examples of measuring each meta-criterion to serve a guide for others in the field.

  15. Thermo-Kinetic Investigation of Comparative Ligand Effect on Cysteine Iron Redox Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ahmad Rizvi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions in their free state bring unwanted biological oxidations generating oxidative stress. The ligand modulated redox potential can be indispensable in prevention of such oxidative stress by blocking the redundant bio-redox reactions. In this study we investigated the comparative ligand effect on the thermo-kinetic aspects of biologically important cysteine iron (III redox reaction using spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The results were corroborated with the complexation effect on redox potential of iron(III-iron(II redox couple. The selected ligands were found to increase the rate of cysteine iron (III redox reaction in proportion to their stability of iron (II complex (EDTA < terpy < bipy < phen. A kinetic profile and the catalytic role of copper (II ions by means of redox shuttle mechanism for the cysteine iron (III redox reaction in presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen ligand is also reported.

  16. Comparing the Effects of Negative and Mixed Emotional Messages on Predicted Occasional Excessive Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Carrera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness versus mixed (joy and sadness, with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Personalized Lifestyle Management Strategies for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Paula; Pandya, Ankur; Salomon, Joshua A; Goldie, Sue J; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2016-03-29

    Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. We computed risks using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations for a variety of individual profiles. Using published literature on risk factor reductions through diverse lifestyle interventions-group therapy for stopping smoking, Mediterranean diet, aerobic exercise (walking), and yoga-we calculated the risk reduction through each of these interventions to determine the strategy associated with the maximum benefit for each profile. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. In the base-case analysis, yoga was associated with the largest 10-year cardiovascular disease risk reductions (maximum absolute reduction 16.7% for the highest-risk individuals). Walking generally ranked second (max 11.4%), followed by Mediterranean diet (max 9.2%), and group therapy for smoking (max 1.6%). If the individual was a current smoker and successfully quit smoking (ie, achieved complete smoking cessation), then stopping smoking yielded the largest reduction. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analysis confirmed the demonstrated trend. This study reports the comparative effectiveness of several forms of lifestyle modifications and found smoking cessation and yoga to be the most effective forms of cardiovascular disease prevention. Future research should focus on patient adherence to personalized therapies, cost-effectiveness of these strategies, and the potential for enhanced benefit when interventions are performed simultaneously rather than as single measures. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  19. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-09-04

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  20. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Adrian B; Randell, Rebecca K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2013-01-01

    There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean ± SD: Age 41 ± 7 y, Height 1.80 ± 0.04 m, Weight 78.9 ± 4.1 kg, VO2 max 58 ± 3 ml • kg(-1) • min(-1)) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (~5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35 ± 1.53, 38.27 ± 1.80, 40.23 ± 1.98, 40.31 ± 1.22 min respectively, pperformance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294 ± 21 W, 291 ± 22 W, 277 ± 14 W, 276 ± 23 W respectively, pcaffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance.

  1. Comparative and Mixture Effect of Cynodon Dactylon, ElectroMagnetic Field and Insulin on Diabetic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Saeid; Nezhady, Mohammad Ali Mohammad; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-12-01

    New investigations are in progress to find some alternative treatments for diabetes mellitus. Herbs are some of the interesting medications in this regard. Cynodon dactylon (C.d) is a potential plant to be considered as a new medication. On the other hand, the effect of the Electromagnetic Field (EMF) on bio organisms is becoming clearer. In this study, the effect of C.d, EMF and insulin have been investigated on the diabetic mouse. Diabetes was induced by a combination of ketamine (60 mg/Kg) and xylazine (10 mg/Kg) which induces a sustained hyperglycemia. Mice were divided into 12 groups: 1) control, 2) normal saline, 3 and 4) 50mg/Kg C.d, 5 and 6) 100 mg/Kg C.d, 7) insulin, 8) insulin and C.d, 9) EMF (110 KHz, 700±20 mG), 10) insulin and EMF, 11) EMF plus C.d and 12) insulin plus C.d and EMF. Blood glucose level was measured after 5 and 60 minutes in C.d administrated groups, and 5 minutes in the other groups by a glucometer set. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and different means were compared by Tukey and Bonferroni tests (p<0.05). According to results, both dosages of C.d had significant lowering effect on blood glucose level. The first dose was more effective than the second, and its impact was just like insulin. The 6(th), 9(th) and 10(th) groups were significant, also. However, they did not show a higher effect than insulin or C.d. The application of EMF had a significant effect compared to the second group, but it did not reduce the glucose level to the normal range. The effect of the 8th group was very impressive and the mean glucose levels in this group were lower than the control group. Considering the data, C.d is a good alternative medication for diabetes mellitus.

  2. Genie in a blotter: A comparative study of LSD and LSD analogues' effects and user profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Leigh D; Maier, Larissa J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Barratt, Monica J

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe self-reported patterns of use and effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) analogues (AL-LAD, 1P-LSD, and ETH-LAD) and the characteristics of those who use them. An anonymous self-selected online survey of people who use drugs (Global Drug Survey 2016; N = 96,894), which measured perceived drug effects of LSD and its analogues. Most LSD analogue users (91%) had also tried LSD. The proportion of U.K. and U.S. respondents reporting LSD analogue use in the last 12 months was higher than for LSD only. LSD analogue users described the effects as psychedelic (93%), over half (55%) obtained it online, and almost all (99%) reported an oral route of administration. The modal duration (8 hr) and time to peak (2 hr) of LSD analogues were not significantly different from LSD. Ratings for pleasurable high, strength of effect, comedown, urge to use more drugs, value for money, and risk of harm following use were significantly lower for LSD analogues compared with LSD. LSD analogues were reported as similar in time to peak and duration as LSD but weaker in strength, pleasurable high, and comedown. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings with chemical confirmation and dose measurement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  4. Adverse effects in coronary angiography: a comparative study of different temperature contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Peng; Wang Qiulin; Cai Guocai; Li Lu; Jiang Licheng; Yang Zhen; Huang Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between different temperature contrast medium and the occurrence of adverse effects, including the chest discomfort, the changes of heart rate, ST segment and T wave, the operating time and the used dosage of contrast medium, in performing coronary angiography. Methods: According to the contrast medium temperature used in coronary angiography, the patients were randomly divided into two groups: room temperature group (n=521) and warm temperature group (n=522). The contrast medium used in warm temperature group was bathed in 37 ℃ water for 60 minutes when the coronary angiography was carried out. The T Wave amplitude changes ≥ 0.01 mv, ST segment depression ≥ 0.05 mv, changes in heart rate ≥ 10 times/min were brought into the positive accounting. The occurrence of adverse effects, such as palpitation, chest distress and pectoralgia, the operative time and the used dosage of contrast medium were recorded. The results were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences in the changes of heart rate, ST segment deviation, T wave change and operating time existed between the two groups (P<0.05). And the difference in the occurrence of adverse effects between the two groups was also statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: When performing coronary angiography, warming of the contrast medium with water bath is greatly conducive to the prevention of cardiac adverse effects. (authors)

  5. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, E K; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses.

  6. Comparative effects of curcumin and an analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2004-08-20

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major medical complication of alcohol abuse and a common liver disease in western countries. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress plays an important etiologic role in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol alone or in combination with high fat is known to cause oxidative injury. The present study therefore aims at evaluating the protective role of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric and a synthetic analog of curcumin (CA) on alcohol and thermally oxidised sunflower oil (DeltaPUFA) induced oxidative stress. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. The liver marker enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the lipid peroxidative indices: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP) and antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were used as biomarkers for testing the antioxidant potential of the drugs. The liver marker enzymes and lipid peroxidative indices were increased significantly in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups. Administration of curcumin and CA abrograted this effect. The antioxidant status which was decreased in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups was effectively modulated by both curcumin and CA treatment. However, the reduction in oxidative stress was more pronounced in CA treatment groups compared to curcumin. In conclusion, these observations show that CA exerts its protective effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidant status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant.

  7. Anticonflict effect of alpidem as compared with the benzodiazepine alprazolam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascoët, M; Bourin, M

    1997-02-01

    A comparative study between two drugs acting on the GABAA receptor, alprazolam and alpidem was undertaken, using simple tests such as measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity, four plates test and rotarod in mice. Additional conflict test was further performed using a new conflict paradigm where the opportunity existed for rats to choose during punished periods between immediate, punished reinforcement and delayed non-punished reinforcement. The benzodiazepine alprazolam, demonstrated, as expected, strong anxiolytic effects in mice and increased punished response in rats at non sedative doses (0.5, 1 mg/kg). High doses of alprazolam decreased spontaneous locomotor activity and induced myorelaxant effects in mice. Alpidem, an imidazopyridine derivative, induced motor impairment in mice and only very weak anxiolytic effects in the four plates test in mice (4 mg/kg) and in punished procedure in rats (32 mg/kg). As alprazolam is a full agonist for the GABAA receptor complex and alpidem is a partial agonist acting with specificity on omega 1 GABAA receptor subtypes, the results are discussed. Activity on omega 1 receptor subtypes is perhaps not sufficient in order to obtain a true anti-conflict effect and compounds such as alpidem only relieve some of the symptoms of anxiety disorders.

  8. Comparative antinociceptive and sedative effects of epidural romifidine and detomidine in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzok, M A; El-Khodery, S A

    2017-07-01

    In this study, comparative antinociceptive and sedative effects of epidural administration of romifidine and detomidine in buffalo were evaluated. Eighteen healthy adult buffalo, allocated randomly in three groups (two experimental and one control; n=6) received either 50 μg/kg of romifidine or detomidine diluted in sterile saline (0.9 per cent) to a final volume of 20 ml, or an equivalent volume of sterile saline epidurally. Antinociception, sedation and ataxia parameters were recorded immediately after drug administration. Epidural romifidine and detomidine produced mild to deep sedation and complete antinociception of the perineum, inguinal area and flank, and extended distally to the coronary band of the hindlimbs and cranially to the chest area. Times to onset of antinociception and sedation were significantly shorter with romifidine than with detomidine. The antinociceptive and sedative effects were significantly longer with romifidine than with detomidine. Romifidine or detomidine could be used to provide a reliable, long-lasting and cost-effective method for achieving epidural anaesthesia for standing surgical procedures in buffalo. Romifidine induces a longer antinociceptive effect and a more rapid onset than detomidine. Consequently, epidural romifidine may offer better therapeutic benefits in the management of acute postoperative pain. British Veterinary Association.

  9. A comparative study of radioprotective effect of several antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Zhu Gengbai; Gu Xuandi

    1992-01-01

    By means of improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as the fluorometric agent, radioprotective effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, i.e. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes were in human blood lymphocytes were compared by using relative protective efficiency (RPE) as an indicator. The LPO level in human lymphocytes which had been treated with an antioxidant at an concentration of 5 x 10 -3 g/L for 1 hr was measured 2 hr after exposure to 4 Gy of γ-rays, and the RPE values of antioxidants were calculated under these conditions: SOD, 38.23; VE, 23.75:VC, 19.32 and Se +4 , 18.27, thus the anticipation that the compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD), 2-tocopherols (VE), ascorbic acid (VC) and Na 2 SeO 3 (Se +4 ) had radioprotective effects was confirmed. It was found that the radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged as SOD>VE>VC,Se +4 . The results show that radioprotective effects of exogenous antioxidants on radiation induced LPO damage are dependent not only on irradiation dosage, but also especially on property of antioxidants, drug concentration, pretreatment and monitoring time, etc. The mechanism of these antioxidants effecting as radioprotectants on human lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  10. Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Bleda, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative assessment of the innovation effects of instruments which support the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies with a functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. The paper provides a link between two major streams of the literature: the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. We show that, when a functional perspective is adopted, feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other policy instruments (quotas with tradable green certificates and tendering), although they still need to be complemented with other instruments, most importantly, direct R and D support. Furthermore, those innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of the instruments chosen. - Highlights: ► A comparison of the innovation effects of instruments for the diffusion of renewable technologies. ► A functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. ► A link between the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. ► Feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other instruments. ► Innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of instruments.

  11. International comparison of comparative effectiveness research in five jurisdictions: insights for the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Mitton, Craig; Johnston, Karissa M; Harrigan, Brian; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Spurred by a desire to improve quality of care and to understand the relative value of medical treatments, there has been a recent surge of interest in publicly funded comparative effectiveness research (CER) in the US. As health technology assessment (HTA) shares some of the same goals as CER, and publicly funded HTA has been a feature within other industrialized countries for many years, a review of HTA activities in some of these countries can be a helpful source of information for the US debate. Informed by a literature review, and in two cases augmented by informant interviews, we reviewed the organization of HTA activities in five jurisdictions: Canada, Sweden, Scotland, the Netherlands and Australia. We provide a summary description of the healthcare system in each country as well as a description of the key features of their HTA bodies, with a particular focus on the processes of HTA for listing medications on public formularies. Four of the committees evaluating medications for formulary inclusion are funded by, but remain at arm's length from, the government (Canada, Australia, Sweden and Scotland), while the process is fully embedded within the government in the Netherlands. Each of these jurisdictions has a stated preference for comparative outcomes evidence from randomized controlled trials, but will, under certain circumstances, accept randomized evidence using surrogate markers, other comparators that are not directly relevant or non-randomized evidence. Health technology evaluation committees largely comprise health professionals, with public representatives included in the Canadian, Australian and Scottish committees. Scotland is the only one of the five jurisdictions reviewed to have industry representation on the evaluation committee. We identified seven characteristics that are shared across the jurisdictions reviewed and that potentially serve as insights for development of CER in the US: (i) the process must be responsive to stakeholders

  12. The effects of ionizing radiation on food, compared to the effects of conventional food treatment: A literature study. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, W.; Boegl, K.W.

    1987-08-01

    The extent and quality of changes due to irradiation is described and compared with conventional methods. Effects of radiation treatment on vegetable products as well as pork, beef, any type of fish and poultry product are compared with conventional thermic, micro-wave or smoke treatments, drying processes, ethylene oxide gas treatment, as well as effects from storage, temperature and sealed packaging. In this context the influences of the different treatment methods on various food components and on sensory, physical-chemical or biochemical characteristics were compared. The following tendencies were observed: conventional treatment methods produce partly more pronounced changes than irradiation with standard doses. Heat treatment, for instance, results in a greater weight loss, in altered sugar content, and in higher content of carbonyl and aldehyde releasing compounds. Gas treatment will cut the volatile oil content in half, while it remains nearly constant after irradiation. However, in some cases, an irradiation with standard doses may cause changes which should not be disregarded. In onions, for instance, irradiation is causing a stronger decomposition during storage than only cold storage. (orig./MG) [de

  13. The effects of nocturnal compared with conventional hemodialysis on mineral metabolism: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael; Manns, Braden J; Klarenbach, Scott; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Culleton, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients receiving dialysis and is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) is a long, slow dialytic modality that may improve hyperphosphatemia and disorders of mineral metabolism. We performed a randomized-controlled trial of NHD compared with conventional hemodialysis (CvHD); in this paper, we report detailed results of mineral metabolism outcomes. Prevalent patients were randomized to receive NHD 5 to 6 nights per week for 6to 10 hours per night or to continue CvHD thrice weekly for 6 months. Oral phosphate binders and vitamin D analogs were adjusted to maintain phosphate, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels within recommended targets. Compared with CvHD patients, patients in the NHD group had a significant decrease in serum phosphate over the course of the study (0.49 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.74; P=0.002) despite a significant reduction in the use of phosphate binders. Sixty-one percent of patients in the NHD group compared with 20% in the CvHD group had a decline in intact PTH (P=0.003). Nocturnal hemodialysis lowers serum phosphate, calcium-phosphate product and requirement for phosphate binders. The effects of NHD on PTH are variable. The impact of these changes on long-term cardiovascular and bone-related outcomes requires further investigation.

  14. Compared performance of penetrometers and effect of soil water content on penetration resistance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Aparecido Mome Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture techniques have a great impact on crops and soil quality, especially by the increased machinery traffic and weight. Several devices have been developed for determining soil properties in the field, aimed at managing compacted areas. Penetrometry is a widely used technique; however, there are several types of penetrometers, which have different action modes that can affect the soil resistance measurement. The objective of this study was to compare the functionality of two penetrometry methods (manual and automated mode in the field identification of compacted, highly mechanized sugarcane areas, considering the influence of soil water volumetric content (θ on soil penetration resistance (PR. Three sugarcane fields on a Rhodic Eutrudrox were chosen, under a sequence of harvest systems: one manual harvest (1ManH, one mechanized harvest (1MH and three mechanized harvests (3MH. The different degrees of mechanization were associated to cumulative compaction processes. An electronic penetrometer was used on PR measurements, so that the rod was introduced into the soil by hand (Manual and by an electromechanical motor (Auto. The θ was measured in the field with a soil moisture sensor. Results showed an effect of θ on PR measurements and that regression models must be used to correct data before comparing harvesting systems. The rod introduction modes resulted in different mean PR values, where the "Manual" overestimated PR compared to the "Auto" mode at low θ.

  15. A comparative study of effect of sevoflurane on intubating conditions with rocuronium in neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Saikat; Purohit, Shobha; Bhatia, Sonali; Kalra, Poonam; Sharma, Satya Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Rocuronium may not always be the preferred relaxant for rapid sequence intubation. When 2% sevoflurane is used in conjunction with rocuronium, it may reduce the time required for achieving complete skeletal muscle relaxation with the intubating dose of rocuronium. This study was prospective, randomised, double-blind in nature and compared the effect of sevoflurane on intubation time and intubating conditions when used along with rocuronium. Thirty adult patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Grades 1 and 2, of either gender aged between 30 and 65 years undergoing neurosurgical operations were randomly allocated into two equal groups: Group R received 0.8 mg/kg rocuronium, and Group RS received 0.8 mg/kg of rocuronium with 2% sevoflurane. Onset time of intubation was assessed using train-of-four stimuli. The intubating conditions were compared using the Cooper scoring system and the haemodynamic responses were compared between the two groups. The onset time of intubation was 101.73 ± 10.28 s in Group R and 60.4 ± 4.1 s in Group RS (P Rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg along with 2% sevoflurane provides excellent intubating conditions within 60-66 s from its administration.

  16. Comparing the Effects of Different Body Armor Systems on the Occupational Performance of Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Hinton, Ben; Norris, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armor vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of three different ILAVs made by different companies with their preferred materials and designs (ILAV A, 4.68 percent body weight, ILAV B, 4.05 percent body weight, & ILAV C, 3.71 percent body weight) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5-meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. To compare the effects of the ILAVs on these tasks, a multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted, with post hoc pairwise comparisons using a Bonferroni adjustment. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear. PMID:29723995

  17. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhouna; Jin, Zhehu

    2016-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent years, studies have reported the appropriate use of verapamil for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Searches were conducted on the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 2006 to July 2016. State12.0 was used for literature review, data extraction, and meta-analysis. Treatment groups were divided into verapamil and nonverapamil group. Nonverapamil group includes steroids and intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy. Total effective rates include cure rate and effective rate. Cure: skin lesions were completely flattened, became soft and symptoms disappeared. Efficacy: skin lesions subsided, patient significantly reduced symptoms. Inefficient definition of skin was progression free or became worse. Random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Six studies that included 331 patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars were analyzed. Analysis of the total effective rate of skin healing was performed. The total effective rates in the two groups were 54.07% (verapamil) and 53.18% (nonverapamil), respectively. The meta-analysis showed that there was no difference between the two groups. We also compared the adverse reactions between the verapamil treatment group and the steroids treatment group in two studies, and the result indicated that the verapamil group showed less adverse reactions. There were no differences between the application of verapamil and nonverapamil group in keloids and hypertrophic scars treatment. Verapamil could act as an effective alternative modality in the prevention and treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars. A larger number of studies are required to

  18. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders.

  19. Comparative study of the effects of bupropion and escitalopram on Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinuk; Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Roh, Sungwon; Son, Ji Hyun; Choi, Tae Young; Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Young Sik

    2016-11-01

    We compared the efficacy of bupropion and escitalopram treatments in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) patients. We recruited 119 adolescents and adults with IGD. We treated these participants for 6 weeks in three groups as follows: 44 participants were treated with bupropion SR (bupropion group), 42 participants were treated with escitalopram (escitalopram group), and 33 patients without any medication were observed in the community (observation group). At baseline and at the 6-week follow-up visit, all subjects were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, the Young Internet Addiction Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the ADHD Rating Scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales. Both the escitalopram group and the bupropion group showed improvement on all clinical symptom scales after 6 weeks of treatment compared to the observation group. Additionally, the bupropion group showed greater improvement on scores for the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, the Young Internet Addiction Scale, the ADHD Rating Scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition Scale than the escitalopram group. Both bupropion and escitalopram were effective in treating and managing IGD symptoms. Moreover, bupropion appeared to be more effective than escitalopram in improving attention and impulsivity in IGD patients. In addition, attention and impulsivity seem to be important for the management of IGD. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosselli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35% for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay was three times gross domestic product (GDP = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798. The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  1. Comparing and counting logs in direct and effective methods of QCD resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Leandro G. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut de Biologie de l’École Normale Supérieure (IBENS),Inserm 1024-CNRS 8197, 46 rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Ellis, Stephen D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lee, Christopher [Theoretical Division, MS B283, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Sterman, George [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sung, Ilmo [Department of Applied Physics, New York University,Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Queens College, City University of New York,Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    We compare methods to resum logarithms in event shape distributions as they have been used in perturbative QCD directly and in effective field theory. We demonstrate that they are equivalent. In showing this equivalence, we are able to put standard soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) formulae for cross sections in momentum space into a novel form more directly comparable with standard QCD formulae, and endow the QCD formulae with dependence on separated hard, jet, and soft scales, providing potential ways to improve estimates of theoretical uncertainty. We show how to compute cross sections in momentum space to keep them as accurate as the corresponding expressions in Laplace space. In particular, we point out that that care is required in truncating differential distributions at N{sup k}LL accuracy to ensure they match the accuracy of the corresponding cumulant or Laplace transform. We explain how to avoid such mismatches at N{sup k}LL accuracy, and observe why they can also be avoided by working to N{sup k}LL{sup ′} accuracy.

  2. Comparative Effects of Education and Bilingualism on the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subasree; Mekala, Shailaja; Mamidipudi, Annapurna; Yareeda, Sireesha; Mridula, Rukmini; Bak, Thomas H; Alladi, Suvarna; Kaul, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that life course factors such as education and bilingualism may have a protective role against dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of education and bilingualism on the onset of cognitive decline at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 115 patients with MCI evaluated in a specialty memory clinic in Hyderabad, India, formed the cohort. MCI was diagnosed according to Petersen's criteria following clinical evaluation and brain imaging. Age at onset of MCI was compared between bilinguals and monolinguals, and across subjects with high and low levels of education, adjusting for possible confounding variables. The bilingual MCI patients were found to have a clinical onset of cognitive complaints 7.4 years later than monolinguals (65.2 vs. 58.1 years; p = 0.004), while years of education was not associated with delayed onset (1-10 years of education, 59.1 years; 11-15 years of education, 62.6 years; >15 years of education, 62.2 years; p = 0.426). The effect of bilingualism is protective against cognitive decline, and lies along a continuum from normal to pathological states. In comparison, the role of years of education is less robust. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

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    Saeed Imani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU.Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy and control groups (the Usual Treatment.The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program.  Methods:The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results:The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion:The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of vedolizumab compared with conventional therapy for ulcerative colitis patients in the UK

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    Wilson MR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Michele R Wilson,1 Ismail Azzabi Zouraq,2 Helene Chevrou-Severac,2 Ross Selby,3 Matthew C Kerrigan4 1RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Takeda UK Ltd., Bucks, UK; 4PHMR Limited, London, UK Objective: To examine the clinical and economic impact of vedolizumab compared with conventional therapy in the treatment of moderately-to-severely active ulcerative colitis (UC in the UK based on results of the GEMINI I trial. Methods: A decision-analytic model in Microsoft Excel was used to compare vedolizumab with conventional therapy (aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators for the treatment of patients with UC in the UK. We considered the following three populations: the overall intent-to-treat population from the GEMINI I trial, patients naïve to anti-TNF therapy, and those who had failed anti-TNF-therapy. Population characteristics and efficacy data were obtained from the GEMINI I trial. Other inputs (eg, unit costs, probability of surgery, mortality were obtained from published literature. Time horizon was a lifetime horizon, with costs and outcomes discounted by 3.5% per year. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to measure the impact of parameter uncertainty. Results: Vedolizumab had incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of £4,095/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY, £4,423/QALY, and £5,972/QALY compared with conventional therapy in the intent-to-treat, anti-TNF-naïve, and anti-TNF-failure populations, respectively. Patients on vedolizumab accrued more QALYs while incurring more costs than patients on conventional therapy. The sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to induction response and transition probabilities for each treatment. Conclusion: The results suggest that vedolizumab results in more QALYs and may be a cost-effective treatment option compared with conventional therapy for both anti

  5. Comparative effectiveness of liraglutide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

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    Rigato M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Rigato, Gian Paolo Fadini Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive decline in beta cell function, with consequent worsening of glycemic control. The ideal antihyperglycemic treatment should achieve good and sustained glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia and no weight gain. This paper reviews the efficacy and tolerability of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Once-daily injection of liraglutide (at doses of 1.2 mg and 1.8 mg, as monotherapy or in combination with one or two oral antihyperglycemic agents, was associated with greater improvements in glycemic control compared with active comparators or placebo in several controlled, randomized Phase III trials, including the six trials of the LEAD (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes program. Liraglutide also improved beta cell function, body weight, systolic blood pressure, and lipid profile, thereby achieving many of the goals of ideal antihyperglycemic therapy. Liraglutide was generally well tolerated in the Phase III trials. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, usually of mild to moderate intensity. The observed rate of pancreatitis was low and comparable with that of the general diabetic population. In conclusion, although most trials were relatively short and focused on surrogate endpoints, liraglutide emerges as an effective and well tolerated treatment for type 2 diabetes, carrying a low risk of hypoglycemia, weight loss, and possible reduction of cardiovascular risk. Keywords: body weight, hypoglycemia, cardiovascular, incretin

  6. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians

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    Gus F. Halwani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume and microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA of the arcuate fasciculus (AF, a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG<–>IFG, and ventral (inferior branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG<–>IFG. Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG<–>IFG, and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG<–>IFG. This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers’ group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants’ vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  7. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Gus F; Loui, Psyche; Rüber, Theodor; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy, FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior) branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG ↔ IFG), and ventral (inferior) branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG ↔ IFG). Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG ↔ IFG), and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG ↔ IFG). This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers' group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants' vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white-matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  8. Comparative effectiveness of primary tumor resection in patients with stage IV colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Zeinab; Phatak, Uma R; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Bailey, Christina E; You, Y Nancy; Kao, Lillian S; Massarweh, Nader N; Feig, Barry W; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Skibber, John M; Chang, George J

    2017-04-01

    Although the safety of combination chemotherapy without primary tumor resection (PTR) in patients with stage IV colon cancer has been established, questions remain regarding a potential survival benefit with PTR. The objective of this study was to compare mortality rates in patients who had colon cancer with unresectable metastases who did and did not undergo PTR. An observational cohort study was conducted among patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer identified from the National Cancer Data Base (2003-2005). Multivariate Cox regression analyses with and without propensity score weighting (PSW) were performed to compare survival outcomes. Instrumental variable analysis, using the annual hospital-level PTR rate as the instrument, was used to account for treatment selection bias. To account for survivor treatment bias, in situations in which patients might die soon after diagnosis from different reasons, a landmark method was used. In the total cohort, 8641 of 15,154 patients (57%) underwent PTR, and 73.8% of those procedures (4972 of 6735) were at landmark. PTR was associated with a significant reduction in mortality using Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.47) or PSW (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0. 44-0.49). However, instrumental variable analysis revealed a much smaller effect (relative mortality rate, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96). Although a smaller benefit was observed with the landmark method using Cox regression (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.55-0.64) and PSW (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.54-0.64), instrumental variable analysis revealed no survival benefit (relative mortality rate, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.06). Among patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer, after adjustment for confounder effects, PTR was not associated with improved survival compared with systemic chemotherapy; therefore, routine noncurative PTR is not recommended. Cancer 2017;123:1124-1133. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. A comparative study of effect of sevoflurane on intubating conditions with rocuronium in neurosurgical patients

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    Saikat Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Rocuronium may not always be the preferred relaxant for rapid sequence intubation. When 2% sevoflurane is used in conjunction with rocuronium, it may reduce the time required for achieving complete skeletal muscle relaxation with the intubating dose of rocuronium. Methods: This study was prospective, randomised, double-blind in nature and compared the effect of sevoflurane on intubation time and intubating conditions when used along with rocuronium. Thirty adult patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Grades 1 and 2, of either gender aged between 30 and 65 years undergoing neurosurgical operations were randomly allocated into two equal groups: Group R received 0.8 mg/kg rocuronium, and Group RS received 0.8 mg/kg of rocuronium with 2% sevoflurane. Onset time of intubation was assessed using train-of-four stimuli. The intubating conditions were compared using the Cooper scoring system and the haemodynamic responses were compared between the two groups. Results: The onset time of intubation was 101.73 ± 10.28 s in Group R and 60.4 ± 4.1 s in Group RS (P < 0.001, with excellent intubating conditions in both groups and without any adverse effects. Significant differences in heart rate and mean arterial pressure were seen immediately after intubation, at 1 and 3 min (P < 0.05 between the two groups. Conclusion: Rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg along with 2% sevoflurane provides excellent intubating conditions within 60-66 s from its administration.

  10. Comparative performance of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy: Are all models effective?

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    Shashikant Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.

  11. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

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    Hassan Pazoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of problem questionnaire (DRSP-Q. The participants were divided into four equal groups: the first group received fennel, the second group had aerobic exercise, the third group received fennel along with exercise and the last group was control group without fennel and exercise. Participants filled DRSP-Q three times: the first menstrual cycle before the intervention, the first menstrual cycle after four weeks and finally the first menstrual cycle after eight weeks of intervention. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention the severity of PMS symptoms reduced significantly in experimental groups (fennel, exercise and fennel + exercise compared to control group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, there were not any significant differences in age, body mass index, age at menarche, age at dysmenorrhea onset and duration of menstruation among the four groups. Discussions: The result of this study indicated that fennels and exercise could reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, fennel extract and exercise together seem to be more effective on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with using them alone.

  12. A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis of Drugs for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache.

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    Jeffrey L Jackson

    Full Text Available To compare the effectiveness and side effects of migraine prophylactic medications.We performed a network meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently in duplicate and quality was assessed using both the JADAD and Cochrane Risk of Bias instruments. Data were pooled and network meta-analysis performed using random effects models.PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Registry, bibliography of retrieved articles through 18 May 2014.We included randomized controlled trials of adults with migraine headaches of at least 4 weeks in duration.Placebo controlled trials included alpha blockers (n = 9, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 3, angiotensin receptor blockers (n = 3, anticonvulsants (n = 32, beta-blockers (n = 39, calcium channel blockers (n = 12, flunarizine (n = 7, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 6, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 1 serotonin agonists (n = 9 and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 11. In addition there were 53 trials comparing different drugs. Drugs with at least 3 trials that were more effective than placebo for episodic migraines included amitriptyline (SMD: -1.2, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.82, -flunarizine (-1.1 headaches/month (ha/month, 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.67, fluoxetine (SMD: -0.57, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.17, metoprolol (-0.94 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.4 to -0.46, pizotifen (-0.43 ha/month, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.21, propranolol (-1.3 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.0 to -0.62, topiramate (-1.1 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.73 and valproate (-1.5 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.1 to -0.8. Several effective drugs with less than 3 trials included: 3 ace inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril, two angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan, telmisartan, two anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and several beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, timolol. Network meta-analysis found amitriptyline to be better than several other medications including candesartan, fluoxetine, propranolol, topiramate and valproate and no different than

  13. A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis of Drugs for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness and side effects of migraine prophylactic medications. Design We performed a network meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently in duplicate and quality was assessed using both the JADAD and Cochrane Risk of Bias instruments. Data were pooled and network meta-analysis performed using random effects models. Data Sources PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Registry, bibliography of retrieved articles through 18 May 2014. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies We included randomized controlled trials of adults with migraine headaches of at least 4 weeks in duration. Results Placebo controlled trials included alpha blockers (n = 9), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 3), angiotensin receptor blockers (n = 3), anticonvulsants (n = 32), beta-blockers (n = 39), calcium channel blockers (n = 12), flunarizine (n = 7), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 6), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 1) serotonin agonists (n = 9) and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 11). In addition there were 53 trials comparing different drugs. Drugs with at least 3 trials that were more effective than placebo for episodic migraines included amitriptyline (SMD: -1.2, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.82), -flunarizine (-1.1 headaches/month (ha/month), 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.67), fluoxetine (SMD: -0.57, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.17), metoprolol (-0.94 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.4 to -0.46), pizotifen (-0.43 ha/month, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.21), propranolol (-1.3 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.0 to -0.62), topiramate (-1.1 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.73) and valproate (-1.5 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.1 to -0.8). Several effective drugs with less than 3 trials included: 3 ace inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril), two angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan, telmisartan), two anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, levetiracetam), and several beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, timolol). Network meta-analysis found amitriptyline to be better than several other medications including

  14. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Prospective Comparative Analysis of 4 Different Intraocular Pressure Measurement Techniques and Their Effects on Pressure Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Thomas A; Yang, Patrick T; Chan, Clara C

    2016-10-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement using the Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) without fluorescein, with fluorescein strips, with fluorescein droplets, and IOP measurement with Tono-Pen Avia (TPA). This was a prospective comparative clinical analysis. It was performed in clinical practice. The study population consisted of 40 volunteer patients, 1 eye per patient. All patients who were 18 years and older having routine ophthalmological examination were eligible to participate. Active corneal abrasions and/or ulcers, previous glaucoma surgery, or prostheses interfering with GAT measurement were excluded. GAT IOP was measured first without fluorescein, then with fluorescein strip, then with fluorescein droplet, and finally with the TPA device. The main outcome measure was central corneal IOP. Mean±SD IOP measurements for GAT without fluorescein, with fluorescein strip, with fluorescein droplet, and for TPA groups were 12.65±3.01, 14.70±2.82, 15.78±2.64, and 16.33±3.08 mm Hg, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance corrected with the Greenhouse-Geisser estimate ([Latin Small Letter Open E]=0.732) showed that measuring technique had a significant effect on IOP measurements (F2.20,85.59=34.66, P<0.001). The pairwise post hoc testing showed statistically significant mean differences (P≤0.001) between all techniques except when GAT with fluorescein droplet was compared with TPA (P=0.222). The Bland-Altman analyses showed 95% limits of agreement maximum potential discrepancies in measurement ranging from 5.89 mm Hg in the GAT with fluorescein strip versus droplet compared with 11.83 mm Hg in the GAT with fluorescein strip versus TPA comparison. IOP measurement technique significantly impacted the values obtained. The ophthalmologist should ensure consistent measurement technique to minimize variability when following patients.

  16. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubar, Marisa; Stavroulakis, Maria Christina; Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the adoption of the target

  17. Comparing the therapeutic effects of finasteride gel and tablet in treatment of the androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajheydari Zohreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride, a type P-selective 5a-reductase inhibitor, as a causative agent of decreasing dihydroxy testestrone (DHT level, is effective in the treatment of male androgenic alopecia. Aim: We compared the local and oral finasteride in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Method: This is a double blind, randomized clinical trial study of 45 male patients, who were referred with alopecia to the private clinics and departments in Boo-Ali Sina Hospital, in Sari. Patients with male androgenic alopecia were selected according to the history and physical examinations. The patients were randomly divided into two: topical finasteride (A and oral finasteride (B groups. Topical finasteride group (A received a topical gel of 1% finasteride and placebo tablets, while the oral finasteride group (B received finasteride tablets (1 mg and gel base (without drug as placebo for 6 months. The patients were followed by clinical observation and recording of side effects prior to the treatment and at the end of first week, and then by a monthly follow-up. The size of bald area, total hair count, and terminal hair were studied. Data were analyzed by descriptive and Chi-square statistical test. Results: The mean duration of hair loss was 18.8±23.10 months. Each month the terminal hair, size of bald area and hair count between the two groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the two groups as a viewpoint of hair thickness, hair counts and the size of bald area. Serial measurements indicated a significant increase in hair counts and terminal hair counts between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the therapeutic effects of both finasteride gel and finasteride tablet were relatively similar to each other.

  18. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

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    Nurina Tyagita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The rats were assigned to one of three groups: ADF with 70 % calorie intake (30% CR, ADF with 100 % calorie intake (0% CR, and ADF with 140 % calorie intake (excessive calorie intake and AL (fed ad libitum. All groups were subjected to 6 hour fasting per day (9 a.m. until 3 p.m. or 15 days. The plasma sample was taken for MDA level assessment. Urinary 8-oxodG levels were determined by using ELISA. Results: ADF with 30% calorie restriction (F70 group had the lowest MDA level. Measurement of 8-oxodG level showed that group F70 had the highest production of 8-oxodG. There was an inverse relationship between MDA level and 8-oxodG level meaning the lower MDA level, the lower 8-oxodG levels were produced. Conclusion: ADF fasting with 30% caloric restriction reduce the MDA level but increase 8-oxodG levels. This study suggest the beneficial effect of fasting requires decrease in overall caloric intake.

  19. Comparative effects of 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid and vorinostat on cell growth and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy J; Ali, Amna; Matesic, Diane F

    2015-02-01

    4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid (PBA) is a small-molecule anti-inflammatory agent, which has been shown to inhibit growth, increase gap junction intercellular communication and modulate activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) in tumorigenic cells at concentrations that do not similarly affect non-tumorigenic cells. Vorinostat is an anticancer agent structurally similar to PBA. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these two agents on JNK and p38 activation, cell growth and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Cell growth, GJIC and western blot analyses were performed utilizing tumorigenic WBras1 and H2009 human carcinoma cells, and non-tumorigenic WBneo3 and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Both compounds significantly inhibited WBras1 and H2009 tumorigenic cell growth and increased GJIC in WBras1 cells, as previously reported for PBA. Under similar conditions, both compounds increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in tumorigenic but not in non-tumorigenic cells and decreased phosphorylation of JNK in tumorigenic cells. However, a decrease in phosphorylation of JNK occurred in non-tumorigenic WBras1 cells following vorinostat treatment but not PBA treatment. Both compounds showed a selective growth inhibition of H2009 human carcinoma over normal HBE lung cells but, unlike PBA, vorinostat significantly decreased cell growth in WBneo3 cells. Overall, PBA exhibited similar effects to vorinostat in tumorigenic cells, while also showing reduced effects on JNK phosphorylation and growth in non-tumorigenic cells compared to ras-transformed cells. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative effects of organic and inorganic mercury on in vivo dopamine release in freely moving rats

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    L.R.F. Faro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to compare the effects of administration of organic (methylmercury, MeHg and inorganic (mercury chloride, HgCl 2 forms of mercury on in vivo dopamine (DA release from rat striatum. Experiments were performed in conscious and freely moving female adult Sprague-Dawley (230-280 g rats using brain microdialysis coupled to HPLC with electrochemical detection. Perfusion of different concentrations of MeHg or HgCl 2 (2 µL/min for 1 h, N = 5-7/group into the striatum produced significant increases in the levels of DA. Infusion of 40 µM, 400 µM, or 4 mM MeHg increased DA levels to 907 ± 31, 2324 ± 156, and 9032 ± 70% of basal levels, respectively. The same concentrations of HgCl 2 increased DA levels to 1240 ± 66, 2500 ± 424, and 2658 ± 337% of basal levels, respectively. These increases were associated with significant decreases in levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovallinic acid. Intrastriatal administration of MeHg induced a sharp concentration-dependent increase in DA levels with a peak 30 min after injection, whereas HgCl 2 induced a gradual, lower (for 4 mM and delayed increase in DA levels (75 min after the beginning of perfusion. Comparing the neurochemical profile of the two mercury derivatives to induce increases in DA levels, we observed that the time-course of these increases induced by both mercurials was different and the effect produced by HgCl 2 was not concentration-dependent (the effect was the same for the concentrations of 400 µM and 4 mM HgCl 2 . These results indicate that HgCl 2 produces increases in extracellular DA levels by a mechanism differing from that of MeHg.

  1. Comparative study of curcumin and curcumin formulated in a solid dispersion: Evaluation of their antigenotoxic effects

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    Leonardo Meneghin Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCurcumin (CMN is the principal active component derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (Curcuma longa L.. It is a liposoluble polyphenolic compound that possesses great therapeutic potential. Its clinical application is, however, limited by the low concentrations detected following oral administration. One key strategy for improving the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is solid dispersion, though it is not known whether this technique might influence the pharmacological effects of CMN. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of CMN formulated in a solid dispersion (CMN SD compared to unmodified CMN delivered to Wistar rats. Cisplatin (cDDP was used as the damage-inducing agent in these evaluations. The comet assay results showed that CMN SD was not able to reduce the formation of cDDP-DNA crosslinks, but it decreased the formation of micronuclei induced by cDDP and attenuated cDDP-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. both CMN SD and unmodified CMN increased the expression of Tp53 mRNA. Our results showed that CMN SD did not alter the antigenotoxic effects observed for unmodified CMN and showed effects similar to those of unmodified CMN for all of the parameters evaluated. In conclusion, CMN SD maintained the protective effects of unmodified CMN with the advantage of being chemically water soluble, with maximization of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the optimization of the physical and chemical properties of CMN SD may increase the potential for the therapeutic use of curcumin.

  2. Comparative effectiveness of gamma-rays and electron beams in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiations which can be used for the treatment of foods are gamma-rays from Co-60 and Cs-137, accelerated electrons from a machine at an energy of 10 MeV or lower and X-rays from a machine at an energy of 5 MeV or lower. The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food held in 1980 concluded that the foods irradiated at overall average doses up to 10 kGy with the radiation listed above are wholesome for human consumption. While most of the commercial food irradiations are conducted with gamma-rays from Co-60, accelerated electrons are increasingly utilized for treating foods. An important difference between gamma-rays and accelerated electrons is the penetration capacity in materials. The penetration capacity of gamma-rays is much higher than that of accelerated electrons. Another important difference is the dose rate. The dose rates of gamma-rays from commercial Co-60 sources are 1-100 Gy/min, while those of electron beams from electron accelerators are 10 3 -10 6 Gy/s. Ideally a comparison of the effect of different types of ionizing radiation should be carried out at the same dose rate but this has been difficult due to the design of irradiators. It is very difficult to draw a definite conclusion on the difference in the effectiveness in food irradiation between gamma-rays and electron beams based on published data. This chapter deals with as many reports as possible on the comparative effectiveness of gamma-rays and electron beams and on the effect of dose rate on chemical reactions and living organisms, whether or not they demonstrate any dependency of the effect of irradiation on dose rate and type of radiation. (author)

  3. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  4. Autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immunological effects of ayahuasca: a comparative study with d-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Valle, Marta; Bouso, José Carlos; Nomdedéu, Josep F; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Barker, Steven A; Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea combining the 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting β-carboline alkaloids that render DMT orally active. The tea, obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, has traditionally been used for religious, ritual, and medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of the region. More recently, the syncretistic religious use of ayahuasca has expanded to the United States and Europe. Here we conducted a double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial to investigate the physiological impact of ayahuasca in terms of autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immunomodulatory effects. An oral dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (1.0 mg DMT/kg body weight) was compared versus a placebo and versus a positive control (20 mg d-amphetamine) in a group of 10 healthy volunteers. Ayahuasca led to measurable DMT plasma levels and distinct subjective and neurophysiological effects that were absent after amphetamine. Both drugs increased pupillary diameter, with ayahuasca showing milder effects. Prolactin levels were significantly increased by ayahuasca but not by amphetamine, and cortisol was increased by both, with ayahuasca leading to the higher peak values. Ayahuasca and amphetamine induced similar time-dependent modifications in lymphocyte subpopulations. Percent CD4 and CD3 were decreased, whereas natural killer cells were increased. Maximum changes occurred around 2 hours, returning to baseline levels at 24 hours. In conclusion, ayahuasca displayed moderate sympathomimetic effects, significant neuroendocrine stimulation, and a time-dependent modulatory effect on cell-mediated immunity. Future studies on the health impact of long-term ayahuasca consumption should consider the assessment of immunological status in regular users.

  5. Effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber in whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains compared with alfalfa haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa NDF with NDF from whole, linted cottonseed or dried distillers grains. Low and high fiber control diets (13 and 19% of dietary DM from alfalfa haylage NDF, respectively) were compared with diets designed to contain 13% of DM from alfalfa haylage NDF plus 6% of DM from either cottonseed NDF or distillers grains NDF. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield were lower from the high fiber control diet. Milk fat percentage was lower for the low fiber control diet. The cottonseed diet was equal to the high fiber control diet in stimulating rumination. Rumen acetate to propionate ratio was higher for the high fiber control and cottonseed diets. Replacing alfalfa with either of these high fiber by-product feeds increased feed intake and yields of milk fat and protein. The effectiveness of the NDF in distillers grains and cottonseed was not significantly different from that of alfalfa NDF for maintaining milk fat yield. Whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains appear to be good sources of effective fiber for maintaining milk fat test when they are substituted for alfalfa haylage fiber in lactating cow rations.

  6. Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiroglu, Gonul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexketoprofene trometamol and 8 mg lornoxicam were injected intravenously for group D and group L respectively. In postoperative intensive care unit, pain scores, mean arterial pressures, heart rates and peripheric O2 saturations of patients were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 60, 90 and 120th minutes. Results: When we evaluate the VAS score of the groups, there was a significant decrease in group D in all measured timesstatistically compairing to group L (p0.05). Conclusion: Since intravenous dexketoprofen, applied preemptively, has more potent analgesic effect and causing less opioid consumption in early postoperative period, is better than intravenous lornoxicam. PMID:25610155

  7. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H.Joong-Ho; Byun, M.-W.Myung-Woo; Kim, K.-S.Kang-Soo; Kang, I.-J.Il-Jun

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40 deg. C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH{sub 3}) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor (P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng. (author)

  8. Building a Strategic Framework for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Complementary and Integrative Medicine

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    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of chronic diseases presents not only challenges to the knowledge and expertise of the professional medical community, but also highlights the need to improve the quality and relevance of clinical research in this domain. Many patients now turn to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM to treat their chronic illnesses; however, there is very little evidence to guide their decision-making in usual care. The following research recommendations were derived from a CIM Stakeholder Symposium on Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER: (1 CER studies should be made a priority in this field; (2 stakeholders should be engaged at every stage of the research; (3 CER study designs should highlight effectiveness over efficacy; (4 research questions should be well defined to enable the selection of an appropriate CER study design; (5 the CIM community should cultivate widely shared understandings, discourse, tools, and technologies to support the use and validity of CER methods; (6 Effectiveness Guidance Documents on methodological standards should be developed to shape future CER studies. CER is an emerging field and its development and impact must be reflected in future research strategies within CIM. This stakeholder symposium was a first step in providing systematic guidance for future CER in this field.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIMULATION AND TIME SERIES MODEL IN QUANTIFYING BULLWHIP EFFECT IN SUPPLY CHAIN

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    T. V. O. Fabson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bullwhip (or whiplash effect is an observed phenomenon in forecast driven distribution channeland careful management of these effects is of great importance to managers of supply chain.Bullwhip effect refers to situations where orders to the suppliers tend to have larger variance thansales to the buyer (demand distortion and the distortion increases as we move up the supply chain.Due to the fact that demand of customer for product is unstable, business managers must forecast inorder to properly position inventory and other resources. Forecasts are statistically based and in mostcases, are not very accurate. The existence of forecast errors made it necessary for organizations tooften carry an inventory buffer called “safety stock”. Moving up the supply chain from the end userscustomers to raw materials supplier there is a lot of variation in demand that can be observed, whichcall for greater need for safety stock.This study compares the efficacy of simulation and Time Series model in quantifying the bullwhipeffects in supply chain management.

  10. A comparative study of graphene and graphite-based field effect transistor on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Kapil; Rani, Cheenu; Vaid, Monika; Kapoor, Ankit; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Sandeep; Shriwastawa, Shilpi; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Randhir; Tripathi, C. C.

    2018-06-01

    In the present era, there has been a great demand of cost-effective, biodegradable, flexible and wearable electronics which may open the gate to many applications like flexible displays, RFID tags, health monitoring devices, etc. Due to the versatile nature of plastic substrates, they have been extensively used in packaging, printing, etc. However, the fabrication of electronic devices requires specially prepared substrates with high quality surfaces, chemical compositions and solutions to the related fabrication issues along with its non-biodegradable nature. Therefore, in this report, a cost-effective, biodegradable cellulose paper as an alternative dielectric substrate material for the fabrication of flexible field effect transistor (FET) is presented. The graphite and liquid phase exfoliated graphene have been used as the material for the realisation of source, drain and channel on cellulose paper substrate for its comparative analysis. The mobility of fabricated FETs was calculated to be 83 cm2/V s (holes) and 33 cm2/V s (electrons) for graphite FET and 100 cm2/V s (holes) and 52 cm2/V s (electrons) for graphene FET, respectively. The output characteristic of the device demonstrates the linear behaviour and a comprehensive increase in conductance as a function of gate voltages. The fabricated FETs may be used for strain sensing, health care monitoring devices, human motion detection, etc.

  11. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlasher, Emad; Geng, Xiuyu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Xuan; Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Auvergne, Alain; Guerre, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in maize and maize products. Their main toxic effects have been well characterized in poultry, but differences between species have been demonstrated. Ducks appeared very sensitive to toxicity, whereas turkeys are more resistant. At the same time, alterations of sphingolipid metabolism, with an increase of the concentration of the free sphinganine (Sa) in serum and liver, have been demonstrated in the two species, but the link between the toxicity of FBs and Sa accumulation remains difficult to interpret. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects of FBs (10 mg FB1 + FB2/kg body weight) on sphingolipid metabolism in ducks and turkeys. Growth, feed consumption, and serum biochemistry were also investigated to evaluate toxicity. The main results showed that FBs increased Sa concentrations in liver and serum in ducks and turkeys, but these accumulations were not directly correlated with toxicity. Sa accumulation was higher in the livers of turkeys than in ducks, whereas Sa levels were higher in the sera of ducks than in turkeys. Hepatic toxicity was more pronounced in ducks than in turkeys and accompanied a decrease of body weight and an increase of serum biochemistry in ducks but not in turkeys. So, although FBs increase Sa concentration in the livers of both species, this effect is not directly proportional to toxicity. The mechanisms of FB toxicity and/or the mechanisms of protection of ducks and turkeys to the Sa accumulation within the liver remain to be established.

  12. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study on the effective thermal conductivity of a single size beryllium pebble bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Sena, A.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.

    2004-01-01

    Solid breeder blankets generally use beryllium-helium pebble beds to ensure sufficient tritium breeding. The data of the effective thermal conductivity, k eff , of beryllium pebble beds is important to the design of fusion blankets. It serves as a database for benchmarking the models of pebble beds. The objective of this paper is to review and compare the available data (obtained by several studies) of the effective thermal conductivity of beryllium pebble beds in order to address the current status of these data. Two comparisons are presented: one for the data of k eff versus bed mean temperature and the second one for the data of k eff versus external applied pressures. The data (k eff versus bed temperature) reported by Enoeda et al., Dalle Donne et al., and UCLA, have a similar particle size and packing fraction. Despite their similarity, the standard deviation values of their data are around 32%. Also, the data of the effective thermal conductivity as a function of mechanical pressure have standard deviation values of ∼50%. From the presented comparisons, significant discrepancies among the available data of k eff of the beryllium pebble beds were observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the apparent differences among available studies, such as experiment technique, packing fraction, particle characteristics, bed dimensions, and temperature range and gradient across the bed. (author)

  14. To compare effects of maitland and mulligan mobilization techniques in the treatment of frozen shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, R.; Ahmad, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the role of Maitland mobilization and Mulligan's mobilization techniques in treatment of frozen shoulder and its possible effect in early gaining of ROM and Pain management. Methods: This was a randomized control trial conducted at Department of Physiotherapy ana Orthopedics unit I, KEMU / Mayo Hospital, Lahore. There were two group of patients each group contained 30 patients. Patients were treated with Mulligan's technique in Group - A and with Maitland manual therapy technique in Group - B. Patients in both treatment groups were followed till 6 weeks and improvement in range of motion parameters were recorded at every follow up visit of the patients. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Results: In the study 60 patients were enrolled. Mean age of Group - A patients was 46.23 ± 9.71 years, and mean age of Group - B patients was 47 ± 9.21 years. In Group - A 14 patients duration of onset was 8 weeks, 4 patients duration of onset was 10 weeks and 12 patients duration of onset was 12 weeks. In Group - B 14 patients duration of onset was 8 weeks, 8 patients duration of onset was 10 weeks and 12 weeks each respectively. It was observed that patients who were treated with Mulligan technique their abduction and flexion was improved greatly as compared to those who were treated with Maitland technique. Patients who were treated with Mulligan technique their flex- ion was improved greatly as compared to those who were treated with Maitland technique. At 6th week mean extension in Maitland's treatment group was 52.50 ± 8.66 where as that Mulligan's treatment group was 52.00 ± 7.58. It was observed that patients in both treatment groups had same improvement in extension and it was statistically same. In both treatment groups patients had same improvement in medial rotation and it was statistically same. At 6th week mean lateral rotation in both treatment groups was 42.65 ± 24.47 and 53.50 ± 23.03. It was observed that patients in

  15. Comparative effectiveness of nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

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    McGregor Jessina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has led clinicians to select antibiotics that have coverage against MRSA, usually vancomycin, for empiric therapy for suspected staphylococcal infections. Clinicians often continue vancomycin started empirically even when methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA strains are identified by culture. However, vancomycin has been associated with poor outcomes such as nephrotoxicity, persistent bacteremia and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vancomycin versus the beta-lactam antibiotics nafcillin and cefazolin among patients with MSSA bacteremia. The outcome of interest for this study was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all adult in-patients admitted to a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2003 and June 30, 2007 who had a positive blood culture for MSSA and received nafcillin, cefazolin or vancomycin. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent mortality hazards comparing nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin. Similar methods were used to estimate the survival benefits of switching from vancomycin to nafcillin or cefazolin versus leaving patients on vancomycin. Each model included statistical adjustment using propensity scores which contained variables associated with an increased propensity to receive vancomycin. Results 267 patients were included; 14% (38/267 received nafcillin or cefazolin, 51% (135/267 received both vancomycin and either nafcillin or cefazolin, and 35% (94/267 received vancomycin. Thirty (11% died within 30 days. Those receiving nafcillin or cefazolin had 79% lower mortality hazards compared with those who received vancomycin alone (adjusted hazard ratio (HR: 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.09, 0.47. Among the 122 patients who initially received vancomycin empirically, those who were switched to nafcillin or cefazolin (66

  16. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kida, S [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai City, Miyagi (Japan); Kishi, K; Sato, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  17. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K; Kida, S; Kishi, K; Sato, K; Dobashi, S; Takeda, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  18. Comparing the effects of reflexology and relaxation on fatigue in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Fatemeh; Shahreza, Mozhgan Soheili; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Valiani, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common and highly disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) that has negative effects on employment, the process of socialization, compliance with the disease, and other factors effective on activities of daily living. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine methods in MS patients is higher than in the general population. However, there is no scientific evidence to support their effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of reflexology and relaxation on fatigue in women with MS. This study is a single-blinded randomized clinical trial that was done on 75 patients with MS who referred to the MS Clinic of Ayatollah Kashani Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). After simple non-random sampling, participants were randomly assigned by minimization method to three groups: Reflexology, relaxation, and control groups (25 patients in each group). In the experimental groups, the interventions foot reflexology and relaxation (Jacobson and Benson) were performed for 4 weeks, twice a week for 40 min in each session, and the control group received care and routine medical treatment as directed by a physician. Data were collected through a questionnaire and the fatigue severity scale before, immediately after, and 2 months after interventions from all three groups. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings obtained from analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was no significant difference in the mean fatigue severity scores in the pre-interventions between the three groups (P > 0.05), but there was significant difference immediately after and 2 months after interventions between the three groups (P 0.05). Furthermore, least significant difference post-hoc test revealed that the mean scores of fatigue severity immediately after intervention was lower in the reflexology group than in the other two groups and were lower in the relaxation group than in the control

  19. Comparative study of drought and salt stress effects on germination and seedling growth of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is first critical and the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of plants compromise the seedlings establishment. Salt and drought tolerance testing in initial stages of plant development is of vital importance, because the seed with more rapid germination under salt or water deficit conditions may be expected to achieve a rapid seedling establishment, resulting in higher yields. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pea seed germination and seedling growth were inhibited by the salt toxicity and osmotic effect during the seedling development, and also identification of the sensitive seedling growth parameters in response to those stresses. Based on the obtained results, pea has been presented to be more tolerant to salt than water stress during germination and early embryo growth. Investigated cultivars showed greater susceptibility to both abiotic stresses when it comes growth parameters compared to seed germination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. TR-31022

  20. Effect of Baffles on the Sloshing in Road Tankers Carrying LPG: A Comparative Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bautista-Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative numerical study of the effect of using baffles, and its design, on the behavior of sloshing in a partially filled road tanker carrying LPG. Navier-Stokes equations and standard k-ε turbulence model are used to simulate fluid movement; the Volume of Fluid (VOF method is used to track the liquid-gas interface. Velocity distributions, sloshing stabilization times, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy, which are of high importance in choosing the best design of baffles, are shown. The results show sloshing stabilization times of 22 and 21 s for road tankers with cross-shaped (Type I and X-shaped (Type II baffles, respectively, finding lower values of turbulent kinetic energy for Type II design, being, therefore, the best design of baffles for damping of sloshing and vehicle control among studied ones.

  1. Comparative enhancing effects of electret with chemical enhancers on transdermal delivery of meloxicam in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L L; Hou, X M; Li, G D; Jiang, J; Liang, Y Y; Xin, X

    2008-01-01

    Electret offers enhancing effect in transdermal drug delivery for altering of the arrangement of lipid molecules in the stratum corneum, forming many transient permeable apertures and enhancing the transdermal drug delivery. In this paper, meloxicam patch formulations were developed to make the comparative study of transdermal drug delivery between electret and chemical enhancers. Patches were made into control, electret, chemical enhancer and electret with chemical enhancer ones, according to the preparation procedure. The electret combined with chemical enhancer patch was designed to probe the incorporation between electret and chemical enhancer in transdermal drug delivery. The meloxicam release from the patch was found to increase in order of blank, chemical enhancer, electret and electret with chemical enhancer patch, in general.

  2. Effect of inner membrane tearing in the treatment of adult chronic subdural hematoma: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaci, Selim; Kanat, Ayhan; Koksal, Vaner; Ozdemir, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    The postoperative results of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) procedures using catheterization and tearing of inner membrane (CTIM) technique have not previously been discussed in the literature. This article compares the effects of CTIM technique on brain re-expansion and re-accumulation with cases operated on with a burr-hole craniotomy and outer membrane incision (BCOMI) technique. The study involved operations on 144 patients (Group 1) using the CTIM technique and 108 patients (Group 2) using the BCOMI technique. In the operations using the CTIM technique in Group 1, the mean effusion measured in the subdural space (SDS) was 10.0 ± 0.2 mm, and for Group 2, 14.3 ± 0.6 mm in the postoperative period on the first and third days and this difference was found to be significant (p subdural effusion and pneumocephalus, and shorter hospital stays.

  3. Methodology for comparing the health effects of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhyne, W.R.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was developed for comparing the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels. The health effects attributable to the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each facility in the two fuel cycle were considered. The methodology is based on defining (1) requirement variables for the materials, energy, etc., (2) effluent variables associated with the requirement variables as well as with the fuel cycle facility operation, and (3) health impact variables for effluents and accidents. The materials, energy, etc., required for construction, operation, and decommissioning of each fuel cycle facility are defined as primary variables. The materials, energy, etc., needed to produce the primary variable are defined as secondary requirement variables. Each requirement variable (primary, secondary, etc.) has associated effluent variables and health impact variables. A diverging chain or tree is formed for each primary variable. Fortunately, most elements reoccur frequently to reduce the level of analysis complexity. 6 references, 11 figures, 6 tables

  4. Effects of plasma radiation on wound healing compared with X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, E.; Pena E, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C., E-mail: erica.azorin@inin.gob.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Blvd. Prol. Calz. de los Heroes No. 908, Col. La Martinica, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The radiation emitted by the plasma needle has shown high efficiency in the inactivation of microorganisms and the acceleration of the healing process; apparently such effects are related to the antioxidant activity, induction of cell damage and the generation of free radicals. To take advantage of plasma clinical applications it is essential to understand the cellular mechanisms activated by the exposure of human cells to radiation emitted by cold plasma. In this work we present the results of the characterization of the responses of human skin fibroblasts exposed to the radiation emitted by a plasma by varying the magnitude of flow, electrical power, time and composition of the cell culture medium comparing it with the response of these fibroblasts to low energy X-rays. (Author)

  5. A comparative study on the effective safety of nuclear technology in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Young Jin [Daegu University, Daegu (Korea); Kim, Young Pyoung [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Jung, Yoon Soo [Myoungji University, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Ik Jae; Choi, Byung Sun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyze Korean perception of nuclear risk in comparison with other technological risks. In order to understand the characteristics of risk perception, the concept of 'effective safety' is clarified and defined. This research also covers such issues as relative riskiness of major risks, risk attitude, risk attribution, behavioral pattern for risky situation, and risk knowledge. A nation-wide survey was conducted for this study with a sample size of 1870. It was based on the purposive quota sampling to compare nuclear risk and other technological risks selected are 6 groups of risk; nuclear risk, environmental risk, traffic risk, chemical materials, industrial safety, and other recent risks. Accross these groups, a total of 25 risks are examined. 52 refs., 14 figs., 125 tabs. (Author)

  6. Big Data and Comparative Effectiveness Research in Radiation Oncology: Synergy and Accelerated Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, Daniel M.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of “big data,” it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high-quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy. PMID:26697409

  7. Effect of water treatment on the comparative costs of evaporative and dry cooled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, H.; Goldstein, D.J.; Yung, D.

    1976-07-01

    The report presents the results of a study on the relative cost of energy from a nominal 1000 Mwe nuclear steam electric generating plant using either dry or evaporative cooling at four sites in the United States: Rochester, New York; Sheridan, Wyoming; Gallup, New Mexico and Dallas, Texas. Previous studies have shown that because of lower efficiencies the total annual evaluated costs for dry cooling systems exceeds the total annual evaluated costs of evaporative cooling systems, not including the cost of water. The cost of water comprises the cost of supplying the makeup water, the cost of treatment of the makeup and/or the circulating water in the tower, and the cost of treatment and disposal of the blowdown in an environmentally acceptable manner. The purpose of the study is to show the effect of water costs on the comparative costs of dry and evaporative cooled towers

  8. Big data, advanced analytics and the future of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marc L; Doban, Vitalii

    2014-03-01

    The intense competition that accompanied the growth of internet-based companies ushered in the era of 'big data' characterized by major innovations in processing of very large amounts of data and the application of advanced analytics including data mining and machine learning. Healthcare is on the cusp of its own era of big data, catalyzed by the changing regulatory and competitive environments, fueled by growing adoption of electronic health records, as well as efforts to integrate medical claims, electronic health records and other novel data sources. Applying the lessons from big data pioneers will require healthcare and life science organizations to make investments in new hardware and software, as well as in individuals with different skills. For life science companies, this will impact the entire pharmaceutical value chain from early research to postcommercialization support. More generally, this will revolutionize comparative effectiveness research.

  9. Lessons from comparative effectiveness research methods development projects funded under the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.

  10. Comparative study on the effect of radiation on whole blood and isolate red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the dielectric properties of red blood cells requires several steps for preparation and isolation from whole blood. These steps may results in changes in the cells properties, and they are time consuming . The present study aims to compare the properties of both whole blood and isolated red blood cells and the effect of gamma radiation on these properties. Adult male rats were exposed to 1, 3.5 and 7 Gy as single dose, from Cs-137 source.The studies dielectric properties, in the frequency range 40 k Hz to 5 MHz, and light scattering studies for suspensions of whole blood and isolated red blood cells from the same groups were measured. The obtained results showed that whole blood and red blood cells suspensions followed the same trend in their response to radiation, which suggests the possibility of using whole blood suspension for the evaluation of the red blood cells properties

  11. A comparative proteomic study on the effects of metal pollution in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-15

    The metal pollution has posed great risk on the coastal organisms along the Jiulongjiang Estuary in South China. In this work, two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics was applied to the oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis from metal pollution sites to characterize the proteomic responses to metal pollution. Metal accumulation and proteomic responses indicated that the oysters from BJ site were more severely contaminated than those from FG site. Compared with those oyster samples from the clean site (JZ), metal pollution induced cellular injuries, oxidative and immune stresses in oyster heapatopancreas from both BJ and FG sites via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, metal pollution in BJ site induced disturbance in energy and lipid metabolisms in oysters. Results indicated that cathepsin L and ferritin GF1 might be the biomarkers of As and Fe in oyster C. hongkongensis, respectively. This study demonstrates that proteomics is a useful tool for investigating biological effects induced by metal pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Occupational Therapy Sleep Interventions: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Gregory, Kristin A; Sadlier-Brown, Megan M; Schlissel, Marcy A; Schubert, Allison M; Westover, Lee Ann; Miller, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    Although sleep intervention is within the domain of occupational therapy, few studies exist supporting practice. Effectiveness of three sleep interventions was compared: Dreampad Pillow®, iRest® meditation, and sleep hygiene. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to the Dreampad Pillow® ( n = 10), iRest® meditation ( n = 9), and sleep hygiene ( n = 10) groups. In Phase 1, all participants used a 7-day sleep hygiene regimen to reduce poor sleep habits. In Phase 2 (14 days), 10 participants used the Dreampad Pillow® and sleep hygiene, nine used the iRest meditation and sleep hygiene, and 10 continued sleep hygiene only. At intervention-end, the iRest meditation group experienced statistically greater time asleep than both the Dreampad Pillow® ( p meditation ( p occupational therapy's domain.

  13. Effects of plasma radiation on wound healing compared with X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, E.; Pena E, R.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: The radiation emitted by the plasma needle has shown high efficiency in the inactivation of microorganisms and the acceleration of the healing process; apparently such effects are related to the antioxidant activity, induction of cell damage and the generation of free radicals. To take advantage of plasma clinical applications it is essential to understand the cellular mechanisms activated by the exposure of human cells to radiation emitted by cold plasma. In this work we present the results of the characterization of the responses of human skin fibroblasts exposed to the radiation emitted by a plasma by varying the magnitude of flow, electrical power, time and composition of the cell culture medium comparing it with the response of these fibroblasts to low energy X-rays. (Author)

  14. Investigation of flip-flop effects in a linear analog comparator-with-hysteresis circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, N.J.H.; Buchner, S.P.; Warner, J.H.; McMorrow, D.; Roig, F.; Auriel, G.; Dusseau, L.; Boch, J.; Saigne, F.; Azais, B.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the positive feedback loop on analog single event transient (ASET) shapes was investigated for a comparator- with-hysteresis circuit. Simulation based on previous developed ASET simulation tool is used to model the impact of the power supply voltage, the input voltage level and the injected energy. Simulation results show that these kinds of circuits are sensitive to flip-flop effects. This phenomenon occurs if the input voltage is in the hysteresis band range. In this case, simulations show that the ASET can latch the output into a non-desired state by changing the state of the circuit on his transfer characteristic curves. Laser experiments were conducted and show that the simulation outputs are in agreement with the experimental collected data. (authors)

  15. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCING EFFECTS OF GEOMAGNETIC SOLAR STORMS ON EARTHQUAKES IN ANATOLIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesugey Sadik Cengiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are tectonic events that take place within the fractures of the earth's crust, namely faults. Above certain scale, earthquakes can result in widespread fatalities and substantial financial loss. In addition to the movement of tectonic plates relative to each other, it is widely discussed that there are other external influences originate outside earth that can trigger earthquakes. These influences are called "triggering effects". The purpose of this article is to present a statistical view to elaborate if the solar geomagnetic storms trigger earthquakes.As a model, the research focuses on the Anatolian peninsula, presenting 41 years of historical data on magnetic storms and earthquakes collated from national and international resources. As a result of the comparative assessment of the data, it is concluded that the geomagnetic storms do not trigger earthquakes.

  16. Comparative analysis of nonperturbative effects in B→Xulνl decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav; Yang Jifeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to extract the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V ub | from B→X u lν l decays, the overwhelming background from B→X c lν l decays must be reduced by appropriate acceptance cuts. We study the nonperturbative effects due to the motion of the b quark inside the B meson on the phenomenologically relevant decay distributions of B→X u lν l in the presence of such cuts in a comparative analysis based on shape functions and the parton model in the light cone limit. Comparisons with recent data from the CLEO, BABAR, and BELLE collaborations favor the shape-function approach

  17. Comparing the erosive effect of Iranian soft drinks with standard samples; A Calcium ion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahinejad Ghajari M.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Extensive and continuous consumption of acidic drinks is the main cause of enamel erosion in human teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the erosive potential of two Iranian drinks with those of two imported ones. Materials and Methods: Two Iranian drinks (Cola Zamzam and Orange Zamzam and two imported ones (Pepsi and Miranda were studied in this experimental invitro study. 120 intact premolar teeth, extracted for orthodontic reasons were divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C. Each group was exposed to one of the drinks for exposure times of: A: 15 minutes, B: 45 minutes and C: 12 hours. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (each containing 10 teeth, which were exposed to 20 ml of one of the 4 drinks. The exposed surface was the same in all samples (a 5 mm in diameter semi circular window. The amount of Ca++ ion (mg/ml added to each drink at the end of exposure time was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: 2 way ANOVA showed that the drinks were significantly different with regard to released Calcium ion. Time had significant effect on erosive potential. The two mentioned factors had significant interaction (P<0.001. The most erosive effect was seen in 12 hours in all of the drinks. The erosive effect of Orange Zamzam in 15 minutes and Pepsi in 45 minutes and 12 hours was significantly more than other groups (P<0.001. Conclusions: Pepsi had the most long term erosive effect among the four drinks, and Cola Zamzam had the least erosive potential.

  18. Pharmacokinetics in Mouse and Comparative Effects of Frondosides in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Al Shemaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frondosides are triterpenoid glycosides from the Atlantic sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A inhibits growth, invasion, metastases and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in diverse cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of three frondosides and their aglycone and related this to the pharmocokinetics and route of administration. Frondoside A potently inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells with an EC50 of ~1 µM. Frondoside B was less potent (EC50 ~2.5 µM. Frondoside C and the aglycone had no effect. At 100 µg/kg, frondoside A administered to CD2F1 mice as an i.v. bolus, the Cpmax was 129 nM, Cltb was 6.35 mL/min/m2, and half-life was 510 min. With i.p. administration the Cpmax was 18.3 nM, Cltb was 127 mL/min/m2 and half-life was 840 min. Oral dosing was ineffective. Frondoside A (100 µg/kg/day i.p. markedly inhibited growth cancer xenografts in nude mice. The same dose delivered by oral gavage had no effect. No evidence of acute toxicity was seen with frondoside A. Frondoside A is more potent inhibitor of cancer growth than other frondosides. The glycoside component is essential for bioactivity. Frondoside A is only effective when administered systemically. Based on the current and previous studies, frondoside A appears safe and may be valuable in the treatment of cancer.

  19. Comparing Physics Scheme Performance for a Lake Effect Snowfall Event in Northern Lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Arnott, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution forecast models, such as those used to predict severe convective storms, can also be applied to predictions of lake effect snowfall. A high resolution WRF model forecast model is provided to support operations at NWS WFO Gaylord, Michigan, using a 12 ]km and 4 ]km nested configuration. This is comparable to the simulations performed by other NWS WFOs adjacent to the Great Lakes, including offices in the NWS Eastern Region who participate in regional ensemble efforts. Ensemble efforts require diversity in initial conditions and physics configurations to emulate the plausible range of events in order to ascertain the likelihood of different forecast scenarios. In addition to providing probabilistic guidance, individual members can be evaluated to determine whether they appear to be biased in some way, or to better understand how certain physics configurations may impact the resulting forecast. On January 20 ]21, 2011, a lake effect snow event occurred in Northern Lower Michigan, with cooperative observing and CoCoRaHS stations reporting new snow accumulations between 2 and 8 inches and liquid equivalents of 0.1 ]0.25 h. The event of January 21, 2011 was particularly well observed, with numerous surface reports available. It was also well represented by the WRF configuration operated at NWS Gaylord. Given that the default configuration produced a reasonable prediction, it is used here to evaluate the impacts of other physics configurations on the resulting prediction of the primary lake effect band and resulting QPF. Emphasis here is on differences in planetary boundary layer and cloud microphysics parameterizations, given their likely role in determining the evolution of shallow convection and precipitation processes. Results from an ensemble of seven microphysics schemes and three planetary boundary layer schemes are presented to demonstrate variability in forecast evolution, with results used in an attempt to improve the forecasts in the 2011 ]2012

  20. Automated Diabetic Retinopathy Image Assessment Software: Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness Compared with Human Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufail, Adnan; Rudisill, Caroline; Egan, Catherine; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Salas-Vega, Sebastian; Owen, Christopher G; Lee, Aaron; Louw, Vern; Anderson, John; Liew, Gerald; Bolter, Louis; Srinivas, Sowmya; Nittala, Muneeswar; Sadda, SriniVas; Taylor, Paul; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, annual screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) by expert human grading of retinal images is challenging. Automated DR image assessment systems (ARIAS) may provide clinically effective and cost-effective detection of retinopathy. We aimed to determine whether ARIAS can be safely introduced into DR screening pathways to replace human graders. Observational measurement comparison study of human graders following a national screening program for DR versus ARIAS. Retinal images from 20 258 consecutive patients attending routine annual diabetic eye screening between June 1, 2012, and November 4, 2013. Retinal images were manually graded following a standard national protocol for DR screening and were processed by 3 ARIAS: iGradingM, Retmarker, and EyeArt. Discrepancies between manual grades and ARIAS results were sent to a reading center for arbitration. Screening performance (sensitivity, false-positive rate) and diagnostic accuracy (95% confidence intervals of screening-performance measures) were determined. Economic analysis estimated the cost per appropriate screening outcome. Sensitivity point estimates (95% confidence intervals) of the ARIAS were as follows: EyeArt 94.7% (94.2%-95.2%) for any retinopathy, 93.8% (92.9%-94.6%) for referable retinopathy (human graded as either ungradable, maculopathy, preproliferative, or proliferative), 99.6% (97.0%-99.9%) for proliferative retinopathy; Retmarker 73.0% (72.0 %-74.0%) for any retinopathy, 85.0% (83.6%-86.2%) for referable retinopathy, 97.9% (94.9%-99.1%) for proliferative retinopathy. iGradingM classified all images as either having disease or being ungradable. EyeArt and Retmarker saved costs compared with manual grading both as a replacement for initial human grading and as a filter prior to primary human grading, although the latter approach was less cost-effective. Retmarker and EyeArt systems achieved acceptable sensitivity for referable retinopathy when compared

  1. Comparing the effectiveness of different displays in enhancing illusions of self-movement (vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard E. Riecke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Illusions of self-movement (vection can be used in Virtual Reality (VR and other applications to give users the embodied sensation that they are moving when physical movement is unfeasible or too costly. Whereas a large body of vection literature studied how various parameters of the presented visual stimulus affect vection, little is known how different display types might affect vection. As a step towards addressing this gap, we conducted three experiments to compare vection and usability parameters between commonly used VR displays, ranging from stereoscopic projection and 3D TV to high-end head-mounted display (HMD, NVIS SX111 and recent low-cost HMD (Oculus Rift. The last experiment also compared these two HMDs in their native full field of view FOV and a reduced, matched FOV of 72×45°. Participants moved along linear and curvilinear paths in the virtual environment, reported vection onset time, and rated vection intensity at the end of each trial. In addition, user ratings on immersion, motion sickness, vection, and overall preference were recorded retrospectively and compared between displays. Unexpectedly, there were no significant effects of display on vection measures. Reducing the FOV for the HMDs (from full to 72×45° decreased vection onset latencies, but did not affect vection intensity. As predicted, curvilinear paths yielded earlier and more intense vection. Although vection has often been proposed to predict or even cause motion sickness, we observed no correlation for any of the displays studied. In conclusion, perceived self-motion and other user experience measures proved surprisingly tolerant towards changes in display type as long as the FOV was roughly matched. This suggests that display choice for vection research and VR applications can be largely based on other considerations as long as the provided FOV is sufficiently large.

  2. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  3. Laparoscopy Instructional Videos: The Effect of Preoperative Compared With Intraoperative Use on Learning Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, Theo H; Talsma, Aaldert K; Wevers, Kevin P; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. After completing a basic skills course on a virtual reality simulator, medical students and residents with less than 1 hour experience using laparoscopic instruments were randomized into 2 groups. Using an instructional video either preoperatively or intraoperatively, both groups then performed 4 repetitions of a standardized task on the TrEndo augmented reality. With the TrEndo, 9 motion analysis parameters (MAPs) were recorded for each session (4 MAPs for each hand and time). These were the primary outcome measurements for performance. The time spent watching the instructional video was also recorded. Improvement in performance was studied within and between groups. Medical Center Leeuwarden, a secondary care hospital located in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Right-hand dominant medical student and residents with more than 1 hour experience operating any kind of laparoscopic instruments were participated. A total of 23 persons entered the study, of which 21 completed the study course. In both groups, at least 5 of 9 MAPs showed significant improvements between repetition 1 and 4. When both groups were compared after completion of repetition 4, no significant differences in improvement were detected. The intraoperative group showed significant improvement in 3 MAPs of the left-nondominant-hand, compared with one MAP for the preoperative group. No significant differences in learning curves could be detected between the subjects who used intraoperative instructional videos and those who used preoperative instructional videos. Intraoperative video instruction may result in improved dexterity of the nondominant hand. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensmail Djamel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke patients and to compare differences between patients with right (RHD and left hemisphere damage (LHD. Methods 10 healthy controls, 8 stroke patients with LHD and 8 with RHD were included. Patient groups had similar levels of upper limb function. Two types of auditory feedback (spatial and simple were developed and provided online during reaching movements to 9 targets in the workspace. Kinematics of the upper limb were recorded with an electromagnetic system. Kinematics were compared between groups (Mann Whitney test and the effect of auditory feedback on kinematics was tested within each patient group (Friedman test. Results In the patient groups, peak hand velocity was lower, the number of velocity peaks was higher and movements were more curved than in the healthy group. Despite having a similar clinical level, kinematics differed between LHD and RHD groups. Peak velocity was similar but LHD patients had fewer velocity peaks and less curved movements than RHD patients. The addition of auditory feedback improved the curvature index in patients with RHD and deteriorated peak velocity, the number of velocity peaks and curvature index in LHD patients. No difference between types of feedback was found in either patient group. Conclusion In stroke patients, side of lesion should be considered when examining arm reaching kinematics. Further studies are necessary to evaluate differences in responses to auditory feedback between patients with lesions in opposite

  5. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2014-01-01

    Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We used an experimental approach based on motion-triggered video cameras at black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) carcasses to measure the comparative influences of two large carnivores in the facilitation and limitation of carrion acquisition by scavengers. We found that pumas (Puma concolor) and black bears (Ursus americanus) had different effects on their ecological communities. Pumas, as a top-level predator, facilitated the consumption of carrion by scavengers, despite significantly reducing their observed sum feeding times (165.7 min ± 21.2 SE at puma kills 264.3 min ± 30.1 SE at control carcasses). In contrast, black bears, as the dominant scavenger in the system, limited consumption of carrion by scavengers as evidenced by the observed reduction of scavenger species richness recorded at carcasses where they were present (mean = 2.33 ± 0.28 SE), compared to where they were absent (mean = 3.28 ± 0.23 SE). Black bears also had large negative effects on scavenger sum feeding times (88.5 min ± 19.8 SE at carcasses where bears were present, 372.3 min ± 50.0 SE at carcasses where bears were absent). In addition, we found that pumas and black bears both increased the nestedness (a higher level of order among species present) of the scavenger community. Our results suggest that scavengers have species-specific adaptions to exploit carrion despite large carnivores, and that large carnivores influence the structure and composition of scavenger communities. The interactions between large carnivores and scavengers should be considered in future studies of food webs and ecological communities.

  6. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maarten J IJzerman,1,3 Andrea Manca,2,3 Julia Keizer,1 Scott D Ramsey4 1Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK; 3Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg, 4Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Personalized medicine (PM or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding of disease, to optimize preventive health care strategies, and to fit the best drug therapies to the patient's individual characteristics. Evidence development in the era of genomic medicine is extremely challenging due to a number of factors. These include the rapid technological innovation in molecular diagnostics and targeted drug discoveries, and hence the large number of mutations and multiple ways these may influence treatment decisions. Although the evidence base for PM is evolving rapidly, the main question to be explored in this article is whether existing evidence is also fit for comparative effectiveness research (CER. As a starting point, this paper therefore reflects on the evidence required for CER and the evidence gaps preventing decisions on market access and coverage. The paper then discusses challenges and potential barriers for applying a CER paradigm to PM, identifies common methodologies for designing clinical trials in PM, discusses various approaches for analyzing clinical trials to infer from population to individual level, and presents an example of a clinical trial in PM (The RxPONDER TRIAL demonstrating good practice. The paper concludes with a future perspective, including modeling approaches for evidence synthesis.Keywords: personalized

  7. Comparative effectiveness of Calabadion and sugammadex to reverse non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Friederike; Simons, Jeroen Cedric Peter; Foerster, Urs; Duarte, Ingrid Moreno; Diaz-Gil, Daniel; Ganapati, Shweta; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk; Zhang, Ben; Blobner, Manfred; Isaacs, Lyle; Eikermann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of calabadion 2 to reverse non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) by binding and inactivation. Methods The dose-response relationship of drugs to reverse vecuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) was evaluated in vitro (competition binding assays and urine analysis), ex vivo (n=34; phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm preparation) and in vivo (n=108; quadriceps femoris muscle of the rat). Cumulative dose-response curves of calabadions, neostigmine, or sugammadex were created ex vivo at steady-state deep NMB. In living rats, we studied the dose-response relationship of the test drugs to reverse deep block under physiological conditions and we measured the amount of calabadion 2 excreted in the urine. Results In vitro experiments showed that calabadion 2 binds rocuronium with 89 times the affinity of sugammadex (Ka = 3.4 × 109 M−1 and Ka = 3.8 × 107 M−1). Urine analysis (proton nuclear magnetic resonance), competition binding assays and ex vivo study results obtained in the absence of metabolic deactivation are in accordance with an 1:1 binding ratio of sugammadex and calabadion 2 toward rocuronium. In living rats, calabadion 2 dose-dependently and rapidly reversed all NMBAs tested. The molar potency of calabadion 2 to reverse vecuronium and rocuronium was higher compared to sugammadex. Calabadion 2 was eliminated renally, and did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusion Calabadion 2 reverses NMB-induced by benzylisoquinolines and steroidal NMBAs in rats more effectively, i.e. faster, than sugammadex. Calabadion 2 is eliminated in the urine and well tolerated in rats. PMID:26418697

  8. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian L Allen

    Full Text Available Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We used an experimental approach based on motion-triggered video cameras at black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus carcasses to measure the comparative influences of two large carnivores in the facilitation and limitation of carrion acquisition by scavengers. We found that pumas (Puma concolor and black bears (Ursus americanus had different effects on their ecological communities. Pumas, as a top-level predator, facilitated the consumption of carrion by scavengers, despite significantly reducing their observed sum feeding times (165.7 min ± 21.2 SE at puma kills 264.3 min ± 30.1 SE at control carcasses. In contrast, black bears, as the dominant scavenger in the system, limited consumption of carrion by scavengers as evidenced by the observed reduction of scavenger species richness recorded at carcasses where they were present (mean = 2.33 ± 0.28 SE, compared to where they were absent (mean = 3.28 ± 0.23 SE. Black bears also had large negative effects on scavenger sum feeding times (88.5 min ± 19.8 SE at carcasses where bears were present, 372.3 min ± 50.0 SE at carcasses where bears were absent. In addition, we found that pumas and black bears both increased the nestedness (a higher level of order among species present of the scavenger community. Our results suggest that scavengers have species-specific adaptions to exploit carrion despite large carnivores, and that large carnivores influence the structure and composition of scavenger communities. The interactions between large carnivores and scavengers should be considered in future studies of food webs and ecological communities.

  9. A comparative study of the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton in human cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allani, Pramod K.; Sum, Tak; Bhansali, Suraj G.; Mukherjee, Suman K.; Sonee, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton disruption is a process by which oxidative stress disrupts cellular function. This study compares and contrasts the effect of oxidative stress on the three major cytoskeleton filaments, microfilaments (MFs), microtubule (MT), and vimentin in human cortical neuronal cell line (HCN2). HCN2 cells were treated with 100 μM tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a free radical generating neurotoxin for 1, 3, or 6 h. Cell viability studies demonstrated significant cell death although the morphology studies showed that there was a substantial loss in neurites of neurons treated with t-BuOOH for 6 h. Because the cytoskeleton plays a role in neurite outgrowth, the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeletal was studied. In neurons subjected to oxidative stress for 30 min or 1 h, there were no major changes in microfilament distribution though there was altered distribution of microtubule and vimentin filaments as compared to controls. However, loss and disruption of all the three cytoskeletal filaments was observed at later times (3 and 6 h), which was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Further studies were done to measure the gene expression levels of actin, tubulin, and vimentin. Results indicated that the overall loss of the cytoskeletal proteins in neurons treated with free radical generating toxin might not be a direct result of the downregulation of the cytoskeletal genes. This study shows that free radical generation in human neurons leads to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, though there may be a difference in the susceptibility to oxidative stress among the individual components of the cytoskeletal filaments

  10. CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch (CYCORE): improving data from cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kevin; Wolszon, Laura; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Prokhorov, Alex V; Barrera, Stephanie; Baru, Chaitan; Farcas, Emilia; Krueger, Ingolf; Palmer, Doug; Raab, Fred; Rios, Phil; Ziftci, Celal; Peterson, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Improved approaches and methodologies are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) in oncology. While cancer therapies continue to emerge at a rapid pace, the review, synthesis, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions across clinical trials lag in comparison. Rigorous and systematic testing of competing therapies has been clouded by age-old problems: poor patient adherence, inability to objectively measure the environmental influences on health, lack of knowledge about patients' lifestyle behaviors that may affect cancer's progression and recurrence, and limited ability to compile and interpret the wide range of variables that must be considered in the cancer treatment. This lack of data integration limits the potential for patients and clinicians to engage in fully informed decision-making regarding cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship care, and the translation of research results into mainstream medical care. Particularly important, as noted in a 2009 report on CER to the President and Congress, the limited focus on health behavior-change interventions was a major hindrance in this research landscape (DHHS 2009). This paper describes an initiative to improve CER for cancer by addressing several of these limitations. The Cyberinfrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CYCORE) project, informed by the National Science Foundation's 2007 report "Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21(st) Century Discovery" has, as its central aim, the creation of a prototype for a user-friendly, open-source cyberinfrastructure (CI) that supports acquisition, storage, visualization, analysis, and sharing of data important for cancer-related CER. Although still under development, the process of gathering requirements for CYCORE has revealed new ways in which CI design can significantly improve the collection and analysis of a wide variety of data types, and has resulted in new and important partnerships among cancer researchers engaged in

  11. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  12. Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance: A comparative analysis using saccharin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Kurian Baby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC system transports the mucus layer covering the nasal epithelium towards nasopharynx by ciliary beating at a frequency of 7-16 Hz. NMC is altered by septal deviations, upper respiratory infections, and drugs. Few studies have revealed significant depression of ciliary activity in smokers. We conducted this study to compare NMC and influence duration of smoking on NMC in adult smokers and nonsmokers using saccharin test. Materials and Methods: Our study included 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers (21-40 years who were not on any medications and had no history of any systemic illness. Time elapsing until the first experience of sweet taste at posterior nasopharynx, following placement of saccharin particle approximately 1 cm behind the anterior end of inferior turbinate was recorded as NMC time in minutes using standard method described by Anderson. Mean NMC of both groups were compared using Student′s t -test and influence of duration was analyzed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: NMC was significantly prolonged in smokers (481.2 ± 29.83; P 5 years = 637.5 ± 28.49 s; F statistic = 20.8968, P = 0.0000. Conclusions: NMC measurement is a simple and useful index for the assessment of effect of smoking on the ciliary activity of respiratory mucosa. Prolonged clearance observed in smokers of our study may be due to slowed ciliary beat frequency or reduction in number of cilia and changes in viscoelastic properties of mucus.

  13. Comparative Thermal Aging Effects on PM-HIP and Forged Inconel 690

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Alexander L.; Bautista, Esteban; Jaye, Elizabeth H.; Vas, Nathaniel L.; Cain, Nathan B.; Mao, Keyou; Gandy, David W.; Wharry, Janelle P.

    2018-03-01

    This study compares thermal aging effects in Inconel 690 (IN690) produced by forging and powder metallurgy with hot isostatic pressing (PM-HIP). Isothermal aging is carried out over 400-800°C for up to 1000 h and then metallography and nanoindentation are utilized to relate grain microstructure with hardness and yield strength. The PM-HIP IN690 maintains a constant grain size through all aging conditions, while the forged IN690 exhibits limited grain growth at the highest aging temperature and longest aging time. The PM-HIP IN690 exhibits comparable mechanical integrity as the forged material throughout aging: hardness and yield strength are unchanged with 100 h aging, but increase after 1000 h aging at all temperatures. In both the PM-HIP and forged IN690, the Hall-Petch relationship for Ni-based superalloys predicts yield strength for 0-100 h aged specimens, but underestimates yield strength in the 1000 h aged specimens because of thermally induced precipitation.

  14. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, Saadia R.; Shah, Munir H.; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-01-01

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  15. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia R; Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  17. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  18. Health technology assessment and comparative effectiveness research: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanni; Thomas, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of several established health technology assessment (HTA) programs in industrialized societies including Germany, the UK and France. Special attention is paid on two issues: the position of HTA in coverage decision making and the role of economic assessment in evaluation processes. Although law makers in the USA have barred the use of NICE's cost/quality-adjusted life year or similar health economics approaches by public payers for coverage decision making, there are suggestions of prioritizing relative efficacy evaluation over economic assessment under a comparative effectiveness research (CER) framework to inform payment rates of public payers (an approach similar to German and French HTA processes). However, such an approach is unlikely to prove viable. It should also be noted that, if cost considerations are made explicit in US CER policy decisions, CER may become an unsustainable approach undermined by a conflicting emphasis on both cost containment and a demand for costly comparative evidence. On the other hand, properly designed CER initiatives can serve as a facilitator of more efficient research activities and drug development models. With these points in mind, the likely pathway of US CER is explored and the plausible impact on industry innovation is discussed.

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  20. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Perry, George H; Shahbaz, Sevini; Fiehn, Oliver; Clark, Andrew G; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-07-28

    Human diets differ from those of non-human primates. Among few obvious differences, humans consume more meat than most non-human primates and regularly cook their food. It is hypothesized that a dietary shift during human evolution has been accompanied by molecular adaptations in metabolic pathways. Consistent with this notion, comparative studies of gene expression levels in primates have found that the regulation of genes with metabolic functions tend to evolve rapidly in the human lineage. The metabolic consequences of these regulatory differences, however, remained unknown. To address this gap, we performed a comparative study using a combination of gene expression and metabolomic profiling in livers from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. We show that dietary differences between species have a strong effect on metabolic concentrations. In addition, we found that differences in metabolic concentration across species are correlated with inter-species differences in the expression of the corresponding enzymes, which control the same metabolic reaction. We identified a number of metabolic compounds with lineage-specific profiles, including examples of human-species metabolic differences that may be directly related to dietary differences.

  1. Effects of Environmental Radioactive Pollution on the Cardiovascular Systems of Ural Region Residents: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Konstantinova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this comparative study was to evaluate the effects of radioactive pollution in river water and confounding risk factors on the prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in people living in the Ural region. Methods: We selected this region as a case territory for study because it is exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. The area is composed of coastal localities situated along the Techa River, into which liquid radioactive waste materials have been released. As a control, we selected settlements that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between radioactive contamination of a territory and the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular systems of people living in the Techa riverside villages (OR=2.31, p<0.001. The influence of covariates (gender, age, overweight status, and others on the development of cardiovascular pathologies was analyzed. Some of these factors have been recognized as confounding factors. After accounting for confounding factors, the odds ratio for the impact of radiation on the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system decreased to (OR=1.58, p=0.02. Conclusions: Statistically significant gender and age differences were observed in the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system in residents of radioactively contaminated areas compared to residents of control areas. These differences show a more pronounced reaction to contamination in older residents, residents with an overweight status and residents with meteotropic reactions.

  2. Comparing the effect of hypercapnia and hypoxia on the electroencephalogram during wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David; Yee, Brendon J; Wong, Keith K; Kim, Jong Won; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Duffin, James; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been postulated as a key mechanism for neurocognitive impairment in sleep-disordered breathing. However, the effect of hypoxia on the electroencephalogram (EEG) is not clear. We examined quantitative EEG recordings from 20 normal volunteers under three 5-min ventilatory control protocols: progressive hypercapnia with iso-hyperoxia (pO2=150mmHg) (Protocol 1), progressive hypercapnia with iso-hypoxia (pO2=50mmHg) (Protocol 2), and progressive hypoxia with a CO2 scrubber in the circuit (Protocol 3). Each protocol started with a 5-min session of breathing room air as baseline. In Protocol 1, compared to its baseline, iso-hyperoxia hypercapnia led to a lower Alpha% and higher Delta/Alpha (D/A) ratio. Similarly, in Protocol 2, the iso-hypoxia hypercapnia induced a higher Delta%, a lower Alpha% and higher D/A ratio. No difference was found in any EEG spectral band including the D/A ratio when Protocols 1 & 2 were compared. In Protocol 3, the Delta%, Alpha% and D/A ratio recorded during hypoxia were not significantly different from baseline. We found that hypercapnia, but not hypoxia, may play a key role in slowing of the EEG in healthy humans. Hypercapnia may be a greater influence than hypoxia on brain neuroelectrical activities. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Doctor knows best: physician endorsements, public opinion, and the politics of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor M

    2014-02-01

    The Obama administration has made a major investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) to learn what treatments work best for which patients. CER has the potential to reduce wasteful medical spending and improve patient outcomes, but the political sustainability of this initiative remains unclear because of concerns that it will threaten the doctor-patient relationship. An unresolved question is whether it is possible to boost public support for the use of CER as a cost-control strategy. We investigate one potential source of public support: Americans' trust in physicians as faithful agents of patient interests. We conducted two national surveys to explore the public's confidence in doctors compared to other groups. We find that doctors are viewed as harder workers, more trustworthy, and more caring than other professionals. Through survey experiments, we demonstrate that the support of doctors' groups for proposals to control costs and use CER have a greater influence on aggregate public opinion than do cues from political actors including congressional Democrats, Republicans, and a bipartisan commission. Our survey results suggest that the medical profession's stance will be an important factor in shaping the political viability of efforts to use CER as a tool for health care cost control.

  4. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li ZN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zhouna Li, Zhehu Jin Department of Dermatology, Yanbian University Affiliated hospital, Yanji, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Background: Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent years, studies have reported the appropriate use of verapamil for keloids and hypertrophic scars.Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 2006 to July 2016. State12.0 was used for literature review, data extraction, and meta-analysis. Treatment groups were divided into verapamil and nonverapamil group. Nonverapamil group includes steroids and intense pulsed light (IPL therapy. Total effective rates include cure rate and effective rate. Cure: skin lesions were completely flattened, became soft and symptoms disappeared. Efficacy: skin lesions subsided, patient significantly reduced symptoms. Inefficient definition of skin was progression free or became worse. Random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis.Results: Six studies that included 331 patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars were analyzed. Analysis of the total effective rate of skin healing was performed. The total effective rates in the two groups were 54.07% (verapamil and 53.18% (nonverapamil, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that there was no difference between the two groups. We also compared the adverse reactions between the verapamil treatment group and the steroids treatment group in two studies, and the result indicated that the verapamil group showed less adverse reactions.Conclusion: There were no differences between the application of verapamil and nonverapamil group in keloids and

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Low-dose Submicron Diclofenac Compared With Generic Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladsi, Deirdre; Ronquest, Naoko; Odom, Dawn; Miles, LaStella; Saag, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    NSAIDs are commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Despite the effectiveness of NSAIDs, concerns exist regarding their tolerability. Worldwide health authorities, including the European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and the US Food and Drug Administration, have advised that NSAIDs be prescribed at the lowest effective dosage and for the shortest duration. Effective lowering of NSAID dosage without compromising pain relief has been demonstrated in randomized, controlled trials of the recently approved NSAID lower-dose submicron diclofenac. Building on previously published work from an independently published systematic review and meta-analysis, a linear dose-toxicity relationship between diclofenac dose and serious gastrointestinal (GI) events was recently demonstrated, indicating that reductions in adverse events (AEs) may be seen even with modest dose reductions in many patients. The objective of the present study was to estimate the potential reduction in risk for NSAID dose-related AEs, corresponding savings in health care costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of submicron diclofenac compared with generic diclofenac in the United States. Our decision-analytic cost-effectiveness model considered a subset of potential AEs that may be avoided by lowering NSAID dosage. To estimate the expected reductions in upper GI bleeding/perforation and major cardiovascular events with submicron diclofenac, our model used prediction equations estimated by meta-regressions using data from systematic literature reviews. Utilities, lifetime costs, and health outcomes associated with AEs were estimated using data from the literature. The face validity of the model structure and inputs was confirmed by clinical experts in the United States. Results were evaluated in 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The model predicted that submicron diclofenac versus generic diclofenac could reduce the occurrence of modeled GI events (by 18

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatment Choices for Graves' Hyperthyroidism: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresh, Vishnu; Brito, Juan P; Thapa, Prabin; Bahn, Rebecca S; Stan, Marius N

    2017-04-01

    The optimum therapy for Graves' disease (GD) is chosen following discussion between physician and patient regarding benefits, drawbacks, potential side effects, and logistics of the various treatment options, and it takes into account patient values and preferences. This cohort study aimed to provide useful information for this discussion regarding the usage, efficacy, and adverse-effect profile of radioactive iodine (RAI), antithyroid drugs (ATDs), and thyroidectomy in a tertiary healthcare facility. The cohort included consecutive adults diagnosed with GD from January 2002 to December 2008, who had complete follow-up after treatment at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Data on treatment modalities, disease relapses, and adverse effects were extracted manually and electronically from the electronic medical records. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate the association of treatments with relapse-free survival. The cohort included 720 patients with a mean age of 49.3 years followed for a mean of 3.3 years. Of these, 76.7% were women and 17.1% were smokers. The initial therapy was RAI in 75.4%, ATDs in 16.4%, and thyroidectomy in 2.6%, while 5.6% opted for observation. For the duration of follow-up, ATDs had an overall failure rate of 48.3% compared with 8% for RAI (hazard ratio = 7.6; p < 0.0001). Surgery had a 100% success rate; 80% of observed patients ultimately required therapy. Adverse effects developed in 43 (17.3%) patients treated with ATDs, most commonly dysgeusia (4.4%), rash (2.8%), nausea/gastric distress (2.4%), pruritus (1.6%), and urticaria (1.2%). Eight patients treated with RAI experienced radiation thyroiditis (1.2%). Thyroidectomy resulted in one (2.9%) hematoma and one (2.85%) superior laryngeal nerve damage, with no permanent hypocalcemia. RAI was the most commonly used modality within the cohort and demonstrated the best efficacy and safety profile. Surgery was also very effective and relatively safe in the hands of

  7. Experimental ComparativeStudy of potential anxiolytic effect of Vitamin C and Buspirone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Soliman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders are the most common of all mental health problems. They are more prevalent among women than among men, and they affect children as well as adults. The aim of the current study is to evaluate this problem via an experimental animal model and try to explore its possible mechanisms by studying the effect of Vitamin C compared to Buspirone on anxiety in rats induced by Monosodium Glutamate (MSG. Materials and Methods: 56 healthy adult male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley weighing 200-250 gm were used and divided into 7 groups (8 rats each. The first and the second groups were provided with normal saline and MSG at a dose of (2 mg/g p.o. respectively. The other five groups were given MSG and treated daily in the following way: The third and fourth groups were treated with Vitamin C (100, 200 mg/kg p.o respectively. The fifth group was treated with only Buspirone (10 mg/kg p.o., while the last sixth and seventh groups were given a combination of Buspirone and Vitamin C with (100, 200 mg/kg respectively. After 3 weeks, the open field and successive alleys tests were used to assess behavioral changes. The percentage change of systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR, malondialdehyde (MDA, and corticosterone levels were determined biochemically. Results: The results after 3 weeks revealed that MSG group showed significant anxiogenic effects in both behavioral tests, with an increased percentage change of SBP in addition to increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone level measured statistically. While the results of the treated groups revealed that the Vitamin C (100mg/kg treated group demonstrated significant improvement in anxiety levels in the open field test, there were no significant changes in the biochemical assessment. However, vitamin C (200mg/kg treated group revealed a significant anxiolytic effect in behavioral tests, improved glutathione and malondialdehyde with low

  8. The comparative effectiveness of persuasion, commitment and leader block strategies in motivating sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaël, Dupré

    2014-04-01

    Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing the effects of music and exercise with music for older adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chang, En-Ting; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of a soothing music intervention before bedtime and a treadmill brisk walking exercise combined with music in the evening on sleep quality of sedentary older adults with chronic insomnia. There is evidence to support the use of complementary interventions to improve sleep. They are rarely applied in Taiwanese elderly population. Using a crossover controlled trial, 38 participants aged 50 to 75 years were randomly assigned to a music intervention/brisk walking sequence or a brisk walking/music intervention sequence. Each participant completed two intervention sessions (separated by 1 week). Each intervention lasted 30 min. An actigraph extended with electroencephalography (EEG) and questionnaires were used to assess the sleep quality. Both interventions exhibited beneficial effects on subjective sleep quality in adults with insomnia. Also listening to soothing music before bedtime significantly shortened the wake time after sleep onset measured by EEG, compared with brisk walking in the evening. The interventions applied in this study could be applied as the evidence-based nursing interventions for insomnia older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on experimental arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Takegami, H; Usami, E

    1999-01-01

    The comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on aortic calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) levels in the aorta and the elastin fraction (fr.) were investigated in male rats after experimental arteriosclerosis was induced by vitamin D2 with atherogenic diet. Both vitamin K2 (100 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (40 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited the increase of Ca and P in the aorta and the elastin fr. from the arteriosclerotic rats. Vitamin K2 (50 mg/kg b.w.) also suppressed the deposition of Ca and P in the aorta, but there was no change due to vitamin K3 or geranylgeraniol (side chain of vitamin K2) administration. Both vitamin K2 and vitamin E showed lipid radical scavenging activity in the in vitro experiment. However, neither vitamin K3 nor geranylgeraniol exhibited anti-arteriosclerotic or radical scavenging activity under the above experimental conditions. It is suggested that vitamin K2 and vitamin E promoted an antiarteriosclerotic effect by radical scavenging activity. These actions of vitamin K2 are required in the structure of 2-methylnaphtoquinone and its side chain (geranylgeraniol).

  11. Assessment of Effectiveness of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in Treating Oral Candidiasis Patients: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R C Jagat; Jeelani, S; Duraiselvi, P; Kandasamy, M; Kumar, G Suresh; Pandian, R Azhal Vel

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common fungal infections infecting humans is Candidiasis. Belonging to the group of opportunistic infections, it often affects individuals with various debilitating diseases. Fluconazole and clotrimazole are two of the commonly used anti-fungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate the effectiveness of fluconazole and clotrimazole in the treatment of patients suffering from candidiasis. A total of 180 participants were enrolled in the present study. All the patients of candidiasis were divided broadly into two study groups. Group I included patients who were treated with fluconazole mouthrinse whereas group II included patients who were treated with clotrimazole mouth paint. Grading of patient discomfort was done as noted from readings given by the patients. Specimen was collection by a swab from the lesional area of the oral cavity from the patients and were incubated in Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium and assessed. All the patients were treated with medication as give to their respective groups. Patients were recalled as assessed. All the readings were recorded and analyzed. For group I patients, the fungal eradication was 89.5%, whereas for group II patients, the fungal eradication was 86.7%. No significant results were obtained while comparing the mycological eradiation in patients of the two study groups. Approximately similar effectiveness in terms of treatment was noted with fluconazole and clotrimazole in treating patients with candidiasis.

  12. Determination of the effects of levofloxacin on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, U.; Jamal, S.; Waheed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of levofloxacin on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits. Study Design: Comparative experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The animal house of Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, and the pathology department of Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from July 2009 to January 2010. Material and Methods: The effects of levofloxacin on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity were evaluated in rabbits. Twenty four rabbits were used in this study which were randomly divided into four groups (n= 6 in each group). Six animals were injected for 15 days with saline (NaCl; 0.9%), six with gentamicin alone at doses of 20 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (intramuscularly), six with combination of gentamicin (20 mg/kg/12 h) with low therapeutic doses of levofloxacin (30 mg/kg/24 h) and the last six were treated with gentamicin and high therapeutic doses of levofloxacin (50 mg/kg/24 h). Levofloxacin was given by intraperitoneal route. Results: Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated by histopathological and serum analysis. The extent of nephrotoxicity was significantly increased when gentamicin was given in combination with levofloxacin both in low and high doses. Conclusion: Levofloxacin enhances gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and extent of this nephrotoxicity increased with increasing dose of levofloxacin. (author)

  13. [Comparative effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on psychomotor performances and memory in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Lacomblez, L; Danjou, P; Weiller, E; Payan, C; Puech, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect on psychomotor and mnesic performances of acute oral dose (600 mg) of 2 Ginkgo biloba extracts were evaluated in twelve healthy female in a dummy placebo-controlled double blind study. Tests were performed comprising: objective measures of vigilance [critical flicker frequency (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory tasks (pictures and Sternberg scanning tests) and self-rating evaluation (visual analogue scales). Tests session took place before and 1 hour post-dosing. No statistically significant changes from placebo were observed on CFF, CRT or subjective rating of drug effects. No differences between treatment were evidenced on Sternberg scanning test and pictures recognition. Comparing to baseline, free recall score, while decreasing under placebo and Ginkgo, remained the same under Tanakan. As the differences between treatment are localized on one test, it appears important to examine the reproductility in healthy subjects. In order to verify the clinical relevance of these results, they need to be replicated in older healthy volunteers with age-associated memory impairment.

  14. A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Ritalin on Improving Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoushabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There are varieties of interventions to treatment of ADHD, among which drug therapy, behavior therapy, parental management training and neurofeedback can be cited. The present study designed to investigate and compare the effectiveness of neurofeedback and Ritalin on improving conduct problems and hyperactivity. Materials & Methods: Quasi-experimental research method with pretest-post test design has been applied in the research. Statistical population of the study consisted of ADHD children of Tehran. The study samples of the study were patients referred to children psychiatric clinic. Based on the purpose of the study' 20 children were randomly selected and classified into 2 groups according to random assignment. CPRS-48 (parent form was administered by parents before and after the treatments as research tools. Recruited data was analyzed by SPSS-19 in two sections of descriptive and inferential statistics. ANCOVA revealed some differences in the groups. Results: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between Ritalin and neurofeedback on improving conduct problems; in other words, Ritalin was more effective in alleviating the problems. Also there was no significant difference between the interventions on improving hyperactivity index. Conclusion: With respect to more efficiency of Ritalin than neurofeedback on certain continuum of signs/symptoms of ADHD, as a whole, preferences of interventions should be based on type, magnitude and severity of the syndrome(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:53-59

  15. Stakeholder priorities for comparative effectiveness research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jerry A; Lindenauer, Peter K; Au, David H; Carson, Shannon S; Lee, Todd A; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T; Vollmer, William M; Mularski, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions.

  16. Comparing the effects of positive and negative feedback in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Michael; Glass, Brian; Filoteo, J Vincent; Hazeltine, Eliot; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-01-01

    Categorical learning is dependent on feedback. Here, we compare how positive and negative feedback affect information-integration (II) category learning. Ashby and O'Brien (2007) demonstrated that both positive and negative feedback are required to solve II category problems when feedback was not guaranteed on each trial, and reported no differences between positive-only and negative-only feedback in terms of their effectiveness. We followed up on these findings and conducted 3 experiments in which participants completed 2,400 II categorization trials across three days under 1 of 3 conditions: positive feedback only (PFB), negative feedback only (NFB), or both types of feedback (CP; control partial). An adaptive algorithm controlled the amount of feedback given to each group so that feedback was nearly equated. Using different feedback control procedures, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants in the NFB and CP group were able to engage II learning strategies, whereas the PFB group was not. Additionally, the NFB group was able to achieve significantly higher accuracy than the PFB group by Day 3. Experiment 3 revealed that these differences remained even when we equated the information received on feedback trials. Thus, negative feedback appears significantly more effective for learning II category structures. This suggests that the human implicit learning system may be capable of learning in the absence of positive feedback.

  17. Rosuvastatin and Atorvastatin: Comparative Effects on Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetic Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing interventional CVD outcome studies have resulted in statins being an essential factor of cardiovascular prevention strategies. The JUPITER study in 2008, despite reducing CVD and overall mortality, highlighted an increase in new onset diabetes in the rosuvastatin treated arm. Since then there have been many meta-analyses of the RCTs and the largest carried out by Sattar et al showed a significant increase in the incidence of diabetes during the trials. The findings from the individual studies when comparing the different statins were less clear. A higher statin dosage and risk factors associated with diabetes appeared to predict this phenomenon. There have been many studies investigating the effects of statins on glycaemic control, but again no clear conclusion is apparent. Despite the increase in new onset diabetes observed, the risk is clearly out-weighed by the CVD benefits observed in nearly all the statin trials. Thus, no change is required to any of the prevention guidelines regarding statins. However, it may be prudent to monitor glycaemic control after commencing statin therapy. This review will focus on atorvastatin which is the most widely used statin worldwide and rosuvastatin which is the most efficacious. This will be against a background of the effects of other statins on glucose metabolism in non-diabetic patients.

  18. Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin: comparative effects on glucose metabolism in non-diabetic patients with dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed; Milles, John; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing interventional CVD outcome studies have resulted in statins being an essential factor of cardiovascular prevention strategies. The JUPITER study in 2008, despite reducing CVD and overall mortality, highlighted an increase in new onset diabetes in the rosuvastatin treated arm. Since then there have been many meta-analyses of the RCTs and the largest carried out by Sattar et al showed a significant increase in the incidence of diabetes during the trials. The findings from the individual studies when comparing the different statins were less clear. A higher statin dosage and risk factors associated with diabetes appeared to predict this phenomenon. There have been many studies investigating the effects of statins on glycaemic control, but again no clear conclusion is apparent. Despite the increase in new onset diabetes observed, the risk is clearly out-weighed by the CVD benefits observed in nearly all the statin trials. Thus, no change is required to any of the prevention guidelines regarding statins. However, it may be prudent to monitor glycaemic control after commencing statin therapy. This review will focus on atorvastatin which is the most widely used statin worldwide and rosuvastatin which is the most efficacious. This will be against a background of the effects of other statins on glucose metabolism in non-diabetic patients.

  19. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Comparing effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up strategies in containing influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achla Marathe

    Full Text Available This research compares the performance of bottom-up, self-motivated behavioral interventions with top-down interventions targeted at controlling an "Influenza-like-illness". Both types of interventions use a variant of the ring strategy. In the first case, when the fraction of a person's direct contacts who are diagnosed exceeds a threshold, that person decides to seek prophylaxis, e.g. vaccine or antivirals; in the second case, we consider two intervention protocols, denoted Block and School: when a fraction of people who are diagnosed in a Census Block (resp., School exceeds the threshold, prophylax the entire Block (resp., School. Results show that the bottom-up strategy outperforms the top-down strategies under our parameter settings. Even in situations where the Block strategy reduces the overall attack rate well, it incurs a much higher cost. These findings lend credence to the notion that if people used antivirals effectively, making them available quickly on demand to private citizens could be a very effective way to control an outbreak.

  1. Stakeholder Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenauer, Peter K.; Au, David H.; Carson, Shannon S.; Lee, Todd A.; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T.; Vollmer, William M.; Mularski, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions. PMID:23155144

  2. The Comparative Effectiveness of Variants of Construction of Electricity Export Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Vladimirovich Lagerev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study describes a methodological approach that evaluates the comparative efficiency of construction of export-oriented power plants and transmission lines taking into account the development of power industry in the region and uncertainty (ambiguity of initial information. At the first stage the authors determine socio-economic effects of each project of construction of export-oriented power plants. With the help of optimization models they choose options that can guarantee the balanced and cost-effective development of the regional electric power system. Then using a simulation model the researchers assess commercial viability of previously selected projects. The article applies this approach for selecting the preferred option of electricity export from Eastern Siberia to China. This study shows that the project of CPP based on Kovykta natural gas with electricity transmission line to Chinese border (near Zabaikalsk is more preferable one in comparison with other projects (CPP based on Kansk-Achinsk coal in Krasnoyarsky krai; CPP based on coal in the Republic of Buryatia and Zabaikalsky krai (Olon-Shibirskaya CPP; New Kharanorskaya CPP; CPP based on Mugunsky coal in Irkutskaya oblast

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Medications: A National Prospective Cohort From Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yin Chang

    Full Text Available Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters.In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015, a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052, bupropion (n = 823, NRT gum (n = 1944 or NRT patch (n = 4,149. The 7-day, 1-month or 6-month point-prevalence was calculated based on self-reported last smoking event via telephone interview after 6 months. Logistic regression modellings estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for achieving abstinence using different modalities (NRT patch as referent. Models included age, sex, education, marital status, geographic region, smoke-years, nicotine-dependence level, medical institution, number of clinic visits and medication use duration. Analyses were further stratified by sex and dependence severity.Participants were predominantly male (83% with a mean age of 43.7±12.6 years. Varenicline users were more likely than NRT patch users to achieve abstinence, based on 7-day point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.19-1.44, 1-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.36, CI: 1.24-1.50 or 6-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.14-1.47. Compared with NRT patch, varenicline was associated with greater odds of being abstinent in women (OR = 1.29, CI: 1.01-1.65, men (OR = 1.31, CI: 1.18-1.46, those with light/moderate dependence (OR = 1.42, CI: 1.24-1.63 or smokers with severe dependence (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.04-1.37, based on 7-day point-prevalence. Differences in effectiveness were not observed between users of bupropion, NRT gum and NRT patch.In smoking cessation clinics in Taiwan, varenicline users reported higher

  4. Comparative effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on human airway epithelial cells and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Costa, Anna Luisa; Blosi, Magda; Di Cristo, Luisana; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Visigalli, Rossana; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2012-09-01

    Among nanomaterials of industrial relevance, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, but their effects on airway cells are relatively poorly characterized. To compare the effects of metal NPs on cells representative of the lung-blood barrier, Calu-3 epithelial cells and Raw264.7 macrophages were incubated with three industrially relevant preparations of TiO2 NPs (size range 4-33 nm), two preparations of CeO2 NPs (9-36 nm) and CuO NPs (25 nm). While Raw264.7 were grown on standard plasticware, Calu-3 cells were seeded on permeable filters, where they form a high-resistance monolayer, providing an in vitro model of the airway barrier. Metal NPs, obtained from industrial sources, were characterized under the conditions adopted for the biological tests. Cytotoxicity was assessed with resazurin method in both epithelial and macrophage cells, while epithelial barrier permeability was monitored measuring the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). In macrophages, titania and ceria had no significant effect on viability in the whole range of nominal doses tested (15-240 μg/cm2 of monolayer), while CuO NPs produced a marked viability loss. Moreover, only CuO NPs, but not the other NPs, lowered TEER of Calu-3 monolayers, pointing to the impairment of the epithelial barrier. TEER decreased by 30 % at the dose of 10 μg/cm2 of CuO NPs, compared to untreated control, and was abolished at doses ≥80 μg/cm2, in strict correlation with changes in cell viability. These results indicate that (1) CuO NPs increase airway epithelium permeability even at relatively low doses and are significantly toxic for macrophages and airway epithelial cells, likely through the release of Cu ions in the medium; (2) TiO2 and CeO2 NPs do not affect TEER and exhibit little acute toxicity for airway epithelial cells and macrophages; and (3) TEER measurement can provide a simple method to assess the impairment of in vitro airway epithelial barrier model by manufactured nanomaterials.

  5. Smoking-Cessation Interventions for Urban Hospital Patients: A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Scott E; Link, Alissa R; Rogers, Erin S; Krebs, Paul; Ladapo, Joseph A; Shelley, Donna R; Fang, Yixin; Wang, Binhuan; Grossman, Ellie

    2016-10-01

    Hospitalization is a unique opportunity for smoking cessation, but prior interventions have measured efficacy with narrowly defined populations. The objective of this study was to enroll smokers admitted to two "safety net" hospitals and compare the effectiveness of two post-discharge cessation interventions. A randomized comparative effectiveness trial was conducted. At two New York City public hospitals, every hospitalized patient identified as a smoker (based on admission records) was approached. Inclusion criteria were: smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days; spoke English, Spanish, or Mandarin; had a U.S. phone number; not discharged to an institution where follow-up or smoking was limited; and not pregnant/breastfeeding. Of 18,797 patients identified as current smokers between July 2011 and April 2014, a total of 3,047 (16%) were discharged before being approached, 3,273 (17%) were not current smokers, 4,026 (21%) had no U.S. phone number, 2,831 (15%) were ineligible for other reasons, and 3,983 (21%) refused participation. In total, 1,618 (9%) participants enrolled in the study. During follow-up, 69% of participants were reached at 2 months and 68% at 6 months. At discharge, participants were randomized to multisession telephone counseling from study staff (n=804) or referral to the state quitline for proactive outreach and counseling (n=814). Self-reported abstinence at 6 months was measured. Analyses were conducted in late 2015. One quarter of participants were homeless or in unstable housing, 60% had a history of substance abuse, 43% reported current hazardous drinking, and half had a psychiatric diagnosis other than substance abuse. At follow-up, the rate of abstinence (30-day point prevalence) was higher in the intensive counseling arm than the quitline arm at 2 months (29.0% vs 20.7%; relative risk=1.40; 95% CI=1.13, 1.73) and 6 months (37.4% vs 31.5%; relative risk=1.19; 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). Intensive counseling was more effective than referral to the

  6. Comparative effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on human airway epithelial cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Costa, Anna Luisa; Blosi, Magda; Di Cristo, Luisana; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Visigalli, Rossana; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Among nanomaterials of industrial relevance, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, but their effects on airway cells are relatively poorly characterized. To compare the effects of metal NPs on cells representative of the lung-blood barrier, Calu-3 epithelial cells and Raw264.7 macrophages were incubated with three industrially relevant preparations of TiO 2 NPs (size range 4–33 nm), two preparations of CeO 2 NPs (9–36 nm) and CuO NPs (25 nm). While Raw264.7 were grown on standard plasticware, Calu-3 cells were seeded on permeable filters, where they form a high-resistance monolayer, providing an in vitro model of the airway barrier. Metal NPs, obtained from industrial sources, were characterized under the conditions adopted for the biological tests. Cytotoxicity was assessed with resazurin method in both epithelial and macrophage cells, while epithelial barrier permeability was monitored measuring the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). In macrophages, titania and ceria had no significant effect on viability in the whole range of nominal doses tested (15–240 μg/cm 2 of monolayer), while CuO NPs produced a marked viability loss. Moreover, only CuO NPs, but not the other NPs, lowered TEER of Calu-3 monolayers, pointing to the impairment of the epithelial barrier. TEER decreased by 30 % at the dose of 10 μg/cm 2 of CuO NPs, compared to untreated control, and was abolished at doses ≥80 μg/cm 2 , in strict correlation with changes in cell viability. These results indicate that (1) CuO NPs increase airway epithelium permeability even at relatively low doses and are significantly toxic for macrophages and airway epithelial cells, likely through the release of Cu ions in the medium; (2) TiO 2 and CeO 2 NPs do not affect TEER and exhibit little acute toxicity for airway epithelial cells and macrophages; and (3) TEER measurement can provide a simple method to assess the impairment of in vitro airway epithelial barrier model by manufactured

  7. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  8. Comparative effectiveness of one-stage versus two-stage basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Amir A; Griffin, Claire L; Kraiss, Larry W; Sarfati, Mark R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2018-02-01

    Basilic vein transposition (BVT) fistulas may be performed as either a one-stage or two-stage operation, although there is debate as to which technique is superior. This study was designed to evaluate the comparative clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of one-stage vs two-stage BVT. We identified all patients at a single large academic hospital who had undergone creation of either a one-stage or two-stage BVT between January 2007 and January 2015. Data evaluated included patient demographics, comorbidities, medication use, reasons for abandonment, and interventions performed to maintain patency. Costs were derived from the literature, and effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We analyzed primary and secondary functional patency outcomes as well as survival during follow-up between one-stage and two-stage BVT procedures using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to determine cost savings. We identified 131 patients in whom 57 (44%) one-stage BVT and 74 (56%) two-stage BVT fistulas were created among 8 different vascular surgeons during the study period that each performed both procedures. There was no significant difference in the mean age, male gender, white race, diabetes, coronary disease, or medication profile among patients undergoing one- vs two-stage BVT. After fistula transposition, the median follow-up time was 8.3 months (interquartile range, 3-21 months). Primary patency rates of one-stage BVT were 56% at 12-month follow-up, whereas primary patency rates of two-stage BVT were 72% at 12-month follow-up. Patients undergoing two-stage BVT also had significantly higher rates of secondary functional patency at 12 months (57% for one-stage BVT vs 80% for two-stage BVT) and 24 months (44% for one-stage BVT vs 73% for two-stage BVT) of follow-up (P < .001 using log-rank test). However, there was no significant difference

  9. Comparing the effectiveness of TWEAK and T-ACE in determining problem drinkers in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    2010-01-01

    The TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools are validated methods of identifying problem drinking in a pregnant population. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools in identifying problem drinking using traditional cut-points (CP). Study participants consisted of women calling the Motherisk Alcohol Helpline for information regarding their alcohol use in pregnancy. In this cohort, concerns surrounding underreporting are not likely as women self-report their alcohol consumption. Participant's self-identification, confirmed by her amount of alcohol use, determined whether she was a problem drinker or not. The TWEAK and T-ACE tools were administered on both groups and subsequent analysis was done to determine if one tool was more effective in predicting problem drinking. The study consisted of 75 problem and 100 non-problem drinkers. Using traditional CP, the TWEAK and T-ACE tools both performed similarly at identifying potential at-risk women (positive predictive value = 0.54), with very high sensitivity rates (100-99% and 100-93%, respectively) but poor specificity rates (36-43% and 19-34%, respectively). Upon comparison, there was no statistical difference in the effectiveness for one test performing better than next using either CP of 2 (P = 0.66) or CP of 3 (P = 0.38). Despite the lack of difference in performance, improved specificity associated with TWEAK suggests that it may be better suited to screen at-risk populations seeking advice from a helpline.

  10. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Yavarikia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding.Methods: This was a double blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. It was conducted on 84 women with random allocation in to two groups of 42 treated with mefenamic acid and vitex agnus capsules taking three times a day during menstruation for four months. Data were collected by demographic questionnaire and Higham 5 stage chart (1 month before the treatment and 4 months during the treatment., Paired t-test, independent t-test, chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements, and SPSS software were used to determine the results.Results: Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus significantly decreased bleeding. This decrease in month 4 was 52% in the mefenamic acid group and 47.6% in the vitex agnus group. The mean bleeding score changes was statistically significant between the two groups in the first three months and before the intervention. In the mefenamic acid group, the decreased bleeding was significantly more than the vitex agnus group. However, during the 4th month, the mean change was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus were both effective on IUD induced bleeding; however, mefenamic acid was more effective.

  11. Comparing the effect of mefenamic Acid and vitex agnus on intrauterine device induced bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarikia, Parisa; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hadavand Mirzaie, Samira; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Lutfi, Razieh

    2013-09-01

    Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding. This was a double blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. It was conducted on 84 women with random allocation in to two groups of 42 treated with mefenamic acid and vitex agnus capsules taking three times a day during menstruation for four months. Data were collected by demographic questionnaire and Higham 5 stage chart (1 month before the treatment and 4 months during the treatment)., Paired t-test, independent t-test, chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements, and SPSS software were used to determine the results. Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus significantly decreased bleeding. This decrease in month 4 was 52% in the mefenamic acid group and 47.6% in the vitex agnus group. The mean bleeding score changes was statistically significant between the two groups in the first three months and before the intervention. In the mefenamic acid group, the decreased bleeding was significantly more than the vitex agnus group. However, during the 4(th) month, the mean change was not statistically significant. Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus were both effective on IUD induced bleeding; however, mefenamic acid was more effective.

  12. Effects of lidocaine and droxicainide on myocardial necrosis: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, D.B.; Cheung, W.M.; Ribeiro, L.G.; Maroko, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine has been shown to protect ischemic myocardium, but the degree of its effectiveness is not yet well established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of this drug on ultimate infarct size were examined quantitatively. Another member of the same class of drugs, droxicainide (ALS1249), DL-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-pipecolinyl-2,6-dimethylanilide hydrochloride, is a new antiarrhythmic agent that has shown a good therapeutic index in the initial experimental studies. Accordingly, the effects of this drug on ultimate infarct size were examined and compared with those of lidocaine. Coronary artery occlusion was performed on 29 dogs. One minute later, technetium-99m labeled microspheres were injected into the left atrium for assessment of the hypoperfused zone (the zone at risk of infarction). Fifteen minutes after occlusion, the dogs were randomized into three groups: 9 dogs served as a control group, 10 were given lidocaine and 10 were given the same dosage of droxicainide. Six hours after occlusion, the dogs were sacrificed and the hearts cut into 3 mm thick slices and incubated in triphenyltetrazolium chloride to delineate the area of myocardial damage. Autoradiography of the same slices provided images of the areas of myocardial hypoperfusion. Thereafter, in each dog, the percent of hypoperfused area that evolved to necrosis was calculated. In control dogs, it was 85.6 +/- 2.0%; in lidocaine-treated dogs, 68.1 +/- 4.1% (p less than 0.01), a reduction of 20%; and in droxicainide-treated dogs, 50.1 +/- 5.3%, a reduction of 41% (p less than 0.001 versus control and p less than 0.005 versus lidocaine)

  13. Comparative study on the health effects of smoking and indoor air pollution in summer and winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, H.; Kasuga, H.; Osaka, F.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.

    1985-08-01

    This study compares summer and winter to demonstrate the health effects of indoor air pollution with special reference to NO/sub 2/ and smoking, on the subjects composed of 820 school children and their 546 mothers in the two areas with different ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations. In either case, examination was carried out with standardized questionnaire test for respiratory symptoms, personal NO/sub 2/ exposure measurement using the filter badge by Yanagisawa, and analysis of urinary hydroxyproline and creatinine in two areas with different ambient NO/sub 2/ levels. Personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level in winter season was 2-3 times higher than that in summer, particularly NO/sub 2/ level among residents living in homes with non-vented stove for space heating was substantially higher from those of residents with vented stove. Wives with vented stove had a moderate exposure level in winter season by the contribution of NO/sub 2/ originated from the kitchen and poor ventilation rate. Since the hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio (HOP-ratio) of children increased more, their household location were nearer to any heavy traffic roads in summer, health effects from automobile exhaust were suggested only in summer season. In summer season, personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level were almost the same with the ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations over both areas. These results suggest that indoor air pollution in winter season may be separated from outdoor air pollution. It was a matter of course that hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio in winter season was higher than that in summer, in any group and in any area, but the range of variation of hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio was smaller by far than that of personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level. Judging from urinary hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio, health effects of active smoking and passive smoking increased with increasing the number of smoked, dose-dependently in any season.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in pediatric primary care: a cluster-randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Marshall, Richard; Kleinman, Ken P; Gillman, Matthew W; Hacker, Karen; Horan, Christine M; Smith, Renata L; Price, Sarah; Sharifi, Mona; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Simon, Steven R

    2015-06-01

    Evidence of effective treatment of childhood obesity in primary care settings is limited. To examine the extent to which computerized clinical decision support (CDS) delivered to pediatric clinicians at the point of care of obese children, with or without individualized family coaching, improved body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and quality of care. We conducted a cluster-randomized, 3-arm clinical trial. We enrolled 549 children aged 6 to 12 years with a BMI at the 95% percentile or higher from 14 primary care practices in Massachusetts from October 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. Patients were followed up for 1 year (last follow-up, August 30, 2013). In intent-to-treat analyses, we used linear mixed-effects models to account for clustering by practice and within each person. In 5 practices randomized to CDS, pediatric clinicians received decision support on obesity management, and patients and their families received an intervention for self-guided behavior change. In 5 practices randomized to CDS + coaching, decision support was augmented by individualized family coaching. The remaining 4 practices were randomized to usual care. Smaller age-associated change in BMI and the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance measures for obesity during the 1-year follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) patient age and BMI were 9.8 (1.9) years and 25.8 (4.3), respectively. At 1 year, we obtained BMI from 518 children (94.4%) and HEDIS measures from 491 visits (89.4%). The 3 randomization arms had different effects on BMI over time (P = .04). Compared with the usual care arm, BMI increased less in children in the CDS arm during 1 year (-0.51 [95% CI, -0.91 to -0.11]). The CDS + coaching arm had a smaller magnitude of effect (-0.34 [95% CI, -0.75 to 0.07]). We found substantially greater achievement of childhood obesity HEDIS measures in the CDS arm (adjusted odds ratio, 2.28 [95% CI, 1

  15. Effectiveness of Pelvic Physiotherapy in Children With Functional Constipation Compared With Standard Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen, Marieke L; Bols, Esther M J; Benninga, Marc A; Verwijs, Wim A; de Bie, Rob A

    2017-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common childhood problem often related to pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. We compared the effectiveness of pelvic physiotherapy (PPT) vs standard medical care (SMC) in children with FC. We performed a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 53 children (age, 5-16 y) with FC according to the Rome III criteria, at hospitals in The Netherlands from December 2009 to May 2014. Group allocation was concealed using a central computer system. SMC consisted of education, toilet training, and laxatives (n = 26), whereas PPT included SMC plus specific physiotherapeutic interventions (n = 27). Results were obtained from written reports from the subjects' pediatricians and parents. The primary outcome was absence of FC, according to Rome III criteria, after a 6-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were global perceived effect (range, 1-9; success was defined as a score ≥ 8), numeric rating scales assessing quality of life (parent and child; scale, 1-10), and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Treatment was effective for 92.3% of the children receiving PPT and for 63.0% of the children receiving SMC (adjusted odds ratio for success of PPT, 11.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-78.3) (P = .011). Significantly more children undergoing PPT stopped using laxatives (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-26.4) (P = .009). Treatment success (based on global perceived effect) was achieved for 88.5% of subjects receiving PPT vs 33.3% of subjects receiving SMC) (P children (P = .028). Results from the SDQ did not differ significantly between groups (P = .78). In a randomized controlled trial of children with FC, PPT was more effective than SMC on all outcomes measured, with the exception of findings from the SDQ. PPT should be considered as a treatment option for FC in children 5-16 years old. Dutch Clinical Trial Registration no: NL30551.068.09. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Payer decision-making with limited comparative and cost effectiveness data: the case of new pharmacological treatments for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Michele; Pizzi, Laura T; Jutkowitz, Eric

    2012-08-01

    The need for comparative effectiveness (CE) data continues to grow, fuelled by market demand as well as health reform. There may be an assumption that new drugs result in improved efficacy compared with the standard of care, therefore warranting premium prices. Gout treatment has recently become controversial, as expensive new drugs enter the market with limited CE data. The authors reviewed published clinical trials and conducted a cost effectiveness analysis on a new drug (febuxostat) versus the standard (allopurinol) to illustrate the limitations in using these data to inform evidence-based decision-making. Although febuxostat trials included allopurinol as a comparator, methodological limitations make comparative effectiveness evaluations difficult. However, when available trial data were input to a decision analytic model, the authors found that a significant reduction in febuxostat cost would be required in order for it to dominate allopurinol in cost effectiveness analysis. This case exemplifies the challenges of using clinical trial data in comparative and cost effectiveness analyses.

  17. Summary of the comparative effectiveness review on off-label use of atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Alicia R; Theodore, George

    2012-06-01

    Conventional and atypical antipsychotic medications are approved by the FDA for treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Over many decades, the widespread use of conventional antipsychotics produced various side effects requiring additional medications, such as the atypical antipsychotics. Beginning in 2006, 9 atypical antipsychotic drugs have been approved by the FDA for indications that were previously off-label uses: aripiprazole (as augmentation for major depressive disorder [MDD] and for autism spectrum disorders), asenapine, clozapine, iloperidone, olanzapine (in combination with fluoxetine for MDD and bipolar depression), paliperidone, quetiapine (quetiapine and quetiapine XR [extended release] as monotherapy in bipolar depression and quetiapine XR as augmentation for MDD), risperidone (for autism spectrum disorders), and ziprasidone. In 2006, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) published a systematic review on the comparative effectiveness of off-label uses of atypical antipsychotics. Since that time, numerous studies have been published evaluating these therapies in various new off-label uses; new or increased adverse effects have been observed with off-label uses; new atypical antipsychotics have been approved; and previously off-label uses have been approved for some atypical antipsychotics. Hence, AHRQ published an updated review in September 2011 that summarized the benefits and harms of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD), anxiety, behavioral disturbances of dementia and severe geriatric agitation, depression, eating disorders, insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use and dependence disorders, and Tourette's syndrome. The new report also investigated topics for which data in the previous report were found to be insufficient to make conclusions, including

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  19. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C

    2018-03-26

    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  20. Comparative analysis of the radiation shield effect in an abdominal CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Joon-Seok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lim, Chang-Seon

    2014-01-01

    This study measured and compared the dose on the eyeballs and the thyroid with and without the use of a shield by applying the abdominal examination protocol used in an actual examination to a 64-channel computed tomography (CT) scan. A dummy phantom manufactured from acryl was used to measure the dose to the eyeballs and the thyroid of a patient during a thoraco-abdominal CT scan. The dose was measured using three dosimeters (optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD), thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) and photoluminescence dosimeter (PLD)) attached to the surfaces of three parts (left and right eyeballs and thyroid) in a phantom with and without the use of a shield for the eyeballs and the thyroid. Two types of shields (1-mm barium shielding sheet and 1-mm tungsten shielding sheet) were used for the measurements. The goggles and the lead shield, which are normally used in clinical practice, were used to compare the shield ratios of the shields. According to the results of the measurements made by using the OSLD, the shield ratios of the barium and the tungsten sheets were in the range of 34 - 36%. The measurements made by using the TLD showed that the shield ratio of the barium sheet was 6.25% higher than that of the tungsten sheet. When the PLD was used for the measurement, the shield ratio of the barium sheet was 33.34%, which was equivalent to that of the tungsten sheet. These results confirmed that the cheap barium sheet had a better shielding effect than the expensive tungsten sheet.