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Sample records for company size effect

  1. ANALYSIS OF COMPANY SIZE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, AND PROFITABILITY AND ITS EFFECT TO CSR DISCLOSURE

    Suskim Riantani; Hafidz Nurzamzam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and recognize the effect of financial performance measured through company size, financial leverage and profitability to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD). The research was done in Tobacco Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during period of 2007-2011. Descriptive analysis and verification method was used as the research method. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain the sample and there are three cigarette companies as the sample. M...

  2. ANALYSIS OF COMPANY SIZE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, AND PROFITABILITY AND ITS EFFECT TO CSR DISCLOSURE

    Suskim Riantani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and recognize the effect of financial performance measured through company size, financial leverage and profitability to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD. The research was done in Tobacco Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during period of 2007-2011. Descriptive analysis and verification method was used as the research method. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain the sample and there are three cigarette companies as the sample. Multiple linear regression and correlation analysis using t test and F test were applied as a technique of analysis. The test of the classical assumption such as the normality, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation applied before the multiple linear regression. The result shows that the company size had positive and significant effect to the CSR disclosure, financial leverage does not show significant effect to the CSR disclosure, profitability does not have significant effect to the CSR disclosure during the investigation.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities use in relation to company size

    Lucie Sychrová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to research the relationship between measurements of effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. An analysis of the economic sources, professional publications, analysis and reports of previous research shows that the concept of measuring of effectiveness is one of the key themes, which economists always pay much attention. It is a criterion that helps to rationally decide on the use limited resources to meet the needs that are not limited. This topic deals with numerous domestic and foreign literatures. The authors are not only different concepts of effectiveness, but also the using terminology. There are multiple definitions of terms “effectiveness” For the same purpose and meaning. The same concept is often defined semantically different. Therefore, every company has a strong interest to be in all their activities more effectively than the competition. Logical response to changes and requirements of nowadays is using a combination of lot of methods to measure marketing effectiveness. Methods used for this article includes two phases. The first it was gained date by primary research, using a structure questionnaire and processed by statistical software SPSS. Research sample consists 115 companies operating in the Czech environment, which was chosen at random. There is investigated the correlation between measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. The second part investigated the dependence between the choice of metrics used to measure the effectiveness and company size. The results of the research showed that there is no correlation between measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. The value of Pearson Chi-Square test is greater than 0.05, it is 0.187. We can presume that dependency does not exist or it is small for these. Value of Symmetric measures is 0.432, which means that the intensity tends to be small rather than high.

  4. PERSONNEL COSTS IN THE CZECH CONSTRUCTION SECTOR: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF COMPANY SIZE

    Martina Paulišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available : Managing personnel costs is important in all companies, especially in those whose production is labor intensive. The construction sector therefore qualifies as a suitable area for analyzing issues associated with these costs. The aim of this study is to find out whether company size affects personnel cost management under various circumstances. Four research hypotheses focus on the relationships among and the relative importance of personnel costs, use of standards, range of employee benefits offered, and economic actions taken when faced with an economic crisis. The evaluation of hypotheses is supported by using the chi-square test of independence with the aim of confirming or rejecting the statistical significance of relationships between the examined categorical variables. Results have confirmed a significant effect of company size. Several research implications and suggested future research directions are also presented in the conclusion of this paper.

  5. The Effects of Risk and Size of Company on Business Performance in Information Technology Outsourcing

    Balogun, Shereef Adewale

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing is a practical way to transfer information technology by industries of different firms. The problem occurs when companies outsource services to domestic and international data centers as network security issues arise. This leads to competition between companies causing the size of the company to become more…

  6. THE EFFECTS OF COMPANY SIZE, COMPANY RISK AND AUDITOR’S REPUTATION ON TENURE: AN ARTIFICIAL ROTATION TESTING

    Junaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically examine the effects of firms’ size, firms’ risk, and auditors’ reputations on tenure in an artificial rotation. The phenomenon of artificial auditor (audit firm rotations in Indonesia is an interesting topic, deserving further study. Artificial auditor rotations indicate a condition in which, conceptually, there has been a change of auditor that makes the relationship between the auditor and the client end, but in effect, the relationship is still going on. Regulations for mandatory auditor rotations causes audit firms or their partners to cheat the system by changing the name of their firm, or partners, to allow them to continue auditing the same client. This research samples 110 companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2010, which were obtained using a purposive sampling method. The results of a statistical test indicate that a company’s size significantly influences the tenure. The variables of firms’ risk and auditors’ reputations do not have significant effects on tenure, statistically. This research is expected to contribute both theoretically and practically, especially to the regulations on auditors’ rotations. Auditing quality is an important factor that must be maintained by the auditor profession, to maintain the independence of auditors. In the auditing practices in Indonesia, regulators should consider the artificial rotation phenomenon that occurs in Indonesia, so the practice of auditing can run better.

  7. Evaluation of the Company Size Effect on Latin American Stock Markets

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the existence of the size effect on the most important stock markets in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru for the period between 2002 and 2012, using the cross-section contrast methodology of the size effect in the CAPM context. Results show that there is reversed effect in some of the Latin American markets.

  8. ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF PROFITABILITY, ASSETS STRUCTURE, SIZE OF COMPANIES, AND LIQUIDITY TO CAPITAL STRUCTURES IN MINING COMPANIES LISTED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE PERIOD 2012 - 2015

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of profitability, structure assets, firm size and liquidity to the capital structure of mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2012-2015. Sampling technique using purpose sampling. Data analysis technique used in this research is panel data regression. The results showed that partially profitability had negative and significant effect to capital structure, asset structure had positive and significant effect to capital structure, firm size had positive and significant effect to capital structure, and liquidity had negative and significant effect to capital structure. Simultaneously profitability, asset structure, firm size and liquidity have a significant effect on capital structure.

  9. A study of the effects of company size on systematic risk based on the capital asset pricing model among accepted companies in Tehran Stock Market ,

    Reza Rostami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic risk (beta is one of the most effective factors in predicting the appropriate required rate of return of portfolios. Understanding systematic risk of usual portfolio of various companies helps investors consider financial investment, more confidentially. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any significant relationship between Company Size (Market value of stocks, Book value of stocks, level of company sale, trade volume of stocks, Price dividend ratio as independent variables and Systematic risk (Beta as dependent variables. The study chooses 112 companies accepted in Tehran Stock Market based on screening (systematic deletion in a six-year- period from 2005 to 2010. The required data were gathered from basic financial statement, committee reports, and other available documents in Tehran Stock Market. Regression and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between the variables. Some suggestions regarding the topic of the research are given too.

  10. Effect of Managerial Ownership, Free Cash Flow and Size Company Policy on Debt (Empirical Study on Industrial Enterprises Basic and Chemicals Listed in Bei)

    Hasan, Mudrika Alamsyah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical evidence about the effect of managerial ownership structure, free cash flow and the size of the companys debt policy the Basic Industry and Chemicals companies listed on the Stock Exchange.The population in this research is the basic chemical sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the last three years, is from the years 2009-2011, amounting to 43 companies, using purposive sampling and the sampling results obtained by 3...

  11. Tailoring CSR Strategy to Company Size?

    Alexandra ZBUCHEA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is one of the most debated topics in the academic and professional business literature, being analyzed in a myriad of perspectives, from philosophy, to marketing, management practice, managerial strategies or financial impact. The very term of CSR implies that involving with society in a structural way that is part of a business DNA is or should be understood as a characteristic of big size companies (e.g. ‘corporations’. Academic literature and financial reports show a direct relationship between a company size and its CSR budget, therefore some conclusions have been taken that CSR is effective mostly in cases of big budgets and, consequently, of big companies. Academic research also tends to favor large corporations. Most of the literature on CSR is dedicated to large companies. Nevertheless, in the past decade, increasingly more studies have investigated the social responsibility assumed by other types of companies (such as SMEs, by public institutions or by nonprofit organizations. Our present empirical analysis based on structured academic literature review (comprehensive selection of relevant international papers and content analysis demonstrates that CSR should go beyond the classical understanding of the ‘corporation’ concept and that it should be tailored to SMEs as well. Innovation and top management support are the drivers of effective CSR adoption by SMEs, for positive results meeting specific business model requirements, as well as for society. Going beyond social responsibility as a philosophical duty, correctly tailored CSR strategies can be efficient for small and medium enterprises in meeting strategic business objectives.

  12. The Effects of Industry Type, Company Size and Performance on Chinese Companies’ IC Disclosure: A Research Note

    Yi An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of industry type, firm size and corporate performance on intellectual capital (IC disclosure among Chinese (mainland companies. It was found that industry type did not have a significant influence on IC reporting practices of Chinese firms; the larger firms generally reported more IC information than the relatively smaller firms; and there was a positive relationship between corporate performance and IC disclosure. This paper contributes to fairly limited literature regarding the associations between the level of IC disclosure and a variety of relevant impact factors, in particular in the Chinese mainland context. In addition, the findings of this research provide some references for policy-makers while developing an IC reporting framework applicable to the Chinese environment.

  13. Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies.

    Young, Lisa R; Nestle, Marion

    2007-07-01

    Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading chains and comparing them to sizes observed in 1998 and 2002. Although McDonald's recently phased out its largest offerings, current items are similar to 1998 sizes and greatly exceed those offered when the company opened in 1955. Burger King and Wendy's have increased portion sizes, even while health authorities are calling for portion size reductions. Fast-food portions in the United States are larger than in Europe. These observations suggest that voluntary efforts by fast-food companies to reduce portion sizes are unlikely to be effective, and that policy approaches are needed to reduce energy intake from fast food.

  14. Valuation of international oil companies - size matters

    Mohn, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    According to economic theory, exploration and the development of new oil and gas fields should respond positively to increasing prices. But since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term accounting return measures, like RoACE (Return on Average Capital Employed), for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. Consequently, the demands for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. We investigate the presumed positive relation between RoACE and stock market valuation. Based on panel data for 12 international oil and gas companies for the period 1997-2002, we seek to establish econometric relations between market valuation on one hand, and simple financial and operational indicators on the other. Our findings do not support the perceived positive relation between reported RoACE and market-based multiples. Recent evidence also suggests that the stock market is increasingly concerned about reserve replacement and sustained profitable production growth. The current high-price, low-investment equilibrium is therefore hardly stable. (Author)

  15. Does company size matter? Validation of an integrative model of safety behavior across small and large construction companies.

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2018-02-01

    Previous safety climate studies primarily focused on either large construction companies or the construction industry as a whole, while little is known about whether company size has significant effects on workers' understanding of safety climate measures and relationships between safety climate factors and safety behavior. Thus, this study aims to: (a) test the measurement equivalence (ME) of a safety climate measure across workers from small and large companies; (b) investigate if company size alters the causal structure of the integrative model developed by Guo, Yiu, and González (2016). Data were collected from 253 construction workers in New Zealand using a safety climate measure. This study used multi-group confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) to test the measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structure invariance of the integrative model. Results indicate that workers from small and large companies understood the safety climate measure in a similar manner. In addition, it was suggested that company size does not change the causal structure and mediational processes of the integrative model. Both measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structural invariance of the integrative model were supported by this study. Practical applications: Findings of this study provided strong support for a meaningful use of the safety climate measure across construction companies in different sizes. Safety behavior promotion strategies designed based on the integrative model may be well suited for both large and small companies. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define...... their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions....

  17. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  18. The Effect of Financial Leverage, Employee Stock Ownership Program and Firm Size on Firm Performance of Companies Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Nurainun Bangun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and to obtain affected empirical evidence of financial leverage, firm size and employee stock ownership program (ESOP to firm performance in manufacturing company in Indonesian Stock Exchange on 2013-2015. Independent variables in this research are Financial Leverage (DER, Firm Size and Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP. Dependent variables in this research are Return on Assets (ROA and Return On Equity (ROE. The results Showed that the simultaneous test of three independent variables Significantly afftected to the ROA and ROE. The partial tests of Financial Leverage (proxy DER and Firm Size Significantly affected to ROA and ROE. But, the results Showed that the Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP did not Affect to ROA and ROE.

  19. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  20. Mid-sized manufacturing companies the new driver of Italian competitiveness

    Resciniti, Riccardo; Tunisini, Annalisa; Varaldo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Italian industry is characterized by a predominance of small sized companies and the presence of very few large companies. For a long time a conviction was shared among scholars and practitioners that the strength and safety of Italian industry were based on its industrial districts, that is, the system of interdependent and co-localized small companies which derive their competitive force from an effective and efficient division of labour. This book stresses the idea that a new, vital and promising phenomenon for the competitiveness of Italian industry is focused on mid-sized companies, and the systems of interconnected firms that form a constituent part of their business model. These companies, which originate largely from districts and other local production systems, are a strong entrepreneurial force complementing the districts that have characterized Italy and made Italian industry famous worldwide. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of these firms is provided in this book. Business...

  1. Firm Size and Capital Structure Decisions: Evidence From Turkish Lodging Companies

    Erdinc Karadeniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to investigate the role of firm size on capital structure decisions of Turkish lodging companies. In this context, a survey questionnaire is developed and sent to unquoted Turkish lodging companies. 163 lodging companies answered the survey and they are classified according to their sizes. Empirical findings reveal that firm size is a significant factor for capital structure decisions of Turkish lodging companies. Firm size seems to affect lodging companies in using incentives, issuing common stock, using personal debt and determining target debt ratio. Most of the empirical findings seem to support pecking order theory.

  2. Impact of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement Practices: An empirical study

    Syan, C S; Ramoutar, K

    2014-01-01

    There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T and T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T and T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative impact/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T and T manufacturers are still practicing traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these practices were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T and T manufacturers

  3. Impact of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement Practices: An empirical study

    Syan, C. S.; Ramoutar, K.

    2014-07-01

    There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T&T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative impact/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T&T manufacturers are still practicing traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these practices were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T&T manufacturers.

  4. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  5. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory scientific advice in drug development: does company size make a difference?

    Putzeist, Michelle; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Gispen-De Wied, Christine C; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether the content of Scientific Advice (SA) questions addressed to a national drug regulatory agency is associated with company size. This may help to increase understanding about the knowledge, strategic, and regulatory gaps companies face during drug development. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of SA provided by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) in 2006-2008. Definition of company size was based on ranking by total revenues (Scrip's Pharmaceutical Company League Tables 2008). The content of each SA question was scored according to predefined domains (quality, nonclinical, clinical, regulatory, and product information), their subdomains (e.g., efficacy), and a selection of additional content variables (e.g., endpoints, choice of active comparator). In total, 201 SA documents including 1,087 questions could be identified. Small, medium-sized, and large companies asked for SA 110 (54.7%), 40 (19.9%), and 51 (25.4%) times, respectively. Clinical questions were asked most often (65.9%), mainly including efficacy (33.2%) and safety questions (24.0%). The most frequent topics were overall efficacy and safety strategy. Small companies asked quality and nonclinical questions more often (P companies (P = 0.004). Small companies asked significantly more clinical questions about pharmacokinetics, including bioequivalence, than medium-sized and large companies (P Company size is associated with the content of SA questions. MEB advice accommodates both innovative and noninnovative drug development.

  7. Product development practice in medium-sized food processing companies

    Harmsen, Hanne

    Market orientation has in numerous empirical NPD-studies been identified as critical for success. However, this study reveals a severe gap between the normative implications regarding market orientation and current product development practice in number of Danish food-processing companies. Through...

  8. Audit Firm Size and Market Price Per Share of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Augustine O. Okolie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence which audit firm size exerts on the market value per share of companies in Nigeria. Based on a sample of 342 companies – year observations from the NSE and applying audit firm size as a measure, comprehensive multivariate analyses were conducted on archival data covering 2006 – 2011. The result showed that audit firm size exerts significant relationship and significantly influences market price per share of the companies in the sample. It is suggested that companies in Nigeria should improve their earnings quality only through sales growth and cost control strategies and present distinct reports on earnings quality. Furthermore, company auditors should issue Integrated Audit Quality Assurance Reports based on earnings quality assessment, statutorily backed by earnings monitoring of companies in Nigeria while regulatory agencies should issue authoritative codes of best practice in Nigeria.

  9. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  10. 77 FR 55737 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    2012-09-11

    ... 3245-AG45 Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small... NAICS Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises. In addition, SBA proposes to change the...

  11. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  12. Developing effective online marketing : Case: Company X

    Vanhanen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The Internet, new online services and social media have drastically changed people`s everyday life. Digitalization has refined one`s communication ways and also developed completely new marketing possibilities. Consumers and companies spend a significant amount of time online and use it to seek various information from companies and prod-ucts. Marketers have also acknowledged the online marketing potential as an effective marketing tool to reach current and potential customers. As online mark...

  13. Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry

    Stuart, Elizabeth [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilligan, Donald [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); National Association of Energy Services Companies

    2013-06-27

    In this study, we analyze the market size, growth projections and industry trends in the U.S. ESCO industry, drawing on information from interviews with ESCO executives conducted in late 2012. We define ESCOs as energy service companies for whom performance -based contracting is a key business activity; 45 companies met our definition of an ESCO. We were able to interview 35 of these companies, which represents ~78% response rate. The non-respondent ESCOs were small companies in terms of revenue, representing about 2% of industry revenues.

  14. More Differences or More Similarities Regarding Education in Big, Middle-sized and Small Companies

    Marjana Merkač

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of education and qualifying of employees in small, middle-sized and big Slovenian companies. The research shows some differences regarding the attitude to the development of employees as a part of a company's business strategy, some obstacles for developing their abilities, and connections between job satisfaction and motivation for learning. It also shows how important it is for the subjects concerning education and qualifying if an individual works for a big, middle-sized, or small company.

  15. The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents.

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2013-09-01

    To use tobacco industry documents on cigarette pack shape, size and openings to identify industry findings on associations with brand imagery, product attributes, consumer perceptions and behaviour. Internal tobacco industry research and marketing documents obtained through court disclosure contained in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library were searched using keywords related to pack shapes, sizes and opening methods. The search identified 66 documents related to consumer research and marketing plans on pack shape, size and openings, drawn from 1973 to 2002. Industry research consistently found that packs that deviated from the traditional flip-top box projected impressions of 'modern', 'elegant' and 'unique' brand imagery. Alternative pack shape and openings were identified as an effective means to communicate product attributes, particularly with regard to premium quality and smooth taste. Consumer studies consistently found that pack shape, size and opening style influenced perceptions of reduced product harm, and were often used to communicate a 'lighter' product. Slim, rounded, oval and booklet packs were found to be particularly appealing among young adults, and several studies demonstrated increased purchase interest for tobacco products presented in novel packaging shape or opening. Evidence from consumer tracking reports and company presentations indicate that pack innovations in shape or opening method increased market share of brands. Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and increase cigarette sales. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    Young Joo Song

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  17. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    Song, Young Joo; Woo, Jong Hun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2009-12-01

    Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  18. Different ways to organize the processes of financial administration : a field study of medium-sized Finnish companies

    Nummela, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This research concentrates on exploring the ways how financial administration is currently organized in medium-sized companies in Finland. Decentralization, centralization and outsourcing are options that are available to different-sized companies. The study was executed as a field study in seven medium-sized Finnish companies that represent different branches. Furthermore, the research method was qualitative theme interview. As large companies have already established their financial service...

  19. SIZE AND FIELD OF ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON WEB SITES FUNCTIONALITY FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Tarca Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet became an important part of the company’s informational system. In order to take advantage on the Internet’s interactive nature, a lot of companies have created their own websites. Companies use the website for numerous applications: to promote themselves, online shopping, and communication with targeted clients. This study reveals the fact that the company’s size and field of activity have influence on website’s functionality and interactivity. Small companies use the website to successfully compete corporations which do not have yet necessary stimulants to fully exploit the internet capacities.

  20. Graduate Student in Engineering, Hoped by Owners of Medium-and Small-Sized Companies

    Kida, Yoshihiro

    Medium-and small-sized companies have held up Japanese technologies which situated top level in the world as far. However, for the technologies of medium-and small-sized companies to keep the top-level in the 21 centuries, researchers and engineers are demand to have high technologies. Those engineers are hoped for to have not only “knowledge”, but also “creativity, feeling and experience”. Therefore, in order to create such professional engineers, educational institute must have a function by which a practical training and education can be conducted.

  1. Size effects in electrochemistry

    Petrii, Oleg A; Tsirlina, Galina A

    2001-01-01

    General characteristics of size-dependent phenomena in electrochemical systems are given. Primary attention is paid to methodical achievements of nanoelectrochemistry, which is a line of research created over the last 15 years. The development of the main concepts of electrochemistry initiated by the stream of nanoscopic information is considered. The prospects for local studies of processes on charged interfaces, elementary steps of these processes and application of nanoelectrodes and related systems in interdisciplinary fields are discussed. The bibliography includes 198 references.

  2. Towards a Guideline for Design of a Corporate Entrepreneurship Function for Business Development in Medium-Sized Technology-Based Companies

    Uittenbogaard, Boaz; Broens, Lute; Groen, Arend J.

    2005-01-01

    The speed with which global high-technology markets evolve makes companies recognize that an effective innovation process is the best way to guarantee competitiveness. However, when (medium-sized) companies then wish to set up a corporate entrepreneurship function to enhance business development

  3. SMGE: strategic challenges and performance measurement in a small-sized company (case)

    MBA R. Vieveen; PhD B. Pesalj

    2015-01-01

    Case portrays the Superior Manufacturing Group Europe (SMGE), Barendrecht (Netherlands), a small-sized company doing business in the matting industry; facing challenges of how to sustain and improve its performance, by balancing between entrepreneurial initiative, and a need for strategic planning

  4. Does the Size of a Company Make a Difference in the Prevalence of Exposure to Asthmagens and in the Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment?

    El-Zaemey, Sonia; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Rushton, Lesley; McElvenny, Damien M; Fritschi, Lin

    2018-05-08

    About half of all workers in high-income countries work in small companies. However, regulatory bodies and researchers predominantly work with large companies because they are more convenient to study and easier to reach. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of exposure to asthmagens and the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) by company size. This analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study-Asthma, a telephone survey which investigated exposure to 27 asthmagen groups. Among 4844 respondents, 18.8, 19.9, 31.9, and 29.4% of workers reported working in micro (200 employees) companies, respectively. Compared to workers in large companies, workers in micro, small, or medium companies had higher prevalence of exposure to most asthmagens and lesser use of RPE. Our results suggest that policy actions and regulatory measures should target micro/small companies in order to have the greatest effect.

  5. Penetration of small and medium sized food companies on foreign markets

    Ladislav Mura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world the interconnection of national economies and internationalization of economic processes occur. In turbulent changing business environment only those companies that understand the current trends in global economy may survive, develop and prosper. Therefore, the issue of internationalization for most companies becomes to be more important and the process of in­ter­na­tio­na­li­za­tion is the way how to stand this increasingly competitive environment. In presented contribution, the attention is paid to issues of internationalization of Slovak food industry enterprises such as their way of business internationalization, percentage share of foreign - trading activities on overall business activity, company evaluation of business internationalization or barriers of foreign markets pe­ne­tra­tion that researched companies have to deal with. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are the engine of the Slovak economy, generator of development, innovation, growth and they employ more than 60% of employees. Almost all businesses operating in agri-food complex have character of small and medium enterprises. The results of carried research have shown that small and medium-sized companies are considered to be successful in operation on foreign markets in surrounding European countries.

  6. The Impact of Deferred Tax Assets, Discretionary Accrual, Leverage, Company Size and Tax Planning Onearnings Management Practices

    Jacobus Widiatmoko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and provide empirical evidence of the influence of deferred tax asset, discretionary accrual, leverage, company size, and tax planning on earnings management. Financial performance is an indicator that is required by company management to measure the effectiveness of company performance. This research used secondary data that was got from annual report published in www.idx.co.id and data from Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populations of the research are manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2011-2013. Samples were selected by using purposive sampling method. There are 208 observations that will examined by logistic regression analysis. The result shows that deferred tax asset has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, discretionary accrual has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, leverage has negative and significant effect to the earnings management, company size has positive and significant effect to the earnings management, tax planning has positive and not significant effect to the earnings management.Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis bukti empiris mengenai pengaruh asset pajak tangguhan, discretionary accrual, leverage, ukuran perusahaan, dan perencanaan pajak terhadap manajemen laba. Kinerja keuangan adalah indikator untuk mengukur efektivitas perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari www.idx.co.id serta data dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI tahun 2011-2013. Sampel dipilih dengan purposive sampling. Terdapat 208 observasi yang akan diuji dengan model analisis regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa asset pajak tangguhan memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap praktik manajemen laba, discretionary accrual memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap

  7. Size effects in shear interfaces

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  8. Nanotechnology, voluntary oversight, and corporate social performance: does company size matter?

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.

  9. Nanotechnology, voluntary oversight, and corporate social performance: does company size matter?

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.

  10. Do Large Companies Have Lower Effective Corporate Tax Rates? A European Survey

    Gaëtan Nicodème

    2007-01-01

    The current debate in corporate taxation is focusing on leveling the tax playing field within the European Union for companies operating across-countries. However, tax burdens could also vary with the size of companies within the same country, raising the question whether large companies pay their share of the burden. This paper uses firm-level data for 21 European countries between 1992 and 2004. The paper finds a robust negative correlation between the number of employees and the effective ...

  11. Exploring the Usage of CSR in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    Perälä, Veera; Saukkonen, Anna-Reetta

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how small and medium sized companies understood the concept of corporate social responsibility and how they incorporated it in their business strategies. The topical nature of this subject made it interesting and worth researching. In addition to discovering ideas about CSR, the study also focused on marketing communications and the competitive advantage that CSR provides. The methodological approach used in the study was that of qualitative resea...

  12. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    Lin, Han-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  13. EFFECTING FACTORS DELIVERED FINANCIAL REPORTING TIME LINES AT MANUFACTURING COMPANY GROUPS LISTED IDX

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to learn the effect among ROA, Leverage, Company Size, and Outsider Ownership with time lines, either partially or simultaneously. Secondary data were collected by purposive sampling of manufacturing company groups listed on IDX and the preceding scientific research journals, using logistic regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously. The results of this research describe that ROA and Leverage do not significant effect to time lines, but company size and outsider ownership have significant effect to time lines. It is recommended that the topic of this research can be continued with merchandising company groups, or service company groups either general or special, like: hotels, insurances, bankings; or, with new independence variables added. 

  14. Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Company Performance

    Petr Suchánek; Maria Králová

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this article is customer satisfaction and its impact on company performance through satisfaction with its products, including a comparison with the competition. Research was conducted in search of factors which affect customer satisfaction on the one hand and the performance of the company on the other hand. We constructed a model explaining what specific factors (affecting customer satisfaction) have an impact on the performance of a company. This model can help management to ...

  15. Effective Business Planning : Case Study: Company X

    Yakovleva, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    A business planning process plays one of the most important roles in a company. A business plan can either provide stablility and prosperity to a company or drastically worsen its state. Thus, the recommendations for efficient business plans are very useful for companies that have some difficulties with their perfomance. The thesis has a deductive approach, and the qualitative research method was chosen as primary data was collected through desk study and interviews. The secondary data wa...

  16. MACROECONOMIC CLIMATE AND THE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Andrei Rădulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium size companies (SMEs represent the engine of the economy in the member states of the European Union. In Romania, SMEs entered the post-crisis cycle in 2013 after a severe adjustment process under the impact of the Great Recession. The economic performance of SMEs is strongly influenced by the macroeconomic climate. The important role of SMEs in the economy has determined the Romanian government to implement several measures in order to support their activity. The present paper highlights the mid-term macroeconomic outlook for Romania, as well as the recent developments related to SMEs, along with the main measures implemented by the Government over the past years in order to support the development of these companies.

  17. Challenges in Improving Customer Focus in Small-Sized House-building Companies in Brazil

    Carlos T. Formoso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important changes in the business environment in several countries are forcing house-building companies to change their competitive strategies. This paper discusses a set of customer servicing practices, which have been adopted by small-sized house-building companies in Brazil that have been involved in quality management improvement programs, emphasizing customer satisfaction measurement. Such practices are referred to a model of the customer servicing process that integrates the main customer-interaction functions from product inception to building operation. Based on multiple case studies and also on a literature review, the main difficulties faced by this sector in terms of improving customer satisfaction are discussed and some improvement opportunities are pointed out.

  18. International company restructuring and the effects on high-skilled employees in lead companies

    Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    insulated from international restructuring processes. However, effects on wage and working conditions vary dependent on the motivation for restructuring, and as companies learn to take advantage of pools of skilled employees abroad. Continued international restructuring appear to challenge the insulation......International company restructuring involving knowledge intensive jobs causes increasing concern about the effect on the globalization of high-skilled employees. Drawing on case studies in four Danish-based companies, this article argues that high-skilled employees in lead companies are rarely...... of high-skilled workers over time. Further, the article shows that knowledge intensive Companies increasingly apply relational global value chain governance with multidirectional consequences for wage and working conditions among the high-skilled employees....

  19. The OHS management system in the "small-sized" production company

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem with systemic management of safety in the smallest production entities has been shown. The effect of health and safety management system and the benefits resulting from it for the most numerous economic entities in Poland - microenterprises have been discussed. Moreover, the results of questionnaire examination conducted in several Polish production companies have been presented. Surveys were completed in companies in which the number of employees does not exceed 49 people (micro enterprise - from 1 to 9 employees and small enterprises - from 10 to 49 employees.

  20. Corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of their company's safety performance, programs and personnel: Do company size and industry injury risk matter?

    DeArmond, Sarah; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chen, Peter Y; Courtney, Theodore K

    2010-01-01

    Top-level managers make important decisions about safety-related issues, yet little research has been done involving these individuals. The current study explored corporate financial decisions makers' perceptions of their company's safety and their justifications for these perceptions. This study also explored whether their perceptions and justifications varied as a function of company size or industry injury risk. A total of 404 individuals who were the most senior managers responsible for making decisions about property and casualty risk at their companies participated in this study. The participants took part in a telephone survey. The results suggest that corporate financial decision makers have positive views of safety at their companies relative to safety at other companies within their industries. Further, many believe their company's safety is influenced by the attention/emphasis placed on safety and the selection and training of safety personnel. Participants' perceptions varied somewhat based on the size of their company and the level of injury risk in their industry. While definitive conclusions about corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of safety cannot be reached as a result of this single study, this work does lay groundwork for future research aimed at better understanding the perceptions top-level managers.

  1. Corporate values as related to occupation, gender, age, and company size.

    Thumin, F J; Johnson, J H; Kuehl, C; Jiang, W Y

    1995-07-01

    A mail survey was used to study the perceived importance of 15 corporate values among advertising personnel, CPAs, and business school professors. Excellent customer service, ethical behavior, and product quality were perceived as highly important by all groups. Political activity and contribution to the community were seen as relatively unimportant. There was general agreement that it was more important to make a fair profit than to maximize profits. A number of corporate values were significantly related to occupational group, gender, age, and company size.

  2. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Dario Miočević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  3. Rasio Utang Memediasi Pengaruh Kemampulabaan Dan Ukuran Aktiva Terhadap Kebijakan Dividen: Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia [Debt Ratio to Mediate Effect of Profitability and Asset Size on Dividend Policy: An Empirical Study on Oil Palm Plantation Companies Listed with the Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Rudolf Lumbantobing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the influence of the debt policy, profitability, and size of asset toward company's dividend policy on oil palm plantation companies listed with the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2011-2015. The secondary data used in this research were obtained directly from the company website and the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. The data collection was conducted by direct observation upon the research object. The data were analyzed using path analysis and logistical regression model. The result showed that profitability has a significant and negative effect on the debt ratio. Size of asset does not have a significant and positive effect on the debt ratio. Profitability and size of assets have significant and positive effects on dividend policy, which proves that the larger profitability and the size of assets, the greater the probabilty of paying dividends. Debt ratio does not have a significant and positive effect on dividend policy. Debt ratio has a significant positively partial mediating effect toward the influence of profitability on dividend policy. Otherwise, debt ratio does not have a significant negatively mediating effect toward the positive effect of size of asset on dividend policy.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi engaruh kebijakan utang, kemampulabaan dan ukuran aktiva terhadap kebijakan dividen perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia periode tahun 2011-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder yang diperoleh secara langsung dari website perusahaan dan Bursa Efek Indonesia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi tidak langsung terhadap objek penelitian yaitu perusahaan kelapa sawit. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan path analysis dan model regresi logistik. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bukti bahwa kemampulabaan signifikan berpengaruh negatif terhadap rasio utang. Ukuran aktiva tidak signifikan berpengaruh positif terhadap rasio

  4. Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Company Performance

    Petr Suchánek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is customer satisfaction and its impact on company performance through satisfaction with its products, including a comparison with the competition. Research was conducted in search of factors which affect customer satisfaction on the one hand and the performance of the company on the other hand. We constructed a model explaining what specific factors (affecting customer satisfaction have an impact on the performance of a company. This model can help management to better run the business and achieve higher performance. The article is based on research that focused on companies in the food industry in Czech Republic and on their customers. First, we found the financial performance of surveyed companies (based on indicators ROA, ROE and assets turnover and on this basis they have been divided on companies efficient and inefficient. Furthermore factors were identified (based on previous research of authors that have an impact on customer satisfaction (among these factors include product quality, customer requirements for product, comparison with competitive products, etc.. With the use of non-parametric statistical methods, logistic regression and discriminant analysis was analyzed, what factors affecting customer satisfaction also affect business performance.

  5. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  6. Size effects on cavitation instabilities

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2006-01-01

    growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....

  7. EFFECTS OF RAISING CAPITAL ON FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF THE COMPANY

    Gheorghe NEGOESCU

    2014-01-01

    The financial consequences of growth capital are different depending of accomplishing technical. In these circumstances the General Meeting of Shareholders decide to increase capital. The decision depends on the effect of increasing the potential financial capital, financial stability and financial structure of the company. Next, I will present the financial consequences of growth capital to a company profile in the petrochemical industry.

  8. A Primer on Basic Effect Size Concepts.

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Rotou, Ourania

    The increased interest in reporting effect sizes means that it is necessary to consider what should be included in a primer on effect sizes. A review of papers on effect sizes and commonly repeated statistical analyses suggests that it is important to discuss effect sizes relative to bivariate correlation, t-tests, analysis of variance/covariance,…

  9. 78 FR 37409 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    2013-06-20

    ... and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration..., Finance and Insurance, and for two industries in NAICS Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises..., Finance and Insurance, and in NAICS code Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises, to determine...

  10. Hit size effectiveness in relation to the microdosimetric site size

    Varma, M.N.; Wuu, C.S.; Zaider, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of site size (that is, the diameter of the microdosimetric volume) on the hit size effectiveness function (HSEF), q(y), for several endpoints relevant in radiation protection. A Bayesian and maximum entropy approach is used to solve the integral equations that determine, given microdosimetric spectra and measured initial slopes, the function q(y). All microdosimetric spectra have been calculated de novo. The somewhat surprising conclusion of this analysis is that site size plays only a minor role in selecting the hit size effectiveness function q(y). It thus appears that practical means (e.g. conventional proportional counters) are already at hand to actually implement the HSEF as a radiation protection tool. (Author)

  11. Association of occupation, employment contract, and company size with mental health in a national representative sample of employees in Japan.

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Sakurai, Keiko; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of employment contract, company size, and occupation with psychological distress using a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. From June through July 2007, a total of 9,461 male and 7,717 female employees living in the community were randomly selected and surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire and interview including questions about occupational class variables, psychological distress (K6 scale), treatment for mental disorders, and other covariates. Among males, part-time workers had a significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than permanent workers. Among females, temporary/contract workers had a significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than permanent workers. Among males, those who worked at companies with 300-999 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than those who worked at the smallest companies (with 1-29 employees). Company size was not significantly associated with psychological distress among females. Additionally, occupation was not significantly associated with psychological distress among males or females. Similar patterns were observed when the analyses were conducted for those who had psychological distress and/or received treatment for mental disorders. Working as part-time workers, for males, and as temporary/contract workers, for females, may be associated with poor mental health in Japan. No clear gradient in mental health along company size or occupation was observed in Japan.

  12. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  13. EFFECTS OF RAISING CAPITAL ON FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF THE COMPANY

    Gheorghe NEGOESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial consequences of growth capital are different depending of accomplishing technical. In these circumstances the General Meeting of Shareholders decide to increase capital. The decision depends on the effect of increasing the potential financial capital, financial stability and financial structure of the company. Next, I will present the financial consequences of growth capital to a company profile in the petrochemical industry.

  14. Film and television production in the Netherlands - a comparison between three medium-sized companies.

    Sanders, Willemien; Puijk, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the different ways in which production companies established in similar ways can develop over time. It takes three Dutch private film- and television companies as cases. The research forms part of the Dutch component of a European partnership project, Success in the Film and

  15. The Influence of Company Size on Accounting Information: Evidence in Large Caps and Small Caps Companies Listed on BM&FBovespa

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relation between accounting information aspects and the capitalization level o companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange was investigated, classified as Large Caps or Small Caps, companies with larger and smaller capitalization, respectively, between 2010 and 2012. Three accounting information measures were addressed: informativeness, conservatism and relevance, through the application of Easton and Harris’ (1991 models of earnings informativeness, Basu’s (1997 model of conditional conservatism and the value relevance model, based on Ohlson (1995. The results appointed that, although the Large Caps present a higher level of conservatism, their accounting figures were less informative and more relevant when compared to the Large Caps companies. Due to the greater production of private information (predisclosure surrounding larger companies, the market would tend to respond less strongly or surprised to the publication of these companies’ accounting information, while the lack of anticipated information would make the effect of disclosing these figures more preponderant for the Small Caps companies.

  16. Size Effects on the Strength of Metals

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    The grain size effect and the specimen size effect on the strength of metals are briefly reviewed with respect to their history and current status of research. It is revealed that the fundamental strengthening mechanisms responsible for these two types of size effect are to increase the resistanc...

  17. Effect Sizes in Gifted Education Research

    Gentry, Marcia; Peters, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent calls for reporting and interpreting effect sizes have been numerous, with the 5th edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (2001) calling for the inclusion of effect sizes to interpret quantitative findings. Many top journals have required that effect sizes accompany claims of statistical significance.…

  18. Modelling of Size Effect with Regularised Continua

    H. Askes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlocal damage continuum and a viscoplastic damage continuum are used to model size effects. Three-point bending specimens are analysed, whereby a distinction is made between unnotched specimens, specimens with a constant notch and specimens with a proportionally scaled notch. Numerical finite element simulations have been performed for specimen sizes in a range of 1:64. Size effects are established in terms of nominal strength and compared to existing size effect models from the literature. 

  19. Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components

    Vollertsen, F; Biermann, D; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim...... of this paper is to give a systematic review on Such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting...... processes. (C) 2009 CIRP....

  20. Inter-Relationship between Profitability, Growth and Size: A Case of Non-Financial Companies from Pakistan

    Rehana Kouser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth description of the inter-relationship between firm size, growth, and profitability of non-financial companies listed at Karachi stock exchange. The study is based on the sample of 70 (seventy non-financial companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange of Pakistan, selected on the basis of their market capitalization. Panel data techniques were employed using 700 observations of each of the variables of study; size(log natural of total assets, growth (sustainable growth rate for firm and profitability (return on assets. Observations are collected for ten years (2001-2010. The study concluded thatthere is study reveals that all the profitability has strong positive relationship with the growth of the firm; however size has less significant and negative impact on the profitability. Onesuggestion for further research would be to replicate the study in order to get more cases. Furthermore, it would be valuable to take a more long-term focus to examine the described relationships in the long run. The paper highlights the importance of these measures which are generally used for performance evaluation. Paper sets out the criteria that under which situations the company should focus which of the measure, so that company may derive its strategies on that way. This paper improves our preferences about the three major measures of the firm. Moreover, it contributes to the literature of financial management that how these three measures have trade-off between them.

  1. The effects of competencies on the company value

    Kamila Růžičková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Competent management of a company is an important generator of a company value. The aim of the article is to provide detailed academic discussion of the human capital potential and its effects on the value of the company. Attention is paid especially to the definition of the human resources in this context and possible measurability, assuming what can be measured, can be increased. Although the company value can be measured by financial analyses tools, we have in the article moved on to the empirical dimension and provide a theoretical framework of the represented issue. Firstly, we stressed the importance of knowledge in the society of today, secondly, we outlined the indispensability of the intellectual capital for the companies and after that we dealt with the human capital itself, both competences and competencies and their measurability. Based on the partial results, the fi­gure describing the creation of company value was formed; we identified important variables and one of the triggers of these variables. All findings are supported with the literature review e. g. Andreissen (2004, Boddy (2008, Kubeš, et al. (2004, Marinič (2008, Stewart (1998 and Sullivan (2000.

  2. Penetration of small and medium sized food companies on foreign markets

    Ladislav Mura; Veronika Gašparíková

    2010-01-01

    In the world the interconnection of national economies and internationalization of economic processes occur. In turbulent changing business environment only those companies that understand the current trends in global economy may survive, develop and prosper. Therefore, the issue of internationalization for most companies becomes to be more important and the process of in­ter­na­tio­na­li­za­tion is the way how to stand this increasingly competitive environment. In presented contribution, the...

  3. IMPACTS OF OWN BRANDS STRATEGY ON MANUFACTURER – RETAILER RELATIONSHIP: CASE STUDIES IN LARGE SIZE COMPANIES

    Renato Telles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marketing and production strategy of own brand products requires an understanding of both the benefits gained by retailers and manufacturers involved in this activity and also the effects of this strategy on the relationship between these companies. According to this idea, a qualitative and descriptive work was conducted, based on six case studies, three of them on large product manufacturers and three on large retailers. The aim of this study is defined is threefold: (1 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ current operations, (2 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ future operations, and (3 to analyze the influence of the own brands adoption on the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. The results indicate that (a current operations are primarily based on economic reasons (market share, and use of spare capacity, (b future operations are perceived from a marketing perspective (survival, and (c the adoption of own brand strategy does not harm the relationship between the parties – both manufacturers and retailers –, unlike the earlier studies indicated.

  4. On size effects in fracture

    Sinclair, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the dependence of fracture stress on size. This conclusion is based on classical energy arguments. For an in-plane scaled specimen pair, the larger the specimen the smaller the fracture stress. In contrast the same theory gives a different dependence for out-of-plane specimen and the dependence involves plane stress, strain, fracture stresses and Poisson's ratio. The objective of this paper is to examine how well these predictions are actually complied with

  5. COMPANY SIZE, TRADING ACTIVITY AND LIQUIDITY AS A DETERMINANTS OF CROSS-SECTIONAL MOMENTUM TRADING STRATEGY ON RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET

    Teplova T. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Momentum-effect has many interpretations in the practice of investing and in understanding of anomalies in asset prices. We consider a Cross-Sectional momentum effects and the corresponding two medium-term (3 months or more trading strategies that are different from the trend following rules for individual assets. We tested four hypothesis deals with cross-sectional momentum effect on the Russian stock market and the possibility of building a self-financing (long-short trading strategy at three time horizon (stock market growth from 2004 until mid 2008, financial crisis and post-crisis periods. It is shown that for the Russian market cross-sectional momentum strategy with partly rebalanced portfolio maximizing portfolio return (134 stocks listed from 2004 to 2014 in the few Russian stock exchanges should be based on the three-month formation period and three-month holding period periods (3/1/3. We have identified elements of profit-maximizing momentum strategy: three time windows and determinants of assets. Monthly average return of arbitrage strategy is estimated at 1.5 % for 134 common shares. Implementation of the strategy for the post-crisis period does not allow to maximize profit. For 6-month and more investment windows it gets the advantage of reverse strategy (opening long positions in stocks with low investment results and short position for assets with high relative returns. Fundamental parameters of the issuer (size of companies like market capitalization and two measures of liquidity (trading activity and transaction costs like bid-ask spread are significant to maximize portfolio performance (we prove the growth of monthly average return ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 %. We find that size and liquidity control momentum strategy can earn positive profits in Russian stock market, larger than naïve momentum.

  6. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  7. Key factors of project success in family small and medium-sized companies: the theoretical review

    Sinisa Arsic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a systematization of the key success factors of projects, through the theoretical review of family-owned companies operating in the EU market. It is the small and medium companies that in their own way contribute to the overall success of the national economy in terms of economic activity, increased employment, development activities and defining better business environment. The theoretical review observed numerous studies of family businesses, and the contribution of this work is in the systematization of the results of previous research – over three horizons, i.e., over the role of managers in the creation of successful projects (or owner if it is a family enterprise, institutional support for companies in Serbia and the EU, specific industries and the parent (regional markets where a family company operates. Project management, as a general representation of the concept of implementation of strategic and operational endeavors, contains many specifics in terms of critical success factors of projects depending on the environment in which they are implemented. The goal of the paper is reflected in the identification and presentation of critical success factors of projects implemented in family companies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the research results in relation to the existing, similar research studies, as well as with the announcement of future research, which will examine the conclusions drawn on a real sample.

  8. Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies

    Bajenaru, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

  9. Modern methods of evaluation existing suppliers and suppliers selected by customer for small and medium-sized companies

    Marie Jurová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On existing conditions on global market (almost identical quality, almost identical purchasing values companies have to definite the total rating of importance of evaluative criteria. In post-crisis period the problem of suppliers’ evaluation is one of the biggest, because companies had to use all resources and all possibilities to develop their own business. Many authors wrote about collaborative planning and warehousing as one of possibilities to optimization work inside supply chain. For this paper define small and medium-sized enterprises (SME as enterprises with the size of maximum 250 em­ployers. In literature was read we couldn’t find information about own system of suppliers evaluation for small and medium-sized enterprises. SME can have some different types of business and in this case need the universal system of eva­lua­tion. The research of this paper is oriented on small and medium-sized enterprises with different types of business. The new theoretical universal method of calculation for evaluation existing suppliers for small and medium-sized enterprises will present in this paper. This theoretical method is based on average values. This method includes traditional evaluative criteria (quality, delivery time and other (mobility of supplier, possibilities of new level of partnership. This method of evaluation can not be used for continual manufacture. New method can improve the total evaluation of supplier in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  10. Financial Reporting on the Internet. An Examination Across Industries and Company Size

    Holm, Claus

    In the later years an increasing number of listed companies have engaged in distributing voluntary financial information through the Internet. The corporate websites provide shareholders, professional analysts, journalists and other interested parties an access to financial information relating...... confirms that investors and other Internet-surfers have access to more than half the listed companies through the Internet, i.e. 55,8%. As noted in previous studies, belonging to the group of most traded companies usually sets a standard for reporting. However, the reporting behavior among the less traded...... undue advantages for individual investors. The opportunity for giving access to continuous updated information is available and often a highly promoted feature of the Internet-technology. However, in light of existing accounting regulations, the existing reporting behavior through the Internet seems...

  11. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  12. Prevention of the Portion Size Effect

    I. Versluis (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn increase in the portion size leads to an increase in energy intake, a phenomenon which is also referred to as the portion size effect. The increase in portion sizes in recent years is regarded as an important contributor to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Hence, the aim

  13. The effects of vertical integration on oil company performance

    Barrera-Rey, Fernando.

    1995-10-01

    When asked to rank industries by their degree of vertical integration, most people would agree that the oil industry should come top of the list. Underlying this belief is the fact that integration and size tend to be closely associated. As the oil industry is so large and oil companies so visible and perceived as so profitable, the common belief is a correlation between vertical integration, size and performance. If a dynamic view is taken of this cross-sectional observation we would expect to find an oil industry populated only by fully integrated very large companies. Although the public and the government agencies may have a view of the large advantages of integration, the surprising fact is that many empirical studies do not focus on its costs. The observation of dispersion and stability of integration would suggest, as theoretical studies do, that a cost-benefit analysis of integration is needed. This study uses that driving hypothesis and tests for the costs and benefits of integration. The cost-benefit analysis would suggest that each company pursues integration up to the point where its benefits are outweighed by its costs. The results in this paper confirm just that: vertical integration reduces the level of efficiency of companies while it also reduces its variability. In other words, there are diseconomies of diversification but the market also incorporates inefficient volatility. However, the results are not impervious to change, there are periods when the inefficiency associated with integration is smaller as is also the risk-reducing ability of the strategy. This may help to explain the reasons why different degrees of integration may be optimal. (author)

  14. A Planning Guide for Small and Medium Size Wood Products Companies

    Jeff Howe; Stephen Bratkovich

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, North American wood products companies are facing competitive pressure from numerous sources. Traditional products are being manufactured in new regions (e.g., China and the developing nations), and substitute products are being developed by competing industries (e.g., plastics and composites). The bottom line is strained by...

  15. Size effects in thin films

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  16. Analysis of the Effect of Employee Costs on Company Performance

    Željko Požega

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of every economic entity is to accomplish an optimal system of compensation management and to reach maximum returns through optimal employee investment, raising their motivation and knowledge as well as developing their abilities and skills. In order to reach this goal of maximizing company performance it is necessary to systematically approach the management of human resources within a certain economic entity and to create the fairest material and non-material reward and punishment system by using compensation management methods. This in turn will bring about a positive working atmosphere in the company, where employees will rapidly and easily adjust to changes, interact and co-operate with one another at a high level. This research, which studies the effect of employee costs on company performance, is divided into three chapters. The first chapter provides a brief theoretical overview of the importance of compensation management in human resources administration and reaching business efficiency, i.e. the different possibilities of creating a reward and punishment system in a company which aims to organise an optimal working atmosphere. The second chapter demonstrates the applied methodology and illustrates the information from different companies, which has been used in this research and analysis. The information comprises statistical data of employee costs, income, profits and losses from a sample of companies from the Republic of Croatia in 2008. The third part deals with the analysis and interpretation of the research results which show the effect of employee costs on the income and company performance, also expressed per employee. The goal of this research is to test the hypothesis that companies with higher employee cost, i.e. with higher investment in human resources, on average obtain a higher income and a higher profit per employee and are more efficient and more successful on the market. From the given hypothesis, one can

  17. Organizing company specialists for rapid and effective response

    Jardim, G.M.; McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The staff needed for the support of cleanup operations can be large even for moderately sized spills. Marshallng sufficient and qualified people to respond on short notice at locations throughout the world can tax even the largest corporations. This paper describes how Chevron has prepared for this important aspect of spill response. Basically, Chevron has formed 13 separate teams covering specially areas such as safety, finance, public relations, and legal. Each team is organized and managed by people who regularly work within that function. Members of each team are regular employees of the various Chevron companies throughout the world. The incident command system and coordinated plans are the common threads which allow these groups to work together effectively. Drills and self-audits are used to keep the plans current and team members prepared. The organization and activities of the Safety, Fire and Health (SF ampersand H) Functional Team is described in detail as an illustrated example of the functional team approach. This team consists of about 50 professionals in related fields. To facilitate rapid mobilization worldwide, each member has been medically qualified and has a current passport and selected evaluations. The team plan outlines the responsibilities of each professional group, the call-out procedure and telephone lists, and information on pre-identified SF ampersand H contractors that can be called upon if additional resources are needed. The plan is flexible so that it can be used by one or two people to handle alI SF ampersand H functions at a small spill or by many persons within each specialty for larger incidents

  18. Effects of distances and company resources for enterprise export performance

    Givanildo Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of distance on the export performance of companies in Santa Catarina, and to what extent this effect is moderated by organizational resource characteristics. Multiple linear regression and variance analysis were used for a perception survey of export managers with a final sample of 49 exporting producers. The constructs showed internal validity and allowed the data to be analyzed. The results only revealed evidence regarding the effect of psychic distance, showing a positive relationship with export performance. Also, the model estimation showed that the organization's resources moderate the relation between distance and export performance. Finally the study also shows that the export team and the organizational structure moderate the effect of distance on the performance and future performance expectations of the companies.

  19. Management of environmental aspects as well as impacts in a company of tubes, sized tubes and conicals

    Marco Aurélio Batista de Sousa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the application of the Management Method of Environment Impacts and Aspects - MMEIA( GAIA - in a industrial company of medium size. The research is charactarized as exploratory, with a qualitative approach as well as quantitative that is done by a case in a industry that makes tubes, small tubes and conicals paper and sized paper. The data were colected by visits to industry, with the verification of its produtive process, research and documents analysis, interviews non structured with the managers and workers of the company as well as a questionnaire application referent to MMEIA (GAIA method aspects. The results of this mthod application are satisfactory about the observed aspects, although the company presents some questions that still can be improved in its produtice process. One can conclude the at the end of this study the organization started the people sensibilization as well as to the processes improvement, searching ways of developing its activiteies focalized on the environmental development and on the sustentability.

  20. The Effect of Ownership Structure, Profitability, Leverage, and Firm Size on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR

    Fifi Swandari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, indicator used was the index of CSR disclosure with 64 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period of 2012 as the samples. This research used multiple regression analysis. The results show that institutional ownership, managerial and foreign has no effect on CSR. This indicates that the ownership structure could not improve CSR in the company. On the contrary, profitability has an influence on CSR. It indicates that companies with high profits have the fund flexibility to implement CSR programs that have been set. Moreover, corporate debt levels also affect the CSR with the negative direction. This means that companies with high debt levels will usually focus more on managing faced business risks rather than on CSR program. Last, company size has no effect on the company CSR.

  1. EFFECTS OF EFFECTS OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ...

    eobe

    The parameters examined were: moisture content, particle size distribution, total isture content, particle size distribution, total hydrocarbon content, soil pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count. The analysis of the soil characteristics throughout the remediation period showed ...

  2. Structural effect of size on interracial friendship.

    Cheng, Siwei; Xie, Yu

    2013-04-30

    Social contexts exert structural effects on individuals' social relationships, including interracial friendships. In this study, we posit that, net of group composition, total context size has a distinct effect on interracial friendship. Under the assumptions of (i) maximization of preference in choosing a friend, (ii) multidimensionality of preference, and (iii) preference for same-race friends, we conducted analyses using microsimulation that yielded three main findings. First, increased context size decreases the likelihood of forming an interracial friendship. Second, the size effect increases with the number of preference dimensions. Third, the size effect is diluted by noise, i.e., the random component affecting friendship formation. Analysis of actual friendship data among 4,745 American high school students yielded results consistent with the main conclusion that increased context size promotes racial segregation and discourages interracial friendship.

  3. MANAGING ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING IN TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

    Oksana Bulkot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The purpose of the study is a generalization of international experience with regard to marketing efficiency control and development of qualitative and quantitative methods to be implemented in the estimation of marketing activity of TNCs. Methodology. The survey is based on research, conducted for 60 companies in the spring of 2015 (32% of which were Ukrainian and 68% – offices and affiliates of international companies, namely Bayer, Coca-Cola, Pepsi Co, Mondelez, Mars, Mintel, Cargill, and many others. The practical results of monitoring the effectiveness of annual plans of named companies done by authors through implementing original author’ methodology based on presenting key performance indicators (KPI. Results. The theoretical approaches to the estimation of marketing efficiency are analysed. The conditions, under which the organization is working by analysing external environment and internal company’s potential, are determined. It is substantiated by the authors that direct development of marketing plans should be based on marketing objectives, developed as a result of the situational analysis. It is proved that monitoring the effectiveness of annual plans may be done by implementing key performance indicators that enable to develop quantitative evaluation system of the organization’s strategy, based on control of its goals. The results of the research allowed authors to distinguish two major groups of effectiveness indicators for TNCs, which are financial and marketing indicators. In this standpoint, financial indicators are divided into costs’, productivity and profitability indicators and to the marketing effectiveness indicators belong market indexes, competitiveness indexes, and client’s indicators. Practical implications. The proposed methodology can be implemented for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of marketing effectiveness not only in TNCs but in small and medium business companies as well

  4. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures.

  5. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  6. Effective management of construction company in terms of linguistic communication

    Shirina, Elena; Gaybarian, Olga; Myasischev, Georg

    2017-10-01

    The research presented here has been made over the years in the field of increasing the effectiveness of management in a construction company in terms of applied linguistics. The aim of this work is to share with the scientific community some practical findings of applying the technology of process management of the company, in particular the methods of linguistic efficiency considering the factors of the linguistic personality of the employee. The study deals with the description of applied linguistic and managerial models, views, practical results of their application in the applied field in order to assess production sustainability and minimize losses. The authors applied the developed technology to practical use, and the article presents the results of this application. The authors continue the research in this direction aiming at improving the production effectiveness of the proposed technologies and eliminating some identified drawback.

  7. Nanocoatings size effect in nanostructured films

    Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Size effect in structures has been taken into consideration over the last years. In comparison with coatings with micrometer-ranged thickness, nanostructured coatings usually enjoy better and appropriate properties, such as strength and resistance. These coatings enjoy unique magnetic properties and are used with the aim of producing surfaces resistant against erosion, lubricant system, cutting tools, manufacturing hardened sporadic alloys, being resistant against oxidation and corrosion. This book reviews researches on fabrication and classification of nanostructured coatings with focus on size effect in nanometric scale. Size effect on electrochemical, mechanical and physical properties of nanocoatings are presented.

  8. The Size and Composition of Corporate Headquarters in Multinational Companies: Empirical Evidence

    Collis, David J.; Young, David; Goold, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Based on a six-country survey of nearly 250 multinationals (MNCs), this paper is the first empirical analysis to describe the size and composition of MNC headquarters and to account for differences among them. Findings are as follows: MNC corporate headquarters are more involved in "obligatory" and value creating and control functions than in operational activities; there are no systematic differences in the determinants of the size and composition of corporate headquarters between MNCs and p...

  9. Effect of display size on visual attention.

    Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

    2011-06-01

    Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size.

  10. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D y is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10 10 particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 μm horizontally and 0.55 μm vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H D of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit

  11. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  12. Strategic use of the Internet by small- and medium-sized companies : an exploratory study

    Sadowski, B.M.; Maitland, C.; Dongen, van J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper investigates the extent to which the adoption of Internet software and services in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been strategic, i.e. based upon the exploitation of the network characteristics of the new technology. Within SMEs, it seems that opportunistic motivations

  13. FIRM SIZE EFFECTS ON TRANSACTION COSTS

    NOOTEBOOM, B

    1993-01-01

    Associated with effects of scale, scope, experience and learning there are effects of firm size on transaction costs; in the stages of contact, contract and control. These effects are due to ''threshold costs'' in setting up contacts, contracts and governance schemes, and to differences with respect

  14. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2009-01-01

    . Design: A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite. the canteen managers specified the Menus available Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three...... Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29% Results Only 12% of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories in particular, worksites with more than 75% female employees served healthy menus on a. frequent basis The size...... of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options Furthermore, the present study suggest.,, I positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options Conclusions Among the selected variables Studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate...

  15. An Approach for Measurement of Company Business Effectiveness

    Nenkova, B.; Manchev, B.; Tomov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Process improvement is that part of process improvement, which drives beneficial change in process performance. Improvement in results can be accomplished in many ways. One way is by improving the ways by which the results are being measured. Results can often be improved by running the process with the planned resources and executing the tasks as planned. Failures are more often the result of people not running the process as planned - they take short cuts, make mistakes, and don't take action when necessary. From organizational perspective, Performance Indicators can offer powerful insights into the status of the Company activity and processes functioning. They enable consistent tracking of objectives and strategic alignment, definition of success and critical success factors, as well as visibility into launch plans, performance, and overall quality and timeliness. Successful performance measurement system adheres to the following main principles: Measure only what is important; Focus on customer needs; Involve employees in the design and implementation of the measurement system. Performance measurement is defined as a process of evaluation of company activities performance relative to a defined goal. The basic concept of performance measurement involves: Planning and meeting operating goals; Detecting deviations from planned levels of performance and restoring performance to the planned levels, or Achieving new levels of performance. Performance measurements are very important, because they can be used for: Control - Measurements help to reduce variation; Self-assessment - Measurements can be used to assess how well the process is doing, including improvements that have been made; Continuous improvement - Measurements can be used for identification of the process trends and to determine process efficiency and effectiveness, as well as opportunities for improvement; Management assessment - without measurements there is no way to be certain that the company

  16. An empirical study on the critical success factors of small to medium sized projects in a South African mining company

    Du Randt, Francois Jean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Projects that fail, for whatever reason, can impact negatively on society, organisations, and other stakeholders. A number of researchers have identified various critical success factors (CSFs that can influence the outcome and success of a project. This research therefore aims to determine the CSFs that influence various success measures of small- to medium-sized projects at a South African mining company, Exxaro Resources’ Grootegeluk Coal Mine. Other objectives of this research include determining the extent of the impacts of these CSFs on the different success measures of a project. The investigation suggests that there are correlations among CSFs, and that certain factors impact the outcome of projects far more than others. This research finds that the single most important CSF for small- to medium-sized projects is the selection of a competent project manager. The competent project manager is characterised by a group of interrelated CSF factors: good leadership, commitment, and learning from past experiences. Based on the research results, other CSFs are discussed and explored in order for recommendations to be made on how this mining company, and possibly other organisations, can achieve greater project success.

  17. Measuring wage effects of plant size

    Albæk, Karsten; Arai, Mahmood; Asplund, Rita

    1998-01-01

    There are large plant size–wage effects in the Nordic countries after taking into account individual and job characteristics as well as systematical sorting of the workers into various plant-sizes. The plant size–wage elasticities we obtain are, in contrast to other dimensions of the wage distrib......–wage elasticity. Our results indicate that using size–class midpoints yields essentially the same results as using exact measures of plant size...

  18. Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing

    Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project

  20. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  1. Teaching company law to business students::an effective framework

    Madhloom, Omar; Butler, Nicolette

    2015-01-01

    Business students learning company law face a number of unique challenges. Therefore, instructors who teach company law to business students must carefully consider how their courses will meet these unique needs. This article will reflect on the challenges faced by business students studying company law before going on to consider how these challenges can be overcome. This work emphasises the importance of focusing on the learning outcomes of business students undertaking company law and the ...

  2. Company size, work-home interference, and well-being of self-employed entrepreneurs.

    Godin, Isabelle; Desmarez, Pierre; Mahieu, Céline

    2017-01-01

    The impact of working conditions on the health and well-being of workers of large enterprises has been widely described. This influence has not been studied as extensively in very small and medium-sized enterprises mainly due to methodological difficulties. Smaller organisations nevertheless constitute a reality that needs to be better understood. The aim of this article is to better understand the working conditions of entrepreneurs in small and medium-sized enterprises, to describe the impact of these conditions on their health and well-being, and to learn how their work affects their private lives.This is why a study was conducted in 2015-2016 on a selected sample of entrepreneurs in the Brussels-Capital Region ( n  = 140). The survey form included questions pertaining to the work environment, motivations underlying the choice of activities, robustness of the business, work-home interference, work-related stress, work satisfaction, self-reported health indicators, and socio-demographic status. The results were compared with those from another survey on workers in small shops conducted between 2012 and 2015 within the same Region ( n  = 104). The number of entrepreneurs who participated in the survey added up to 140, with an even distribution between men and women. Two results are highlighted. The first concerns the difficulties faced by entrepreneurs working with a small team (1 to 4 employees): they are more stressed, report having heavy workloads, describe their health more negatively, consume more sedatives, and claim to suffer from loneliness more often than those working with larger teams or alone. Comparatively, in the study on shopkeepers, business owners working alone found themselves in a worse situation regarding their health and well-being.The second finding involves the difficulties entrepreneurs face when it comes to combining work and family life, and for which gender inequalities were noted. This phenomenon remains insufficiently explored

  3. Design considerations regarding the development of an interdisciplinary engineering innovation course involving collaboration with small and micro-sized companies

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ashworth, David; Ulrich, Mai-Mai

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues and dilemmas that have come up when designing courses aimed at teaching innovation competencies to engineering students through means of authentic industry collaboration with small and medium sized enterprises (SME). The paper is focused around the phase...... of designing the course SME Innovation and Intrapreneurship where the aim has been to create a match between the company need for short, result oriented innovation projects and the structured professional and interdisciplinary learning goals for a coming bachelor of engineering. The main dilemmas...... in the development have evolved around the concept of bridging real-life with a university learning context, the question of how to change teaching and exam structure to support new and different learning objectives, as well as the challenges of handling interdisciplinary teams. The 13 week, 10 ECTS credit course...

  4. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-06-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D{sub y} is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 {mu}m horizontally and 0.55 {mu}m vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H{sub D} of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit.

  5. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  6. Size Effect in Tension Perpendicular to Grain

    Astrup, Thomas; Clorius, Christian Odin; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2004-01-01

    The strength of wood is reduced when the stressed volume is increased. The phenomenon is termed size effect and is often explained as being stochastic in the sense that the probability of weak locations occurring in the wood increases with increased volume. This paper presents a hypothesis where ...

  7. Size-effects in porous metals

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    The intrinsic size-effect for porous metals is investigated. The analyses are carried out numerically using a finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity model. Results for plane strain growth of cylindrical voids are presented in terms of response curves and curves...

  8. Size-effects in porous metals

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic size-effect for porous metals is investigated. The analyses are carried out numerically using a finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity model. Results for plane strain growth of cylindrical voids are presented in terms of response curves and curves...

  9. The Influence of Company Size on Accounting Information: Evidence in Large Caps and Small Caps Companies Listed on BM&FBovespa

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama; Vitor Gomes Baioco; William Brasil Rodrigues Sobrinho; Alfredo Sarlo Neto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relation between accounting information aspects and the capitalization level o companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange was investigated, classified as Large Caps or Small Caps, companies with larger and smaller capitalization, respectively, between 2010 and 2012. Three accounting information measures were addressed: informativeness, conservatism and relevance, through the application of Easton and Harris’ (1991) models of earnings informativeness, Basu’s (1997) mod...

  10. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  11. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens.

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-11-01

    Environmental strategies at worksites may help consumers change dietary behaviour towards a more healthy diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the availability of healthy meal options at Danish worksite canteens and to identify predictors of worksite canteens providing healthy meals. A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite, the canteen managers specified the menus available. Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three different meal categories (Sandwiches, Hot meals and Salads) as well as a combined category (Combined) combining all the three meal categories. The characteristics of the worksites were compared with regard to the different health groups. Randomly selected Danish worksite canteens. 553 Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29 %. Only 12 % of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories. In particular, worksites with more than 75 % female employees served healthy menus on a frequent basis. The size of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options. Furthermore, the present study suggests a positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options. Among the selected variables studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support were significant predictors of the availability of healthy meal options in worksite canteens. More research is needed on the role that variance in organisation environment plays for the potential of worksite intervention, to make a difference in terms of healthy eating.

  12. The Intra-Industry Effects of Life Insurance Company Demutualizaton

    Joseph W. Meador

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of demutualization announcements by 13 life insurance companies during 1996-2000 on the value of existing stock-owned life insurance companies and companies in other segments of the insurance industry. Demutualization announcements are associated with negative stock price reactions in the days around the announcement, and with larger and positive stock price reactions in the days following announcement. Overall, the results support the contention that life insurance company demutualizations signal favorable future industry conditions and/or increased likelihood of future acquisitions for all segments of the insurance industry. Active-minded investors may use these results to develop alpha-generating investment strategies.

  13. Cost Effective Evaluation of Companies' Storytelling on the Web

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2004-01-01

    narrative qualities above the company that has a web site with good graphical appearance, but poor narrative qualities. In conclusion, we suggest that user centred evaluation of commercial web sites by using the suggested method can pay attention to deep, narrative structures in both the company's self......, initiate the customers' imagination and narrative mind and hence their decision making. These ideas are investigated in a qualitative study of two companies' self-presentation as future work places for students. The results demonstrate that the students choose the company that has a web site with rich...

  14. The Effect of Corporate Governance on Firms’ Capital Structure of Listed Companies in Sri Lanka

    Bulathsinhalage Siromi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a great awareness among the researchers to carry out researches on corporate governance and it contributes to the firms’ competitive advantage and business success. In today’s turbulent economic environment, competitiveness has become more important than ever for a firm’s survival and success. However, there is a gap in studies focusing on corporate governance and capital structure in the context of Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to empirically investigate whether attributes of corporate governance affect decisions on capital structure of listed companies in Sri Lanka. The sample of the study consisted of 138 non-financial listed companies for five-year period from 2009 to 2013. Board size, board composition, leadership structure, board committees, and managerial ownership were used as corporate governance variables whereas debt ratio as the measure of capital structure and return on assets (ROA and firm size as control variables. The variables were empirically tested by multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that there is no significant effect of corporate governance attributes except board composition & board committee on capital structure. The variable of board composition has a significant positive effect and board committee has a negative effect on capital structure.

  15. THE EFFECT OF INNOVATION ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SOME INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES IN TURKEY

    ŞİŞMANOĞLU, Elçin; YAŞAR AKÇALI, Burçay

    2017-01-01

    Innovation has become a prime component for gaining a competitive advantage in the market for all companies. Companies should take into consideration research and development (R&D) expenditure to be innovative. This study investigates the effect of R&D expenditure of some information and technology companies in Turkey as an indication of innovation on their financial performance. Data is collected from seven information and technology companies for 2005-2014 periods. Data is a...

  16. SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  17. Size, Book-to-Market Ratio and Relativity of Accounting Information Value: Empirical Research on the Chinese Listed Company

    Yu, Jing; Cheng, Siwei; Xu, Bin

    Recently there are many literatures studying the effect of factors such as size or book-market ratio on fluctuation of accounting earnings, stock price or earnings respectively, but so far their affection on accounting information value relativity has been scarcely addressed. This paper presents the detail analyses of their effect of the two factors to the relativity of accounting information value respectively by taking Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as sample. And the analyses supports the following two hypotheses, (1) The relativity of accounting information value of big size corporation is more than that of small size corporation. (2) The relativity of accounting information value of low B/M ratio corporation is more than that of low B/M ratio corporation.

  18. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    2010-01-01

    ... Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc...) Effect of a change in business activity occurring within one year of NMVC Company's initial Financing—(1... change in business activity occurring more than one year after the initial Financing. If a Portfolio...

  19. Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda

    Vaughan, S.; Carpentier, C.L.; Patterson, Z.; Kelly, K.; De Alba, E.; Hoyt, E.A.; Breceda, M.; Ouimet, B.

    2001-11-01

    This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

  20. Size-Effects in Void Growth

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2005-01-01

    The size-effect on ductile void growth in metals is investigated. The analysis is based on unit cell models both of arrays of cylindrical voids under plane strain deformation, as well as arrays of spherical voids using an axisymmetric model. A recent finite strain generalization of two higher order...... strain gradient plasticity models is implemented in a finite element program, which is used to study void growth numerically. The results based on the two models are compared. It is shown how gradient effects suppress void growth on the micron scale when compared to predictions based on conventional...... models. This increased resistance to void growth, due to gradient hardening, is accompanied by an increase in the overall strength for the material. Furthermore, for increasing initial void volume fraction, it is shown that the effect of gradients becomes more important to the overall response but less...

  1. Business model innovation within a Swedish manufacturing company : A study on the impacts of digitalization in a mid-size Swedishmanufacturing company

    Fridén, Mats; Karlsson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Rapid innovations in technology during the past decades has enabled new business possibilities, which in manyareas has outcompeted old business models. Especially small companies are having problems keeping up inthe process of reevaluating their business model with regards to the possibilities of new technologies. The focus in this thesis has been to describe the process of moving to a digital business and the use of digitaltechnologies by changing the business model and value-producing oppor...

  2. The Binding Effect of the Constitutive Documents of Companies: The 1973 and 2008 Companies Acts of South Africa

    TCR Morajane

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution examines the provisions of the constitutive documents of companies under two specific provisions, namely s 65(2 of the Companies Act 61 of 1973 and s 15(6 of the Companies Act 71 of 2008. The aim is to determine who is bound by these provisions, the circumstances which give rise to being bound by them, and the possible effect thereof on various parties. The provisions of the constitutive documents under section 65(2 of the 1973 Companies Act are interpreted by courts and academic writers to amount to a statutory contract between a company and its members and between members inter se. The members are said to be bound by the provisions of these documents only in their capacity as members. It is submitted, however, that the rights and obligations are granted to members in their capacity as such if they are membership rights which are granted by virtue on one’s membership. So far the courts have failed to provide a logical explanation of the concept “capacity of a member as such”. This failure and the “qua membership test” resulted in limitations in the interpretation of section 65(2: for example, the exclusion of persons who are regarded as outsiders. The directors, despite the fact that numerous provisions of the applicable article provides for their rights,have rights that are unenforceable via the articles, for being regarded as outsiders. The company on the other hand can enforce the obligations against the directors on the basis of breach of their fiduciary duties. These limitations called for a redraft of section 65(2. This contribution raises the legal challenges raised by the above. It arrives inter alia at the conclusion that the “qua membership test” may find application under the 2008 Companies Act, since members/shareholders may be allowed to exercise rights that are membership rights granted to them by virtue of their membership, and directors may be allowed to exercise rights that are grantedto them in

  3. MANAGING ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING IN TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

    Oksana Bulkot; Lidia Pashchuk

    2017-01-01

    The purpose. The purpose of the study is a generalization of international experience with regard to marketing efficiency control and development of qualitative and quantitative methods to be implemented in the estimation of marketing activity of TNCs. Methodology. The survey is based on research, conducted for 60 companies in the spring of 2015 (32% of which were Ukrainian and 68% – offices and affiliates of international companies), namely Bayer, Coca-Cola, Pepsi Co, Mondelez, Mars, Mintel,...

  4. EFFECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL COMPANY

    K. A. Dyundik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the organizational and administrative structure of the integrated metallurgical company is investigated. It is shown that linearly – a staff control system to become a limiting factor in its development. Management of transformations represents purposeful translation process of the integrated metallurgical company in a new qualitative state. The purpose . The subject of the article is to analyze the organization of management, to improve it on the basis of a new conceptual approach to the modernization of the control system integrated steel companies and the allocation of the subsystems.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are the comparative analysis methods.The Results. Studied approaches to the development of integrated management of the metallurgical company, the possibility of change.Conclusions / signifi cance. Management development in an integrated steel company requires in-depth study of existing internal operating conditions and specifi cs of the company, as well as the planning and implementation of measures to improve its receptivity to innovation.

  5. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While

  6. THE IMPACT OF THE BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL SIZE OF A COMPANY ALONG WITH GRI AND CSR ADOPTION ON INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING PRACTICES

    Tiron-Tudor Adriana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the correlation between the business and organizational size of companies as well as GRI and CSR practices adoption, and the level of sustainability disclosure. The correlation is highlighted through SPSS statistic analysis and determination of an econometric model between a dependent variable - sustainability information disclosure - and five independent ones- sales, number of employees, GRI and CSR policies and ultimately reporting period/year -. We use the Deloitte Sustainability Scorecard for measuring the sustainability reporting practices. Our sample comprises companies that adopted integrated reporting for the period 2009-2010. Sample selection was made on the basis that sustainability reports are incorporated within the integrated reports. We assume to obtain a high correlation between the business and organizational size of companies, GRI and/or CSR polities and the level of sustainability information disclosed in our integrated reports.

  7. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple...

  8. Effective Project Risk management in Micro Companies : Case study for Persona Optima Iceland ehf.

    Bražinskaitė, Justina

    2011-01-01

    This study is meant to be a guide for micro companies regarding effective project risk management. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce project risk management and build a user-friendly managerial model toward effective project risk management in micro companies. The research is based on a case company Persona Optima Iceland ehf. analysis. The study investigates risk management, uncertainties and risks in projects, project risk management, its models and particularities in orde...

  9. Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology. PMID:25192357

  10. Size effects in ductile cellular solids. Part I : modeling

    Onck, P.R.; Andrews, E.W.; Gibson, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the mechanical testing of metallic foams, an important issue is the effect of the specimen size, relative to the cell size, on the measured properties. Here we analyze size effects for the modulus and strength of regular, hexagonal honeycombs under uniaxial and shear loadings. Size effects for

  11. Size effects in foams : Experiments and modeling

    Tekoglu, C.; Gibson, L. J.; Pardoen, T.; Onck, P. R.

    Mechanical properties of cellular solids depend on the ratio of the sample size to the cell size at length scales where the two are of the same order of magnitude. Considering that the cell size of many cellular solids used in engineering applications is between 1 and 10 mm, it is not uncommon to

  12. Board Size Effects in Closely Held Corporations

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, H.C.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    of board size by using a new instrument given bythe number of children of the founders of the firms. Our analysis shows thatboard size can be taken as exogenous in the performance equation. Furthermore,based on a flexible model specification we find that there is noempirical evidence of adverse board size...

  13. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and Physiological Characteristics of Gmelina Arborea , Roxb. ... African Research Review ... They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed size ...

  14. The Binding Effect of the Constitutive Documents of Companies

    PER Electronic Law Review - Potchefstoomse Elektroniese Regsblad

    South African company law is in the process of reform which has been ... was also presented as a paper at the South African Law Teachers‟ Conference ... may not be earlier than one year following the date of its enactment: s 225 of the 2008.

  15. Effectiveness of Marketing Mix Activities in Engineering Companies in the Czech Republic

    Milichovský František

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of marketing activities has become important, especially in the industrial environment. In an industrial environment, there is a prerequisite for the success of strategic marketing objectives in relation to corporate strategy. The main aim of the paper is to determine whether the realization of marketing activities is influenced by corporate size. For this reason, a questionnaire survey was used, focusing on engineering companies operating in the Czech Republic. To process the results of the questionnaire survey, both basic types of descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square test were used on the selected dataset. The data were processed using the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 22. The conclusions provide characteristics of the limitations of research and its potential further direction.

  16. Modelling the effect of size-asymmetric competition on size inequality

    Rasmussen, Camilla Ruø; Weiner, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of size asymmetry in resource competition among plants, in which larger individuals obtain a disproportionate share of contested resources, appears to be very straightforward, but the effects of size asymmetry on growth and size variation among individuals have proved...... to be controversial. It has often been assumed that competition among individual plants in a population has to be size-asymmetric to result in higher size inequality than in the absence of competition, but here we question this inference. Using very simple, individual-based models, we investigate how size symmetry...... of competition affects the development in size inequality between two competing plants and show that increased size inequality due to competition is not always strong evidence for size-asymmetric competition. Even absolute symmetric competition, in which all plants receive the same amount of resources...

  17. COMPANY SIZE, TRADING ACTIVITY AND LIQUIDITY AS A DETERMINANTS OF CROSS-SECTIONAL MOMENTUM TRADING STRATEGY ON RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET. PART 2

    Teplova T. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Momentum-effect has many interpretations in the practice of investing and in understanding of anomalies in asset prices. We consider a Cross-Sectional momentum effects and the corresponding two medium-term (3 months or more trading strategies that are different from the trend following rules for individual assets. We tested four hypothesis deals with cross-sectional momentum effect on the Russian stock market and the possibility of building a self-financing (long-short trading strategy at three time horizon (stock market growth from 2004 until mid-2008, financial crisis and post-crisis periods. It is shown that for the Russian market cross-sectional momentum strategy with partly rebalanced portfolio maximizing portfolio return (134 stocks listed from 2004 to 2014 in the few Russian stock exchanges should be based on the three-month formation period and three-month holding period periods (3/1/3. We have identified elements of profit-maximizing momentum strategy: three time windows and determinants of assets. Monthly average return of arbitrage strategy is estimated at 1.5 % for 134 common shares. Implementation of the strategy for the post-crisis period does not allow to maximize profit. For 6 month and more investment windows it gets the advantage of reverse strategy (opening long positions in stocks with low investment results and short position for assets with high relative returns. Fundamental parameters of the issuer (size of companies like market capitalization and two measures of liquidity (trading activity and transaction costs like bid-ask spread are significant to maximize portfolio performance (we prove the growth of monthly average return ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 %. We find that size and liquidity control momentum strategy can earn positive profits in Russian stock market, larger than naïve momentum.

  18. Bankruptcy effect on business competitors. : Empirical study of US companies

    Nassimbwa, Justine; Tian, Yuchi

    2013-01-01

    Bankruptcy is a negative event that not only affects the company in question but all stakeholders of society. Our research will focus on one stakeholder group, business competitors. How are competitors affected by bankruptcy announcements? Past research has tried to answer this question in different ways. Some compared two industries with different characteristics while others worked with multiple industries. Past researchers suggested and tested three independent variables that they thought ...

  19. Gestão de projetos em empresas no Brasil: abordagem "tamanho único"? Project management in companies in Brazil: a "one size fits all" approach?

    Luiz José Marques Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pequena taxa de sucesso dos projetos num cenário de importância crescente para realização das estratégias das empresas levanta questionamentos sobre a efetividade das abordagens de gestão de projetos. A revisão da bibliografia sobre o tema sugere a existência de uma abordagem predominante de gestão de projetos que utiliza técnicas e ferramentas de planejamento e controle com o propósito de racionalizar e normatizar a gestão de projetos. Em contraponto a essa abordagem tradicional predominante, surgiu a abordagem adaptativa. Nela, a gestão de cada projeto é adaptada às suas especificidades. Neste contexto, este artigo apresenta o resultado de um estudo exploratório preliminar sobre abordagens de gestão de projetos em seis empresas que atuam no Brasil. Os dados empíricos coletados permitem concluir que há predominância de abordagens focadas numa visão racional e normativa da gestão de projetos. Porém, os mesmos dados coletados também indicam a presença de práticas de abordagens adaptativas na gestão de projetos considerados estratégicos, sugerindo que não há abordagem "tamanho único" na gestão de projetos dessas empresas.The low success rate of projects in a scenario where they are increasingly important for the companies' strategies raises questions about the effectiveness of project management approaches. A literature review on this topic suggests that there is a predominant approach to project management, which makes use of planning and control tools and techniques to encourage a rational and normative perspective to project management. As a counterpoint to this predominant traditional approach, the adaptive approach has emerged arguing that the management of each project should be adapted to its specificities. In this context, this paper presents the result of a preliminary exploratory study about project management approaches on six companies in Brazil. The empirical data collected allow concluding that the

  20. [Effect sizes, statistical power and sample sizes in "the Japanese Journal of Psychology"].

    Suzukawa, Yumi; Toyoda, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed the statistical power of research studies published in the "Japanese Journal of Psychology" in 2008 and 2009. Sample effect sizes and sample statistical powers were calculated for each statistical test and analyzed with respect to the analytical methods and the fields of the studies. The results show that in the fields like perception, cognition or learning, the effect sizes were relatively large, although the sample sizes were small. At the same time, because of the small sample sizes, some meaningful effects could not be detected. In the other fields, because of the large sample sizes, meaningless effects could be detected. This implies that researchers who could not get large enough effect sizes would use larger samples to obtain significant results.

  1. Characteristics and Communication--Effectiveness of "Fortune 500" Company Corporate Homepages

    Truell, Allen D.; Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Whitesel, Joel A.

    2005-01-01

    The Internet and its component parts, email and the World Wide Web (Web), have had a tremendous impact on how companies communicate with their various audiences. Thus, the twofold purpose of this study was (a) to determine the characteristics of "Fortune 500" company homepage components and (b) to determine the communication effectiveness of…

  2. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  3. How to Estimate and Interpret Various Effect Sizes

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The present article presents a tutorial on how to estimate and interpret various effect sizes. The 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001) described the failure to report effect sizes as a "defect" (p. 5), and 23 journals have published author guidelines requiring effect size reporting. Although…

  4. Size effect in the strength of concrete structures

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The fracture mechanics size effect, as opposed to the Weibull statistical size effect, is a .... Solutions for TPB beam and a typical wedge-splitting geometry have been ..... Bazant Z P 1984 Size effect in blunt fracture: Concrete, rock, metal. J. Eng.

  5. Benefits and challenges of using social media in marketing strategy:investigating small- and medium-sized companies in the Oulu region

    Orajärvi, P. (Paavo)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explains what social media marketing is as a phenomenon and what kind of roles it can fill in a company’s overall marketing strategies. The thesis also provides very practical information on how small/medium-sized companies can use social media channels in their daily marketing activities. This has been achieved through a literature review on the topic supported by an empirical multi-case study. The mot...

  6. The use of corporate entrepreneurship by Gefeba Elektro GmbH : The case study of a German medium-sized company in the highly competitive process automation sector

    Alami, Tarik; Montier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship has gained renewed interested in research since global markets are evolving and industries become more and more competitive. Information is transferred across the globe rapidly so that products and processes can be copied quickly. In order to be competitive, companies need to enhance creativity, their technological knowledge and market know-how. This high competitiveness leads to a dilemma where innovation is a key to survive whilst the size and administration may s...

  7. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...

  8. Effectiveness of corporate governance structure: An alternative metric on the performance of listed Chinese companies

    Yuan George Shan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyse a panel data set covering the years 2001 to 2005 and comprised of a stratified sample of A, AB and AH non financial companies listed on China’s Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges to provide empirical evidence on the influence of corporate control and governance characteristics on the quality and independence of corporate decision making in these companies. The characteristics considered are the level of concentration in and type of ownership of the companies, particularly high levels of government and foreign ownership, and the composition (expertise and size of the companies’ two boards. Performance outcomes, and by association the quality and independence of corporate policy decisions, are measured in the form of firm bad debt to accounts receivable ratio (BD/AR. We find that for our sample firms’ concentration of ownership, including state and foreign ownership, and board size and independence are significant factors in determining the levels of the bad debt ratio.

  9. Fostering Entrepreneurial Learning On-the-Job: Evidence from Innovative Small and Medium-Sized Companies in Europe

    Baggen, Yvette; Lans, Thomas; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Kampen, Jarl; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    As economies become more innovation-driven, the need for entrepreneurial behaviour amongst employees working for existing companies increases in order to enhance the organisations' capacity to develop new ideas, products and services. Hence, entrepreneurial learning and the development of entrepreneurial competencies of employees on-the-job become…

  10. Effect of the equity multiplier indicator in companies according the sectors

    Lenka Lízalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Managers carry out the demand of the owners to maximise the rentability of invested capital with regards to the taken risk. The tool that evaluates the suitability to indebt in order to reach a higher rentability is the equity multiplier indicator. An analysis of the multiplier was carried out on 10 years of data from 456 Czech companies. Based on the data from these companies the influence of two components of the multiplier, which characterise the influence of indebtedness on the return on equity, was analysed. These components are “financial leverage” and “interest burden”, these having an antagonistic effect. The low variability of the equity multiplier is apparent in the companies of the administrative and support service sector and it is also relatively low in the companies of the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector; on the contrary, in for example the professional, scientific and technical activities and the sector of water, sewage and waste there are companies with higher variability of the equity multiplier. The paper identifies companies (in view of their sector specialization inclining to a larger utility of debts to increase the return on equity. The largest equity is reached in companies of the construction sector; the lowest effect of the multiplier is to be found in companies of the agriculture sector. The resulting value of the multiplier is to a large extent determined by the financial leverage indicator, to a lower extent and at the same time negatively by the interest burden indicator.

  11. Characterization of resonances using finite size effects

    Pozsgay, B.; Takacs, G.

    2006-01-01

    We develop methods to extract resonance widths from finite volume spectra of (1+1)-dimensional quantum field theories. Our two methods are based on Luscher's description of finite size corrections, and are dubbed the Breit-Wigner and the improved ''mini-Hamiltonian'' method, respectively. We establish a consistent framework for the finite volume description of sufficiently narrow resonances that takes into account the finite size corrections and mass shifts properly. Using predictions from form factor perturbation theory, we test the two methods against finite size data from truncated conformal space approach, and find excellent agreement which confirms both the theoretical framework and the numerical validity of the methods. Although our investigation is carried out in 1+1 dimensions, the extension to physical 3+1 space-time dimensions appears straightforward, given sufficiently accurate finite volume spectra

  12. Causality in Statistical Power: Isomorphic Properties of Measurement, Research Design, Effect Size, and Sample Size

    R. Eric Heidel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is the ability to detect a significant effect, given that the effect actually exists in a population. Like most statistical concepts, statistical power tends to induce cognitive dissonance in hepatology researchers. However, planning for statistical power by an a priori sample size calculation is of paramount importance when designing a research study. There are five specific empirical components that make up an a priori sample size calculation: the scale of measurement of the outcome, the research design, the magnitude of the effect size, the variance of the effect size, and the sample size. A framework grounded in the phenomenon of isomorphism, or interdependencies amongst different constructs with similar forms, will be presented to understand the isomorphic effects of decisions made on each of the five aforementioned components of statistical power.

  13. Biofuel manufacturing from woody biomass: effects of sieve size used in biomass size reduction.

    Zhang, Meng; Song, Xiaoxu; Deines, T W; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2012-01-01

    Size reduction is the first step for manufacturing biofuels from woody biomass. It is usually performed using milling machines and the particle size is controlled by the size of the sieve installed on a milling machine. There are reported studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in milling of woody biomass. These studies show that energy consumption increased dramatically as sieve size became smaller. However, in these studies, the sugar yield (proportional to biofuel yield) in hydrolysis of the milled woody biomass was not measured. The lack of comprehensive studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in biomass milling and sugar yield in hydrolysis process makes it difficult to decide which sieve size should be selected in order to minimize the energy consumption in size reduction and maximize the sugar yield in hydrolysis. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. In this paper, knife milling of poplar wood was conducted using sieves of three sizes (1, 2, and 4 mm). Results show that, as sieve size increased, energy consumption in knife milling decreased and sugar yield in hydrolysis increased in the tested range of particle sizes.

  14. Effects of sample size on the second magnetization peak in ...

    the sample size decreases – a result that could be interpreted as a size effect in the order– disorder vortex matter phase transition. However, local magnetic measurements trace this effect to metastable disordered vortex states, revealing the same order–disorder transition induction in samples of different size. Keywords.

  15. Interpreting and Reporting Effect Sizes in Research Investigations.

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E., II

    Since 1994, the American Psychological Association (APA) has advocated the inclusion of effect size indices in reporting research to elucidate the statistical significance of studies based on sample size. In 2001, the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual" stressed the importance of including an index of effect size to clarify…

  16. The Effect of Ratio, Issuance of Stocks and Auditors’ Quality toward the Timeliness of Financial Reporting on the Internet by Consumer Goods Sector Companies in Indonesia

    Lidiyawati Lidiyawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the factors that affect the timeliness of financial reporting on the Internet in the Consumer Goods sector companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Variables used were leverage, profitability, size of company, the issuance of stock and the quality of auditors. Data analysis method used was logistic regression at the 0.05 level. The data used were secondary data and using sample Consumer Goods companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. This study tested the effect of variable leverage, profitability, firm size, auditor quality stocks, and the timeliness of financial reporting on the Internet. The results obtained from these tests support the timeliness of audit quality of financial reporting on theInternet. However, other variables such as leverage, profitability, firm size, stock issuance did not support the timeliness of financial reporting on the Internet.

  17. Power of Companies in Supply Chains and Their Effect on Network Development

    Tamás Brányi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A general supply chain functions as a closed cluster and consists of at least three companies: supplier, producer and buyer. In an optimal case the companies within a supply chain are well integrated, partnership rests on trust which results in common strategic decisions. Business practices show that there is a stronger company within the chain that uses its power position to influence network development. The objective of the research is to measure how and what kind of power position is needed to influence the supply chain. The hypothesis states, that power and network development are opposite effects in a supply chain. Statistical examination of data gained from 221 companies state that the company with power position has advantages if the supply chain extends. SPSS analysis proves that the hypothesis is false and opens a new direction of research. Companies within the supply chain have to cope with power structures while cooperating with each other. They tend to look for solutions to ease dependency. Using or misusing power has several factors; mainly they are inherited from the strongest link of the supply chain. This is usually a problem but the results of the statistical analysis show that still a win-win situation is needed for the companies in order to deepen the cooperation. To conclude this research the data shows that the goal is to be more competitive as a chain, not just as a company.

  18. Knowledge management as a support mechanism for improving software programmes in micro, small and medium-sized companies

    Joanna Capote

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisations have been forced to change their philosophy due to the vast amount of information made available when running software process improvement (SPI programmes and working in a way leading to maintaining and converting this information into knowledge in order to adapt and integrate changes quickly and thereby ensuring re-maining in the competitive market. This article presents some of the most significant antecedents in defining and im-plementing knowledge management (KM in SPI programmes which have been adapted for use in small software companies, as such management represents a philosophy of true organisational capital for companies involved in software improvement projects. The advisability of implementing KM in SPI programmes or projects arising from pri-mary knowledge management targets is analysed, as is its adaptation for such projects according to identified needs, especially related to documenting and manipulating tangible and intangible products produced in an SPI pro-gramme.

  19. Pengaruh Karakteristik Komite Audit, Keahlian Keuangan Dan Ukuran Perusahaan Terhadap Kemungkinan Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan [The Influence of Audit Committee Characteristics, Financial Expertise, and Company Size toward the Possibility of Financial Report Fraud

    Bambang Leo Handoko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Related to fraudulent financial statements by PT. Kimia Farma, Indosat, and others, this research looked at fraud committed by companies. The purpose of this research was to determine if the audit committee's independence, the financial expertise of the audit committee, and the size of the company were factors in possible fraudulent financial statements of manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during the period 2013-2015. The possibility of fraudulent financial statements is measured by Beneish M-score. Quantitative research was conducted using an associative methodology and regression analyzing logistics (logistic regression. 82 companies were chosen using purposive sampling technique and secondary data. The results showed that the independence of the audit committee and the size of the company had no effect on the possibility of fraudulent financial statements and the financial expertise of the audit committee had an influence on the possibility of fraudulent of financial statements. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK:  Terkait kasus kecurangan laporan keuangan yang dilakukan PT.Kimia Farma, Indosat dan lain-lain maka penelitian ini akan mendeteksi kecurangan yang dilakukan perusahaan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh komite audit independen, keahlian keuangan komite audit dan ukuran perusahaan terhadap kemungkinan kecurangan laporan keuangan pada perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia periode 2013-2015. Kemungkinan kecurangan laporan keuangan diukur melalui Beneish M-score. Jenis penelitiannya kuantitatif dengan metode penelitian asosaitf dan teknis analisis datanya menggunakan regresi logistic (logistic regression. 82 perusahaan dipilih menggunakan teknik purposive sampling dan menggunakan data sekunder. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komite audit independen dan ukuran perusahaan tidak berpengaruh pada kemungkinan kecurangan laporan keuangan sedangkan keahlian keuangan komite audit

  20. Construction and application of an indicator system to assess the ergonomic performance of large and medium-sized construction companies.

    Bezerra, Isabela Xavier Barbalho; de Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a system of indicators to evaluate the performance of companies in ergonomics for buildings. The system was developed based primarily on studies related to the performance evaluation of the construction industry and on Brazilian standards of ergonomics and work safety and had also the contribution of national and international indicators related to ergonomics, work safety, quality, sustainability, quality of work life and to organizational behavior. The indicators were named, classified and their components were assigned to compose the theoretical model SIDECE--System of Performance Indicators in Ergonomics for Building Construction (as for the Portuguese acronym), serving the major goals of ergonomics: health, safety and workers' satisfaction and production efficiency. The SIDECE is being validated along with the building construction companies in the city of Natal, Brazil, whose practical results, deriving from the application of instruments to collect field data, are under process, to be presented on the occasion of the 18th World Congress on Ergonomics. It is intended that the SIDECE be used by building construction companies as a support tool for excellence management.

  1. Effectiveness of the Size Matters Handwriting Program.

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Rai, Gillian; Murray, Tammy; Brusilovskiy, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to study changes in handwriting legibility among kindergarten, first- and second-grade students in response to the Size Matters curricular-based handwriting program. A two-group pre-post-test design was implemented at two public schools with half of the classrooms assigned to receive the Size Matters program and the other continuing to receive standard instruction. All participants completed two standardized handwriting measures at pre-test and after 40 instructional sessions were completed with the classes receiving the handwriting program. Results identified significant changes in legibility in the handwriting intervention group for all three grades when compared with the standard instruction group. The results of this study support the use of a curricular-embedded handwriting program and provide the foundation for future research examining the impact of handwriting legibility on learning outcomes.

  2. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    Armanasco, Fabio; Colombo, Luigi Pietro Maria; Lucchini, Andrea; Rossetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ► The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ► A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ► Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  4. [Company health promotion as a possible preparatory stage of effective rehabilitation].

    Köpke, K-H

    2012-01-01

    In Section 20a of Book 5 of the German Social Code (SGB V), the legislator obliged the health insurance funds to carry out company health promotion in cooperation with the accident insurance agency in charge. He thus created a foundation for more health and secure earnings or employment potential in the companies. At the same time company health promotion permits detecting threats to this potential. That helps to identify a possible need for rehabilitation at an earlier stage and to take appropriate action.To verify whether and how this instrument of preventive health policy is being used, an empirical study explored the actual application of that legal provision in small and medium-sized enterprises in particular. The law, administrative measures and company everyday evidence were set against each other under legal and de facto aspects, which showed obvious deficits in applying the law. Proposals for better company health promotion are derived from these findings. In the first place, actors in administration and self-management of the statutory health and accident insurance schemes are addressed to this end, in anticipation of enhanced implementation. A premature reduction of earning capacity could thus be counteracted. Pension insurants could retain gainful employment for a longer time, companies would have a more reliable employee basis. Social insurance carriers, notably the health and pension insurance schemes, would have to spend less in the end. A development like that would be a benefit for all--including the state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The logistics management in the sizing of the fleet of containers per ships in dedicated route - The use of computer simulation: A Brazilian shipping company case

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is provide the use of the simulation in the discrete event to manage one important point in the logistics systems to shipping companies that is the imbalance of containers, movement of empty containers from surplus ports to deficit ports. From a survey of data from a shipping company operating in Brazil, at various ports, it was possible to model and simulate the needs in six major domestic ports of empty and full containers and seek to meet demand in the shipping market, reducing storage of containers and maintaining the level of excellence in service. Based on the discrete event simulation it was possible to analyze the problem of empty and full containers at the ports in the maritime transportation system. It was possible study the imbalance situation in the ports e provide one tool the companies to manage yours service. The data are confined to one company located in São Paulo and operating in Brazil at maritime transportation. The research shows that the imbalance problem between full and empty containers is a real case to all companies in the maritime transportation and can have effective solutions using discrete event simulation. To have excellent supply chain management it is important to have also one effective transportation system. This paper contributes to research in the inbound and outbound part of the supply chain management.

  6. Effect size estimates: current use, calculations, and interpretation.

    Fritz, Catherine O; Morris, Peter E; Richler, Jennifer J

    2012-02-01

    The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001, American Psychological Association, 2010) calls for the reporting of effect sizes and their confidence intervals. Estimates of effect size are useful for determining the practical or theoretical importance of an effect, the relative contributions of factors, and the power of an analysis. We surveyed articles published in 2009 and 2010 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, noting the statistical analyses reported and the associated reporting of effect size estimates. Effect sizes were reported for fewer than half of the analyses; no article reported a confidence interval for an effect size. The most often reported analysis was analysis of variance, and almost half of these reports were not accompanied by effect sizes. Partial η2 was the most commonly reported effect size estimate for analysis of variance. For t tests, 2/3 of the articles did not report an associated effect size estimate; Cohen's d was the most often reported. We provide a straightforward guide to understanding, selecting, calculating, and interpreting effect sizes for many types of data and to methods for calculating effect size confidence intervals and power analysis.

  7. Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model

    Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui

    2018-01-01

    In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.

  8. El efecto del tipo de producto fabricado y del tamaño de la empresa en los resultados productivos de las empresas de pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos de la Comunidad Valenciana Effect of the type of product manufactured and of company size on the productive results of ceramic tile manufacturers of the Valenciana Community

    Juan Antonio Marín-Garcia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, describimos los datos recogidos en las entrevistas realizadas a 101 directores de producción y en las visitas posteriores a sus plantas. En él, presentamos la importancia que tiene el tipo de producto fabricado y el número de trabajadores en plantilla, para explicar las diferencias que existen en los resultados productivos de las empresas. Algunos indicadores como el plazo de fabricación, la cantidad de inventario de producto terminado o la productividad por operario, son sensiblemente diferentes en las distintas agrupaciones de empresas. Sin embargo, la satisfacción percibida por el mando de producción apenas varía al agrupar las empresas por producto fabricado.This article presents an analysis of data compiled from interviews with 101 production managers and from subsequent plant visits, revealing the relevance of the type of products companies manufacture and the number of employees they have in explaining the differences in their productive results. Some indicators, such as manufacturing lead times, finished product inventories and productivity per worker, differ significantly from one company to another. As a result, the parameter of production manager satisfaction varies only very slightly when grouping companies in terms of product manufactured.

  9. Vectors for Increasing the Effectiveness of Profit Management at Company Level

    І. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect management of processes involved in accumulation and disposal of profit at Ukrainian companies affects their performance, with the consequent losses of public budget revenues. This raises the need for new and more effective mechanisms for accumulation and disposal of corporate profit, which would be focused on maximal utilization of production, marketing and fiscal capacities of business entities and enhancement of their competitiveness at domestic and global market. The article’s objective is to conduct theoretical study of profit as an economic category and an essential component of company’s performance, sum up the principles of profit management, and analyze the profit management system at company level. A brief review of theoretical definitions of profit is made, economic origin of profit and its role in business operation in the Ukrainian context is highlighted. The components of profit management system at company level, essential principles of strategic management of company profit, organizational and economic mechanism for company profit management, a strategy for profit management at company level is discussed and summed up. The organizational and economic mechanism for profit quality management at company level is proposed.

  10. Finite size effects of a pion matrix element

    Guagnelli, M.; Jansen, K.; Palombi, F.; Petronzio, R.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate finite size effects of the pion matrix element of the non-singlet, twist-2 operator corresponding to the average momentum of non-singlet quark densities. Using the quenched approximation, they come out to be surprisingly large when compared to the finite size effects of the pion mass. As a consequence, simulations of corresponding nucleon matrix elements could be affected by finite size effects even stronger which could lead to serious systematic uncertainties in their evaluation

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Franchising Associations on Franchising Decisions of Companies in Turkey

    ARICI, Gökçe; KARADUMAN, İlkay

    2016-01-01

    In the study, it is examined the effect of International Franchising Association (UFRAD) on tbe decision making process of franchisee companies. A survey has been carried out on franchisee companies, after the survey interview, results are discussed and presented. Franchising offers a useful way to entrepreneurs to start a new business. Operating franchising, franchisor has a trademark and the franchisee sells products under the name of the franchisers areas of advertising, training, manageme...

  12. Effect of brief sleep hygiene education for workers of an information technology company.

    Kakinuma, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Masaya; Kato, Noritada; Aratake, Yutaka; Watanabe, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Yumi; Kojima, Reiko; Shibaoka, Michi; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep hygiene education for workers of an information technology (IT) company, we conducted a controlled clinical trial providing 581 workers one-hour sleep hygiene education. The contents of the sleep hygiene education program were a review of sleep habits, provide sleep hygiene education, and the establishment of sleep habit goals. A self-report questionnaire was used to measure outcomes including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D), and mean sleep duration on weekdays before and 4 wk after the intervention. A total of 391 participants were included in the analysis, with 214 participants in the sleep hygiene education group and 177 in the waiting list group. KSS score at 2 P.M. decreased by 0.42 points in the sleep hygiene education group, but increased by 0.08 points in the waiting list group, showing a significant effect size of 0.50 (95%CI, -0.97 to -0.04, peducation may improve afternoon sleepiness at work, but not sleep at night for IT workers.

  13. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effective use of solar and biogas energy technology in companies

    Duerr-Pucher, J. [Clean Energy, Radolfzell (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Summary: In Germany and Europe the use of biogas and solar energy technology in enterprises is still in its infancy. The high growth rate of biogas and solar energy power is due to investments made by private households and agriculture. For medium-sized enterprises and large-scale enterprises the investment conditions obviously are not attractive enough, with one exception: enterprises that are manufacturing solar installations and offer, as a second pillar, concepts for their economical operation. Since the amendment of the EEG the demand for biogas installations considerably increased - exclusively in the agricultural sector. Enterprises from the food and beverage sector for instance only slowly discover this market. In the photovoltaic sector the situation is quite different. A real boom started 1998 in Germany. Main investors are farmers just as in the biogas area because their houses often have large roof surfaces and they can purchase via special associations large quantities of solar modules. The second important factor is the demand of ecologically oriented private households for small installations. Very seldom it is possible to motivate enterprises to equip the roofs of their plants with photovoltaic cells. It depends on the ecological orientation of enterprises and on communicative aspects. An early example is Mercedes-Benz. In 1995, world's largest photovoltaic solar power plant was installed in Untertuerkheim. Currently there are only a few industrial solar thermal model projects. In 2006, a medium-sized brewery has set up world's first 'solar' brewing plant. Contrary to the photovoltaic sector manufacturers of solar thermal systems must at first develop sustainable concepts. In contrast to the EEG (Renewable Energy Sources Act) for electricity generation there is no legal basis for solar thermal systems. Many European countries (Spain, Italy, Greece) have adopted regulations similarly to EEG. An expansion of the use of regenerative

  15. STRATEGIC ALLIANCE AND STRATEGIC PLANNING EFFECT TO COMPANY PERFORMANCE IN CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE (STUDY CASE AT INDOFOOD CBP SUKSES MAKMUR COMPANY - FOOD SEASONING DIVISION )

    Ardiyanto, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This research head for analyze the effect of inter variable to answered set problems how is strategic alliance and strategic planning to improve company performance for create competitive advantage. This research gives theoritic and managerial implication concern pace which have to take by PT. Indofood CBP Sukses Makmur Food Seasoning Division to improve their company performance for create competitive advantage which got from product strategic alliance and strategic planning. Population in t...

  16. Development of neural basis for chinese orthographic neighborhood size effect.

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Qing-Lin; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The brain activity of orthographic neighborhood size (N size) effect in Chinese character naming has been studied in adults, meanwhile behavioral studies have revealed a developmental trend of Chinese N-size effect in developing readers. However, it is unclear whether and how the neural mechanism of N-size effect changes in Chinese children along with development. Here we address this issue using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Forty-four students from the 3(rd) , 5(th) , and 7(th) grades were scanned during silent naming of Chinese characters. After scanning, all participants took part in an overt naming test outside the scanner, and results of the naming task showed that the 3(rd) graders named characters from large neighborhoods faster than those from small neighborhoods, revealing a facilitatory N-size effect; the 5(th) graders showed null N-size effect while the 7(th) graders showed an inhibitory N-size effect. Neuroimaging results revealed that only the 3(rd) graders exhibited a significant N-size effect in the left middle occipital activity, with greater activation for large N-size characters. Results of 5(th) and 7(th) graders showed significant N-size effects in the left middle frontal gyrus, in which 5(th) graders induced greater activation in large N-size condition than in small N-size condition, while 7(th) graders exhibited an opposite effect which was similar to the adult pattern reported in a previous study. The current findings suggested the transition from broadly tuned to finely tuned orthographic representation with reading development, and the inhibition from neighbors' phonology for higher graders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:632-647, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. CSR and technology companies: A study on its implementation, integration and effects on the competitiveness of companies

    Juan Andres Bernal-Conesa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, a structural equation model is presented in order to explain the motivations of implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Spanish technology companies and its linkage with others standardized management systems before CSR implementation. It also examines whether CSR influences the competitiveness of these companies. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in companies located in Spanish Science and Technology Parks. For this study, a survey was sent and structural equation model was used. Findings and Originality/value: Model results show that there is a positive, direct and statistically significant relationship between the motivations, previous management systems, implementation of CSR and the real integration of CSR in the organization. Research limitations/implications: Limitations are determined by the technique used for the proposed model: structural equations, which assume linearity of the relationship between latent variables. Practical implications: Companies can use the results of this study as a foothold to enhance the integration of CSR based on previous management systems and take advantage of synergies between them, since the integration of CSR has a direct relationship with the competitiveness of the company. Originality/value: The link between the motivations of CSR, CSR actions and their integration in technology companies are reliably and empirically demonstrated.

  18. The Effects of Firm Strategic Factors on Manufacturing Companies ...

    The effects of firms' strategic factors on strategic choices and performance differentials in Nigerian manufacturing sectors have not been systematically investigated. Against the backdrop of declining manufacturing performance in Nigeria, this paper examined the effects of selected firm strategic factors on the returns on ...

  19. Effect of particle size distribution on sintering of tungsten

    Patterson, B.R.; Griffin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    To date, very little is known about the effect of the nature of the particle size distribution on sintering. It is reasonable that there should be an effect of size distribution, and theory and prior experimental work examining the effects of variations in bimodal and continuous distributions have shown marked effects on sintering. Most importantly, even with constant mean particle size, variations in distribution width, or standard deviation, have been shown to produce marked variations in microstructure and sintering rate. In the latter work, in which spherical copper powders were blended to produce lognormal distributions of constant geometric mean particle size by weight frequency, blends with larger values of geometric standard deviation, 1nσ, sintered more rapidly. The goals of the present study were to examine in more detail the effects of variations in the width of lognormal particle size distributions of tungsten powder and determine the effects of 1nσ on the microstructural evolution during sintering

  20. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  1. Assesing the Effectiveness of Joint Companies in Russia: Industry-Specific Features

    Elena Anatolyevna Fedorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the effectiveness of joint and domestic companies using ROA (operational efficiency and DEA (technical efficiency methodologies. The technical efficiency was estimated in two ways: according to the classical scheme and taking into account spillover effects. The study was based on statements of Russian companies (23 567 joint enterprises and 14 653 companies without FDI for the period of 2008-2012. The authors used RusLana resource to get following information: balance sheets, profit and loss statements, capital structure, number of employees and regional affiliation. The study found that joint companies usually operate more effectively than domestic ones. The authors also conclude that the crisis has not caused severe damages to the average effectiveness by industries. More than that, Russian economy has positive horizontal and vertical FDI spillover effects which increase as time goes by. In 2012 the most efficient joint companies (in terms of technical efficiency belonged to the following industries: coke and petroleum production, chemical industry and metallurgy. The most ineffective ones included following: wholesale and retail trade, machinery and equipment production and agriculture

  2. In Good Company : When Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Acquire Multiplex Knowledge from Key Commercial Partners

    Bojica, Ana Maria; Estrada Vaquero, Isabel; del Mar Fuentes-Fuentes, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the specific conditions under which key strategic alliances of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with commercial partners can become multiplex in knowledge exchange. Using survey data from a sample of 150 Spanish SMEs in the information and communication technology (ICT)

  3. Effectiveness of marketing in management marketing activity agricultural companies

    KUCHER O.

    2012-01-01

    Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.

  4. Size effects in nanoindentation: an experimental and analytical study

    Voyiadjis, G.Z.; Peters, Rick

    2009-01-01

    This work addresses the size effect encountered in nanoindentation experiments. It is generally referred to as the indentation size effect (ISE). Classical descriptions of the ISE show a decrease in hardness for increasing indentation depth. Recently new experiments have shown that after the initial

  5. Do Effect-Size Measures Measure up?: A Brief Assessment

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2003-01-01

    Because of criticisms leveled at statistical hypothesis testing, some researchers have argued that measures of effect size should replace the significance-testing practice. We contend that although effect-size measures have logical appeal, they are also associated with a number of limitations that may result in problematic interpretations of them…

  6. Exploring the public-private and company size differences in employees' work characteristics and burnout: data analysis of a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    Yeh, Wan-Yu; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Chen, Chiou-Jong

    2018-05-15

    Distinct differences exist between public-private sector organizations with respect to the market environment and operational objectives; furthermore, among private sector businesses, organizational structures and work conditions often vary between large- and small-sized companies. Despite these obvious structural distinctions, however, sectoral differences in employees' psychosocial risks and burnout status in national level have rarely been systematically investigated. Based on 2013 national employee survey data, 15,000 full-time employees were studied. Sector types were classified into "public," "private enterprise-large (LE)," and "private enterprise-small and medium (SME);" based on the definition of SMEs by Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs, and the associations of sector types with self-reported burnout status (measured by the Chinese version of Copenhagen Burnout Inventory) were examined, taking into account other work characteristics and job instability indicators. Significantly longer working hours and higher perceived job insecurity were found among private sector employees than their public sector counterparts. With further consideration of company size, greater dissatisfaction of job control and career prospect were found among SME employees than the other two sector type workers. This study explores the pattern of public-private differences in work conditions and employees' stress-related problems to have policy implications for supporting mechanism for disadvantaged workers in private sectors.

  7. Hall measurements and grain-size effects in polycrystalline silicon

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rose, A.; Maruska, H.P.; Eustace, D.J.; Feng, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of grain size on Hall measurements in polycrystalline silicon are analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using the model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge regions. For materials with large grain sizes, the carrier concentration is independent of the intergrain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small grains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistent with experimental results of mm-size Wacker and μm-size neutron-transmutation-doped polycrystalline silicon

  8. Organizational structures of companies versus project management effectiveness

    Joanna Haffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An organizational structure, indicated as one out of the four main organizational conditions supporting project management, has an essential meaning for project execution. This article, based on the research results, describes different organizational structures of project-orientated enterprises, enumerating their advantages and disadvantages, and reveals the influence of inter-organizational relations on project management effectiveness in enterprises operating in Poland. The results indicate that the more a character of inter-organizational relations is heading towards project structure, the higher project management effectiveness is. In the next sequence the project management processes are supported by strong matrix structures, whereas the worst outcomes are provided by functional structures. Simultaneously, it was concluded that project structures are conducive to high advancement of project management processes, and among them, especially project risk management processes as well as communication, time and cost management processes.

  9. Organizational structures of companies versus project management effectiveness

    Joanna Haffer

    2012-01-01

    An organizational structure, indicated as one out of the four main organizational conditions supporting project management, has an essential meaning for project execution. This article, based on the research results, describes different organizational structures of project-orientated enterprises, enumerating their advantages and disadvantages, and reveals the influence of inter-organizational relations on project management effectiveness in enterprises operating in Poland. The results indicat...

  10. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Goran Janjić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation’s performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders’ requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation’s strategy. The calculation of an organisation’s effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation’s business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation’s most important measures.

  11. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Goran, Janjić; Zorana, Tanasić; Borut, Kosec

    2017-07-01

    The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation's performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders' requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP) to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation's strategy. The calculation of an organisation's effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation's business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation's most important measures.

  12. Electrokinetic Flow in Microchannels with Finite Reservoir Size Effects

    Yan, D; Yang, C; Nguyen, N-T; Huang, X

    2006-01-01

    In electrokinetically-driven microfluidic applications, reservoirs are indispensable and have finite sizes. During operation processes, as the liquid level difference in reservoirs keeps changing as time elapses, the flow characteristics in a microchannel exhibit a combination of the electroosmotic flow and the time-dependent induced backpressure-driven flow. In this work, an assessment of the finite reservoir size effect on electroosmotic flows is presented theoretically and experimentally. A model is developed to describe the timedependent electrokinetic flow with finite reservoir size effects. The theoretical analysis shows that under certain conditions the finite reservoir size effect is significant. The important parameters that describe the effect of finite reservoir size on the flow characteristics are discussed. A new concept denoted as 'effective pumping period' is introduced to characterize the reservoir size effect. The proposed model clearly identifies the mechanisms of the finitereservoir size effects and is further confirmed by using micro-PIV technique. The results of this study can be used for facilitating the design of microfluidic devices

  13. The Effects of Company Income Tax on Dividend Policy of Firms in Nigeria

    Olubukunola Uwuigbe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of company income tax on the dividend policy of firms inNigeria. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 40 listed firms in the Nigerian stockexchange market were selected for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, theCentral Bank of NigeriaStatistical Bulletin and the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2010were used for the study. This paper basically modeled the effects of company income tax on thedividend policy of firms in Nigeria using the regression analysis method. The study as part of itsfindings observed thatthere is a significant positive relationship between the company income tax andthe dividend payout of the sampled firms in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper concludesthat a changein corporate income tax rate will significantly affect the dividend policies of the sampled firmsoperating in Nigeria.

  14. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of -3,265 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of an economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues are relatively small compared to total U.S. energy expenditures (about $4.1 billion in 2008), but ESCOs anticipated accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated -$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated -$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. We found that nearly 85% of all public and institutional projects met or exceeded the guaranteed level of savings. We estimated that a typical ESCO project generated $1.5 dollars of direct benefits for every dollar of customer

  15. EFFECTIVE STIMULATION WORKERS – BASIS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH COMPANIES

    V. G. Drobyshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. At the present stage of development of domestic agricultural production is a key strategic direction of the innovative development of the industry. Tasked by the government to effectively modernize the economy reflect the latest scientific and technological progress, innovation, positive perception of new ideas and breakthrough technologies. In this regard, the decisive role played by the information network , computer systems, high production technology and intellectual resources of society, innovative organization of various spheres of human activity , as well as a new level of relations to knowledge. The main driving force of innovation development of agro-industrial production in Russia at the present stage is the human potential to carry out the restructuring of the agricultural sector with the latest achievements of scientific and technical progress. Famous slogan - "cadres decide everything" under the innovation paradigm of reforming the economy is of particular relevance. One of the important reasons for the low level of innovative development of agricultural production is the lack of motivation of creative work in the agricultural workers business organizations. For the development of advanced technologies for improving the quality and reducing the material cost per unit of cash - produ Dima products they do not receive adequate material compensation. This is largely inhibits the activity of employees in the development of advanced low-cost and resource-saving technologies in agricultural production. We propose an original model for innovative employee incentiveing activity and a real contribution to improving the efficiency of the enterprise. To take into account the personal contribution of the employee in additional economic benefit through innovative component and determining bonuses, proposed to use the "coefficient of innovation activity employee" (CIAE. The value of this coefficient is defined as the ratio of profits

  16. The policies of social welfare produced effects in performance of the company? Comparative analysis of European companies

    Teresa M. Monllau Jaques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the public well being policies and its repercussions in the efficacy and efficiency of the companies that give services to dependant people (CNAE 87 and 88 Codes. Design/methodology/approach: For the making of the present study several companies which gives services in countries with different patterns when applying public well being policies have been compared. These countries have been Spain, Germany, UK and Netherlands. The data has been obtained through AMADEUS. The period of the study has been 2008-2012. The variables used are the operating margin (OMR rate and the rotation assets rate (RAT. Findings and Originality/value: From the results obtained we have not been able to establish a significant statistic relationship between Companies behaviour and public well being policies. Originality/value: Up to date few extracts have been done, in Spain, about the financial behaviour of the companies which give services to the elderly. The business development entails an economic growth which balances with the cost inherent in the elderly population.

  17. EFFECTS OF ULTRASOUND ON THE MORPHOLOGY, PARTICLE SIZE, CRYSTALLINITY, AND CRYSTALLITE SIZE OF CELLULOSE

    SUMARI SUMARI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to optimize ultrasound treatment to produce fragment of cellulose that is low in particles size, crystallite size, and crystallinity. Slurry of 1 % (w/v the cellulose was sonicated at different time periods and temperatures. An ultrasonic reactor was operated at 300 Watts and 28 kHz to cut down the polymer into smaller particles. We proved that ultrasound damages and fragments the cellulose particles into shorter fibers. The fiber lengths were reduced from in the range of 80-120 µm to 30-50 µm due to an hour ultrasonication and became 20-30 µm after 5 hours. It was also found some signs of erosion on the surface and stringy. The acoustic cavitation also generated a decrease in particle size, crystallinity, and crystallite size of the cellulose along with increasing sonication time but it did not change d-spacing. However, the highest reduction of particle size, crystallite size, and crystallinity of the cellulose occurred within the first hour of ultrasonication, after which the efficiency was decreased. The particle diameter, crystallite size, and crystallinity were decreased from 19.88 µm to 15.96 µm, 5.81 Å to 2.98 Å, and 77.7% to 73.9% respectively due to an hour ultrasound treatment at 40 °C. The treatment that was conducted at 40 °C or 60 °C did not give a different effect significantly. Cellulose with a smaller particle and crystallite size as well as a more amorphous shape is preferred for further study.

  18. Size effects in the mechanical behavior of cellular materials

    Tekoglu, C; Onck, PR

    Effective mechanical properties of cellular materials depend strongly on the specimen size to the cell size ratio. Experimental studies performed on aluminium foams show that under uniaxial compression, the stiffness of these materials falls below the corresponding bulk value, when the ratio of the

  19. Effects of sample size on the second magnetization peak in ...

    8+ crystals are observed at low temperatures, above the temperature where the SMP totally disappears. In particular, the onset of the SMP shifts to lower fields as the sample size decreases - a result that could be interpreted as a size effect in ...

  20. Analysis of the quality of service of small and medium size hotel companies in Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area

    Carolina Monsalve Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the hotel industry has been facing an increment of travelers willing to enjoy better conditions in tourist destinations. The demanding changes in tourist preferences, and the increasing range of offers that they find to meet their needs, has made the hotel industry to focus its attention to service. Therefore, in this document, the principles that impact the evaluation of a quality service are analyzed. This research takes a sample of 384 small and medium size hotel companies’ guests. A Likert type questionnaire is applied. Its evaluation is conducted through SPSS software through bivariate analysis. In the results, influential aspects were identified such as: encouraging customer loyalty, special offers, innovation, premises and equipment, human talent training, among others.

  1. The effects of meal size, body size and temperature on gastric evacuation in pikeperch

    Koed, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Prey size had no effect on the gastric evacuation rate of pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca. The gastric evacuation was adequately described applying an exponent of 0.5 in the power model. Applying length instead of weight of pikeperch in the gastric evacuation model resulted in a change of estim...

  2. Towards an effective co-operation between companies and occupational safety and health services.

    van der Drift, Dorine Willy

    2002-01-01

    In the Dutch Working Conditions Act, every employer is required to organize preventive occupational safety and health services (OSH-Services). The OSH-Services need to have a certification that can be compared with ISO-9000. This article is focused on the question: How can companies and OSH-Services co-operate more effectively to obtain a better OSH management system inside the companies? To answer this question, TNO has developed an approach to support organisations in the health care branch to obtain a better service from their OSH-Service. TNO has chosen to focus on supporting the companies, because of the recognition that the effectiveness of OSH-Services has been found in effects on their customers, the companies. As a result of the research project a stepwise approach with several tools was developed. After the development phase, parts of the approach and the tools were used in several other consultancy projects. Evaluative studies have not been performed yet. However, from the development activities and several consultancy projects some remarkable evaluative findings can be given. The approach can be useful for companies and OSH-Services to make their goals and expectations more explicit. The approach also helps to make the management of companies clear that their own behaviour is relevant to the achievement of their goals in occupational health and safety policy, in addition to the services provided by the OSH-Service and their professionals. The approach cannot fulfil the possible need for qualification of OSH professionals. However, the approach can make the OSH professionals clear in what way they have qualification needs.

  3. Evolution of the U.S. energy service company industry: Market size and project performance from 1990–2008

    Larsen, Peter H.; Goldman, Charles A.; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of ∼3250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2484 ESCO projects in our database generated ∼$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990–2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ∼$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures—including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance—but this evolution has significant implications for customer project economics

  4. Effects of anion size and concentration on electrolyte invasion into molecular-sized nanopores

    Liu Ling; Chen Xi; Kim, Taewan; Han Aijie; Qiao Yu

    2010-01-01

    When an electrolyte solution is pressurized into a molecular-sized nanopore, oppositely charged ions are strongly inclined to aggregate, which effectively reduces the ion solubility to zero. Inside the restrictive confinement, a unique quasi-periodic structure is formed where the paired ion couples are periodically separated by a number of water molecules. As the anion size or ion concentration varies, the geometrical characteristics of the confined ion structure would change considerably, leading to a significant variation in the transport pressure. Both experimental and simulation results indicate that, contradictory to the prediction of conventional theory, infiltration pressure decreases as the anions become larger.

  5. The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a Product of a Company

    Hansel Bagus Tritama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social  media  is an online media, where the users can easily participate, share, and create any content such as banner,  posters, videos and advertisement.  Many companies  use these  social  media as  a tool to promote their products  and make  customers aware  with their brand. On the other hand, not all companies  succeed to market their products and make their products are at their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research is to find the correlation  between social media commu- nication marketing  with companys brand awareness in social media.  The research  method for this research  is quantitative  research.  This method collects  data with explanative research type which explains the relationship between two variables. The result  of this research  is to show that marketing  communication in a company has an impact to company’s brand awareness. In addition, this research wants to show that marketing via social media can give impact  to company’s revenue. The summary of this research  is to get significant  information  about the effect of social media toward companys brand awareness through quantitative  and explanative  research  method due to the rising of social media.

  6. EFFECT OF FARM SIZE AND FREQUENCY OF CUTTING ON ...

    EFFECT OF FARM SIZE AND FREQUENCY OF CUTTING ON OUTPUT OF ... the use of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation technique was used in analyzing ... frequency of cutting that would produce maximum output of the vegetable as ...

  7. Size effect in tension perpendicular to the grain

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The strength in tension perpendicular to the grain is known to decrease with an increase in the stressed volume. Usually this size effect is explained on a stochastic basis, that is an explanation relying on an increased probability of encountering a strength reducing flaw when the volume...... of the material under stress is increased. This paper presents a small experimental investigation on specimens with well defined structural orientation of the material. The experiments exhibit a larger size effect than expected and furthermore the data and the nature of the failures encountered suggest...... that the size effect can be explained on a deterministic basis. Arguments for such a simple deterministic explanation of size effect is found in finite element modelling using the orthotropic stiffness characteristics in the transverse plane of wood....

  8. Distinguishing crystallite size effects from those of structural disorder ...

    Administrator

    Both crystallite size effects and structural disorder contribute to the broadening of lines in .... ple contributions to the peak profiles. ... the fit is then corrected by accounting for sample ... Authors thank the Department of Science and Tech-.

  9. 77 FR 73646 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status

    2012-12-11

    ... Renewable Energy Infrastructure FC12-10-000 Limited Partnership. Project AMBG2 LP FC12-11-000 SunBridge Wind... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG12-108-000, et al.] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status [[Page 73647...

  10. 77 FR 42719 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [EG12-43-000, EG12-53-000, EG12-54-000, et al.] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status Docket Nos. Sherbino I Wind Farm LLC EG12-43-000 Eagle Point Power Generation LLC....... EG12-53-000...

  11. Member Company Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Food Valley as a Cluster Organization

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of the different cluster organization functions (services, activities and information sources) of Food Valley Organization in the Dutch agifood innovation system, as evaluated by its member companies. It is concluded that, in accordance with cluster

  12. An Assessment of E-Training Effectiveness in Multinational Companies in Malaysia

    Ramayah, Thurasamy; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina; Hong, Tan Say

    2012-01-01

    E-training has developed into a revolutionary way of learning in Malaysian organizations due to rapid growth in information technology infrastructure. The present study endeavors to determine the critical factors that influence e-training effectiveness in multinational companies (MNCs) in Malaysia. By integrating Technology Acceptance Model (TAM),…

  13. The Effects of the Value Co-Creation Process on the Consumer and the Company

    María Ángeles GARCÍA HARO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the concept of value co-creation, which has arisen due to the combination of various modern influences - including economic globalization, changes in consumers’ buying habits, and the emergence of the Internet and social media - that have changed the way companies innovate. These factors also have transformed the traditional marketing paradigm, such that companies must continually innovate to create and maintain long-term relationships with their consumers and thus competitive advantages. This study analyzes practices of co-creation and seeks to establish a theoretical research framework; the authors also identify the key effects and results of co-creation activities for both companies and consumers. By integrating situational and moderating variables, the proposed theoretical model covers multiple dimensions and offers a comprehensive approach to the topic.

  14. Finite size effects in the intermittency analysis of the fragment-size correlations

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.; Tucholski, A.

    1991-01-01

    An influence of the finite size effect on the fragment-size correlations in the nuclear multifragmentation is studied using the method of scaled factorial moments for a 1 - dim percolation model and for a statistical model of the fragmentation process, which for a certain value of a tuning parameter yields the power-law behaviour of the fragment-size distribution. It is shown that the statistical models of this type contain only repulsive correlations due to the conservation laws. The comparison of the results with those obtained in the non-critical 1 - dim percolation and in the 3 - dim percolation at around the critical point is presented. Correlations in the 1 - dim percolation model are analysed analytically and the mechanism of the attractive correlations in 1 - dim and 3 - dim is identified. (author) 30 refs., 7 figs

  15. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  16. Challenges of small and medium sized companies at early stage of development: Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Saša Petković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discover and understand factors that lead to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs shutdown in transitional economies, such as the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The paper provides some findings about main influencing factors that lead to SMEs shut down in the first years of operation from entrepreneurs’ and managers’ perspective and suggests certain measures that should be taken to secure their survival, development and growth. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted, using stratified sampling of 110 SMEs from Republic of Srpska (49% of B&H territory. The section on methodology explains the entry criteria for the study population and methods of data analysis. Respondents from the research sample identified the following factors as the main obstacles to successful development of their businesses: difficulties in the collection of receivables from debtors, complicated legal procedures that regulate the work and business operations of enterprises, high rates of taxes and contributions on wages, the negative impact of the global economic crisis and expensive and complicated procedures for obtaining loans from commercial banks. Respondents didn’t evaluate their personal traits, level of formal and informal knowledge from business management field or lack of entrepreneurial spirit and readiness for being proactive, innovative or risk acceptance as potential causes of business failure. With its limitation, the paper contains novel information and insights about SMEs business obstacles and challenges in economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a solid base for more comprehensive future research.

  17. Effective mechanisms for environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company

    Tilokwan, P.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company. The environmental awareness has been strongly mentioned in the international agenda such as Agenda 21 to achieve sustainable development and be implemented at the global communities in all sectors. Thailand’s environmental awareness has been set up as the national policy and continuously promoted in the business sectors. The selected study area is one of Thai industrial public companies mainly utilizing natural resources for its business. Data collection was conducted by using questionnaires with a stratified sampling method comprising of 28 managerial and 134 operational levels. Descriptive statistics were be used for data analysis presented in terms of percentage. The study found that the effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement include employees’ participation in environmental friendly field trip, environmental knowledge provided by the company, supply chain involvement, law enforcement, and international environmental standard applied by the company. This study would recommend that public participation should be involved in order to make the mechanisms effectively.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF CULTURE ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY OF MSC STATUS COMPANIES

    Charmaine Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is recognised as being an important asset in organisations these days. Despite this, many organisations are not doing enough to effectively manage this important asset for its competitive advantage. In response to this, knowledge management which is defined as a process that effectively creates, captures, shares and uses organisation-wide knowledge to improve the organisation’s performance was conceived and has since gained widespread acceptance the world over. Despite its widespread acceptance, little is known about the current levels of knowledge management within the Malaysian context, in particular amongst the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies in Malaysia. Furthermore, the extent to which cultural factors impact upon knowledge management practice in these companies is not known. This study investigated the various cultural factors (collaboration, mutual trust, leadership and incentives/rewards using a multiple case study approach operating within a critical realism research paradigm and found that these factors have impact on the level of knowledge management practice. The study also established that cultural factors do play an important role in facilitating knowledge management practice in these MSC status companies in Malaysia. It was found that collaboration, mutual trust, leadership, kiasu-ism and incentives/rewards have significant impact on the level of knowledge management practice. In view of the findings of this study, it is suggested that the relevant authorities pay adequate attention on these cultural factors to ensure that the knowledge management initiatives undertaken by Malaysian companies are effectively deployed.

  19. Effect of particle size on the glass transition.

    Larsen, Ryan J; Zukoski, Charles F

    2011-05-01

    The glass transition temperature of a broad class of molecules is shown to depend on molecular size. This dependency results from the size dependence of the pair potential. A generalized equation of state is used to estimate how the volume fraction at the glass transition depends on the size of the molecule, for rigid molecule glass-formers. The model shows that at a given pressure and temperature there is a size-induced glass transition: For molecules larger than a critical size, the volume fraction required to support the effective pressure due to particle attractions is above that which characterizes the glassy state. This observation establishes the boundary between nanoparticles, which exist in liquid form only as dispersions in low molecular weight solvents and large molecules which form liquids that have viscosities below those characterized by the glassy state.

  20. Interviewer Effects on a Network-Size Filter Question

    Josten Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.

  1. Demand Forecast at the Foodstuff Retail Segment: a Strategic Sustainability Tool at a Small-Sized Brazilian Company

    Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand forecasting plays an increasingly relevant role within competitive and globalized marketplaces, in as much as operations planning and subsequent transition into a sustainable chain of supplies, is concerned. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present the application of demand forecasting as a strategic sustainability tool at a Brazilian SME. Therefore, this is a descriptive, ex-post facto and cross-cut, sectional time case study, which employs qualitative and historical quantitative and direct observational data and that utilizes, as both indicators of the level of service offered to consumers and of opportunity costs the artificial neural networks model and fill-rates, for demand forecasting and response purposes. The study further established cause-effect relationships between prediction accuracy, demand responsiveness and process-resulting economic, environmental and social performances. Findings additionally concurred with both widely acknowledged sustainability concepts - NRBV (Natural-Resource-Based View and 3BL (Triple Bottom Line - by demonstrating that demand forecasts ensure the efficient use of resources, improvements in customer responsiveness and also mitigate supply chain stock out and overstock losses. Further to the mentioned economic benefit, demand forecasting additionally reduced the amount of waste that arises from retail product shelf-life expiration, improving the addressing of demand itself and of customer satisfaction, thus driving consequent environmental and social gains.

  2. THE EFFECT OF HARD AND SOFT FACTORS ON THE SUCCESS OF A COMPANY

    Peter Bóna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What makes a company successful? What kind of instruments may it use to achieve outstanding results? Instruments necessary for effective operation depend remarkably on the current age and the environment surrounding the organisation. Various ages have had their different keys to success. This key has become more and more complex and complicated due to the continuous acceleration of world economy and the fact that distances have become negligible. The aim of this study is to explore, whether companies having an interest in the processing industry use hard or soft success factors as a key to achieve success. In order to do that, the research will identify the possible success factors first. Henceforward it will reveal the effect of the resulting factors on success by logistic regression, which will be examined via the balance scorecard by complementing the four classic aspects – as one of the pioneers – with a fifth one, i.e. sustainability. Thus it will become visible, to what extent strategic, structural, cultural and leadership success factors influence the performance of a company to reach excellence in accordance with the expectations of the owners, the customers, the employees and the social sphere. The results of the research will thereby show the unravelled correlations between the successful operation of a company and the instruments indicating hard and soft success affecting it.

  3. Atomistic calculation of size effects on elastic coefficients in nanometre-sized tungsten layers and wires

    Villain, P.; Beauchamp, P.; Badawi, K.F.; Goudeau, P.; Renault, P.-O.

    2004-01-01

    Equilibrium state and elastic coefficients of nanometre-sized single crystal tungsten layers and wires are investigated by atomistic simulations. The variations of the equilibrium distances as a function of the layer thickness or wire cross-section are mainly due to elastic effects of surface tension forces. A strong decrease of the Young's modulus is observed when the transverse dimensions are reduced below 2-3 nm

  4. Long-Term Effects of School Size on Students' Outcomes

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina

    We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us...... school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas....

  5. Selection dramatically reduces effective population size in HIV-1 infection

    Mittler John E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In HIV-1 evolution, a 100–100,000 fold discrepancy between census size and effective population size (Ne has been noted. Although it is well known that selection can reduce Ne, high in vivo mutation and recombination rates complicate attempts to quantify the effects of selection on HIV-1 effective size. Results We use the inbreeding coefficient and the variance in allele frequency at a linked neutral locus to estimate the reduction in Ne due to selection in the presence of mutation and recombination. With biologically realistic mutation rates, the reduction in Ne due to selection is determined by the strength of selection, i.e., the stronger the selection, the greater the reduction. However, the dependence of Ne on selection can break down if recombination rates are very high (e.g., r ≥ 0.1. With biologically likely recombination rates, our model suggests that recurrent selective sweeps similar to those observed in vivo can reduce within-host HIV-1 effective population sizes by a factor of 300 or more. Conclusion Although other factors, such as unequal viral reproduction rates and limited migration between tissue compartments contribute to reductions in Ne, our model suggests that recurrent selection plays a significant role in reducing HIV-1 effective population sizes in vivo.

  6. Effect of small mapping population sizes on reliability of quantitative ...

    A limitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is that accuracy of determining QTL position and effects are largely determined by population size. Despite the importance of this concept, known as the "Beavis effect there has generally been a lack of understanding by molecular geneticists and breeders. One possible ...

  7. Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors

    Knap, W; Rumyantsev, S; Coquillat, D; Dyakonova, N; Teppe, F; Vitiello, M S; Tredicucci, A; Blin, S; Shur, M; Nagatsuma, T

    2013-01-01

    Nanometer size field effect transistors can operate as efficient resonant or broadband terahertz detectors, mixers, phase shifters and frequency multipliers at frequencies far beyond their fundamental cut-off frequency. This work is an overview of some recent results concerning the application of nanometer scale field effect transistors for the detection of terahertz radiation. (paper)

  8. Evidence of Macroeconomic Policy Effects over Company-Sector Stock Returns

    Mara Madaleno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that stock markets may act as an economy mirror, it is explored the sensitivity of company-sector-specific stock returns to macroeconomic news reflecting different economic environments for the UK, US, Germany, Japan and Australian markets between March 1993 and February 2013 using monthly data. Results seem to indicate that portfolio investors need to be aware that movements in the market index is the best predictor to forecast stock returns of individual companies and sectors in developed economies. Sentiment influences individual company’s returns of the utilities sector, even if these are considered of limited growth and stable earnings, for UK, USA and Australia, turning investor confidence a relevant variable to be included. Information increases about industrial production have no influence on company and sector stocks, thus not affecting investor’s decision in developed countries. As for Japan, results seem to indicate that the higher the need of oil imports of a country, the higher will be the positive impact of oil price changes over company returns. Finally, the riskless interest rate has no effect on sector stock returns independently of the country under analysis. For developed economies, we confirm the finding that stocks cannot be used as a hedge against inflation.

  9. Improving Overall Equipment Effectiveness Using CPM and MOST: A Case Study of an Indonesian Pharmaceutical Company

    Omega, Dousmaris; Andika, Aditya

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the results of a research conducted on the production process of an Indonesian pharmaceutical company. The company is experiencing low performance in the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) metric. The OEE of the company machines are below world class standard. The machine that has the lowest OEE is the filler machine. Through observation and analysis, it is found that the cleaning process of the filler machine consumes significant amount of time. The long duration of the cleaning process happens because there is no structured division of jobs between cleaning operators, differences in operators’ ability, and operators’ inability in utilizing available cleaning equipment. The company needs to improve the cleaning process. Therefore, Critical Path Method (CPM) analysis is conducted to find out what activities are critical in order to shorten and simplify the cleaning process in the division of tasks. Afterwards, The Maynard Operation and Sequence Technique (MOST) method is used to reduce ineffective movement and specify the cleaning process standard time. From CPM and MOST, it is obtained the shortest time of the cleaning process is 1 hour 28 minutes and the standard time is 1 hour 38.826 minutes.

  10. Large size self-assembled quantum rings: quantum size effect and modulation on the surface diffusion.

    Tong, Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Wang, Lijun

    2012-09-24

    We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.

  11. Specific cesium activity in freshwater fish and the size effect

    Kulikov, A.O.; Ryabov, I.N.; USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    1992-01-01

    The specific Cs-137 activity of muscle tissues of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from the cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caught in 1987 and 1988 increased almost linearly with fish weight ('size effect') in contrast to liver tissue, whose specific activity remained independent of weight. A kinetic model for uptake and excretion was developed to describe the size effect in muscle tissue by introducing a weight-dependent Cs biological half-time to fish. Similar size effects of specific Cs-137 activity were also found for other species of fish from cooling pond, but were primarily attributed to changes in feeding habits with increasing weight of fish rather than to metabolic changes in feeding habits with both of muscle and liver tissue increased with fish weight for those species in contrast to silver carp. (author). 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Working conditions and effects of ISO 9000 in six furniture-making companies: implementation and processes.

    Karltun, J; Axelsson, J; Eklund, J

    1998-08-01

    What effects will the implementation of the quality standard ISO 9000 have regarding working conditions and competitive advantages? Which are the most important change process characteristics for assuring improved working conditions and other desired effects? These are the main questions behind this study of six furniture-making companies which implemented ISO 9000 during the period 1991-1994. The results show that customer requirement was the dominant goal to implement ISO 9000. Five of the six companies succeeded in gaining certification. The influence on working conditions was limited, but included better order and housekeeping, more positive attitudes towards discussing quality shortcomings, a few workplace improvements, work enrichment caused by additional tasks within the quality system and a better understanding of external customer demands. Among the negative effects were new, apparently meaningless, tasks for individual workers as well as more stress and more physically strenuous work. The effects on the companies included a decrease in external quality-related costs and improved delivery precision. The study confirms the importance for efficient change of the design of the change process, and identifies 'improvement methodology' as the most important process characteristic. Improved working conditions are enhanced by added relevant strategic goals and by a participative implementation process.

  13. Study of Cluster-size Effect on Damage Formation

    Aoki, Takaaki; Seki, Toshio; Nakai, Atsuko; Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulation and experiments were performed in order to understand the effect of cluster size on damage formation. Results of molecular dynamics simulations of cluster impact on solid targets derived the model function, which explains the relationship among cluster size, incident energy and number of displacements. On the other hand, time of flight mass measurement system was installed a cluster irradiation system, so that cluster ion beam which cluster size distribution is well known can be irradiated on the target. The damage properties under various cluster irradiation conditions were examined using RBS. The results from computer simulations and experiments showed good agreements with each other, which suggests that irradiation damage by cluster ion beam can be controlled by selecting cluster size distribution and incident energy

  14. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  15. R2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Taylor, Aaron B.

    2010-01-01

    R2 effect-size measures are presented to assess variance accounted for in mediation models. The measures offer a means to evaluate both component paths and the overall mediated effect in mediation models. Statistical simulation results indicate acceptable bias across varying parameter and sample-size combinations. The measures are applied to a real-world example using data from a team-based health promotion program to improve the nutrition and exercise habits of firefighters. SAS and SPSS computer code are also provided for researchers to compute the measures in their own data. PMID:19363189

  16. R2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis.

    Fairchild, Amanda J; Mackinnon, David P; Taborga, Marcia P; Taylor, Aaron B

    2009-05-01

    R(2) effect-size measures are presented to assess variance accounted for in mediation models. The measures offer a means to evaluate both component paths and the overall mediated effect in mediation models. Statistical simulation results indicate acceptable bias across varying parameter and sample-size combinations. The measures are applied to a real-world example using data from a team-based health promotion program to improve the nutrition and exercise habits of firefighters. SAS and SPSS computer code are also provided for researchers to compute the measures in their own data.

  17. THE EFFECT OF REMUNERATION ON MOTIVATION THAT IMPLICATES EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE IN XYZ COMPANY

    Aldi Cahyanugroho; Musa Hubeis; Hari Wijayanto

    2016-01-01

    PT XYZ is foreign investment company on food and beverages manufacturer with health benefit positioning. PT XYZ is willing to consistent of safety, quality and productivity (SQP) aspect, therefore should be encouraged by high quality human resources. Employee motivation was stimulated by remuneration program in order to increase employee performance in PT XYZ.  The aim of this study was to analyze remuneration effect towards employee motivation and it’s implication to employee performance at ...

  18. The effect of scaffold pore size in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Nava, Michele M; Draghi, Lorenza; Giordano, Carmen; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2016-07-26

    The effect of scaffold pore size and interconnectivity is undoubtedly a crucial factor for most tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pore size and porosity on cartilage construct development in different scaffolds seeded with articular chondrocytes. We fabricated poly-L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate scaffolds with different pore sizes, using a solvent-casting/particulate-leaching technique. We seeded primary bovine articular chondrocytes on these scaffolds, cultured the constructs for 2 weeks and examined cell proliferation, viability and cell-specific production of cartilaginous extracellular matrix proteins, including GAG and collagen. Cell density significantly increased up to 50% with scaffold pore size and porosity, likely facilitated by cell spreading on the internal surface of bigger pores, and by increased mass transport of gases and nutrients to cells, and catabolite removal from cells, allowed by lower diffusion barriers in scaffolds with a higher porosity. However, both the cell metabolic activity and the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins significantly decreased by up to 40% with pore size. We propose that the association of smaller pore diameters, causing 3-dimensional cell aggregation, to a lower oxygenation caused by a lower porosity, could have been the condition that increased the cell-specific synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins in the scaffold with the smallest pores and the lowest porosity among those tested. In the initial steps of in vitro cartilage engineering, the combination of small scaffold pores and low porosity is an effective strategy with regard to the promotion of chondrogenesis.

  19. Atomic size effect on critical cooling rate and glass formation

    Jalali, Payman; Li Mo

    2005-01-01

    Atomic size effect on critical cooling rate and glass formability in a model binary system is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. To isolate atomic size effect from the rest of the factors that critically influence the glass formation, a hard sphere model is employed in conjunction with a newly developed densification method. The glass formability is defined as a set of optimal conditions that result in the slowest cooling rate of the glass-forming liquid. Critical cooling rates are identified from extensive molecular dynamics simulations. A kinetic glass-forming diagram is mapped out that marks the boundary between the glass-forming regions and competing crystalline phases in terms of the parameters of the atomic size ratio and alloy concentration. It is found that the potency of the atomic size difference on glass formation is influenced greatly by the competing metastable and equilibrium crystalline phases in the system, and the kinetic processes leading to the formation of these phases. The mechanisms of the atomic size effect on topological instability of crystal packing and glass formation are discussed

  20. Core size effects on safety performances of LMRs

    Na, Byung Chan; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An oxide fuel small size core (1200 MWt) was analyzed in comparison with a large size core (3600 MWt) in order to evaluate the size effects on transient safety performances of liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). In the first part of the study, main static safety parameters (i.e., Doppler coefficient, sodium void effect, etc.) of the two cores were characterized, and the second part of the study was focused on the dynamic behavior of the cores in two representative transient events: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP). Margins to fuel melting and sodium boiling have been evaluated for these representative transients. Results show that the small core has a generally better or equivalent level of safety performances during these events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Core size effects on safety performances of LMRs

    Na, Byung Chan; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An oxide fuel small size core (1200 MWt) was analyzed in comparison with a large size core (3600 MWt) in order to evaluate the size effects on transient safety performances of liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). In the first part of the study, main static safety parameters (i.e., Doppler coefficient, sodium void effect, etc.) of the two cores were characterized, and the second part of the study was focused on the dynamic behavior of the cores in two representative transient events: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP). Margins to fuel melting and sodium boiling have been evaluated for these representative transients. Results show that the small core has a generally better or equivalent level of safety performances during these events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  2. [Workplace Health Promotion in Small, Medium-Sized and Large Enterprises of the Health-Care Sector - Frequency, Reasons for the Company Management to Take Action and Barriers to Implementation].

    Schaefer, E; Drexler, H; Kiesel, J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into worksite health promotion in small and medium-sized companies compared to large concerns in Middle Franconia. Action in worksite health promotion, obstacles and demand for networks for workplace health promotion were determined. A standardised telephone interview served for collecting data for this cross-sectional study. The interviewee was always the manager or their proxy. 106 companies were contacted. The results of this study were analysed via qualitative and quantitative methods in SPSS(®) 20. It was possible to reach and interview 80 companies, a return rate of 75.5%. More than half the companies (68.8%) implemented at least one activity for worksite health promotion, especially ergonomic measures and measures to promote physical activity. Taking the size of the company into consideration when analysing the results, previous study results are confirmed. With an increasing size of the company, the relative frequency of measures for workplace health promotion rises. The motivation for worksite health promotion ranges from keeping the employees healthy (38.2%) to worksite health promotion as part of the business culture (9.1%). 81.1% of the companies consider their activity in worksite health promotion to be successful. Furthermore, 80.0% of the firms that implemented worksite health promotion were supported by a partner like a health insurance (43.2%). Those companies that did not implement any activities for worksite health promotion, state as a prime reason that they did not think about it as yet (44.0%). Besides, 44.0% of the companies without any worksite health promotion would like to implement measures. 65.5% of the companies that already took action in worksite health promotion and 56.0% of the companies that did not would like to cooperate with other firms in a network for workplace health promotion. Mutual exchange is the most important factor for them. The results of this study show that almost half of

  3. Effect of microfluidization on casein micelle size of bovine milk

    Sinaga, H.; Deeth, H.; Bhandari, B.

    2018-02-01

    The properties of milk are likely to be dependent on the casein micelle size, and various processing technologies produce particular change in the average size of casein micelles. The main objective of this study was to manipulate casein micelle size by subjecting milk to microfluidizer. The experiment was performed as a complete block randomised design with three replications. The sample was passed through the microfluidizer at the set pressure of 83, 97, 112 and 126 MPa for one, two, three, four, five and six cycles, except for the 112 MPa. The results showed that microfluidized milk has smaller size by 3% with pressure up to 126 MPa. However, at each pressure, no further reduction was observed after increasing the passed up to 6 cycles. Although the average casein micelle size was similar, elevating pressure resulted in narrower size distribution. In contrast, increasing the number of cycles had little effect on casein micelle distribution. The finding from this study can be applied for future work to characterize the fundamental and functional properties of the treated milk.

  4. Board interlocking in Brazil: Director participation in multiple companies and its effect on the value of firms

    Alexandre Di Miceli da Silveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the simultaneous participation of directors in different companies from 320 Brazilian listed firms in 2003 and 2005. We identify which firms are connected through a network of directors, which corporate characteristics contribute to this phenomenon, and if board interlocking influences firm value and operational performance. The results show that interlocking directorates are a common practice in Brazil. Besides, larger boards, more dispersed ownership structures, and larger firm size are factors associated with a high level of board interlocking. Moreover, we find that firm value is, on average, negatively impacted by higher levels of board interlocking, especially on firms with board of directors considered too busy (those in which a majority of directors hold three or more directorships or on firms where their CEO hold directorships in other companies. Besides being a pioneer work on this field in Latin America, the paper provides subsides for the preparation of good corporate governance practices from regulators regarding the effectiveness of multiple directorships and its consequences for corporate value.

  5. THE EFFECT OF WORKING CAPITAL ON THE PROFITABILITY OF PALM OIL PLANTATION COMPANIES

    Tania Prafitri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions related to working capital are based on the management of short-term assets and liabilities, aiming to ensure that the company is able to maintain the operations and have sufficient cash flows to finance short-term debt maturities and operational costs, as well as to improve the profitability of the company. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of working capital management on company profitability. Working capital is considered to be an important issue in financial management and have an effect on liquidity as well as on the company profitability. In addition, optimized working capital management contributes greatly to the achievement of company objectives. The secondary data were taken from the annual reports of 6 oil palm plantation companies registered in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the year 2009-2015. Profitability as a dependent variable was measured by return on investment (ROI. Cash conversion cycle (CCC, current ratio (CR, financial debt ratio (FDR, and fixed financial asset ratio (FFAR are independent variables. The analytical model used in this study was panel regression by using Fixed Effect Model. The results showed that there is a negative effect of working capital on profitability. Profitability will increase as cash cycle conversion cycle decreases. This is because companies with short cash conversion cycle are able to collect the cash needed for the company's day-to-day operations.Keywords: working capital, cash conversion cycle, current ratio, debt ratio, fixed assets ratio. profitabilityABSTRAKKeputusan manajemen yang berkaitan dengan modal kerja didasari oleh cara pengelolaan antara aset dan kewajiban jangka pendek, hal ini bertujuan untuk memastikan bahwa perusahaan mampu untuk melanjutkan kegiatan operasional dan memiliki arus kas yang cukup untuk membiayai hutang jangka pendek yang jatuh tempo dan biaya kegiatan operasional, serta untuk meningkatkan profitabilitas

  6. Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…

  7. Adaptive evolution and effective population size in wild house mice

    Phifer-Rixey, M.; Bonhomme, F.; Boursot, P.; Churchill, G. A.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P.; Nachman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2012), s. 2949-2955 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : substitution * adaptation * evolution * effective population size * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  8. Effect of limestone particle size on bone quality characteristics of ...

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different limestone particle sizes in layer diets on bone quality characteristics at end-of-lay hens. Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg DM) that is extensively used in commercial poultry diets was obtained from a specific South African source. Limestone particles were graded as ...

  9. Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Bioremediation of Crude Oil ...

    Bioremediation has been proven to be the most effective method of cleaning up oil contaminated soils through the application of nutrients and microorganism. ... The parameters examined were: moisture content, particle size distribution, total hydrocarbon content, soil pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total ...

  10. Origin of size effect on efficiency of organic photovoltaics

    Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A.; Tromholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that efficiency of organic solar cells could be limited by their size. However, the published data on this effect are very limited and none of them includes analysis of light intensity dependence of the key cell parameters. We report such analysis for bulk heterojunction sol...

  11. Reporting effect sizes as a supplement to statistical significance ...

    The purpose of the article is to review the statistical significance reporting practices in reading instruction studies and to provide guidelines for when to calculate and report effect sizes in educational research. A review of six readily accessible (online) and accredited journals publishing research on reading instruction ...

  12. Short communication Effective population size and inbreeding rate ...

    201010100

    2013-05-30

    May 30, 2013 ... Understanding and estimating effective population size for practical application in marine species management. Conservation Biology 25 (3), 438-449. Mapiye, C., Chimonyo, M., Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Marufu, M.C. & Raats, J.G., 2007. Potential for value-addition of Nguni cattle products in the communal ...

  13. The effect of surface albedo and grain size distribution on ...

    Sand dams are very useful in arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) as facilities for water storage and conservation. Soils in ASALs are mainly sandy and major water loss is by evaporation and infiltration. This study investigated the effect of sand media characteristics, specifically surface albedo, grain size and stratification on ...

  14. Application of size effect to compressive strength of concrete members

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    (LSM) to obtain parameters for the modified size effect law (MSEL) by Kim and co workers. The results of the ... in tensile failure, because the formation of microcracks in compressive failure is distributed in a wider region ...... Benjamin J R, Cornell C A 1970 Probability, statistics, and decision for civil engineers (New York:.

  15. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to ...

  16. Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research.

    Téllez A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.

  17. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    Different limestone particle sizes had no effect on any of the tested egg production and eggshell quality parameters. These results suggested that larger particles limestone are not necessarily essential to provide sufficient Ca2+ to laying hens for egg production and eggshell quality at end-of-lay, provided that the dietary Ca ...

  18. Sampling strategies for estimating brook trout effective population size

    Andrew R. Whiteley; Jason A. Coombs; Mark Hudy; Zachary Robinson; Keith H. Nislow; Benjamin H. Letcher

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sampling strategy on estimates of effective population size (Ne) from single-sample genetic methods has not been rigorously examined, though these methods are increasingly used. For headwater salmonids, spatially close kin association among age-0 individuals suggests that sampling strategy (number of individuals and location from...

  19. An Introductory Summary of Various Effect Size Choices.

    Cromwell, Susan

    This paper provides a tutorial summary of some of the many effect size choices so that members of the Southwest Educational Research Association would be better able to follow the recommendations of the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual, the APA Task Force on Statistical Inference, and the publication requirements of some…

  20. Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate ...

    Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate of indigenous Nguni cattle under in situ conservation in the low-input communal production ... as not at risk of extinction, while the individual enterprises were classified as being endangered-maintained without the exchange of germ plasm among them.

  1. Finite-size effects for anisotropic bootstrap percolation : Logarithmic corrections

    van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Hulshof, Tim

    In this note we analyse an anisotropic, two-dimensional bootstrap percolation model introduced by Gravner and Griffeath. We present upper and lower bounds on the finite-size effects. We discuss the similarities with the semi-oriented model introduced by Duarte.

  2. Finite-size effects for anisotropic bootstrap percolation: logerithmic corrections

    Enter, van A.C.D.; Hulshof, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this note we analyse an anisotropic, two-dimensional bootstrap percolation model introduced by Gravner and Griffeath. We present upper and lower bounds on the finite-size effects. We discuss the similarities with the semi-oriented model introduced by Duarte.

  3. Overall equipment effectiveness: application in a company in the drinks Manaus industrial sector

    Cristiane Fátima Cavalcante Raposo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is an indicator used as a management and continuous improvement of machinery and equipment, useful to identify losses, thus reducing production costs. In order to examine in more detail the application of OEE in the production system of a company in the beverage industry of the Industrial Pole of Manaus, was performed by means of literature search and descriptive, and using the case study method, a remark in the production system of the company Alfa, in the period from January to November 2008. The results from this research show the application of OEE in eleven steps, the statistical analysis of the results of this indicator shows a positive trend in the initial stage because of the improvements achieved in the production system through actions for elimination / reduction of losses, revealing that the manager can make improvements that may be necessary.

  4. Oil Companies Climb Global List

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Backed by the huge market size,China's energy companies have been ranked in the group of the world's largest industry players. On September 6th,eight companies from the Chinese mainland and six companies from Hong Kong SAR were included in this year's Platts Top 250 Energy Companies List.

  5. Analysis of Market Risk, Financial Leverage, and Firm Size Toward Stock Return on Non-banking Companies Listed in Lq45 Index of Idx

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Koluku, Rini Feronica

    2015-01-01

    In the world of investment, one underlies the decision of investors is stock returns that are depend on many factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Market Risk, Financial Leverage, and Firm Size to Stock Return. By counting these factors, investors can see the effect of stock returns are important in decision making. The research methods associative with regression analysis and classical assumption techniques that include normality, multicollinearity, heteroscedastici...

  6. Effect of coal stress on grain size of the gotten

    Sikora, W; Tront, A

    1988-09-01

    Presents investigation results on the effect of seam stress and strain state on winning as measured by the grain size of the gotten. The investigations were carried out at the Institute of Mining Mechanization of the Silesian Politechnical where the relations between parameters of seams and cutters and their effect on coal grain size and energy consumption have been studied for several years. The effect was examined on coal samples taken from 4 mines in the Upper Silesian coal basin using a model of the system: seam - cutter. Cubic samples (400x400x400 mm) were tested on the CMG KOMAG test stand equipped with the POS-1 cutting apparatus. Two types of coal were distinguished: that particularly sensitive to increased pressure on seam and that only negligibly susceptible. Corresponding graphs of coal grain size versus vertical pressure are shown. A function has been developed that characterizes this sensitivity depending on a material parameter that can be determined by workability tests. The relationship between coal strength and grain size yield greater than 10 mm in the gotten depending on dynamic crushability of coal is shown in graphs. 6 refs.

  7. The Effect of Size and Ecology on Extinction Susceptibility

    Huynh, C.; Yuan, A.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Although life on Earth first emerged as prokaryotic organisms, it eventually evolved into billions of different species. However, extinctions on Earth, especially the five mass extinctions, have decimated species. So what leads to a species survival or demise during a mass extinction? Are certain species more susceptible to extinctions based on their size and ecology? For this project, we focused on the data of marine animals. To examine the impact of size and ecology on a species's likelihood of survival, we compared the sizes and ecologies of the survivors and victims of the five mass extinctions. The ecology, or life mode, of a genus consists of the combination of tiering, motility, and feeding mechanism. Tiering refers to the animal's typical location in the water column and sediments, motility refers to its ability to move, and feeding mechanism describes the way the organism eats; together, they describe the animal's behavior. We analyzed the effect of ecology on survival using logistic regression, which compares life mode to the success or failure of a genus during each mass extinction interval. For organism size, we found the extinct organisms' mean size (both volume and length) and compared it with the average size of survivors on a graph. Our results show that while surviving genera of mass extinctions tended to be slightly larger than those that went extinct, there was no significant difference. Even though the Permian (Changhsingian) and Triassic (Rhaetian) extinctions had larger surviving species, likewise the difference was small. Ecology had a more obvious impact on the likelihood of survival; fast-moving, predatory pelagic organisms were the most likely to go extinct, while sedentary, infaunal suspension feeders had the greatest chances of survival. Overall, ecology played a greater role than size in determining the survival of a species. With this information, we can use ecology to predict which species would survive future extinctions.

  8. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    Pentel Paul R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time.

  9. Commercial secret as an instrument of company competitive strategy effectiveness increase

    Peskova Dinara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern companies are very much diversified in scale, sectoral affiliation, marketing behavior. There are many theoretical and applied studies in effective competitiveness strategies (see Porter, M. (2002, 1998, Kramer, M. (1998, Fatkhutdinov, R. A. (2000, Feigelson, V. M. (1996 and others.They present famous approaches and probably there is no need to repeat them in this article. We would like to feature a different concept (suggested by Yudanov A. and followers with terminology adopted from natural sciences and show the way the commercial secret can increase effectiveness of competitiveness strategy. We also perform valid methods of commercial secret protection.

  10. Size effects of latex nanomaterials on lung inflammation in mice

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Shimada, Akinori

    2009-01-01

    Effects of nano-sized materials (nanomaterials) on sensitive population have not been well elucidated. This study examined the effects of pulmonary exposure to (latex) nanomaterials on lung inflammation related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or allergen in mice, especially in terms of their size-dependency. In protocol 1, ICR male mice were divided into 8 experimental groups that intratracheally received a single exposure to vehicle, latex nanomaterials (250 μg/animal) with three sizes (25, 50, and 100 nm), LPS (75 μg/animal), or LPS plus latex nanomaterials. In protocol 2, ICR male mice were divided into 8 experimental groups that intratracheally received repeated exposure to vehicle, latex nanomaterials (100 μg/animal), allergen (ovalbumin: OVA; 1 μg/animal), or allergen plus latex nanomaterials. In protocol 1, latex nanomaterials with all sizes exacerbated lung inflammation elicited by LPS, showing an overall trend of amplified lung expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, LPS plus nanomaterials, especially with size less than 50 nm, significantly elevated circulatory levels of fibrinogen, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, and keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant, and von Willebrand factor as compared with LPS alone. The enhancement tended overall to be greater with the smaller nanomaterials than with the larger ones. In protocol 2, latex nanomaterials with all sizes did not significantly enhance the pathophysiology of allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation and Igs production, although latex nanomaterials with less than 50 nm significantly induced/enhanced neutrophilic lung inflammation. These results suggest that latex nanomaterials differentially affect two types of (innate and adaptive immunity-dominant) lung inflammation

  11. Size Effect of Defects on the Mechanical Properties of Graphene

    Park, Youngho; Hyun, Sangil

    2018-03-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional material, has been studied and utilized for its excellent material properties. In reality, achieving a pure single-crystalline structure in graphene is difficult, so usually graphene may have various types of defects in it. Vacancies, Stone-Wales defects, and grain boundaries can drastically change the material properties of graphene. Graphene with vacancy defects has been of interest because it is a two-dimensional analogy of three-dimensional porous materials. It has efficient material properties, and can function as a part of modern devices. The mechanical properties have been studied by using molecular dynamics for either a single vacancy defect with various sizes or multiple vacancy defects with same defect ratios. However, it is not clear which one has more influence on the mechanical properties between the size of the defects and the defect ratio. Therefore, we investigated the hole-size effect on the mechanical properties of single-crystalline graphene at various defect ratios. A void defect with large size can have a rather high tensile modulus with a low fracture strain compared to a void defect with small size. We numerically found that the tensile properties of scattered single vacancies is similar to that of amorphous graphene. We suspect that this is due to the local orbital change of the carbon atoms near the boundary of the void defects, so-called the interfacial phase.

  12. Effect Size Analyses of Souvenaid in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Scheltens, Philip; McKeith, Ian; Blesa, Rafael; Harrison, John E; Bertolucci, Paulo H F; Rockwood, Kenneth; Wilkinson, David; Wijker, Wouter; Bennett, David A; Shah, Raj C

    2017-01-01

    Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes. Effect size was determined by calculating Cohen's d statistic (or Cramér's V method for nominal data), number needed to treat and number needed to harm. Statistical calculations were performed for the intent-to-treat populations. In patients with mild AD, effect sizes were 0.21 (95% confidence intervals: -0.06, 0.49) for the primary outcome in Souvenir II (neuropsychological test battery memory z-score) and 0.20 (0.10, 0.34) for the co-primary outcome of Souvenir I (Wechsler memory scale delayed recall). No effect was shown on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate AD (S-Connect). The number needed to treat (6 and 21 for Souvenir I and II, respectively) and high number needed to harm values indicate a favorable harm:benefit ratio for Souvenaid versus control in patients with mild AD. The favorable safety profile and impact on outcome measures converge to corroborate the putative mode of action and demonstrate that Souvenaid can achieve clinically detectable effects in patients with early AD.

  13. The effect of laser unit on photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Binder, Susanne; Stur, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of the laser unit on photodynamic therapy (PDT) spot size. A calibrated Gullstrand-type model eye was used for this study. The axial length of the model eye was set to different values ranging from 22.2 to 27.0 mm, and the actual spot size from the laser console was recorded for treating a spot of 4 mm in the center of the artificial fundus using two different laser units (Coherent Opal laser; Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA and Zeiss Visulas laser; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA) and two indirect contact laser lenses (Volk PDT laser lens and Volk Area Centralis lens; Volk Optical Inc, Mentor, Ohio, USA). From myopia to hyperopia, the total deviation from the intended spot size was -22.5% to -7.5% (Opal laser and PDT laser lens), and -17.5% to +2.5% (Visulas laser and PDT laser lens), -12.5% to +7.5% (Opal laser and Area Centralis lens), and -7.5% to +10% (Visulas laser and Area Centralis lens). The used laser unit has a significant effect on PDT spot size in this model. These findings may be important for optimizing PDT of choroidal neovascular lesions.

  14. Size, Shape and Impurity Effects on Superconducting critical temperature.

    Umeda, Masaki; Kato, Masaru; Sato, Osamu

    Bulk superconductors have their own critical temperatures Tc. However, for a nano-structured superconductor, Tc depends on size and shape of the superconductor. Nishizaki showed that the high pressure torsion on bulks of Nb makes Tc higher, because the torsion makes many nano-sized fine grains in the bulks. However the high pressure torsion on bulks of V makes Tc lower, and Nishizaki discussed that the decrease of Tc is caused by impurities in the bulks of V. We studied size, shape, and impurity effects on Tc, by solving the Gor'kov equations, using the finite element method. We found that smaller and narrower superconductors show higher Tc. We found how size and shape affects Tc by studying spacial order parameter distributions and quasi-particle eigen-energies. Also we studied the impurity effects on Tc, and found that Tc decreases with increase of scattering rate by impurities. This work was supported in part of KAKENHI Grant Number JP26400367 and JP16K05460, and program for leading graduate schools of ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology-Japan.

  15. Finite size effects in neutron star and nuclear matter simulations

    Giménez Molinelli, P.A., E-mail: pagm@df.uba.ar; Dorso, C.O.

    2015-01-15

    single structure per cell while the cubic and truncated octahedron show consistent results, with more than one structure per cell. For systems of the size studied in this work these effects are still noticeable, but we find evidence to support that the dependence of the results on the cell geometry becomes smaller as the system size is increased. When the Coulomb interaction is present, the competition between opposing interactions of different range results in a proper, physically meaningful length scale that is independent of the system size and periodic cell of choice. Only under these conditions “finite size effects” will vanish for large enough systems (i.e. cells much larger than this characteristic length). Larger simulations are in order, but our computational capabilities forbid it for the time being.

  16. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  18. THE EFFECT OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHICS ON THE PERFORMANCE RESULT OF MUSLIM EMPLOYEES OF MARKETING SECTOR IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Mitra Hadisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of Islam on efficiency of Muslim employees in multinational companies. The findings of the studies conducted to date examining the potential and actual impact of Islam in multinational setting indicates that although it seems that religion has no significant effect on multinational companies, but its internal effects such as internal and interpersonal conflicts with the type of activity of companies may be intensified. Moreover, these effects would be different based on the department of individual employees. For example, when the religious orientations of Muslims increase, their activities, according to the type of the product or service provided, in marketing sector of multinational companies may be affected. As the products and services offered would have more moral dimensions and marketing activities would be based on general moral rules, not a particular religion, we may achieve more effective results and personal and interpersonal conflicts can be reduced.

  19. Effect of particle size on mixing degree in dispensation.

    Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu; Sekiguchi, Hiroko; Ohtani, Michiteru; Kariya, Satoru; Uchino, Katsuyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Iga, Tatsuji

    2004-03-01

    By using lactose colored with erythrocin, we examined the effect of particle size on mixing degree during the preparation of triturations with a mortar and pestle. We used powders with different distributions of particle sizes, i.e., powder that passed through 32-mesh but was trapped on a 42-mesh sieve (32/42-mesh powder), powder that passed through a 42-mesh sieve but was trapped on a 60-mesh sieve (42/60-mesh powder), powder that passed through a 60-mesh sieve but was trapped on a 100-mesh sieve (60/100-mesh powder), and powder that passes through a 100-mesh sieve (> 100-mesh powder). The mixing degree of colored powder and non-colored powder whose distribution of particle sizes was the same as that of the colored powder was excellent. The coefficient of variation (CV) value of the mixing degree was 6.08% after 40 rotations when colored powder was mixed with non-colored powder that both passed through a 100-mesh sieve. The CV value of the mixing degree was low in the case of mixing of colored and non-colored powders with different particle size distributions. After mixing, about 50% of 42/60-mesh powder had become smaller particles, whereas the distribution of particle sizes was not influenced by the mixing of 60/100-mesh powder. It was suggested that the mixing degree is affected by distribution of particle sizes. It may be important to determine the mixing degrees for drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges.

  20. Effect of nanofillers' size on surface properties after toothbrush abrasion.

    Cavalcante, Larissa M; Masouras, Konstantinos; Watts, David C; Pimenta, Luiz A; Silikas, Nick

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of filler-particle size of experimental and commercial resin composites, undergoing toothbrush abrasion, on three surface properties: surface roughness (SR), surface gloss (G) and color stability (CS). Four model (Ivoclar/Vivadent) and one commercial resin composite (Tokuyama) with varying filler-size from 100-1000 nm were examined. Six discs (10 mm x 2 mm) from each product were prepared and mechanically polished. The samples were then submitted to 20,000 brushing strokes in a toothbrush abrasion machine. SR parameters (Ra, Rt and RSm), G, and CS were measured before and after toothbrush abrasion. Changes in SR and G were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni post hoc test. CS values were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (alpha=0.05). Initial G values ranged between 73-87 gloss units (GU) and were reduced after toothbrush abrasion to a range of 8-64 GU. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in significant modifications in SR and G amongst the materials tested, attributed to filler sizes. There was statistically significant difference in color (delta E* ranged from 0.38-0.88). Filler size did not affect color stability. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in rougher and matte surfaces for all materials tested. Although the individual differences in surface roughness among filler sizes were not always significant, the correlation showed a trend that larger filler sizes resulted in higher surface roughness after abrasion for the SR parameters Ra and Rt (r = 0.95; r = 0.93, respectively). RSm showed an increase after toothbrush abrasion for all resin composites, however no significant correlation was detected (r = 0.21).There was a significant correlation between G and Ra ratios (r = - 0.95).

  1. Size effect related to damping caused by water submersion

    Dong, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    An important effect of water submersion on the dynamic response of a structure is the increase in effective damping. The dynamic response of submerged structures is of interest in the nuclear power industry for reasons of operational safety during seismic and other dynamic excitations. In this paper, the added damping contribution that results from the viscosity of water and the dependence of the contribution on structural size are examined. Other factors considered are the applicable range of viscous damping with respect to displacement amplitude and, as far as damping is concerned, how far neighboring members must be from each other to respond as if in open water. An expression is derived for relating the damping value to structural size. Estimated added-damping values for representative fuel elements, fuel bundles, and main steam-pressure-relief-valve lines are given based on our derived expression for added damping

  2. Effective source size as related to 252Cf neutron radiography

    Wada, Nobuo; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Tachikawa, Noboru; Nojiri, Toshiaki.

    1977-01-01

    The effective source size in 252 Cf thermal neutron radiography, relating to its geometrical unsharpness in image formation, is experimentally studied. A neutron radiographic system consists of a 160 μg 252 Cf neutron source, water moderator and divergent cadmium lined collimator. Thermal neutron image detection is performed with using a LiF scintillator and a high speed X-ray film to employ direct exposure method. The modulation transfer function, used for describing image quality, is derived from radiographic image corresponding to a cadmium plate with sharp edge. The modulation transfer function for the system is expressed by the product of the function for both geometrical and inherent unsharpness, and allows isolation of geometrical unsharpness as related to the effective size of the thermal neutron source. It is found to be 80 -- 90% of the collimator inlet diameter. (auth.)

  3. Measuring organizational effectiveness in information and communication technology companies using item response theory.

    Trierweiller, Andréa Cristina; Peixe, Blênio César Severo; Tezza, Rafael; Pereira, Vera Lúcia Duarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar; Bornia, Antonio Cezar; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of the organizations Information and Communication Technology (ICT) from the point of view of the manager, using Item Response Theory (IRT). There is a need to verify the effectiveness of these organizations which are normally associated to complex, dynamic, and competitive environments. In academic literature, there is disagreement surrounding the concept of organizational effectiveness and its measurement. A construct was elaborated based on dimensions of effectiveness towards the construction of the items of the questionnaire which submitted to specialists for evaluation. It demonstrated itself to be viable in measuring organizational effectiveness of ICT companies under the point of view of a manager through using Two-Parameter Logistic Model (2PLM) of the IRT. This modeling permits us to evaluate the quality and property of each item placed within a single scale: items and respondents, which is not possible when using other similar tools.

  4. Effect of eating rate on binge size in Bulimia Nervosa

    Kissileff, Harry R; Zimmerli, Ellen J; Torres, Migdalia I; Devlin, Michael J; Walsh, B Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Effect of eating rate on binge size in bulimia nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate of eating contributes to the excessive intake of binge meals has not yet been experimentally tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eating rate on binge size in BN, in order to determine whether binge size is mediated, in part, by rate of eating. Thirteen BN and 14 NC subjects were asked to binge eat a yogurt shake that was served at a fast rate (140g/min) on one occasion and at a slow rate (70g/min) on another. NC subjects consumed 169 g more when eating at the fast rate than when eating at the slow rate. In contrast, consumption rates failed to influence binge size in patients with BN (fast: 1205 g; slow: 1195 g). Consequently, there was a significant group by rate interaction. As expected, patients with BN consumed more overall than NC subjects (1200 g vs. 740 g). When instructed to binge in the eating laboratory, patients with BN ate equally large amounts of food at a slow rate as at a fast rate. NC subjects ate less at a slow rate. These findings indicate that in a structured laboratory meal paradigm binge size is not affected by rate of eating. PMID:17996257

  5. Finite size effects on hydrogen bonds in confined water

    Musat, R.; Renault, J.P.; Le Caer, S.; Pommeret, S.; Candelaresi, M.; Palmer, D.J.; Righini, R.

    2008-01-01

    Femtosecond IR spectroscopy was used to study water confined in 1-50 nm pores. The results show that even large pores induce significant changes (for example excited-state lifetimes) to the hydrogen-bond network, which are independent of pore diameter between 1 and 50 nm. Thus, the changes are not surface-induced but rather finite size effects, and suggest a confinement-induced enhancement of the acidic character of water. (authors)

  6. Influences of population size and density on birthplace effects.

    Hancock, David J; Coutinho, Patrícia; Côté, Jean; Mesquita, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Contextual influences on talent development (e.g., birthplace effects) have become a topic of interest for sport scientists. Birthplace effects occur when being born in a certain city size leads to participation or performance advantages, typically for those born in smaller or mid-sized cities. The purpose of this study was to investigate birthplace effects in Portuguese volleyball players by analysing city size, as well as population density - an important but infrequently used variable. Participants included 4062 volleyball players (M age  = 33), 53.2% of whom were men. Using Portuguese national census data from 1981, we compared participants (within each sex) across five population categories. In addition, we used ANOVAs to study expertise and population density. Results indicated that men and women athletes born in districts of 200,000-399,999 were 2.4 times more likely to attain elite volleyball status, while all other districts decreased the odds of expert development. For men, being born in high-density areas resulted in less chance of achieving expertise, whereas there were no differences for women. The results suggest that athletes' infrastructure and social structure play an important role in talent development, and that these structures are influenced by total population and population density, respectively.

  7. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Yue, Y.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, K.Y., E-mail: kyxu@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Chen, T. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Aifantis, E.C. [Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials (LMM), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); International Laboratory for Modern Functional Materials, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 191002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO{sub 3}), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO{sub 3}), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  8. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Yue, Y. M.; Xu, K. Y.; Chen, T.; Aifantis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO3), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe2O3). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe2O3) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO3), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  9. Blade size and weight effects in shovel design.

    Freivalds, A; Kim, Y J

    1990-03-01

    The shovel is a basic tool that has undergone only nominal systematic design changes. Although previous studies found shovel-weight and blade-size effects of shovelling, the exact trade-off between the two has not been quantified. Energy expenditure, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and shovelling performance were measured on five subjects using five shovels with varying blade sizes and weights to move sand. Energy expenditure, normalised to subject weight and load handled, varied quadratically with the blade-size/shovel-weight (B/W) ratio. Minimum energy cost was at B/W = 0.0676 m2/kg, which for an average subject and average load would require an acceptable 5.16 kcal/min of energy expenditure. Subjects, through the ratings of perceived exertion, also strongly preferred the lighter shovels without regard to blade size. Too large a blade or too heavy a shovel increased energy expenditure beyond acceptable levels, while too small a blade reduced efficiency of the shovelling.

  10. Size effects on free vibration of heterogeneous beams

    Hassanati Bahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of microstructure on the free vibration of geometrically similar heterogeneous beams with free-free boundary conditions was numerically investigated by detailed finite element analysis (FEA to identify and quantify any effect of beam size on transverse modal frequencies when the microstructural scale is comparable to the overall size. ANSYS Mechanical APDL was used to generate specific unit cells at the microstructural scale comprised of two isotropic materials with different material properties. Unit cell variants containing voids and inclusions were considered. At the macroscopic scale, four beam sizes consisting of one, two, three or four layers of defined unit cells were represented by repeatedly regenerating the unit cell as necessary. In all four beam sizes the aspect ratio was kept constant. Changes to the volume fractions of each material were introduced while keeping the homogenized properties of the beam fixed. The influence of the beam surface morphology on the results was also investigated. The ANSYS results were compared with the analytical results from solution to Timoshenko beam and nonlocal Timoshenko beam as well as numerical results for a Micropolar beam. In nonlocal Timoshenko beams the Eringen’s small length scale coefficients were estimated for some of the studied models. Numerical analyses based on Micropolar theory were carried out to study the modal frequencies and a method was suggested to estimate characteristic length in bending and coupling number via transverse vibration which verifies the use of Micropolar elasticity theory in dynamic analysis.

  11. [The effect of disinfectant soaking on dental gypsum model size].

    Zhu, Cao-yun; Xu, Yun-wen; Xu, Kan

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of disinfectant soaking on the dimensional stability of three kinds of dental gypsum model. Three commonly used gypsums ( type III,IV,Vtype) in clinic were used to make 24 specimens for 50 mm×15 mm×10 mm in size. One hour after release, the specimens were placed for 24 h. A digital caliper was used to measure the size of the gypsum model. Distilled water immersion was as used control, glutaraldehyde disinfectant and Metrix CaviCide disinfectant soaking were used for the experimental group. After soaking for 0.5h, the gypsum models were removed and placed for 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 24 h. The size of the models was measured again using the same method. The data was analyzed with SPSS10.0 software package. The initial gypsum model length was (50.07±0.017) mm, (50.048±0.015) mm and (50.027±0.015) mm. After soaking for different times, the size of the model changed little, and the dimensions changed less than 0.01%. The results show that disinfectant soaking has no significant effect on dental model dimensions.

  12. Effect of geometric base roughness on size segregation

    Jing L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric roughness at boundaries has a profound impact on the dynamics of granular flows. For a bumpy base made of fixed particles, two major factors have been separately studied in the literature, namely, the size and spatial distribution of base particles. A recent work (Jing et al. 2016 has proposed a roughness indicator Ra, which combines both factors for any arbitrary bumpy base comprising equally-sized spheres. It is shown in mono-disperse flows that as Ra increases, a transition occurs from slip (Ra 0.62 conditions. This work focuses on such a phase transition in bi-disperse flows, in which Ra can be a function of time. As size segregation takes place, large particles migrate away from the bottom, leading to a variation of size ratio between flow- and base-particles. As a result, base roughness Ra evolves with the progress of segregation. Consistent with the slip/non-slip transition in mono-disperse flows, basal sliding arises at low values of Ra and the development of segregation might be affected; when Ra increases to a certain level (Ra > 0.62, non-slip condition is respected. This work extends the validity of Ra to bi-disperse flows, which can be used to understand the geometric boundary effect during segregation.

  13. The company you keep: spreading effects of financial fraud on investor trust.

    Bernet, Patrick Michael; Getzen, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Investor trust is valuable to health care organizations. Without it, they may face higher capital costs. This study explores recent cases of fraud and the appearance of impropriety by health care organizations, focusing on the manners in which trust was violated, the systems that allowed those violations, and the effects on financial markets. Increases in the incidence and scale of such transgressions may be harbingers of worse times ahead. This article examines how recent events have affected the cost of capital, and what health care organizations can do to avoid being judged by the company they keep.

  14. Analyzing ROC curves using the effective set-size model

    Samuelson, Frank W.; Abbey, Craig K.; He, Xin

    2018-03-01

    The Effective Set-Size model has been used to describe uncertainty in various signal detection experiments. The model regards images as if they were an effective number (M*) of searchable locations, where the observer treats each location as a location-known-exactly detection task with signals having average detectability d'. The model assumes a rational observer behaves as if he searches an effective number of independent locations and follows signal detection theory at each location. Thus the location-known-exactly detectability (d') and the effective number of independent locations M* fully characterize search performance. In this model the image rating in a single-response task is assumed to be the maximum response that the observer would assign to these many locations. The model has been used by a number of other researchers, and is well corroborated. We examine this model as a way of differentiating imaging tasks that radiologists perform. Tasks involving more searching or location uncertainty may have higher estimated M* values. In this work we applied the Effective Set-Size model to a number of medical imaging data sets. The data sets include radiologists reading screening and diagnostic mammography with and without computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and breast tomosynthesis. We developed an algorithm to fit the model parameters using two-sample maximum-likelihood ordinal regression, similar to the classic bi-normal model. The resulting model ROC curves are rational and fit the observed data well. We find that the distributions of M* and d' differ significantly among these data sets, and differ between pairs of imaging systems within studies. For example, on average tomosynthesis increased readers' d' values, while CAD reduced the M* parameters. We demonstrate that the model parameters M* and d' are correlated. We conclude that the Effective Set-Size model may be a useful way of differentiating location uncertainty from the diagnostic uncertainty in medical

  15. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio camelus ... minute) among different group sizes in late 2006 in Serengeti National Park, ... be influenced by factors other than group size, such as body size and habitat type.

  16. Size-dependent nonlocal effects in plasmonic semiconductor particles

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP) in semiconductor particles are expected to exhibit spatial nonlocal response effects as the geometry enters the nanometer scale. To investigate these nonlocal effects, we apply the hydrodynamic model to nanospheres of two different semiconductor materials: intrinsic...... InSb and n-doped GaAs. Our results show that the semiconductors indeed display nonlocal effects, and that these effects are even more pronounced than in metals. In a 150 nm InSb particle at 300 K, the LSP frequency is blueshifted 35%, which is orders of magnitude larger than the blueshift in a metal...... particle of the same size. This property, together with their tunability, makes semiconductors a promising platform for experiments in nonlocal effects. Copyright (C)EPLA, 2017...

  17. Beam size effects in the radiative Bhabha scattering

    Szczekowski, M.

    1990-01-01

    In some electromagnetic processes the measured cross section can be substantially smaller than calculated in standard Quantum Electrodynamics. The process of single bremsstrahlung, e + e - → e + e - γ is an example of such effect. If the size of the effect for large angle γ radiation is similar to its magnitude at low angles, then standard calculations of the radiative Bahbha background to e.g. the reaction used in counting the number of neutrino generations, e + e - → νν-barγ, at LEP energies can be overestimated by 10-20%. 5 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENTERPRISE SIZE ON THE EFFECT OF EU GRANTS

    Andrei-Alexandru MOROŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union there are important differences between the GDP per capita of various regions. The biggest differences are found between regions in Western Europe and those in Central and Eastern Europe. To reduce these disparities, special funds were allocated to less developed countries, in order to finance various public and private investments. The funds allocated to Romania were included in the seven operational programs addressing various issues. This research examines the efficiency with which the funds addressed to business were used. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the influence that the size of the company has on the indicators of return on investments (referring to investments financed with EU funds. Following the analyzes, we found that at micro-level, the allocated EU funds generated effects, but their intensity is very low.

  19. A framework for effective implementation of lean production in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Amine Belhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present paper aims at developing an effective framework including all the components necessary for implementing lean production properly in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with the review of the main existing framework of lean implementation in order to highlight shortcomings in the literature through a lack of suitable framework for small companies. To overcome this literature gap, data of successful initiatives of lean implementation were collected based on a multiple case study approach. These initiatives has been juxtaposed in order to develop a new, practical and effective framework that includes all the components (process, tools, success factors that are necessary to implement lean in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Findings: The proposed framework presents many significant contributions: First, it provides an overcoming for the limitations of the existing frameworks by proposing for consultants, researchers and organizations an effective framework for lean implementation in SMEs that allows SMEs to benefit from competitive advantages  gained by lean. Second, it brings together a set of the more essential and critical elements of lean implementation commonly used by SMEs and derived from the practical experiences of them in lean implementation. Finally, it highlights the successful experiences of small companies in implementing lean programs and then proves that lean can give a relevant results even for SMEs. Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework presents a number of limitations and still evokes extension for further researches: Although it was derived from practical experiences of SMEs, the proposed framework is not supported by practical implementation. On the other hand and even though the elements in the proposed framework from the practical experiences of four SMEs, the identified elements need to be generalized and enriching by conducting

  20. Size effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of particle size on spontaneous polarization and strains

    Akdogan, E. K.; Rawn, C. J.; Porter, W. D.; Payzant, E. A.; Safari, A.

    2005-04-01

    The spontaneous polarization (Ps) and spontaneous strains (xi) in mechanically unclamped and surface charge compensated PbTiO3 nanocrystals were determined as a function of particle size in the range <150nm by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction, respectively. Significant deviations from bulk order parameters (P,xi) have been observed as the particle size decreased below ˜100nm. The critical size (rc) below which the ferroelectric tetragonal phase transforms to the paraelectric cubic phase was determined as ˜15nm. The depression in transition temperature with particle size is 14 °C at 28 nm. No change in the order of m3m →4mm ferrodistortive phase transition is observed. A simple analysis showed that ΔHtr/(kBT )˜103 at 25 °C for r =16nm, indicating that the stabilization of the cubic phase at rc cannot be linked to an instability in dipolar ordering due to thermal agitations. Comparison of the spontaneous volumetric strains with the strain induced by surface stress indicated that the effect of surface stress on ferroelectric phase stability was negligible. Anomalies in electrostrictive properties were determined for r →rc. The observed size dependence of PS is attributed to the reduced extent of long-range dipole-dipole interactions that arise due to the changes in bonding characteristics of ions with decreasing particle size in the perovskite lattice, in conformity with a recent study by Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (16), 4340 (2000)].

  1. Finite size effects in simulations of protein aggregation.

    Amol Pawar

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the soluble protofibrillar species that proceed amyloid fibril formation are associated with a range of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. Computer simulations of the processes that lead to the formation of these oligomeric species are starting to make significant contributions to our understanding of the determinants of protein aggregation. We simulate different systems at constant concentration but with a different number of peptides and we study the how the finite number of proteins affects the underlying free energy of the system and therefore the relative stability of the species involved in the process. If not taken into account, this finite size effect can undermine the validity of theoretical predictions regarding the relative stability of the species involved and the rates of conversion from one to the other. We discuss the reasons that give rise to this finite size effect form both a probabilistic and energy fluctuations point of view and also how this problem can be dealt by a finite size scaling analysis.

  2. Effect of Particle Size on Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluid

    Chopkar, M.; Sudarshan, S.; Das, P. K.; Manna, I.

    2008-07-01

    Nanofluids, containing nanometric metallic or oxide particles, exhibit extraordinarily high thermal conductivity. It is reported that the identity (composition), amount (volume percent), size, and shape of nanoparticles largely determine the extent of this enhancement. In the present study, we have experimentally investigated the impact of Al2Cu and Ag2Al nanoparticle size and volume fraction on the effective thermal conductivity of water and ethylene glycol based nanofluid prepared by a two-stage process comprising mechanical alloying of appropriate Al-Cu and Al-Ag elemental powder blend followed by dispersing these nanoparticles (1 to 2 vol pct) in water and ethylene glycol with different particle sizes. The thermal conductivity ratio of nanofluid, measured using an indigenously developed thermal comparator device, shows a significant increase of up to 100 pct with only 1.5 vol pct nanoparticles of 30- to 40-nm average diameter. Furthermore, an analytical model shows that the interfacial layer significantly influences the effective thermal conductivity ratio of nanofluid for the comparable amount of nanoparticles.

  3. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  4. Asteroid collisional history - Effects on sizes and spins

    Davis, D.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.; Binzel, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of asteroid collisional history on sizes and spins of present-day objects are discussed. Collisional evolution studies indicate that collisions have altered the spin-rates of small bodies, but that the largest asteroids may have retained their primordial rotation rates. Most asteroids larger than 100 km diam have probably been shattered, but have gravitationally recaptured their fragments to form a rubble-pile structure. Large angular momentum asteroids appear to have Maclaurian spheroidal or Jacobi-ellipsoid-like shapes; some of them may have fissioned into binaries. An integrated size and spin collisional evolution model is presented, with two critical parameters: one which determines the spin rates for small fragments resulting from a shattering collision, and the other determines the fraction of impact angular momentum that is retained by the target. 36 refs

  5. Fast and accurate determination of modularity and its effect size

    Treviño, Santiago III; Nyberg, Amy; Bassler, Kevin E; Del Genio, Charo I

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast spectral algorithm for community detection in complex networks. Our method searches for the partition with the maximum value of the modularity via the interplay of several refinement steps that include both agglomeration and division. We validate the accuracy of the algorithm by applying it to several real-world benchmark networks. On all these, our algorithm performs as well or better than any other known polynomial scheme. This allows us to extensively study the modularity distribution in ensembles of Erdős–Rényi networks, producing theoretical predictions for means and variances inclusive of finite-size corrections. Our work provides a way to accurately estimate the effect size of modularity, providing a z-score measure of it and enabling a more informative comparison of networks with different numbers of nodes and links. (paper)

  6. Financial planning and control in very small start-up companies: antecedents and effects on company performance

    Mengel, S.; Wouters, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study motivates and tests hypotheses about the antecedents of the use of financial planning and control systems in very small and young start-up firms, and, in turn, the effect of this on firm performance. This setting is of particular interest since theory on financial planning and control in

  7. Effect of particle size on degree of inversion in ferrites

    Siddique, M.; Butt, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ferrites with the spinel structure are important materials because of their structural, magnetic and electrical properties. The suitability of these materials depends on both the intrinsic behavior of the material and the effects of the grain size. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed to investigate the cation distribution and degree of inversion in bulk and nano sized particles of CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ ferrites. The Moessbauer spectra of all bulk ferrites showed complete magnetic behavior, whereas nanoparticle ferrites showed combination of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic components. Moreover, the cation distribution in nanoparticle materials was also found to be different to that of their bulk counterparts indicating the particle size dependency. The inversion of Cu and Ni ions in bulk sample was greater than that of nanoparticles; whereas the inversion of Mn ions was less in bulk material as compared to the nanoparticles. Hence the degree of inversion decreased in CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ samples whereas, it increased in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as the particle size decreased and thus showed the anomalous behavior in this case. The nanoparticle samples also showed paramagnetic behaviour due to superparamagnetism and this effect is more prominent in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Moessbauer spectra of bulk and nanoparticles CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is shown. (Orig./A.B.)

  8. The Corporate Connection: Effective Company Research Is Just Like People Research--On a Larger Scale.

    Kourofsky, Carolyn E.

    1992-01-01

    To cultivate companies for fund raising, the college development officer should focus on appropriate people, understand giving trends, follow mergers and acquisitions, and note corporate differences in giving patterns. Annual reports can reveal company self-image, help identify individuals, and illuminate the company's fiscal situation. However,…

  9. THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE AND MACRO ECONOMIC FACTOR TO PROFITABILITY OF BIDDER COMPANIES

    Nanik Linawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of leverage change, sales, market to book ratio; transaction cost, and interest rate after merger or acquisition on profitability change (return on assets or return on equity. The method used is multiple linear regressions. The type of data is cross sectional data. The samples are go public bidder companies that have annual or quarterly financial reports during one year before and after the merger or acquisition. The research results show leverage change, sales, market to book ratio, transaction cost and interest rate after merger or acquisition simultaneously have significant effect on the year and the next year change of return on asset or return on equity. Partially, leverage change and market to book ratio significantly influence on changes of profitability. Sales and interest rate significantly influence on the next year changes of profitability. Transaction cost partially has significant effect on next year changes of profitability.

  10. Effect of STOP technique on safety climate in a construction company.

    Darvishi, Ebrahim; Maleki, Afshin; Dehestaniathar, Saeed; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Safety programs are a core part of safety management in workplaces that can reduce incidents and injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Safety Training Observation Program (STOP) technique as a behavior modification program on safety climate in a construction company. This cross-sectional study was carried out on workers of the Petrochemical Construction Company, western Iran. In order to improve safety climate, an unsafe behavior modification program entitled STOP was launched among workers of project during 12 months from April 2013 and April 2014. The STOP technique effectiveness in creating a positive safety climate was evaluated using the Safety Climate Assessment Toolkit. 76.78% of total behaviors were unsafe. 54.76% of total unsafe acts/ at-risk behaviors were related to the fall hazard. The most cause of unsafe behaviors was associated with habit and unavailability of safety equipment. After 12 month of continuous implementation the STOP technique, 55.8% of unsafe behaviors reduced among workers. The average score of safety climate evaluated using of the Toolkit, before and after the implementation of the STOP technique was 5.77 and 7.24, respectively. The STOP technique can be considered as effective approach for eliminating at-risk behavior, reinforcing safe work practices, and creating a positive safety climate in order to reduction incidents/injuries.

  11. The effectiveness of innovative processes implemented by the SME companies. Results of the empirical research

    Tomasz Norek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence and the importance of innovation in the process of building the competitiveness of enterprises is widely described in the economic literature. But the analysis of innovative activity of companies very often indicates that the innovations introduced to the market do not bring the expected benefits. This leads to the conclusion that very often innovation activities of enterprises are inefficient. And detailed analysis of such cases can identify the key barriers to implementing effective innovation.The modern model for the innovative activity indicates that one of the key factors for success of innovative activity of enterprises is properly implemented the introduction of new solutions to market. The problem of diffusion of innovation involves a number of issues related to the process of spreading and promoting innovation in the market. It is widely recognized that the powers of innovation diffusion is an important determinant of the capacity of firms.Author posed the following research hypothese: Innovative activities carried out by the surveyed companies is inefficient.The purpose of this paper is to present the problems associated with effective diffusion of innovation in the SME sector business activity in Poland, with particular emphasis on the barriers in this area. Commonly available statistical data, the author’s empirical research results from the period 2009–2012 and results of other studies conducted by the University of Szczecin were used to prepare this publication.

  12. [A comprehensive evaluation of intervention effects on workplace health promotion in a pharmaceutical company].

    Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Li, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Ren, Jun; Li, Chao-lin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the comprehensive workplace health promotion intervention effect in a pharmaceutical company. The evaluation was conducted by using questionnaires, access to information, on-site surveys, satisfaction surveys and interviews. After the intervention, the awareness rate of the staff on "Occupational Disease Prevention Law", occupational disease prevention measures, the definition of hypertension, HIV transmission and high blood pressure, coronary heart disease preventive measures, have been raised from 72.4%, 13.8%, 67.5%, 45.8%, 51.7% to 97.8%, 19.9%, 82.3%, 94.7%, 53.1% respectively. The lifestyle of the staff has been improved, the improvement rate of smoking, drinking, having breakfast 4 times a week and above are 98.5%, 70.2% and 30.6% separately. Out of the 47 evaluation indicators, 41 meet the requirements, 5 basically meet the requirements. After implementing workplace health promotion activities, the level of occupational safety and health management of the pharmaceutical company has been enhanced, the physical and mental health of the staff have been promoted. The WHP comprehensive interventions are feasible and effective.

  13. No Effect of Featural Attention on Body Size Aftereffects

    Ian David Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to images of narrow bodies has been shown to induce a perceptual aftereffect, such that observers’ point of subjective normality (PSN for bodies shifts towards narrower bodies. The converse effect is shown for adaptation to wide bodies. In low-level stimuli, object attention (attention directed to the object and spatial attention (attention directed to the location of the object have been shown to increase the magnitude of visual aftereffects, while object-based attention enhances the adaptation effect in faces. It is not known whether featural attention (attention directed to a specific aspect of the object affects the magnitude of adaptation effects in body stimuli. Here, we manipulate the attention of Caucasian observers to different featural information in body images, by asking them to rate the fatness or sex typicality of male and female bodies manipulated to appear fatter or thinner than average. PSNs for body fatness were taken at baseline and after adaptation, and a change in PSN (ΔPSN was calculated. A body size adaptation effect was found, with observers who viewed fat bodies showing an increased PSN, and those exposed to thin bodies showing a reduced PSN. However, manipulations of featural attention to body fatness or sex typicality produced equivalent results, suggesting that featural attention may not affect the strength of the body size aftereffect.

  14. Finite-size effects on multibody neutrino exchange

    Abada, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, J; Abada, As

    1998-01-01

    The effect of multibody massless neutrino exchanges between neutrons inside a finite-size neutron star is studied. We use an effective Lagrangian, which incorporates the effect of the neutrons on the neutrinos. Following Schwinger, it is shown that the total interaction energy density is computed by comparing the zero point energy of the neutrino sea with and without the star. It has already been shown that in an infinite-size star the total energy due to neutrino exchange vanishes exactly. The opposite claim that massless neutrino exchange would produce a huge energy is due to an improper summation of an infrared-divergent quantity. The same vanishing of the total energy has been proved exactly in the case of a finite star in a one-dimensional toy model. Here we study the three-dimensional case. We first consider the effect of a sharp star border, assumed to be a plane. We find that there is a non- vanishing of the zero point energy density difference between the inside and the outside due to the refraction ...

  15. Size-effect features on the magnetothermopower of bismuth nanowires

    Condrea, E.; Nicorici, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work we have studied the magnetic field dependence of the thermopower (TEP) and resistance of glass-coated Bi wires with diameter (d) from 100 nm to at 1.5 μm below 80 K. Nanowires have anomalously large values of the thermopower (+100 μV K.1) and relatively high effective resistivities, but their frequencies of SdH oscillations remain those of bulk Bi. The TEP stays positive in longitudinal magnetic fields up to 15 T, where the surface scattering of charge carriers is negligible. Our analysis shows that the anomalous thermopower has a diffusion origin and is a consequence of the microstructure rather than the result of the strong scattering of electrons by the wire walls. The intensities of field at which the size-effect features appear on the magnetothermopower curves correspond to a value at which the diameter of the hole cyclotron orbit equals d. Size-effect features were observed only for set of nanowires with d = 100-350 nm, where diffusion TEP is dominant. The contribution of the phonon-drag effect was observed in a wire with diameter larger than 400 nm and becomes dominant at diameter of 1 μm. (authors)

  16. No Effect of Featural Attention on Body Size Aftereffects.

    Stephen, Ian D; Bickersteth, Chloe; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to images of narrow bodies has been shown to induce a perceptual aftereffect, such that observers' point of subjective normality (PSN) for bodies shifts toward narrower bodies. The converse effect is shown for adaptation to wide bodies. In low-level stimuli, object attention (attention directed to the object) and spatial attention (attention directed to the location of the object) have been shown to increase the magnitude of visual aftereffects, while object-based attention enhances the adaptation effect in faces. It is not known whether featural attention (attention directed to a specific aspect of the object) affects the magnitude of adaptation effects in body stimuli. Here, we manipulate the attention of Caucasian observers to different featural information in body images, by asking them to rate the fatness or sex typicality of male and female bodies manipulated to appear fatter or thinner than average. PSNs for body fatness were taken at baseline and after adaptation, and a change in PSN (ΔPSN) was calculated. A body size adaptation effect was found, with observers who viewed fat bodies showing an increased PSN, and those exposed to thin bodies showing a reduced PSN. However, manipulations of featural attention to body fatness or sex typicality produced equivalent results, suggesting that featural attention may not affect the strength of the body size aftereffect.

  17. Effects of an accelerated liberalization. Consequences of accelerated liberalization for the competitiveness of Dutch energy companies

    Kaal, M.B.T.

    2001-08-01

    One of the conclusions of the Dutch Energy Report, published at the end of 1999, was that it would be feasible to speed up the pace of liberalization in the Netherlands. This conclusion will lead to the liberalization of the retail customers in 2004 and the market for renewable energy in 2001. This will be an incentive to more competition and put a greater pressure on energy companies to concentrate in order to benefit from economies of scale. Less preparation time implies also that there will be less layers of isolation against cost leaders and hence a more intense (price-based) competition. The central question in this report is whether and to what extent the effects of policy, in particular the accelerated liberalization, affect the strategic behavior and competitiveness of the Dutch Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). To address this question four face-to-face interviews have been held with experts from the four major RECs. In these interviews the experts gave their opinion about the Dutch policy regarding the accelerated liberalization and the rate and extent of the privatization. Subsequently, their perspective on the impact of the policy on their competitiveness and their analysis of the Dutch energy market was recorded. After that, the experts exposed their outlook on the future energy market and the ambition and most likely direction of their companies. The data collection was complemented with numerous relevant public interviews of experts derived from various newspapers and energy magazines. The data thus collected were analyzed by means of a theoretical framework consisting of the insights of Porter, Prahalad and Hamel and at a more detailed level marketing theories regarding positioning and branding. This resulted in an overview of the current market position of the Dutch RECs and an outlook for the years to come. 27 refs

  18. The Impact of Surplus Free Cash Flow, Corporate Governance and Firm Size on Earnings Predictability in Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Shadmehri, Samaneh Ahmadi; Khansalar, Ehsan; Giannopoulos, George; Dasht-Bayaz, Mahmoud Lari

    2017-01-01

    Among the most important cases considered in financial statements by investors and other users of financial statements is earnings-related information. Given the need of the users of financial statements for the future information of companies and use of past data to predict the future, it seems that earnings forecast is among the favorite items of investors. In fact, earnings forecast by the management provides information about the future of companies. The main objective of the present stud...

  19. The Effect of Family Size on Incentive Effects of Welfare Transfers in Two-Parent Families

    Lewin, Alisa C.; Maurin, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Family size is an important determinant of family well-being, and it is a good predictor of poverty. This study examines effects of waiving the 100-hour rule, by family size, and distinguishes between the "work-incentive effects" and the "eligibility effects" of the waiver. The 100-hour rule limits eligibility to aid to…

  20. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  1. The effect of nanocrystalline magnetite size on arsenic removal

    J.T. Mayo et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher environmental standards have made the removal of arsenic from water an important problem for environmental engineering. Iron oxide is a particularly interesting sorbent to consider for this application. Its magnetic properties allow relatively routine dispersal and recovery of the adsorbent into and from groundwater or industrial processing facilities; in addition, iron oxide has strong and specific interactions with both As(III and As(V. Finally, this material can be produced with nanoscale dimensions, which enhance both its capacity and removal. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential arsenic adsorption by nanoscale iron oxides, specifically magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles. We focus on the effect of Fe3O4 particle size on the adsorption and desorption behavior of As(III and As(V. The results show that the nanoparticle size has a dramatic effect on the adsorption and desorption of arsenic. As particle size is decreased from 300 to 12 nm the adsorption capacities for both As(III and As(V increase nearly 200 times. Interestingly, such an increase is more than expected from simple considerations of surface area and suggests that nanoscale iron oxide materials sorb arsenic through different means than bulk systems. The desorption process, however, exhibits some hysteresis with the effect becoming more pronounced with small nanoparticles. This hysteresis most likely results from a higher arsenic affinity for Fe3O4 nanoparticles. This work suggests that Fe3O4 nanocrystals and magnetic separations offer a promising method for arsenic removal.

  2. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Bai, Gang, E-mail: baigang@njupt.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Zhiguo [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie, Qiyun; Guo, Yanyan; Li, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yan, Xiaobing [College of Electronic and information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC) and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}TiO{sub 3} above T{sub c} similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  3. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Bai, Gang; Liu, Zhiguo; Xie, Qiyun; Guo, Yanyan; Li, Wei; Yan, Xiaobing

    2015-09-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC) and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 above Tc similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  4. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    Marius Warg Næss

    Full Text Available Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1 pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2 pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  5. Pleiotropic Effects of DDT Resistance on Male Size and Behaviour.

    Rostant, Wayne G; Bowyer, Jemima; Coupland, Jack; Facey, James; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively. We also assessed relative aggression in resistant and susceptible males because aggression can also influence mating success. While the effect of DDT-R on male size partly contributed to reduced mating success, resistant males also had lower rates of courtship and were less aggressive than susceptible males. These differences contribute to the observed DDT-R mating costs. Additionally, these pleiotropic effects of DDT-R are consistent with the history and spread of resistance alleles in nature.

  6. Effect Sizes for Research Univariate and Multivariate Applications

    Grissom, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Noted for its comprehensive coverage, this greatly expanded new edition now covers the use of univariate and multivariate effect sizes. Many measures and estimators are reviewed along with their application, interpretation, and limitations. Noted for its practical approach, the book features numerous examples using real data for a variety of variables and designs, to help readers apply the material to their own data. Tips on the use of SPSS, SAS, R, and S-Plus are provided. The book's broad disciplinary appeal results from its inclusion of a variety of examples from psychology, medicine, educa

  7. Finite size effects in quark-gluon plasma formation

    Gopie, Andy; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    Using lattice simulations of quenched QCD we estimate the finite size effects present when a gluon plasma equilibrates in a slab geometry, i.e., finite width but large transverse dimensions. Significant differences are observed in the free energy density for the slab when compared with bulk behavior. A small shift in the critical temperature is also seen. The free energy required to liberate heavy quarks relative to bulk is measured using Polyakov loops; the additional free energy required is on the order of 30 - 40 MeV at 2 - 3 T c

  8. Size effect of glulam beams in tension perpendicular to grain

    Astrup, Thomas; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The strength of wood is reduced when the stressed volume is increased. The phenomenon is termed size effect and is often explained as being stochastic in the sense that the probability of weak locations occurring in the wood increases with increased volume. This paper presents the hypothesis...... that the lower strength is caused by stress concentrations. The stress concentrations arise from the anisotropic structure of wood, and are therefore deterministic. The hypothesis is substantiated through extensive FEM-calculations and experiments. A reasonable agreement between ultimate stresses determined...

  9. The size effects upon shock plastic compression of nanocrystals

    Malygin, G. A.; Klyavin, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    For the first time a theoretical analysis of scale effects upon the shock plastic compression of nanocrystals is implemented in the context of a dislocation kinetic approach based on the equations and relationships of dislocation kinetics. The yield point of crystals τy is established as a quantitative function of their cross-section size D and the rate of shock deformation as τy ɛ2/3 D. This dependence is valid in the case of elastic stress relaxation on account of emission of dislocations from single-pole Frank-Read sources near the crystal surface.

  10. How can context affect what strategies are effective in improving the working environment in small companies?

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Small companies include many different sectors and types of organisations. Additionally the small companies are affected by clients, authorities and other stakeholders. Some of these contextual factors have been proven to be of relevance to and affect the work environment management, e.......g. in cleaning companies, where many aspects of the working environment is decided by the client company, whose premises is cleaned by the cleaning company. Aim To discuss what factors in small companies´ context may affect the outcome of work environment interventions as a theoretical basis for evaluation...... of what factors that may have affected the outcome of work environment interventions and programs in small companies. Discussion The context is a convenient and simple term covering a multitude of factors and complex relations. It is unavoidable to discuss context when aiming at understanding small...

  11. Questioning the effectiveness of planned conflict resolution strategies in water disputes between rural communities and mining companies in Peru

    Sosa Landeo, Milagros; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Disputes between mining companies and surrounding communities over the access to, control of and distribution of water form an important part of the socio-environmental conflicts that large mining operations in Peru are producing. In order to mitigate environmental impacts, solve conflicts and deal with opposition to mining operations, governmental actors and mining companies make use of a combination of legal and technical strategies. This article questions the effectiveness of these strateg...

  12. Effectiveness of computer ergonomics interventions for an engineering company: a program evaluation.

    Goodman, Glenn; Landis, James; George, Christina; McGuire, Sheila; Shorter, Crystal; Sieminski, Michelle; Wilson, Tamika

    2005-01-01

    Ergonomic principles at the computer workstation may reduce the occurrence of work related injuries commonly associated with intensive computer use. A program implemented in 2001 by an occupational therapist and a physical therapist utilized these preventative measures with education about ergonomics, individualized evaluations of computer workstations, and recommendations for ergonomic and environmental changes. This study examined program outcomes and perceived effectiveness based on review of documents, interviews, and surveys of the employees and the plant manager. The program was deemed successful as shown by 59% of all therapist recommendations and 74% of ergonomic recommendations being implemented by the company, with an 85% satisfaction rate for the ergonomic interventions and an overall employee satisfaction rate of 70%. Eighty-one percent of the physical problems reported by employees were resolved to their satisfaction one year later. Successful implementation of ergonomics programs depend upon effective communication and education of the consumers, and the support, cooperation and collaboration of management and employees.

  13. Transport, retention, and size perturbation of graphene oxide in saturated porous media: Effects of input concentration and grain size

    Accurately predicting the fate and transport of graphene oxide (GO) in porous media is critical to assess its environmental impact. In this work, sand column experiments were conducted to determine the effect of input concentration and grain size on transport, retention, and size perturbation of GO ...

  14. Safety Management in an Oil Company through Failure Mode Effects and Critical Analysis

    Benedictus Rahardjo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to apply Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA to improve the safety of a production system, specifically the production process of an oil company. Since food processing is a worldwide issue and self-management of a food company is more important than relying on government regulations, therefore this study focused on that matter. The initial step of this study is to identify and analyze the criticality of the potential failure modes of the production process. Furthermore, take corrective action to minimize the probability of repeating the same failure mode, followed by a re-analysis of its criticality. The results of corrective actions were compared with those before improvement conditions by testing the significance of the difference using two sample t-test. The final measured result is the Criticality Priority Number (CPN, which refers to the severity category of the failure mode and the probability of occurrence of the same failure mode. The recommended actions proposed by the FMECA significantly reduce the CPN compared with the value before improvement, with increases of 38.46% for the palm olein case study.

  15. The anti-CO2 tax upsets the automotive fleets management. Car makers must adapt themselves. Deluxe cars spared. Small and medium size companies tempted by the long duration rental. At Biogen, medical visitors chose their vehicle

    Larmor, P.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year 2006, the pollution level is now taken into consideration in the calculation of the society vehicles tax. This measure completely upsets the management and allocation rules of provided cars. Therefore, the government foresees to relax its position. Car makers will have to propose new versions of their models with pollution levels in agreement with the tax categories imposed by the new regulation. Small and medium size companies are now tempted by long duration car rental contracts. Therefore, car rental companies foresee interesting opportunities with this fiscality stiffening. This press-kit analyzes the situation from the different points of view: fleet managers, car makers, users, company managers, car hirers. (J.S.)

  16. Size Effects on Deformation and Fracture of Scandium Deuteride Films.

    Teresi, C. S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hintsala, E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hysitron, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States); Adams, David P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Nancy Y. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kammler, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moody, N. R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Gerberich, W. W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Metal hydride films have been observed to crack during production and use, prompting mechanical property studies of scandium deuteride films. The following focuses on elastic modulus, fracture, and size effects observed in the system for future film mechanical behavior modeling efforts. Scandium deuteride films were produced through the deuterium charging of electron beam evaporated scandium films using X-ray diffraction, scanning Auger microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction to monitor changes in the films before and after charging. Scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and focused ion beam machined micropillar compression tests were used for mechanical characterization of the scandium deuteride films. The micropillars showed a size effect for flow stress, indicating that film thickness is a relevant tuning parameter for film performance, and that fracture was controlled by the presence of grain boundaries. Elastic modulus was determined by both micropillar compression and nanoindentation to be approximately 150 GPa, Fracture studies of bulk film channel cracking as well as compression induced cracks in some of the pillars yielded a fracture toughness around 1.0 MPa-m1/2. Preliminary Weibull distributions of fracture in the micropillars are provided. Despite this relatively low value of fracture toughness, scandium deuteride micropillars can undergo a large degree of plasticity in small volumes and can harden to some degree, demonstrating the ductile and brittle nature of this material

  17. fB from finite size effects in lattice QCD

    Guagnelli, M.; Palombi, F.; Petronzio, R.; Tantalo, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a novel method to calculate f B on the lattice, introduced in [1], based on the study of the dependence of finite size effects upon the heavy quark mass of flavoured mesons and on a non-perturbative recursive finite size technique. This method avoids the systematic errors related to extrapolations from the static limit or to the tuning of the coefficients of effective Lagrangian and the results admit an extrapolation to the continuum limit. We show the results of a first estimate at finite lattice spacing, but close to the continuum limit, giving f B = 170(11)(5)(22) MeV. We also obtain f B s = 192(9)(5)(24)MeV. The first error is statistical, the second is our estimate of the systematic error from the method and the third the systematic error from the specific approximations adopted in this first exploratory calculation. The method can be generalized to two-scale problems in lattice QCD

  18. Generation time and effective population size in Polar Eskimos

    Matsumura, Shuichi; Forster, Peter

    2008-01-01

    North Greenland Polar Eskimos are the only hunter–gatherer population, to our knowledge, who can offer precise genealogical records spanning several generations. This is the first report from Eskimos on two key parameters in population genetics, namely, generation time (T) and effective population size (Ne). The average mother–daughter and father–son intervals were 27 and 32 years, respectively, roughly similar to the previously published generation times obtained from recent agricultural societies across the world. To gain an insight for the generation time in our distant ancestors, we calculated maternal generation time for two wild chimpanzee populations. We also provide the first comparison among three distinct approaches (genealogy, variance and life table methods) for calculating Ne, which resulted in slightly differing values for the Eskimos. The ratio of the effective to the census population size is estimated as 0.6–0.7 for autosomal and X-chromosomal DNA, 0.7–0.9 for mitochondrial DNA and 0.5 for Y-chromosomal DNA. A simulation of alleles along the genealogy suggested that Y-chromosomal DNA may drift a little faster than mitochondrial DNA in this population, in contrast to agricultural Icelanders. Our values will be useful not only in prehistoric population inference but also in understanding the shaping of our genome today. PMID:18364314

  19. Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance

    A. Bozorgebrahimi; R.A. Hall; M.A. Morin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation of economies of scale in open pit mining through the use of increasingly larger equipment. It presents a method adopted to evaluate the impact of increased scale on operational performance factors. The work identifies equipment size sensitive variables (ESSVs) in the mine design process that affect the performance of the production process. Data from a set of case studies show that the ESSV influence extends beyond mine production to encompass milling performance, environmental footprint and community impacts. Some ESSVs (such as reliability, tyre costs and productivity) are shown to be related to the current state of equipment technology and their effects are therefore comparable for different mines. Other ESSVs relate to the mine and deposit characteristics; their effects therefore vary from mine to mine. A detailed analytical approach, developed to model the impact of ESSVs, suggests that for truck/shovel operations, the industry may be approaching a situation of diseconomies of scale.

  20. Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size Matters

    Boehringer, Christoph; Fischer, Carolyn; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    Given the bleak prospects for a global agreement on mitigating climate change, pressure for unilateral abatement is increasing. A major challenge is emissions leakage. Border carbon adjustments and output-based allocation of emissions allowances can increase effectiveness of unilateral action but introduce distortions of their own. We assess antileakage measures as a function of abatement coalition size. We first develop a partial equilibrium analytical framework to see how these instruments affect emissions within and outside the coalition. We then employ a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use to assess the strategies as the coalition grows. We find that full border adjustments rank first in global cost-effectiveness, followed by import tariffs and output-based rebates. The differences across measures and their overall appeal decline as the abatement coalition grows. In terms of cost, the coalition countries prefer border carbon adjustments; countries outside the coalition prefer output-based rebates.(Author)

  1. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  2. Computation of Effect Size for Moderating Effects of Categorical Variables in Multiple Regression

    Aguinis, Herman; Pierce, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    The computation and reporting of effect size estimates is becoming the norm in many journals in psychology and related disciplines. Despite the increased importance of effect sizes, researchers may not report them or may report inaccurate values because of a lack of appropriate computational tools. For instance, Pierce, Block, and Aguinis (2004)…

  3. The effect of size-control policy on unified energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power plants

    Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fanbin; Choi, Yongrok; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of size control policy on the energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power industry. For this purpose, we propose two non-radial directional distance functions for energy/carbon efficiency analysis of fossil fuel electricity generation. One is named a total-factor directional distance function that incorporates the inefficiency of all input and output factors to measure the unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of fossil fuel power plants, and the other is called an energy–environmental directional distance function that can be used to measure the energy–environmental performance of fossil fuel electric power plants. Several standardized indicators for measuring unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance are derived from the two directional distance functions. An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted by using the proposed approach. Our empirical results show that there exists a significant positive relationship between the plant size and unified efficiency, the five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance than other companies. It is suggested that Chinese government might need to consider private incentives and deregulation for its state-owned enterprises to improve their performance proactively. - Highlights: • Two non-radial directional distance functions are presented for energy/carbon efficiency analysis. • An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted. • The five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance

  4. Changes In Company’s Management Accounting Systems: Case Study on ActivityBased Costing Implementation and Operation in Medium-Sized Production Company

    Tomasz WNUK-PEL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore factors, which influence the process of activity-based costing (ABC implementation, as well as analyze and explain the changes in the area of methodology and organization of a company, after activity-based costing implementation. The research findings are of both theoretical and practical importance. From the practical point of view, companies considering implementation of ABC should be aware of the positive and negative factors conditioning the process of implementation; in addition, they should be familiar with methodological and organizational changes, which might stem from the ABC implementation. From the theoretical point of view, this research might be helpful in determining a more general tendency: although modifications in cost accounting systems and implementation of modern methods of management accounting in Polish companies come later than in more developed economies, the tendency heads in the same direction.

  5. The effect of capital structure on the profitability of pharmaceutical companies the case of iran.

    Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi; Rahimi, Farimah; Rahimi, Forough; Aarabi, Seyed Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Funding combination is the most important issue for the companies while they know the amount of required capital. Companies should be careful regarding the appliance of financial providing methods compatible with the investment strategy of company and profitability. This study seeks to examine the relationship between the capital structure and the profitability of pharmaceutical companies in Iran. For this purpose, top 30 Iranian pharmaceutical companies defined as study samples and their financial data were gathered for the period of 2001-2010. In this study, the net margin profit and debts to asset ratio were used as indicators of profitability and capital structure, respectively and sales growth was used as a control variable. Results showed that there was significant negative relationship between the profitability and the capital structure which means that the pharmaceutical companies have established a Pecking Order Theory and the internal financing has led to more profitability.

  6. Effects of Na and Ca on particle size; Effect of filtering on UV absorbance

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Effects of Na and Ca on particle size; Effect of filtering on UV absorbance. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bouchard, D., C. Knightes, X....

  7. IPO AS AN EFFECTIVE INSTITUTION AND A PRECONDITION OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING FOR AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES

    D. Baiura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The key factors of investment attractiveness of the agricultural sector of Ukraine and the need to finance its development through the use of the IPO are analyzed. The main advantages and disadvantages received by any company after passing the IPO are demonstrated. The analysis of the results of the IPO of agricultural enterprises of Ukraine is conducted. Such areas of corporate restructuring as organization of a new corporate structure, bringing system of a corporate governance to the principles of OECD, increased transparency of financial – economic and not financial reporting, optimization of financial management and business process, and also appropriate measures for each of these areas in order to ensure an effectiveness of the IPO are proposed.

  8. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  9. What big size you have! Using effect sizes to determine the impact of public health nursing interventions.

    Johnson, K E; McMorris, B J; Raynor, L A; Monsen, K A

    2013-01-01

    The Omaha System is a standardized interface terminology that is used extensively by public health nurses in community settings to document interventions and client outcomes. Researchers using Omaha System data to analyze the effectiveness of interventions have typically calculated p-values to determine whether significant client changes occurred between admission and discharge. However, p-values are highly dependent on sample size, making it difficult to distinguish statistically significant changes from clinically meaningful changes. Effect sizes can help identify practical differences but have not yet been applied to Omaha System data. We compared p-values and effect sizes (Cohen's d) for mean differences between admission and discharge for 13 client problems documented in the electronic health records of 1,016 young low-income parents. Client problems were documented anywhere from 6 (Health Care Supervision) to 906 (Caretaking/parenting) times. On a scale from 1 to 5, the mean change needed to yield a large effect size (Cohen's d ≥ 0.80) was approximately 0.60 (range = 0.50 - 1.03) regardless of p-value or sample size (i.e., the number of times a client problem was documented in the electronic health record). Researchers using the Omaha System should report effect sizes to help readers determine which differences are practical and meaningful. Such disclosures will allow for increased recognition of effective interventions.

  10. Revenue cap regulation in a deregulated electricity market : effects on a grid company

    Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 an incentive-based regulation was introduced for Norwegian transmission and distribution companies. Under the following revenue regulation regime, the permissible revenue of a grid company is adjusted annually, and during the first regulation period, the new revenue cap was determined on the basis of last year’s revenue cap, adjusting for inflation, productivity improvement, and load growth. The idea behind the load growth compensation factor was that the grid companies should be comp...

  11. Power of Companies in Supply Chains and Their Effect on Network Development

    Tamás Brányi; László Józsa

    2015-01-01

    A general supply chain functions as a closed cluster and consists of at least three companies: supplier, producer and buyer. In an optimal case the companies within a supply chain are well integrated, partnership rests on trust which results in common strategic decisions. Business practices show that there is a stronger company within the chain that uses its power position to influence network development. The objective of the research is to measure how and what kind of power position is need...

  12. Smart Companies.

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)

  13. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  14. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Liu, Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  15. Effect of head size on 10B dose distribution

    Gupta, N.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.

    1992-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treatment of brain tumors is based on the utilization of large epithermal-neutron fields. Epithermal neutrons thermalize at depths of ∼2.5 cm inside the head and provide a maximum thermal fluence at deep-seated tumor sites with minimum damage to normal tissue. Brain tissue is a highly scattering medium for epithermal and thermal neutrons; therefore, a broad treatment field enables epithermal neutrons to enter the head over a large area. These neutrons slow down as they undergo scattering collisions and contribute to the thermal-neutron fluence at the tumor location. With the use of large neutron fields, the size of the head affects the thermal-neutron distribution and thereby the 10 B absorbed dose distribution inside the head. In this paper, the authors describe measurements using a boron trifluoride (BF 3 )-filled proportional counter to determine the effect of head size on 10 B absorbed dose distributions for a broad field accelerator epithermal-neutron source

  16. Nosewitness Identification: Effects of Lineup Size and Retention Interval.

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C; Costa, Liliana P; Pinto, Elisa; Ferreira, Jacqueline H T; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Silva, Carlos F; Olsson, Mats J

    2016-01-01

    Although canine identification of body odor (BO) has been widely used as forensic evidence, the concept of nosewitness identification by human observers was only recently put to the test. The results indicated that BOs associated with male characters in authentic crime videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. To further evaluate nosewitness memory, we assessed the effects of lineup size (Experiment 1) and retention interval (Experiment 2), using a forced-choice memory test. The results showed that nosewitness identification works for all lineup sizes (3, 5, and 8 BOs), but that larger lineups compromise identification performance in similarity to observations from eye- and earwitness studies. Also in line with previous eye- and earwitness studies, but in disagreement with some studies on odor memory, Experiment 2 showed significant forgetting between shorter retention intervals (15 min) and longer retention intervals (1-week) using lineups of five BOs. Altogether this study shows that identification of BO in a forensic setting is possible and has limits and characteristics in line with witness identification through other sensory modalities.

  17. Heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of rotor steel

    Cheremnykh, V.G.; Derevyankin, E.V.; Sakulin, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of two steels 13Kh1M1FA and 25Kh1M1FA is evaluated. It is shown that exposure time increase at heating temperatures below 1000 deg C up to 10h changes but slightly the size of the Cr-Mo-V ferritic grain of rotor steel cooled with 25 deg C/h rate. Heating up to 1000 deg C and above leads to substantial ferritic grain growth. The kinetics of ferritic grain growth is determined by the behaviour of phases controlling the austenitic grain growth, such as carbonitrides VCsub(0.14)Nsub(0.78) in 13Kh1M1FA steel and VCsub(0.18)Nsub(0.72) in 25Kh1M1FA steel. Reduction of carbon and alloying elements content in steel composition observed at the liquation over rotor length leads to a certain decrease of ferritic grain resistance to super heating

  18. Artificial fish schools : Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form

    Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school

  19. Finite-size effect on optimal efficiency of heat engines.

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-07-01

    The optimal efficiency of quantum (or classical) heat engines whose heat baths are n-particle systems is given by the strong large deviation. We give the optimal work extraction process as a concrete energy-preserving unitary time evolution among the heat baths and the work storage. We show that our optimal work extraction turns the disordered energy of the heat baths to the ordered energy of the work storage, by evaluating the ratio of the entropy difference to the energy difference in the heat baths and the work storage, respectively. By comparing the statistical mechanical optimal efficiency with the macroscopic thermodynamic bound, we evaluate the accuracy of the macroscopic thermodynamics with finite-size heat baths from the statistical mechanical viewpoint. We also evaluate the quantum coherence effect on the optimal efficiency of the cycle processes without restricting their cycle time by comparing the classical and quantum optimal efficiencies.

  20. Anharmonic, dimensionality and size effects in phonon transport

    Thomas, Iorwerth O.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and employed a numerically efficient semi- ab initio theory, based on density-functional and relaxation-time schemes, to examine anharmonic, dimensionality and size effects in phonon transport in three- and two-dimensional solids of different crystal symmetries. Our method uses third- and fourth-order terms in crystal Hamiltonian expressed in terms of a temperature-dependent Grüneisen’s constant. All input to numerical calculations are generated from phonon calculations based on the density-functional perturbation theory. It is found that four-phonon processes make important and measurable contribution to lattice thermal resistivity above the Debye temperature. From our numerical results for bulk Si, bulk Ge, bulk MoS2 and monolayer MoS2 we find that the sample length dependence of phonon conductivity is significantly stronger in low-dimensional solids.

  1. Finite-size effects on current correlation functions

    Chen, Shunda; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jiao; Zhao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    We study why the calculation of current correlation functions (CCFs) still suffers from finite-size effects even when the periodic boundary condition is taken. Two important one-dimensional, momentum-conserving systems are investigated as examples. Intriguingly, it is found that the state of a system recurs in the sense of microcanonical ensemble average, and such recurrence may result in oscillations in CCFs. Meanwhile, we find that the sound mode collisions induce an extra time decay in a current so that its correlation function decays faster (slower) in a smaller (larger) system. Based on these two unveiled mechanisms, a procedure for correctly evaluating the decay rate of a CCF is proposed, with which our analysis suggests that the global energy CCF decays as ˜t-2/3 in the diatomic hard-core gas model and in a manner close to ˜t-1/2 in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β model.

  2. Effect of particle size on the thermoluminescent response of hydroxyapatite

    Barrera V, A.; Zarate M, J.; Contreras, M. E.; Rivera M, T.

    2016-10-01

    We present the study of the structural characterization and the thermoluminescent response of the hydroxyapatite as a function of the calcination temperature and the effect of the particle size. For precipitation synthesis, calcium nitrate (Ca(NO_3)_2 and dibasic ammonium phosphate ((NH_4)_2HPO_4) were used as precursors and ammonium hydroxide (NH_4OH) as a ph controlling agent. The characterization of the samples was carried out by the techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The powders obtained are composed of hydroxyapatite, with a different degree of dehydroxylation. The thermoluminescent characterization indicates that at higher calcination temperature there is a higher thermoluminescent response, the calcined powders at 1300 degrees Celsius show a very well defined brightness curve with a higher intensity, with its maximum intensity located at a temperature of 210 degrees Celsius, which indicates that this material can be used as a dosimeter. (Author)

  3. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2014-06-23

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  4. How does a medium-sized enterprise shape an environmental strategy: a case study in two companies from Bogotá, Colombia Colombia

    Luisa Fernanda Latorre Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This research study is based on Mintzberg´s theories (emerging and deliberate strategies as well as on Strategy as Practice. These theories are contrasted with the study outcomes of a multiple descriptive case done in two PyMES which are part of an Environmental Management Program of the Local Environmental Office of Bogota. This Case Study involved a service company and a production company which applied participative observation and a semi- structure interview as methods used to collect data. The authors accompanied both companies in the process of designing a strategic environmental plan, collecting information which revealed that the applied strategies were deliberate, led by middle manage-ment and arose as an answer to pressures exerted by the most stakeholders for the company. The results of this study showed the applicability of these conceptual frameworks to Colombian contexts and represented an important support to the study of environmental strategies in such contexts.

  5. Aerodynamic Ground Effect in Fruitfly Sized Insect Takeoff.

    Dmitry Kolomenskiy

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic ground effect in flapping-wing insect flight is of importance to comparative morphologies and of interest to the micro-air-vehicle (MAV community. Recent studies, however, show apparently contradictory results of either some significant extra lift or power savings, or zero ground effect. Here we present a numerical study of fruitfly sized insect takeoff with a specific focus on the significance of leg thrust and wing kinematics. Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling and high performance computing. The aerodynamic forces are calculated using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver based on a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. It is coupled with a flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia and the leg thrust, while only having two degrees of freedom: the vertical and the longitudinal horizontal displacement. The natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly is considered as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. These modified takeoffs include cases with decreased leg thrust parameter, and/or with periodic wing kinematics, constant body pitch angle. The results show that the ground effect during natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, when the rate of climb is slow, the difference in the aerodynamic forces due to the interaction with the ground is up to 6%. Surprisingly, depending on the kinematics, the difference is either positive or negative, in contrast to the intuition based on the helicopter theory, which suggests positive excess lift. This effect is attributed to unsteady wing-wake interactions. A similar effect is found during hovering.

  6. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPANY: THE CASE OF COMPANIES FROM BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Hasan Mahmutović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of globalization and its effects have been the most current topic in the field of economics in recent times. However, empirical research on the impact of globalization on companies, especially in transition countries, is very scarce. This paper focuses on the study of the impact of globalization on the performance of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina by analyzing their interrelationships. The findings, in the case of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, have confirmed earlier findings about the double impact of globalization by showing, on the one hand, its positive effects and, on the other hand, the negative effects on the performance of the companies. Additionally, the research results have shown that negative effects are felt more strongly in the case of small and medium-sized companies than in the case of large companies.

  7. The Effects of Technology Entrepreneurship on Customers and Society: A Case Study of a Spanish Pharmaceutical Distribution Company

    Muñoz, Rosa M.; Sánchez de Pablo, Jesús D.; Peña, Isidro; Salinero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding, within the field of corporate entrepreneurship, of the various factors that enable technology entrepreneurship in established firms and its principal effects on customers and society. The paper reports on a case study regarding technology entrepreneurship in a Spanish company whose activity is pharmaceutical distribution. This company has been able to overcome the consequences of the worldwide crisis and start an innovative process which includes the installation of new information technology (IT) and an investment of 6 million Euros. It is, in this respect, a model to imitate and the objective of this paper is therefore to discover the managers’ entrepreneurial orientation (EO) characteristics which have made this possible, along with the organizational and social effects resulting from the process. We verify that EO is present in this company and that the development of new IT has important effects on customers and the population. PMID:27445938

  8. The Effects of Technology Entrepreneurship on Customers and Society: A Case Study of a Spanish Pharmaceutical Distribution Company.

    Muñoz, Rosa M; Sánchez de Pablo, Jesús D; Peña, Isidro; Salinero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding, within the field of corporate entrepreneurship, of the various factors that enable technology entrepreneurship in established firms and its principal effects on customers and society. The paper reports on a case study regarding technology entrepreneurship in a Spanish company whose activity is pharmaceutical distribution. This company has been able to overcome the consequences of the worldwide crisis and start an innovative process which includes the installation of new information technology (IT) and an investment of 6 million Euros. It is, in this respect, a model to imitate and the objective of this paper is therefore to discover the managers' entrepreneurial orientation (EO) characteristics which have made this possible, along with the organizational and social effects resulting from the process. We verify that EO is present in this company and that the development of new IT has important effects on customers and the population.

  9. X-ray tube focal spot sizes: comprehensive studies of their measurement and effect of measured size in angiography

    Doi, K.; Loo, L.N.; Chan, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-two focal spot sizes of four x-ray tubes were measured by the pinhole, star pattern, slit, and root-mean-square (RMS) methods under various exposure conditions. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and line spread functions (LSFs) were also determined. The star pattern focal spot sizes agreed with the effective sizes calculated from the frequencies at the first minimum of the MTF within 0.04 mm for large focal spots and within 0.01 mm for small focal spots. The focal spot size determined by the slit method was approximately equal to the width of the LSF at the cutoff level of 0.15 +/- 0.06 of the peak value. The RMS method provided the best correlation between the measured focal spot sizes and the corresponding image distributions of blood vessels. The pinhole and slit methods tended to overestimate the focal spot size, but the star pattern method tended to underestimate it. For approximately 90% of the focal spots, the average of the star and slit (or pinhole) focal spot sizes agreed with the RMS focal spot size within +/- 0.1 mm

  10. Dropouts in Swiss Vocational Education and the Effect of Training Companies' Trainee Selection Methods

    Forsblom, Lara; Negrini, Lucio; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss vocational education system, which is often called a "Dual System", trainees enter into an apprenticeship contract with a training company. On average, 25% of those contracts are terminated prematurely (PCT). This article examines the relationship between training companies' selection methods and PCTs. The investigation is…

  11. Factors effecting Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure ratings:an empirical study of Finnish listed companies

    Roitto, A. (Artturi)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure is becoming more common practise amongst companies, it is valuable to understand the underlying factors involved. The Goal of this thesis is to examine if the factors suggested by previous studies seem to have significance in a Finnish sample composed of 31 listed companies. As an ancillary research question linkage between Corporate Governance recommendation devi...

  12. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  13. Cities and Footlooseness: In Search of Place-Bound Companies and Effective Location Policies

    van Geenhuizen, M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study addresses the relevance of geographic proximity for companies in our age of advanced information and communication technology (ICT). Many visions of, and speculations on, an increased footlooseness of companies and a concomitant dispersal of urban economic activity have been

  14. Effect of sample size on bias correction performance

    Reiter, Philipp; Gutjahr, Oliver; Schefczyk, Lukas; Heinemann, Günther; Casper, Markus C.

    2014-05-01

    The output of climate models often shows a bias when compared to observed data, so that a preprocessing is necessary before using it as climate forcing in impact modeling (e.g. hydrology, species distribution). A common bias correction method is the quantile matching approach, which adapts the cumulative distribution function of the model output to the one of the observed data by means of a transfer function. Especially for precipitation we expect the bias correction performance to strongly depend on sample size, i.e. the length of the period used for calibration of the transfer function. We carry out experiments using the precipitation output of ten regional climate model (RCM) hindcast runs from the EU-ENSEMBLES project and the E-OBS observational dataset for the period 1961 to 2000. The 40 years are split into a 30 year calibration period and a 10 year validation period. In the first step, for each RCM transfer functions are set up cell-by-cell, using the complete 30 year calibration period. The derived transfer functions are applied to the validation period of the respective RCM precipitation output and the mean absolute errors in reference to the observational dataset are calculated. These values are treated as "best fit" for the respective RCM. In the next step, this procedure is redone using subperiods out of the 30 year calibration period. The lengths of these subperiods are reduced from 29 years down to a minimum of 1 year, only considering subperiods of consecutive years. This leads to an increasing number of repetitions for smaller sample sizes (e.g. 2 for a length of 29 years). In the last step, the mean absolute errors are statistically tested against the "best fit" of the respective RCM to compare the performances. In order to analyze if the intensity of the effect of sample size depends on the chosen correction method, four variations of the quantile matching approach (PTF, QUANT/eQM, gQM, GQM) are applied in this study. The experiments are further

  15. Strategy Archetypes Adopted by Icelandic Companies, Their Fit with Performance Measures and Effects on Financial Performance

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    Past research seems to suggest that companies adopting certain strategies favor certain sets of performance measures. That is to say companies using entrepreneurial focused strategies favor non-financial measures or a balanced mix of financial and non-financial measures. Companies adopting reactive...... or operational strategies seem to favor financial measures and are less likely to use non-financial measures. We take this research further by focusing not only on the link between strategy types and performance measures but also on what specific performance measures are used in connection to which strategies....... Furthermore, we examine the link between the strategies adopted, the performance measures favored and the financial performance of the companies. The empirical data collection was carried out in winter 2013 with a population of the 300 largest companies in Iceland. The survey was sent to the CFO...

  16. THE EFFECT OF REMUNERATION ON MOTIVATION THAT IMPLICATES EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE IN XYZ COMPANY

    Aldi Cahyanugroho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PT XYZ is foreign investment company on food and beverages manufacturer with health benefit positioning. PT XYZ is willing to consistent of safety, quality and productivity (SQP aspect, therefore should be encouraged by high quality human resources. Employee motivation was stimulated by remuneration program in order to increase employee performance in PT XYZ.  The aim of this study was to analyze remuneration effect towards employee motivation and it’s implication to employee performance at PT XYZ using employee perception. The population of this study is taken from staff level to supervisor level from 10 Departments. The numbers of sample are 132 people. The sampling technique used in the study was stratified with purposive and convenience sampling method with the analytical method using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result of this study shows remuneration has significant effect towards employee motivation and employee performance, while motivation has insignificant effect towards employee performance. SEM results show each highest coefficient are wages based on needs indicator at remuneration variable, individual development indicator at variable motivation and obedience indicator at employee performance variable. Management of PT XYZ should be maintaining components of remuneration, motivation and employee performance that’s already had good score and also pay attention to component of remuneration which has low score index to enhance employee motivation and also employee performance.Keywords: employee motivation, employee performance, remuneration, SEM

  17. EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND MOTIVATION TO PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES AT DATACOMM DIANGRAHA COMPANY

    I Ketut R Sudiarditha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the goal is to test empirically the effect of recruitment, selection and motivation of the employee performance at Datacomm Diangraha Company. The samples used were employees of Datacomm Diangraha especially the engineers with the total number of respondents was 126. The analysis used a linear regression, this research examines four variables: Recruitment (X1, Selection (X2 and Motivation (X3 as independent variables, and Performance employees (Y as the dependent variable. Partial test shows that the recruitment effect of 0175 (positive and significant on the performance. While the selection is also influenced significantly by 0347 on employee performance. And further motivation for 0295 was a significant influence on employee performance.Measurement model analysis in this study showed that all variables have met the criteria of validity and reliability, while at the structural model analysis shows that testing of hypotheses H1, H2, and H3 supports the hypothesis proposed. The resulting model of the independent variables and the effect on the dependent variable is Y = 16,408 + 0175 0347 X1 + X2 + X3 0295. The study concluded that the recruitment, selection and motivation affect the performance of employees with the results affect the performance of 95%, while 5% is determined by other variables.

  18. Company Portfolios Answer the Question: What Do You Know about My Company?

    Watson, Michelle L.

    2001-01-01

    Job seekers can demonstrate their knowledge of a potential employer by developing a company portfolio. Elements include company history, mission, values, and goals; size and location(s); financial status; and recent changes in the company and industry. (SK)

  19. Dispersant Effectiveness, In-Situ Droplet Size Distribution and ...

    This report summarizes two projects covered under an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (BIO DFO), New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) and Dalhousie University. Both projects dovetail together in addressing the ability to differentiate physical from chemical dispersion effectiveness using dispersed oil simulations within a flume tank for improving forensic response monitoring tools. This report is split into separateTasks based upon the two projects funded by BSEE: 1) Dispersant Effectiveness, In-Situ Droplet Size Distribution and Numerical Modeling to Assess Subsurface Dispersant Injection as a Deepwater Blowout Oil Spill Response Option. 2) Evaluation of Oil Fluorescence Characteristics to Improve Forensic Response Tools. This report summarizes 2 collaborative projects funded through an Interagency Agreement with DOI BSEE and a Cooperative Agreement with DFO Canada. BSEE required that the projects be combined into one report as they are both covered under the one Interagency Agreement. Task B (Fluorescence of oils) is an SHC 3.62 FY16 product.

  20. Sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign-owned manufacturing companies in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Ajibade David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study used cross sectional descriptive design and a total of three hundred and two (302 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique from five randomly selected foreign-owned manufacturing companies. Data were collected using questionnaire and statistically analysed using frequencies, percentages and weighted means. The study reveals factors such as unfavourable physical working conditions, job insecurity, poor career development, and long working hours fostering stress on employees in the sampled companies. The study further reveals that respondents suffered consequences such as restlessness, anxiety and nervous indigestion, headache, neck ache, and inability to concentrate. This study however has implication for management of foreign-owned manufacturing organization. Based on this, appropriate recommendations were made application of which will help to ensure enabling workplace environment and thus reduce the effects of stress on employees.

  1. A critical review of literature on-the-job training’s incidence and its effects in Company

    Lorena Alikaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article aims to collect and review critically some empirical findings and researches on the incidence of employer training and the economic effects of it on company. It’s aimed to clarify the type of training that companies ensure on the work place, the frequency of training. Is it true that after training, employees have higher chances of promotion and mobility? What are the benefits from the point of view of the companies for them? Is it measurable this investment in human capital? Knowing correctly the literature related to the questions above, it helps the policymakers to formulate the right policies for equality of earnings and accessing on-the-job training, decrease chances for gender discrimination and increase the long run return of the company that makes training among employees. There is a higher interest studying the incidence, determinants, and effects of company training, supported by more reliable data and sophisticated research techniques and instruments. On the other hand, as the interest for the topic increases, so the confusion surrounding this literature does. There are a few empirical articles for the case of Albania. Identifying the right literature and developments on the topic should help the other researchers to explore the field and to contribute with updated findings for Albania’s job market.

  2. Effects of Meaning and Symmetry on Judgments of Size

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T.; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we...... showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts...

  3. The social effectiveness of small and medium-sized entities standard from the view point of Game Theory

    Alexandre Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounting has been undergoing significant changes, and among these changes is the creation of a standard for the accounting of small and medium enterprises, in line with international accounting standards for companies of this size. This rule arose from the development of a pronouncement by the Accounting Pronouncements Committee – CPC, which subsequently was approved by the Federal Accounting Council - CFC through specific resolutions. The present study aimed to analyze trends of accounting professionals and business managers concerning the adoption of Technical Pronouncement emitted by Accounting Pronouncements Committee for Small and Medium Enterprises. Considering the level of complexity of the operations performed by companies of this size, the lack of oversight by specific entities and the question of enforcement of these pronouncements, it was used the game theory to determine possible strategies adopted by the accountants and business managers regarding to the effective adoption of pronouncement for SMEs. The study was characterized as a descriptive research, using bibliographical and field research. With the use of surveys sought to identify the perceptions of accounting professionals regarding the adoption of the pronouncement. It was found that this statement constitutes a valid legal standard, endowed with legal effectiveness and technical efficiency, but lacking social effectiveness, due to the low level of efforts for its adoption, both by accounting professionals and by firms.

  4. Effects of the financial crisis on the wealth distribution of Korea's companies

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Swanson, Todd; Kim, Jooyun

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the distribution functions of Korea's top-rated companies during two financial crises. A power-law scaling for rank distribution, as well as cumulative probability distribution, was found and observed as a general pattern. Similar distributions can be shown in other studies of wealth and income distributions. In our study, the Pareto exponents designating the distribution differed before and after the crisis. The companies covered in this research are divided into two subgroups during a period when the subprime mortgage crisis occurred. Various industrial sectors of Korea's companies were found to respond differently during the two financial crises, especially the construction sector, financial sectors, and insurance groups.

  5. On size-effects in single crystal wedge indentation

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    constitutive length parameters to model sizeeffects. The problem is studied numerically using a strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity theory formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009). It is shown how the force-indentation relation is affected due to size-dependence in the material. Size...

  6. Practical implementation of Channelized Hotelling Observers: Effect of ROI size.

    Ferrero, Andrea; Favazza, Christopher P; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental to the development and application of channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) models is the selection of the region of interest (ROI) to evaluate. For assessment of medical imaging systems, reducing the ROI size can be advantageous. Smaller ROIs enable a greater concentration of interrogable objects in a single phantom image, thereby providing more information from a set of images and reducing the overall image acquisition burden. Additionally, smaller ROIs may promote better assessment of clinical patient images as different patient anatomies present different ROI constraints. To this end, we investigated the minimum ROI size that does not compromise the performance of the CHO model. In this study, we evaluated both simulated images and phantom CT images to identify the minimum ROI size that resulted in an accurate figure of merit (FOM) of the CHO's performance. More specifically, the minimum ROI size was evaluated as a function of the following: number of channels, spatial frequency and number of rotations of the Gabor filters, size and contrast of the object, and magnitude of the image noise. Results demonstrate that a minimum ROI size exists below which the CHO's performance is grossly inaccurate. The minimum ROI size is shown to increase with number of channels and be dictated by truncation of lower frequency filters. We developed a model to estimate the minimum ROI size as a parameterized function of the number of orientations and spatial frequencies of the Gabor filters, providing a guide for investigators to appropriately select parameters for model observer studies.

  7. The effect of group size on vigilance in Ruddy Turnstones

    Fuller, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Metcalfe, N.B.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Foraging birds can manage time spent vigilant for predators by forming groups of various sizes. However, group size alone will not always reliably determine the optimal level of vigilance. For example, variation in predation risk or food quality between patches may also be influential. In a field

  8. In vitro toxicity analysis of nanoscale aluminum: Particle size and shape effects

    Palazuelos Jorganes, Maria

    2007-12-01

    Nanostructured materials promise to revolutionize many key areas of science and technology. As our ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale increases, there is a need to assess the effects of these materials on human health and the environment. Materials at the nanoscale are interesting and useful because they possess properties that are different from the equivalent bulk or molecular scale. These same properties can make toxicological profiles very different from those of the same materials on a different scale. There is a rising consensus that toxicity analysis of nanomaterials should start from a thorough physicochemical characterization of the materials under investigation in order to be able to establish a proper correlation between the nanoparticles characteristics and their effects and behavior in physiological environments. This research is a clear example of the necessity of comprehensive studies when investigating the toxicity of nanomaterials. Aluminum nanoparticles are being extensively used for their very unique energetic properties. These materials offer a very promising market that is fostering many startup companies which are expected to consolidate on strong technological positions. Aluminum is generally recognized as a non-toxic material to humans and it is widely used for applications which imply direct human contact. The effect of aluminum nanoparticles in human health is still an unknown. My research consisted of an in vitro toxicity screening of aluminum materials from nano to micron size, including spherical irregularly shaped particles. Several issues relating to size, shape, detection and characterization of nanoparticles in the different environments relevant to in vitro toxicity analysis were addressed and suitable protocols were developed. Lung human epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of these materials and the effects were analyzed by means of various toxicity tests. Some of the materials investigated caused

  9. Are Large Headquarters Unproductive? Evidence from a Panel of Japanese Companies (Japanese)

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper, using large panel data of Japanese companies (2001-2011), empirically analyzes the determinants of the size of headquarters and their effect on productivity. Headquarters functions, the core service sector within companies, play important roles in supporting strategic decision making in modern companies. However, it is often advocated that the downsizing of headquarters improves organizational efficiency. The size of headquarters is closely related to the issue of centralization/d...

  10. Eliminating high-order scattering effects in optical microbubble sizing.

    Qiu, Huihe

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of bubble size and velocity in multiphase flows are important in much research and many industrial applications. It has been found that high-order refractions have great impact on microbubble sizing by use of phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The problem has been investigated, and a model of phase-size correlation, which also takes high-order refractions into consideration, is introduced to improve the accuracy of bubble sizing. Hence the model relaxes the assumption of a single-scattering mechanism in a conventional PDA system. The results of simulation based on this new model are compared with those based on a single-scattering-mechanism approach or a first-order approach. An optimization method for accurately sizing air bubbles in water has been suggested.

  11. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Segurado, Javier; Panteghini, Andrea; Llorca, Javier

    2013-07-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view.

  12. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Panteghini, Andrea; Segurado, Javier; Llorca, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view. (paper)

  13. Droplet size effects on film drainage between droplet and substrate.

    Steinhaus, Benjamin; Spicer, Patrick T; Shen, Amy Q

    2006-06-06

    When a droplet approaches a solid surface, the thin liquid film between the droplet and the surface drains until an instability forms and then ruptures. In this study, we utilize microfluidics to investigate the effects of film thickness on the time to film rupture for water droplets in a flowing continuous phase of silicone oil deposited on solid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces. The water droplets ranged in size from millimeters to micrometers, resulting in estimated values of the film thickness at rupture ranging from 600 nm down to 6 nm. The Stefan-Reynolds equation is used to model film drainage beneath both millimeter- and micrometer-scale droplets. For millimeter-scale droplets, the experimental and analytical film rupture times agree well, whereas large differences are observed for micrometer-scale droplets. We speculate that the differences in the micrometer-scale data result from the increases in the local thin film viscosity due to confinement-induced molecular structure changes in the silicone oil. A modified Stefan-Reynolds equation is used to account for the increased thin film viscosity of the micrometer-scale droplet drainage case.

  14. Secondary tax and its effect on the cost of capital and shareholder value of South African JSE listed companies

    J. H.v.H De Wet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of a secondary tax on companies (STC and the lowering of the normal income tax rate in 1993 constituted a dramatic change in the tax structure of South African organisations. The original intention of these changes was to encourage organisations to re-invest profits to make use of capital investment opportunities. It was also anticipated that these tax changes would lower the cost of capital of organisations. Problem investigated: Announcements during the 2007 budget again raised questions about how the proposed changes in STC would affect the value of organisations. The impact of these tax changes has been the topic of some speculation in the absence of concrete research results to date. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of these tax changes and all subsequent changes since 1993 on the cost of capital and shareholder value. Approach: A model of a hypothetical company, representing the 'average' listed South African organisation was used to determine the effect of the introduction of STC and the changes to the STC and company tax rate on the cost of capital and the value of the organisation. Findings: The study found that, contrary to expectations, the tax changes actually caused the cost of capital to go up. Overall, the combined effect of the higher cost of capital and the lower company tax rate caused the theoretical value of organisations to increase, constituting an improvement of shareholder value. Value of research: It is the first local study that endeavoured to analyse and quantify the impact of the introduction of STC and the lowering of the company tax rate on the cost of capital and the value of organisations. Conclusion: The introduction of STC in and the lowering of the company tax rate in 1993, as well as changes to these two forms of taxes since then, seem to have been justified in terms of shareholder value creation.

  15. Privatised companies and market

    Salini, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    The Italian Government decided to adopt the public company structure where a little group of medium-term investors had the task of supporting the transition of the privatised companies to the market. The article examines the reasons for this decision and its failure in attaining the purpose, not excluding the possibility for the public company of imposing itself in the long period and in a context of a minor legislative intervention and more effective Corporate Governance rules [it

  16. Project appraisal for small and medium size wind energy installation: The Italian wind energy policy effects

    Fera, M.; Iannone, R.; Macchiaroli, R.; Miranda, S.; Schiraldi, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the distributed energy production from small wind turbines (i.e.<200 kWp) has developed into a relevant business opportunity for different investors in Italy. The market, especially in Italy, has rapidly grown, achieving 9 MWp only in 2011, with an increase from 1.5 MW in 2009 to 13.3 MW at the end of 2011. This paper reports the results of a case study on the installation of several small wind turbines. It aims to provide an analysis of the conditions in Italy that make it possible to install these machines and offer a reliable reference for designing, planning, and controlling small wind turbine projects while focusing on the strategic variables of time, cost, and quality used by typical enterprises in the investment projects. The results are relevant to investors as well as engineering, procurement, and construction companies involved in this new sector, which must understand Italy’s renewable energy policy and its effects in practice. Moreover, certain national energy policy conclusions are reported and discussed in this paper. To properly study the sector, the data on time, cost and quality are analysed using typical project management tools. - Highlights: • Focus on the Italian wind energy sector. • Analysis of Italian policy effects. • Focus on small/medium size wind energy machines

  17. Effect of televised, tobacco company-funded smoking prevention advertising on youth smoking-related beliefs, intentions, and behavior.

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2006-12-01

    To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103,172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company-sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.

  18. Performance and internationalization effects of the use of ICT in diversified companies

    León, Omar; Igartua, Juan Ignacio; Ganzarain, Jaione

    2018-01-01

    [ENG] The relationship between Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and business performance has been a topic of great importance for academics from different areas for several decades. In this sense, this study analyzes the impact of the use of ICT on the diversification strategy of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). From a sample of 95 companies in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, it is evident that diversified companies show a higher level of use of ICTs and th...

  19. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  20. Does Technology Transfer Help Small and Medium Companies? Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Dae-Hwan Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We challenge the view that technology transfer from big companies to small and medium (SM size companies helps SM companies to prosper. With a large dataset of SM companies in Korea, we utilize the stochastic production frontier (SPF model to examine the productivity of inputs and the generalized linear model (GLM to compare business performance between two groups of SM companies: SM companies that receive technology transfer and those that do not receive technology transfer from big companies. The empirical results demonstrate that the transfer of technology from big companies to SM companies help SM companies to enjoy productivity of capital. Nonetheless, SM companies receiving technology transfer were found to underperform in terms of labor productivity and profit margin compared to their counterparts. We further investigate the reasons why SM companies receiving technology transfer from big companies underperform relative to their counterparts, and our findings shows that the former do not export much of their product and face more difficulties such as lower price for their products imposed by big companies than the latter. By identifying the negative rather than the conventionally assumed positive effect of technology transfer, this paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between technology transfer and SM companies’ prosperity in the case of Korea. Our findings have important implications for how SM companies should strategize and rethink about the clauses embedded in the transfer of technology that they receive from big companies because technology transfer plays as a barrier to their prosperity.

  1. THE EFFECT OF SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT

    Svetlana Maslennikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the natural surroundings tectonical, climatological, dynamic and physico-chemical conditions of sedimentation are the crucial factors in the process of sediment composition formation. Grain size is one of the most investigated reasons of space and temporary variability in heavy metal concentration. In general, the data on grain size measurement afford to appreciate sorption capacity of sediments and arrange them. The dependence heavy metal content on grain size of sediments has been examined in the enormous amount of research works. The main conclusion is that if grain size decreases, metal content increases.We have carried out sediment grain size measurement of two lakes (Chebachje Lake, Piketnoye Lake located in the South of Western Siberia, Russia. To define grain size of these sediments the sorting of samples collected layer-by-layer has been conducted by nest of sieves (from 43 to 1000 µm. Accomplished examinations allow to state that layer-by-layer grain size measurement of sediments has significant importance in reconstruction of paleoecologic peculiarities and also influences organic and inorganic matter concentrating in the sediments in dynamics

  2. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water: particle size effects.

    Winward, G P; Avery, L M; Stephenson, T; Jefferson, B

    2008-02-01

    The impact of water quality on the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water was investigated with reference to urban water reuse. Direct UV disinfection of grey water did not meet the stringent California State Title 22 criteria for unrestricted urban water reuse due to the presence of particulate material ranging from or = 2000 microm in size. Grey water was manipulated by settling to produce fractions of varying particle size distributions and blending was employed post-disinfection to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs). The efficacy of UV disinfection was found to be linked to the particle size of the grey water fractions. The larger particle size fractions with a mean particle size of 262 microm and above were observed to shield more coliforms from UV light than did the smaller particles with a mean particle size below 119 microm. Up to 70% of total coliforms in the larger particle size fractions were particle-associated following a UV dose (fluence) of 260 mJ.cm(-2) and would remain undetected by standard coliform enumeration techniques. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and recommendations made for grey water treatment to ensure removal of particle-associated indicator bacteria and pathogens prior to UV disinfection.

  3. Effect Size Measures for Mediation Models: Quantitative Strategies for Communicating Indirect Effects

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those…

  4. The effectiveness of Cluster Organization Functions from a Member Company Perspective: The Case of Food Valley Organization

    Omta, S.W.F.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of the different cluster organization functions (services, activities and information sources) of Food Valley Organization in the Dutch agifood innovation system, as evaluated by its member companies. It is concluded that, in accordance with cluster

  5. The Effects of Property, Plant and Equipment (TAS 16 Standard on Cost of Sales of Manufacturing Companies

    İlker KIYMETLİ ŞEN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Turkish Commercial Code that came into force in July 2012, the all capital companies that meet the criteria described by the Council of Ministers are required to be in compliance with accounting and financial reporting standards published by the Public Oversight, Accounting and Auditing Board. There are several differences between the local accounting regulations and the standards in terms of valuation, computation and presentation. These differences also affect the cost of sales of the companies that result in differences in the calculation of costs of goods manufactured. The purpose of this study is to examine and demonstrate the potential effects of the TAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment on calculations of manufacturing costs and the cost of sales of manufacturing companies.

  6. Re-examination of Advertising Effectiveness in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analysis

    Adefulu Adesoga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamined the effectiveness of Advertising in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos, Nigeria. The study linked with past researches through its extensive conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature review. The methodology adopted was survey research design. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on samples from the selected Companies. The weighted means and percentage values of the respondents were used in the analysis and decision making. The findings showed the need for a better understanding of organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive achievement of advertising goals because of its impacts on customers’ awareness and product adoption.. The study concluded that advertising is a potent and veritable tool for achieving marketing goals. The study recommended that firms should identify the best advertising program to achieve its advertising goals. By implication, marketing decision maker should incorporate advertising expenditures in the marketing budget in appreciation of its role.

  7. Effect of Promotional Strategies of Pharmaceutical Companies on Doctors' Prescription Pattern in South East Nigeria

    Linus Onah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Drug promotions use multifaceted approaches incorporating hospital and office detailing by marketing representatives. Very few studies exist on their influence on doctors’ prescription pattern in Nigeria. We examined the scope and effects of marketing strategies on the prescription habits of doctors in Enugu, South East Nigeria. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study; 210 self-administered structured questionnaires were distributed among doctors in six major hospitals in Enugu. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ethics Committee, Enugu. RESULTS: There was 88% response rate, with more males than females (M:F= 2.2: 1. Most were residents-in-training/ house officers (69% while consultants were 7.1% of the group. Stickers, drug presentations/ launches and personal souvenirs were most commonly employed marketing strategies. Most doctors (60% attending a drug presentation felt influenced. While 87.5% appreciated the benefits of marketing strategies, about 70% would consider patients’ socioeconomic status before prescribing. Continuing medical education and stiff competition were reasons adduced for the marketing strategies. CONCLUSION: Pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria adopt varied strategies to influence doctors’ prescriptions. Often this aim is achieved. The practice is accepted by most who nevertheless will consider other factors when deciding on what to prescribe. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 1-6

  8. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English

  9. Effect of size heterogeneity on community identification in complex networks

    Danon, L.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Arenas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying community structure can be a potent tool in the analysis and understanding of the structure of complex networks. Up to now, methods for evaluating the performance of identification algorithms use ad-hoc networks with communities of equal size. We show that inhomogeneities in community sizes can and do affect the performance of algorithms considerably, and propose an alternative method which takes these factors into account. Furthermore, we propose a simple modification of the algorithm proposed by Newman for community detection (Phys. Rev. E 69 066133) which treats communities of different sizes on an equal footing, and show that it outperforms the original algorithm while retaining its speed.

  10. Finite size effects in lattice QCD with dynamical Wilson fermions

    Orth, B.

    2004-06-01

    Due to limited computing resources choosing the parameters for a full lattice QCD simulation always amounts to a compromise between the competing objectives of a lattice spacing as small, quarks as light, and a volume as large as possible. Aiming at pushing unquenched simulations with the standard Wilson action towards the computationally expensive regime of small quark masses, the GRAL project addresses the question whether computing time can be saved by sticking to lattices with rather modest numbers of grid sites and extrapolating the finite-volume results to the infinite volume (prior to the usual chiral and continuum extrapolations). In this context we investigate in this work finite-size effects in simulated light hadron masses. Understanding their systematic volume dependence may not only help saving computer time in light quark simulations with the Wilson action, but also guide future simulations with dynamical chiral fermions which for a foreseeable time will be restricted to rather small lattices. We analyze data from hybrid Monte Carlo simulations with the N{sub f} = 2 Wilson action at two values of the coupling parameter, {beta} = 5.6 (lattice spacing {alpha} {approx} 0.08 fm) and {beta} = 5.32144 ({alpha} {approx} 0.13 fm). The larger {beta} corresponds to the coupling used previously by SESAM/T{chi}L. The considered hopping parameters {kappa} = 0.1575, 0.158 (at the larger {beta}) and {kappa} = 0.1665 (at the smaller {beta}) correspond to quark masses of 85, 50 and 36% of the strange quark mass, respectively. At each quark mass we study at least three different lattice extents in the range from L = 10 to L = 24 (0.85-2.04 fm). Estimates of autocorrelation times in the stochastic updating process and of the computational cost of every run are given. For each simulated sea quark mass we calculate quark propagators and hadronic correlation functions in order to extract the pion, rho and nucleon masses as well as the pion decay constant and the quark mass

  11. Effective population size and evolutionary dynamics in outbred ...

    populations of fruit flies is not primarily driven by new mutations, but rather by changes in the frequency of ..... Drift simulation: The sex ratio, total population size and ...... Gillespie J. H. 1994a Substitution processes in molecular evolution. II.

  12. Electric field engineering using quantum-size-effect-tuned heterojunctions

    Adinolfi, V.; Ning, Z.; Xu, J.; Masala, Silvia; Zhitomirsky, D.; Thon, S. M.; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    be tuned across the light-absorbing semiconductor layer via control over CQD size, employing solution-processed, room-temperature fabricated materials. We exploit this feature by designing and demonstrating a field-enhanced heterojunction architecture. We

  13. The effect of meal size on gastric evacuation in whiting

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1998-01-01

    Gastric evacuation experiments were performed on whiting Merlangius merlangus fed discrete meals of different sizes. Herring Clupea harengus, sandeel Ammodytes tobianus, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and brown shrimp Crangon crangon were tested as prey. A simple power model to describe...

  14. The Effects of Rain Garden Size on Hydrological Performance

    Bioretention systems are vegetated depressions designed to accept stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces. Manuals and guidance documents recommend sizing bioretention cells anywhere from 3% to 43% of their associated drainage areas, based on factors including soil type, slop...

  15. Switching-on quantum size effects in silicon nanocrystals.

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Chenxi; Wang, Liwei; Wei, Muan; Mastronardi, Melanie L; Casillas, Gilberto; Breu, Josef; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-27

    The size-dependence of the absolute luminescence quantum yield of size-separated silicon nanocrystals reveals a "volcano" behavior, which switches on around 5 nm, peaks at near 3.7-3.9 nm, and decreases thereafter. These three regions respectively define: i) the transition from bulk to strongly quantum confined emissive silicon, ii) increasing confinement enhancing radiative recombination, and iii) increasing contributions favoring non-radiative recombination. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Size and liquidity effects in Nigeria: an industrial sector study

    Hearn, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates liquidity premiums using the recently developed Liu (2006) measure within a multifactor capital asset pricing model (CAPM) including size premiums and a time varying parameter model for the West African emerging market of Nigeria. The evidence suggests that liquidity factors are relevant only for financial and basic materials sector stocks while size factor is more generally relevant in explaining the cross section of stock returns in the Nigerian domestic equity market....

  17. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  18. Family Configuration and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size in a Sample of Brothers.

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    1979-01-01

    Birth order effects in brothers were found to derive from difference in family size. Effects for family size were found even with socioeconomic background controlled. Nor were family size effects explained by parental ability. The importance of unmeasured preferences or economic resources that vary across families was suggested. (Author/RD)

  19. Some approaches to the effective functioning of the system model social infrastructure company

    G. S. Armashova-Telnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's economic conditions, characterized by a high degree of instability and uncertainty as the conditions for the functioning of economic entities, as well as political and economic conditions in general, in the management structure of the economy it is advisable to proceed from the position of the key concepts of management, optimally adapted to the real situation. In this context, it is necessary to use scientific innovation to improve the economic growth of economic entities through the effective functioning of the enterprise social infrastructure models. Lineup social infrastructure systems involves various models of a number of features of structure. In this regard, according to the strategic objectives of a business entity, on its socio-economic targets need to use all the resource capacity of the organization to achieve its objectives by means of integration in the social infrastructure system model that focuses on the efficient use of human resources in the process of increasing the economic performance of the company. So, guided by a number of basic principles of the successful implementation of social infrastructure mechanisms of enterprises, structure of the economy with a view to long-term effective operation, it is necessary to take into account the value of the vectors of the organizational culture of polarization in the motivation of personnel, which could be one of the levers of growth of efficiency of functioning of the enterprise, a powerful strategic tool to target all units and individual subjects for the organization, mobilize the initiative of employees and ensure productive interaction of subjects in the format “business-to-employee” rather than substantially predetermine the competitiveness and success of the organization in the long run.

  20. Numerical Evaluation of Size Effect on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of Geotextile-Reinforced Sand

    Hosseinpour, I.; Mirmoradi, S.H.; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of sample size on the stress-strain behavior and strength characteristics of geotextile reinforced sand using the finite element numerical analysis. The effect of sample size was investigated by studying the effects of varying the number of geotextile layers, the con......This paper studies the effect of sample size on the stress-strain behavior and strength characteristics of geotextile reinforced sand using the finite element numerical analysis. The effect of sample size was investigated by studying the effects of varying the number of geotextile layers...... on the mechanical behavior of reinforced sand decreases with an increase in the sample size....

  1. The effect of size on the oxygen electroreduction activity of mass-selected platinum nanoparticles

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; McCarthy, David N; Nierhoff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A matter of size: The particle size effect on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction of size-selected platinum clusters was studied. The ORR activity decreased with decreasing Pt nanoparticle size, corresponding to a decrease in the fraction of terraces on the surfaces of the Pt nanopartic...

  2. The Effect of Size on the Oxygen Electroreduction Activity of Mass‐Selected Platinum Nanoparticles

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; McCarthy, David Norman; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2012-01-01

    A matter of size: The particle size effect on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction of size-selected platinum clusters was studied. The ORR activity decreased with decreasing Pt nanoparticle size, corresponding to a decrease in the fraction of terraces on the surfaces of the Pt nanopartic...

  3. Effects of climate on size structure and functioning of aquatic food webs

    Lacerot, G.

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic food webs, the role of body size is notoriously strong. It is also well known that temperature has an effect on body size. For instance, Bergmann’s rule states that body size increases from warm to cold climates. This thesis addresses the question how climate shapes the size structure of

  4. Polymer-Particle Nanocomposites: Size and Dispersion Effects

    Moll, Joseph

    Polymer-particle nanocomposites are used in industrial processes to enhance a broad range of material properties (e.g. mechanical, optical, electrical and gas permeability properties). This dissertation will focus on explanation and quantification of mechanical property improvements upon the addition of nanoparticles to polymeric materials. Nanoparticles, as enhancers of mechanical properties, are ubiquitous in synthetic and natural materials (e.g. automobile tires, packaging, bone), however, to date, there is no thorough understanding of the mechanism of their action. In this dissertation, silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, both bare and grafted with polystyrene (PS), are studied in polymeric matrices. Several variables of interest are considered, including particle dispersion state, particle size, length and density of grafted polymer chains, and volume fraction of SiO2. Polymer grafted nanoparticles behave akin to block copolymers, and this is critically leveraged to systematically vary nanoparticle dispersion and examine its role on the mechanical reinforcement in polymer based nanocomposites in the melt state. Rheology unequivocally shows that reinforcement is maximized by the formation of a transient, but long-lived, percolating polymer-particle network with the particles serving as the network junctions. The effects of dispersion and weight fraction of filler on nanocomposite mechanical properties are also studied in a bare particle system. Due to the interest in directional properties for many different materials, different means of inducing directional ordering of particle structures are also studied. Using a combination of electron microscopy and x-ray scattering, it is shown that shearing anisotropic NP assemblies (sheets or strings) causes them to orient, one in front of the other, into macroscopic two-dimensional structures along the flow direction. In contrast, no such flow-induced ordering occurs for well dispersed NPs or spherical NP aggregates! This work

  5. Effects of Occupational Health and Safety on Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of Workers Employed in a Private Company in Turkey.

    Ulutasdemir, Nilgun; Kilic, Meryem; Zeki, Özge; Begendi, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that inappropriate working conditions and unsafe environments at construction sites, longer working hours, and inadequate workplaces adversely affect the health behaviors of workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occupational health and safety (OHS) practices on healthy lifestyle behaviors of workers employed at a construction site of a private company in Gaziantep, Turkey. The sampling size of this descriptive study consisted of 400 employees working at the construction site between December 2014 and January 2015. In all, 341 employees still working or participating in the study during the period of this questionnaire study were included in the sampling. Data from the survey were derived from responses to questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, OHS applications, health state, and working conditions, as well as to the questions in on the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale (HLBS), under direct surveillance. Male workers with a mean age of 30.61 ± 8.68 years constituted the study population. Of the workers, 41.9% had a primary school education. The majority received professional and OHS training (65.7% and 79.2%, respectively). Although 83.9% reported using personal protective equipment (PPE), only 2.1% said they had experienced an occupational accident. Total mean score of HLBS scale was 116.91 ± 25.62 points. Workers who had positive thoughts about their jobs demonstrated healthy lifestyle behaviors (P = .0001). A positive direct correlation was detected between the training the workers received and the use of PPE (P = .0001). In all, 38.1% of the workers reported experiencing work stress at the time of the study. Mean HLBS scores of those experiencing work stress were lower than the scores for workers not experiencing stress (P < .05). Receiving OHS and professional training and using of PPE favorably affect healthy lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Effect of beamlet step-size on IMRT plan quality

    Zhang Guowei; Jiang Ziping; Shepard, David; Earl, Matt; Yu, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the degree to which beamlet step-size impacts the quality of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. Treatment planning for IMRT begins with the application of a grid that divides each beam's-eye-view of the target into a number of smaller beamlets (pencil beams) of radiation. The total dose is computed as a weighted sum of the dose delivered by the individual beamlets. The width of each beamlet is set to match the width of the corresponding leaf of the multileaf collimator (MLC). The length of each beamlet (beamlet step-size) is parallel to the direction of leaf travel. The beamlet step-size represents the minimum stepping distance of the leaves of the MLC and is typically predetermined by the treatment planning system. This selection imposes an artificial constraint because the leaves of the MLC and the jaws can both move continuously. Removing the constraint can potentially improve the IMRT plan quality. In this study, the optimized results were achieved using an aperture-based inverse planning technique called direct aperture optimization (DAO). We have tested the relationship between pencil beam step-size and plan quality using the American College of Radiology's IMRT test case. For this case, a series of IMRT treatment plans were produced using beamlet step-sizes of 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm. Continuous improvements were seen with each reduction in beamlet step size. The maximum dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was reduced from 134.7% to 121.5% and the mean dose to the organ at risk (OAR) was reduced from 38.5% to 28.2% as the beamlet step-size was reduced from 10 to 1 mm. The smaller pencil beam sizes also led to steeper dose gradients at the junction between the target and the critical structure with gradients of 6.0, 7.6, 8.7, and 9.1 dose%/mm achieved for beamlet step sizes of 10, 5, 2, and 1 mm, respectively

  7. From national air carriers to low-cost companies: Effects of successful marketing strategy implementation

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge changes in marketing strategies and, more generally - in business philosophies are not so often. During the last 20 years global and/or national companies have already defined their general approaches of marketing instruments implementation. Therefore, when a contemporary company changes something in its marketing approach, it usually only refers to 'subtle adjustment' of the already determined strategy. Another reason for changes in a particular segment of marketing is a crisis of some kind that forces firms to implement innovations, especially regarding the elements such as costs - price - or service quality. A global enterprise segment consisting of low tariff airline companies is here identified as the one that has dramatically changed its marketing approach within the last 20 years, which continually resulted in its improved market position and business results. Changes in marketing strategies of low-cost companies have truly been revolutionary and are completely the consequence of recognizing the real needs of clients who use services of air transport. The success of low-cost airline companies is forcing the traditional, classic, air carriers to adapt their marketing instruments to this new model of business management. This paper also identifies one very significant assumption of the low-cost carriers phenomenon and their marketing approach - the liberalization of the global air transport market.

  8. Effect of silica particle size on macrophage inflammatory responses.

    Toshimasa Kusaka

    Full Text Available Amorphous silica particles, such as nanoparticles (<100 nm diameter particles, are used in a wide variety of products, including pharmaceuticals, paints, cosmetics, and food. Nevertheless, the immunotoxicity of these particles and the relationship between silica particle size and pro-inflammatory activity are not fully understood. In this study, we addressed the relationship between the size of amorphous silica (particle dose, diameter, number, and surface area and the inflammatory activity (macrophage phagocytosis, inflammasome activation, IL-1β secretion, cell death and lung inflammation. Irrespective of diameter size, silica particles were efficiently internalized by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages via an actin cytoskeleton-dependent pathway, and induced caspase-1, but not caspase-11, activation. Of note, 30 nm-1000 nm diameter silica particles induced lysosomal destabilization, cell death, and IL-1β secretion at markedly higher levels than did 3000 nm-10000 nm silica particles. Consistent with in vitro results, intra-tracheal administration of 30 nm silica particles into mice caused more severe lung inflammation than that of 3000 nm silica particles, as assessed by measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice, and by the micro-computed tomography analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that silica particle size impacts immune responses, with submicron amorphous silica particles inducing higher inflammatory responses than silica particles over 1000 nm in size, which is ascribed not only to their ability to induce caspase-1 activation but also to their cytotoxicity.

  9. Bottom-up and top-down attentional contributions to the size congruity effect.

    Sobel, Kenith V; Puri, Amrita M; Faulkenberry, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    The size congruity effect refers to the interaction between the numerical and physical (i.e., font) sizes of digits in a numerical (or physical) magnitude selection task. Although various accounts of the size congruity effect have attributed this interaction to either an early representational stage or a late decision stage, only Risko, Maloney, and Fugelsang (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75, 1137-1147, 2013) have asserted a central role for attention. In the present study, we used a visual search paradigm to further study the role of attention in the size congruity effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed that manipulating top-down attention (via the task instructions) had a significant impact on the size congruity effect. The interaction between numerical and physical size was larger for numerical size comparison (Exp. 1) than for physical size comparison (Exp. 2). In the remaining experiments, we boosted the feature salience by using a unique target color (Exp. 3) or by increasing the display density by using three-digit numerals (Exps. 4 and 5). As expected, a color singleton target abolished the size congruity effect. Searching for three-digit targets based on numerical size (Exp. 4) resulted in a large size congruity effect, but search based on physical size (Exp. 5) abolished the effect. Our results reveal a substantial role for top-down attention in the size congruity effect, which we interpreted as support for a shared-decision account.

  10. Size effect on magnetic ordering in Ce3Al11

    Wang, C.R.; Chen, Y.Y.; Neeleshwar, S.; Ou, M.N.; Ho, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    To study the size dependence of magnetic ordering, magnetic measurements have been made between 1.8 and 300 K on Ce 3 Al 11 particles having an average particle size of 1400 A. The nanoparticles were single phase as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. At low temperatures a ferromagnetic transition occurs at T C =6.2 K, which is the same as that for the bulk material. On the other hand, the antiferromagnetic transition at T N =3.2 K for the bulk material is not visible down to 1.8 K. Meanwhile, the slightly smaller Curie constant of nanoparticles as compared to that of the bulk indicates a certain degree of demagnetization of Ce ions when the particle size is sufficiently reduced

  11. Blood on the coal: the effect of organizational size and differentiation on coal mine accidents.

    Page, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Each year, there are at least 100,000,000 occupational accidents and 100,000 occupational deaths in the world. In the United States, one of the safest countries in the world in which to work, there were more than 5,400 workplace fatalities and 5.9 million workplace injuries in 2007. The cost to American industry and taxpayers is estimated to be at least $170 billion per year. Further, as illustrated by accidents such as Three Mile Island and Bhopal, industrial accidents potentially impact a much wider sphere than that of the injured worker and his or her employer. As the repercussions of organizational accidents reverberate through organizations and are felt from human resources to accounting, firms are beginning to incorporate messages of safety in their missions and strategies. As firms organize to achieve safer work environments, they are faced with decisions on how to structure their activities in terms of, among other things, size and differentiation. This paper explores the impact on accident rates of size and differentiation at the corporate and mine levels of mining companies in an effort to create a framework for thinking about organizational accidents from a structural perspective. The results suggest that larger mines are safer than smaller mines, and that mines with less task diversity are safer than mines with greater task diversity. The results also suggest that at the corporate level, task diversity decreases mine accidents. These results may help mining executives and engineers structure their corporate activities and individual mines more effectively to help reduce accidents.

  12. Effects of grain size evolution on mantle dynamics

    Schulz, Falko; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of planetary mantle materials is strongly dependent on temperature, pressure, strain-rate, and grain size. In particular, the rheology of olivine, the most abundant mineral of the Earth's upper mantle, has been extensively studied in the laboratory (e.g., Karato and Wu, 1993; Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003). Two main mechanisms control olivine's deformation: dislocation and diffusion creep. While the former implies a power-law dependence of the viscosity on the strain-rate that leads to a non-Newtonian behaviour, the latter is sensitively dependent on the grain size. The dynamics of planetary interiors is locally controlled by the deformation mechanism that delivers the lowest viscosity. Models of the dynamics and evolution of planetary mantles should thus be capable to self-consistently distinguish which of the two mechanisms dominates at given conditions of temperature, pressure, strain-rate and grain size. As the grain size can affect the viscosity associated with diffusion creep by several orders of magnitude, it can strongly influence the dominant deformation mechanism. The vast majority of numerical, global-scale models of mantle convection, however, are based on the use of a linear diffusion-creep rheology with constant grain-size. Nevertheless, in recent studies, a new equation has been proposed to properly model the time-dependent evolution of the grain size (Austin and Evens, 2007; Rozel et al., 2010). We implemented this equation in our mantle convection code Gaia (Hüttig et al., 2013). In the framework of simple models of stagnant lid convection, we compared simulations based on the fully time-dependent equation of grain-size evolution with simulations based on its steady-state version. In addition, we tested a number of different parameters in order to identify those that affects the grain size to the first order and, in turn, control the conditions at which mantle deformation is dominated by diffusion or dislocation creep. References Austin

  13. Finite size effects for giant magnons on physical strings

    Minahan, J.A.; Ohlsson Sax, O.

    2008-01-01

    Using finite gap methods, we find the leading order finite size corrections for an arbitrary number of giant magnons on physical strings, where the sum of the momenta is a multiple of 2π. Our results are valid for the Hofman-Maldacena fundamental giant magnons as well as their dyonic generalizations. The energy corrections turn out to be surprisingly simple, especially if all the magnons are fundamental, and at leading order are independent of the magnon flavors. We also show how to use the Bethe ansatz to find finite size corrections for dyonic giant magnons with large R-charges

  14. Top Management Team Diversity and Company Performance: The moderating effect of Organization Life Cycle

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper examines the moderating impact of Organizational Life Cycle on the relationship between Top Management Team Diversity and Company Performance. The study first elaborates and establishes the theoretical link between organization lifecycle and composition of management elites. Second, a quantitative empirical study is conducted to test the OLC stages moderating impact on the upper echelons diversity and firm performance of the top companies in the Czech Republic. A detailed procedure is developed to accurately classify organizations at different lifecycle stages, drawing extensively on existing literature and scales. Paper findings state that more mature the company becomes, more diversified the senior management is regardless the firm performance. Also, the industry dynamism impact has its own role in the relationship between the organization life cycle and senior management diversity which is expressed by the paper findings as well.

  15. QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION OF COMPANIES AND MARKETS

    N. Kovtun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of improving the author’s methodology linked with the assessment of companies’ and markets’ globalization level were presented in this paper. Based on the analysis of the global companies’ and global markets’ features referred to in scientific literature, the specifications which can be used to determine the globalization level of companies and markets were suggested. In addition, the globalization level of the largest top-ten companies (according to the rating of Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies in 2015 was identified as well as that of corresponding industry markets: auto and truck manufacturers, major banks, software and programming, large department stores (retailers, telecommunication services, electronics producers, electronics, oil and gas operations.

  16. EFFECTS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF THE TARGET COMPANY

    ADRIANA DUŢESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies revealed the fact that mergers and acquisitions are a risky business. Disregarding the M&A advisers’ fees, evaluations show that most of the companies completing M&A transactions disappoint to deliver on promised financial performance. But, as many would say, it is an investment and the highest risks produce the highest results - whether they're good or bad. Within this paper, we were intending to analyse the rate of success of relevant M&A transactions that took place in 2007 in Romania, by comparing the financial statements of the target companies before and after the acquisition, in the current economic context. The main objective of this study is to generally determine the successfulness of the M&A transactions, starting from assessing changes induced by the M&A transaction to the target company, with the help of three important financial ratios: profit margin, ROE and receivable collection period. Even though the study may present some bias, we have tried to be as objective as possible and not influence its outcome: that 80% of 10 most important private Mergers and Acquisitions taking place in Romania in 2007 and that meet several conditions: o The target is part of the consumer goods and services market (mainly trade and tourism and is an important player in its industry o The target is a Romanian private company, and its shares are not listed on the stock exchange o The acquirer is majority shareholder after the transaction The target company remained as a sole entity and was not integrated into the mother company after the transaction were not successful.

  17. The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a Product of a Company

    Tritama, Hansel Bagus; Tarigan, Riswan Efendi

    2016-01-01

    Social  media  is an online media, where the users can easily participate, share, and create any content such as banner,  posters, videos and advertisement.  Many companies  use these  social  media as  a tool to promote their products  and make  customers aware  with their brand. On the other hand, not all companies  succeed to market their products and make their products are at their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research is to find the correlation  between social media commu- ...

  18. Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions

    Kingma, I.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Toussaint, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used to lift the larger object, resulting in a

  19. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  20. Effects of plot size on forest-type algorithm accuracy

    James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program utilizes an algorithm to consistently determine the forest type for forested conditions on sample plots. Forest type is determined from tree size and species information. Thus, the accuracy of results is often dependent on the number of trees present, which is highly correlated with plot area. This research examines the...

  1. Effects of Morphological Family Size for Young Readers

    Perdijk, Kors; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, R. Harald; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    Dutch children, from the second and fourth grade of primary school, were each given a visual lexical decision test on 210 Dutch monomorphemic words. After removing words not recognized by a majority of the younger group, (lexical) decisions were analysed by mixed-model regression methods to see whether morphological Family Size influenced decision…

  2. Effect of population size on prospect of species survival

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 137-150 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6111303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : population * size * survival Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2006

  3. Size effect in self consolidating concrete beams with and without ...

    the decrease in nominal stress of notched beam is more when compared with that ... The differences between HPC and SCC is essentially in the use of special .... elements fail in ductile or plastic manner, while large sized elements of the ...

  4. The Effect of Organizational Size on Sport Centers' Employees Burnout.

    ATHANASIOS KOUSTELIOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational size and its relation with burnout were examined among 163 sport centres employees in Greece. Findings showed that there is a significant difference on employees' burnout between small and large sport organizations. Particularly, it was found that employees in small sport organizations experienced lower level of Emotional Exhaustion (p<.05 and higher level of Personal Accomplishment (p<.005.

  5. The effects of gold nanoparticles size and concentration on viscosity ...

    This study was carried out to investigate viscosity in relation with the temperature, flow activation energy and dielectric properties for 10, 20 and 50 nm gold nanoparticles size (GNPs) in addition to absorption and fluorescence spectra at different concentrations (0.2 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-2%) in an attempt to cover and understand ...

  6. The Effects of Rain Garden Size on Hydrologic Performance

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to accept stormwater runoff. Manuals and guidance documents recommend sizing rain garden cells from 3% to 43% of the associated drainage area, based on factors including soil type, slope, amount of impervious cover in the drainage ...

  7. Effect of particle size on iron nanoparticle oxidation state

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Lysaght, Andrew C.; Goberman, Daniel G.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selecting catalyst particles is a very important part of carbon nanotube growth, although the properties of these nanoscale particles are unclear. In this article iron nanoparticles are analyzed through the use of atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to understand how the size affects the chemical composition of nanoparticles and thus their physical structure. Initially, atomic force microscopy was used to confirm the presence of iron particles, and to determine the average size of the particles. Next an analytical model was developed to estimate particle size as a function of deposition time using inputs from atomic force microscopy measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was then performed with a focus on the spectra relating to the 2p Fe electrons to study the chemical state of the particles as a function of time. It was shown that as the size of nanoparticles decreased, the oxidation state of the particles changed due to a high proportion of atoms on the surface.

  8. Finite-Size Effects for Some Bootstrap Percolation Models

    Enter, A.C.D. van; Adler, Joan; Duarte, J.A.M.S.

    The consequences of Schonmann's new proof that the critical threshold is unity for certain bootstrap percolation models are explored. It is shown that this proof provides an upper bound for the finite-size scaling in these systems. Comparison with data for one case demonstrates that this scaling

  9. Size effect of the elastic modulus of rectangular nanobeams: Surface elasticity effect

    Yao Hai-Yan; Fan Wen-Liang; Yun Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The size-dependent elastic property of rectangular nanobeams (nanowires or nanoplates) induced by the surface elasticity effect is investigated by using a developed modified core-shell model. The effect of surface elasticity on the elastic modulus of nanobeams can be characterized by two surface related parameters, i.e., inhomogeneous degree constant and surface layer thickness. The analytical results show that the elastic modulus of the rectangular nanobeam exhibits a distinct size effect when its characteristic size reduces below 100 nm. It is also found that the theoretical results calculated by a modified core-shell model have more obvious advantages than those by other models (core-shell model and core-surface model) by comparing them with relevant experimental measurements and computational results, especially when the dimensions of nanostructures reduce to a few tens of nanometers. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  10. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FRAUD TRIANGLE ON DETECTING FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL STATEMENT: USING BENEISH MODEL AND THE CASE OF SPECIAL COMPANIES

    Aprillia Aprillia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fraudulent financial statement is a serious problem and to be a threat to stakeholders, especially for investor. The thing is happened because there is illegal action done intentionally, such as disclosing financial information that doesn’t match with the real condition. The purpose of this research is to acquire a effectiveness of empirical proof of fraud triangle consisting of Pressure, Opportunity, and Rationalization in detecting financial statement fraud that are indicated by using Beneish Model. The sample of this research consists of 39 companies are indicated doing fraud and 57 companies aren’t indicated doing fraud listing at BEI (Bursa Efek Indonesia in 2012 – 2014. Test of this research uses logistic regression method. Based on the result and conclusion, this research shows that opportunity (independent commissioner ownership has significant effect to fraudulent financial statement while pressure (AGROW, financial target (ROA, and rationalization (Total accrual don’t have significant effect to fraudulent financial statement.

  11. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  12. Effect of Local Community’s Environmental Perception on Trust in a Mining Company: A Case Study in Mongolia

    Lavdmaa Dagvadorj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While the mining industry is booming globally, local communities resist mining operations. It is crucial for mining companies to maintain trust within these communities to prevent conflicts. This research investigated local community’s trust in a mining company in Mongolia using a questionnaire survey. We assessed the residents’ perceptions of the company’s effort to maintain environmental protection, as a determinant of trust, in addition to the determinants of motivation and ability. The results showed that the trust level varied within the different respondent groups and the determinants of trust differentially explained the state of trust. The nomadic herders who lived close to the mine site had low trust while being sensitive to the environmental effects. Other herders had neutral trust. Town citizens had high trust, which was mainly related to positive perceptions of motivation. Communicability of the information provided by the company influenced formulation of positive and negative perceptions. Overall, low trust likely leads to conflicts. Therefore, mining companies are advised to conduct surveys with different groups in the local community, especially those sensitive to environmental changes, and take measures to maintain trust.

  13. The Effect of Corporate Tax Avoidance on the Level of Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Indonesian Public Listed Companies

    Muhammad Irham Kurniawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of corporate tax avoidance to the corporate cash holdings. Recent tax avoidance research found that tax avoidance is able to facilitate managerial rent extraction in the form of transfer of resources owned by the company. This study attempts to test how the relationship of tax avoidance with the amount of cash held by the company. The sample consists of 46 non-financial, non-property, non-real estate and non-construction companies from 2009-2016, with a total 368 observations. The study uses two different cash holdings measures to test the robustness of the research results. This study cannot find evidence that tax avoidance have a significant relationship to the level of cash holdings in public companies in Indonesia. Both measurements of cash holdings gave the same conclusions to the results of the study. This study provides an insight that agency theory in the context of tax avoidance and corporate cash holdings in developing countries such as Indonesia needs to be explored further as the agency conflict in Indonesia as a developing country is more principal-principal conflicts.

  14. Effect of Job Satisfaction and Motivation towards Employee's Performance in XYZ Shipping Company

    Octaviannand, Ramona; Pandjaitan, Nurmala K.; Kuswanto, Sadikin

    2017-01-01

    In the digital and globalization era which are demanding for tech progress. Human resources need to work more closely and concentration. Small errors can lead to fatal errors that result in high costs for the company. The loss of motivation at work influences employee satisfaction and have a negative impact on employee performance. Research was…

  15. The role of tourism and hospitality companies in ensuring an effective internship process

    Agita Doniņa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hospitality education has only been provided in Latvia as a separate curriculum relatively recently. According to legislation, the curriculum should consist of study courses, internships and the state exam. Cooperation between all stakeholders is crucial in order to achieve the goal of internship – to increase students’ knowledge and to develop skills in the study area chosen. The purpose of this study is to explore cooperation between higher educational establishments and companies targeted at enhancing students’ employability skills. The survey was conducted in Latvia by addressing managers of 154 tourism and hospitality industry companies in 2014. The findings showed that only 51.30% of the companies plan interns’ job assignment during internship on the basis of an internship programme and in 35.06% of the cases higher educational establishments do not contact internship companies for feedback at all. This means that, despite the importance of internships in developing students’ skills, cooperation among all stakeholders does not proceed in the best possible manner. It is suggested to improve cooperation at all stages of internship – at the planning, organisational and control stages.

  16. Effects of Company Visits on Dutch Primary School Children's Attitudes toward Technical Professions

    Post, Tim; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.

    2014-01-01

    Technology-oriented company visits could potentially provide children with a stimulating "real-world" setting to develop more broad and positive images of and attitudes toward technology and technical professions. The present study was the first to explore whether children's images of and attitudes toward technology, technical…

  17. Good, better, engaged? The effect of company-initiated customer engagement behavior on shareholder value

    Beckers, Sander F.M.; van Doorn, Jenny; Verhoef, Peter C.

    In today’s connected world, customer engagement behaviors are very important. Many companies launch initiatives to stimulate customer engagement. However, despite evidence that customer engagement behavior also matters to share-holders, academic research on the firm value consequences of customer

  18. 'Confidence in our own Abilities': Suriname’s State Oil Company as a Pocket of Effectiveness

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter analyses the conditions under which the Surinamese State Oil Company (Staatsolie) has been consolidated, not only as a firm oriented at the production of oil, but also as a development agent. Staatsolie’s chances to success seemed rather slim at its

  19. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    František Pollák

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulfillment of the main objective was analyzed based on secondary data on hundreds of company profiles (of local SMEs, operating predominantly in the service sector and conducting their business activities in a business-to-consumer (B2C environment managed by a specific marketing agency operating on the Slovak market. The collected data were subsequently subjected to a thorough statistical testing based on monitored parameters. Findings and implications – From the perspective of the main findings, basic recommendations for the efficient use of selected marketing communication tools on the social networking site Facebook are described in terms of improving the expected user interactions. Limitations – We consider the mainly local nature of the data sources to be the biggest limitation in the research process. Due to the local nature of this study, however, this limitation has no significant effect on the quality of the research. Originality – The findings and information presented in this contribution can help improve our understanding of issues related to the effective implementation of resources (time and finances by entities using selected marketing tools, particularly marketing communication in the context of the social networking site Facebook for the purpose of promotion and branding.

  20. Synthesis of nanometer-size inorganic materials for the examination of particle size effects on heterogeneous catalysis

    Emerson, Sean Christian

    The effect of acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation on the precipitation of inorganic catalytic materials, specifically titania supported gold, was investigated. The overall objective was to understand the fundamental factors involved in synthesizing nanometer-size catalytic materials in the 1--10 nm range in a cavitating field. Materials with grain sizes in this range have been associated with enhanced catalytic activity compared to larger grain size materials. A new chemical approach was used to produce titania supported gold by co-precipitation with higher gold yields compared to other synthesis methods. Using this approach, it was determined that acoustic cavitation was unable to influence the gold mean crystallite size compared to non-sonicated catalysts. However, gold concentration on the catalysts was found to be very important for CO oxidation activity. By decreasing the gold concentration from a weight loading of 0.50% down to approximately 0.05%, the rate of reaction per mole of gold was found to increase by a factor of 19. Hydrodynamic cavitation at low pressures (6.9--48 bar) was determined to have no effect on gold crystallite size at a fixed gold content for the same precipitation technique used in the acoustic cavitation studies. By changing the chemistry of the precipitation system, however, it was found that a synergy existed between the dilution of the gold precursor solution, the orifice diameter, and the reducing agent addition rate. Individually, these factors were found to have little effect and only their interaction allowed gold grain size control in the range of 8--80 nm. Further modification of the system chemistry and the use of hydrodynamic cavitation at pressures in excess of 690 bar allowed the systematic control of gold crystallite size in the range of 2--9 nm for catalysts containing 2.27 +/- 0.17% gold. In addition, it was shown that the enhanced mixing due to cavitation led to larger gold yields compared to classical syntheses. The

  1. Size effect in barium titanate powders synthesized by different hydrothermal methods

    Sun Weian

    2006-01-01

    The size effect in barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Tetragonal BaTiO 3 powders with average sizes from 80 to 420 nm were directly prepared by different hydrothermal methods. The tetragonality of the hydrothermal BaTiO 3 decreased with decreasing particle size, which exhibited a dependence on the synthesis method. A phenomenological model for the size effect was proposed to interpret the experimental observations. The influence of the defects, mainly the lattice hydroxyl, on the size effect was investigated to understand the correlation between the size effect and synthesis condition. The permittivities of BaTiO 3 powder at different particle sizes were calculated, which predicted a maximum permittivity of over 16 000 around the room-temperature critical size of ∼70 nm. The prediction was in good accordance with the experimental data reported recently

  2. Atherogenic lipoprotein particle size and concentrations and the effect of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Wiegman, Albert; Trip, Mieke D.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Otvos, James D.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine lipoprotein particle concentrations and size in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and investigate the effect of pravastatin therapy on these measures. STUDY DESIGN: Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

  3. The Effect Of Resting Time To Work Productivity On Surya Hutani Jaya Company

    Purbawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purbawati Rachmat M Ruslim Y B.D.A.S.Simarangkir. 2016. The Effect of resting time to work produktivity to the activity of Seedling Eucalyptus Pellitawith mini cutting.Productivity is the ratio between the output and the input. Rated productivity indicates how effectively the production process has been empowered to increase the output and how efficiently are also sources of input has been successfully saved. Many factors can affect productivity example is the resting time factor. In this study which examined is how the influence of rest periods of the Productivity and how much the standard output produced by the female labor force.Research conducted on women workers who are working at the cutting shoots cutting house.Nurseries with mini cutting process is done by cutting the of the leaves on each leaf so that the remaining 2 to 3 pairs of strands shoots that have undergone a process of cutting in its leaves called ready plant bud shoot. Ready plant bud is the output of this research while the input is the time used to do the cutting. This study aims to determine the influence of rest periods of the productivity of female workers and to determine the standard output produced by the female labor force. Data processing method used is the partial productivity measurement methods and measurement methods of working time. The results stated that the amount of labor productivity of women without giving time off is 0.0911 shoots second -1 whereas labor productivity by granting time off for 5 minutes every hour C1 by granting a 10 minute break every two hours C2 by granting time off for 30 minutes per one working day C3 by granting time off for 60 minutes per one working day C4 and the provision of rest periods combined mixed which is 5 minutes every hour and 60 minutes per one working day C5 respectively is 00908 shoots second -1 0.0761 shoots second-1 0.0972 shoots second-1 0.0857 shoots second-1 and 0.0860 shoots second -1. The calculation output

  4. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  5. Performance Optimization of Irreversible Air Heat Pumps Considering Size Effect

    Bi, Yuehong; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the size of an irreversible air heat pump (AHP), heating load density (HLD) is taken as thermodynamic optimization objective by using finite-time thermodynamics. Based on an irreversible AHP with infinite reservoir thermal-capacitance rate model, the expression of HLD of AHP is put forward. The HLD optimization processes are studied analytically and numerically, which consist of two aspects: (1) to choose pressure ratio; (2) to distribute heat-exchanger inventory. Heat reservoir temperatures, heat transfer performance of heat exchangers as well as irreversibility during compression and expansion processes are important factors influencing on the performance of an irreversible AHP, which are characterized with temperature ratio, heat exchanger inventory as well as isentropic efficiencies, respectively. Those impacts of parameters on the maximum HLD are thoroughly studied. The research results show that HLD optimization can make the size of the AHP system smaller and improve the compactness of system.

  6. Dust generation in powders: Effect of particle size distribution

    Chakravarty Somik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between the bulk and grain-scale properties of powders and dust generation. A vortex shaker dustiness tester was used to evaluate 8 calcium carbonate test powders with median particle sizes ranging from 2μm to 136μm. Respirable aerosols released from the powder samples were characterised by their particle number and mass concentrations. All the powder samples were found to release respirable fractions of dust particles which end up decreasing with time. The variation of powder dustiness as a function of the particle size distribution was analysed for the powders, which were classified into three groups based on the fraction of particles within the respirable range. The trends we observe might be due to the interplay of several mechanisms like de-agglomeration and attrition and their relative importance.

  7. The Effect of Plot Size on Some Pratylenchus Penetrans ...

    Pratylenchus penetrans counts obtained from a rose field, sampled sequentially by decreasing the plot sizes were computed to obtain the respective sample means, variance and k-value of the negative binomial distribution. Plots 21 m x 80 m, 3.6 m x 3.6 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m were sampled for the nematode. It is reported ...

  8. Effects of Mixtures on Liquid and Solid Fragment Size Distributions

    2016-05-01

    bins, too few size bins, fixed bin widths, or inadequately- varying bin widths. Overpopulated bins – which typically occur for smaller fragments...2010 C. V. B. Cunningham, The Kuz-Ram Fragmentation Model – 20 Years On, In R. Holmberg et. al., Editors, Proceedings of the 3 rd World ...1992 P. K. Sahoo and T. Riedel, Mean Value Theorems and Functional Equations, World Scientific, 1998 K. A. Sallam, C. Aalburg, G.M. Faeth

  9. Local extinction and recolonization, species effective population size, and modern human origins.

    Eller, Elise; Hawks, John; Relethford, John H

    2004-10-01

    A primary objection from a population genetics perspective to a multiregional model of modern human origins is that the model posits a large census size, whereas genetic data suggest a small effective population size. The relationship between census size and effective size is complex, but arguments based on an island model of migration show that if the effective population size reflects the number of breeding individuals and the effects of population subdivision, then an effective population size of 10,000 is inconsistent with the census size of 500,000 to 1,000,000 that has been suggested by archeological evidence. However, these models have ignored the effects of population extinction and recolonization, which increase the expected variance among demes and reduce the inbreeding effective population size. Using models developed for population extinction and recolonization, we show that a large census size consistent with the multiregional model can be reconciled with an effective population size of 10,000, but genetic variation among demes must be high, reflecting low interdeme migration rates and a colonization process that involves a small number of colonists or kin-structured colonization. Ethnographic and archeological evidence is insufficient to determine whether such demographic conditions existed among Pleistocene human populations, and further work needs to be done. More realistic models that incorporate isolation by distance and heterogeneity in extinction rates and effective deme sizes also need to be developed. However, if true, a process of population extinction and recolonization has interesting implications for human demographic history.

  10. Effect of size and site on the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of proximal urinary stones in children.

    Habib, Enmar I; Morsi, Hany A; Elsheemy, Mohammed S; Aboulela, Waseem; Eissa, Mohamed A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the effect of location and size of stones on the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in children. In 2008-2010, 150 children (median age 6.6 years) with radio-opaque ureteric and renal stones measuring ≤4 cm were treated. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, pyelonephritis, distal obstruction, non-functioning kidney and hypertension. ESWL was performed under general anesthesia. Follow up period was 5-22 months. 186 stones were treated: 76 calyceal, 92 pelvic and 18 proximal ureteral. Mean stone size was 1.3 cm. A total of 312 sessions were performed (mean per stone = 1.67 sessions). The mean number of shock waves per session was 2423.68. Overall stone-free rate was 89.24%. Having a calyceal location did not significantly affect the stone-free rate (p = 0.133). The failure rate was significantly higher (66.7%) in stones >3 cm in size (p auxillary ureteroscopy and 4 uretrolithotomy for treatment of steinstrasse. ESWL is a safe and effective method for treatment of stones up to 2 cm in children. Rate of auxillary procedures increases in stones >2 cm in size. About 80% of failures were associated with stone size >1.35 cm while 52.3% of completely cleared stones were associated with size <1.35 cm. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Hyeong-Ho Park, Xin Zhang, Seon-Yong Hwang, Sang Hyun Jung, Semin Kang, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Hyung-Ho Park, Ross H Hill and Chul Ki Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL. The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm−2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  12. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Seon-Yong; Jung, Sang Hyun; Kang, Semin; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Kang, Ho Kwan; Ko, Chul Ki; Zhang Xin; Hill, Ross H; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm −2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  13. The P Value Problem in Otolaryngology: Shifting to Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals.

    Vila, Peter M; Townsend, Melanie Elizabeth; Bhatt, Neel K; Kao, W Katherine; Sinha, Parul; Neely, J Gail

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of reporting effect sizes and confidence intervals in the current biomedical literature. The objective of this article is to present a discussion of the recent paradigm shift encouraging the use of reporting effect sizes and confidence intervals. Although P values help to inform us about whether an effect exists due to chance, effect sizes inform us about the magnitude of the effect (clinical significance), and confidence intervals inform us about the range of plausible estimates for the general population mean (precision). Reporting effect sizes and confidence intervals is a necessary addition to the biomedical literature, and these concepts are reviewed in this article.

  14. The importance of the supportive control environment for internal audit effectiveness – the case of Croatian companies

    Barišić, Ivana; Tušek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigates whether a supportive control environment is associated with the internal audit effectiveness and what characteristics of a control environment are important in this respect. A survey was conducted via a questionnaire on 54 mostly large companies in Croatia. Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used in order to analyse the survey results. According to the research results, in the case of a supportive control environment there is a greater ch...

  15. IAS 40 : The effects of the implementation of IAS 40 for listed investment property companies within the European Union

    Aronsson, Robert; Högberg, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increased globalization and trade over domestic borders within the European Union (EU) has lead to the implementation of new international accounting standards. This is necessary to create an effective capital market, where comparisons between companies located in different countries can be made, due to a more harmonized accounting. Obstacles to overcome when establish a more harmonized accounting in the EU is for example different accounting backgrounds and valuation methods....

  16. The Effect of Safety Costs on Productivity and Quality: A Case Study of Five Steel Companies in Ahvaz

    Gholamabbas Shirali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The implementation of a safety program is one of the most effective factors in increasing productivity. A look to safety from the perspective of efficiency can indicate necessary investment in safety for all, especially the managers of companies. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of safety costs on some indicators of productivity and quality in industrial companies. Methods This study was a retrospective analysis and was implemented in five steel companies in Ahvaz. The data relating to the safety costs such as staffing costs and total safety costs, and productivity and quality indicators were collected in five years. This information and data were collected according to statistics from documents and archives of safety, accounting, and production sectors of companies. Costs as well as numbers and figures of variables were expressed in the form of per capita and percentage to make the data comparable. Linear and generalized regression models and Wald Chi-Square test were used by the SPSS 22 software to determine the relationships between them. Results Safety costs such as capita labor safety costs and capita total safety costs or percentage safety labor costs to labor costs, showed a significant positive effect on labor productivity, labor competitiveness, total factor productivity, quality index and production rates (in some cases, P = 0.001. Conclusions The total safety cost and safety labor compensation generally, regardless of the nature and quality of the safety management system, can impact productivity, quality and quantity of production in addition to other factors of production. Surely if safety programs are targeted and codified, the effect of the investment will be doubled.

  17. Effect of grain size on the high temperature mechanical properties of type 316LN stainless steel

    Kim, D. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Cho, H. D.; Han, C. H

    2001-02-01

    Nitrogen increases the high temeprature mechanical properties and decreases grain size. The effect of nitrogen on the high temperature mechanical properties was investigated in the viewpoint of grain size. Tensile strength increases with the decrease of grain size and agrees with the Hall-Petch relationship. Effect of grain size on the low cycle fatigue life properties were investigated as measuring the fatigue life from the results which had been obtained by the constant strain rate and various strain range. There was no effect on the low cycle fatigue properties by the grain size. The time to rupture decreased with the increase of grain size. The steady state creep rate decreased to a minimum and then increased as the grain size increased. This result agrees with the result predicted from Garofalo equation. The rupture elongation at the intermediate grain size showed a minimum due to the cavity formed easily by carbide precipitates in the grain boundaries.

  18. Effective size of density-dependent two-sex populations: the effect of mating systems.

    Myhre, A M; Engen, S; SAEther, B-E

    2017-08-01

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare N e in short-lived, density-dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density-dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment. We find a negative relationship between annual N e /N and adult population size N due to density dependence, suggesting that loss of genetic variation is reduced at small densities. The magnitude of this decrease was affected by mating system and life history. A male-biased, density-dependent sex ratio reduces the rate of genetic drift compared to an equal, density-independent sex ratio, but a stochastic change towards male bias reduces the N e /N ratio. Environmental stochasticity amplifies temporal fluctuations in population size and is thus vital to consider in estimation of effective population sizes over longer time periods. Our results on the reduced loss of genetic variation at small densities, particularly in polygamous populations, indicate that density regulation may facilitate adaptive evolution at small population sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Electric field engineering using quantum-size-effect-tuned heterojunctions

    Adinolfi, V.

    2013-07-03

    A quantum junction solar cell architecture was recently reported that employs colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) on each side of the p-n junction. This architecture extends the range of design opportunities for CQD photovoltaics, since the bandgap can be tuned across the light-absorbing semiconductor layer via control over CQD size, employing solution-processed, room-temperature fabricated materials. We exploit this feature by designing and demonstrating a field-enhanced heterojunction architecture. We optimize the electric field profile within the solar cell through bandgap engineering, thereby improving carrier collection and achieving an increased open circuit voltage, resulting in a 12% improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  20. The Role of Company-Cause Fit and Company Involvement in Consumer Responses to CSR Initiatives: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Grzegorz Zasuwa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The marketing literature suggests that company-cause fit is of key importance to developing a successful socially responsible initiative. However, controversy exists regarding the level of this fit. While some studies report that high fit between a company and a cause has beneficial effects on consumer responses to such efforts, other research identifies negative impacts. This paper aims to obtain a deeper insight into this issue by examining the moderating role of company involvement in a cause. A meta-analysis of 51 experimental studies, yielding a total sample size of 11,335 subjects, shows that company-cause fit influences consumer responses to CSR initiatives most positively when a company with a positive reputation is highly involved in a cause, that is, when the company donates at least products. If such a company provides its beneficiary with only monetary contributions (i.e., low involvement, the effects of fit are significantly less influential.