Formation and evolution of compact binaries
Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der
2006-01-01
In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain
Spin supplementary conditions for spinning compact binaries
Mikóczi, Balázs
2016-01-01
We consider the different spin supplementary conditions (SSC) for a spinning compact binary with the leading-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The Lagrangian of the binary system can be constructed but it is acceleration-dependent in two cases of SSC. We rewrite the generalized Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradsky and compute the conservative quantities and the dissipative part of relative motion during the gravitational radiation of each SSCs. We give the orbital elements and observed quantities of the SO dynamics, for instance the energy and the orbital angular momentum losses and waveforms and discuss their SSC dependence.
Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ
1994-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.
Tidal interaction in compact binaries: a post-Newtonian affine framework
Ferrari, V; Maselli, A
2011-01-01
We develop a semi-analytical approach, based on the post-Newtonian expansion and on the affine approximation, to model the tidal deformation of neutron stars in the coalescence of black hole-neutron star or neutron star-neutron star binaries. Our equations describe, in a unified framework, both the system orbital evolution, and the neutron star deformations. These are driven by the tidal tensor, which we expand at 1/c^3 post-Newtonian order, including spin terms. We test the theoretical framework by simulating black hole-neutron star coalescence up to the onset of mass shedding, which we determine by comparing the shape of the star with the Roche lobe. We validate our approach by comparing our results with those of fully relativistic, numerical simulations.
Time-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy of the compact interacting binary QU Car
Hartley, L E; Long, K S
2002-01-01
We present HST/STIS (1160--1700A) echelle spectra of the cataclysmic variable (CV) star, QU Car, observed in time-tag mode at three epochs. In catalogues this binary is classified as a nova-like variable. We find evidence of a high-state non-magnetic CV at low inclination, with unusually high ionisation. We observed narrow absorption lines (few hundred km/s wide) in N V1240, O V1371 and Si IV1398, as well as broader (HWZI ~1000km/s) emission in C III1176, C IV1549 and He II1640, all with a superposed absorption component. High ionisation is indicated by the unusually string He II emission and the relative strength of the O V absorption line. The dereddened UV SED of, on average, -2.3 suggests that disc accretion dominates the spectral energy distribution. In two observations velocity shifting is noted in the absorption lines on a timescale long enough not to repeat within the ~2600-sec exposures. The absorption superposed on the C IV emission line moves coherently with the N V and Si IV absorption, suggesting...
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yungelson, Lev R.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.
The Electromagnetic Signals of Compact Binary Mergers
Piran, T; Rosswog, S
2012-01-01
Compact binary mergers are prime sources of gravitational waves (GWs), targeted by current and next generation detectors. The question "what is the observable electromagnetic (EM) signature of a compact binary merger?" is an intriguing one with crucial consequences to the quest for gravitational waves. We present a large set of numerical simulations that focus on the electromagnetic signals that emerge from the dynamically ejected sub-relativistic material. These outflows produce on a time scale of a day macronovae - short-lived optical/UV signals powered by radioactive decay. In addition, the outflow interaction with the surrounding matter inevitably leads to a long-lasting radio emission. We calculate the expected radio signals from these outflows on time scales longer than a year, when the sub-relativistic ejecta dominate the emission. We discuss their detectability in 1.4 GHz and 150 MHz and compare it with an updated estimate of the detectability of short GRBs' orphan afterglows. We find that mergers wit...
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin A. Postnov
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.
Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R
2014-01-01
We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
Detecting compact binary coalescences with seedless clustering
Coughlin, M.; Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.
2014-10-01
Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Although matched filtering is the optimal search method for well-modeled systems, alternative detection strategies can be used to guard against theoretical errors (e.g., involving new physics and/or assumptions about spin or eccentricity) while providing a measure of redundancy. In a previous paper, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to detect long-lived gravitational-wave transients in both targeted and all-sky searches. In this paper, we apply seedless clustering to the problem of low-mass (Mtotal≤10M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems. We show that seedless clustering provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting low-mass compact binaries.
Strong lensing interferometry for compact binaries
Pen, U.L.; Yang, I.S.
2015-01-01
We propose a possibility to improve the current precision measurements on compact binaries. When the orbital axis is almost perpendicular to our line of sight, a pulsar behind its companion can form two strong lensing images. These images cannot be resolved, but we can use multiwavelength interferom
Rapid Compact Binary Coalescence Parameter Estimation
Pankow, Chris; Brady, Patrick; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Ochsner, Evan; Qi, Hong
2016-03-01
The first observation run with second generation gravitational-wave observatories will conclude at the beginning of 2016. Given their unprecedented and growing sensitivity, the benefit of prompt and accurate estimation of the orientation and physical parameters of binary coalescences is obvious in its coupling to electromagnetic astrophysics and observations. Popular Bayesian schemes to measure properties of compact object binaries use Markovian sampling to compute the posterior. While very successful, in some cases, convergence is delayed until well after the electromagnetic fluence has subsided thus diminishing the potential science return. With this in mind, we have developed a scheme which is also Bayesian and simply parallelizable across all available computing resources, drastically decreasing convergence time to a few tens of minutes. In this talk, I will emphasize the complementary use of results from low latency gravitational-wave searches to improve computational efficiency and demonstrate the capabilities of our parameter estimation framework with a simulated set of binary compact object coalescences.
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
Winds from disks in compact binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mauche, C.W.
1993-10-27
We herein present an observational and theoretical review of the winds of compact binaries. After a brief consideration of the accretion disk coronae and winds of X-ray binaries, the review concentrates on the winds of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Specifically, we consider the related problems of the geometry and mass-loss rate of the winds of CVs, their ionization state and variability, and the results from studies of eclipsing CVs. Finally, the properties of bona fide accretion disk wind models are reviewed.
Accretion-powered Compact Binaries
Mauche, Christopher W.
2003-12-01
Preface; The workshop logo; A short history of the CV workshop F. A. Córdova; Part I. Observations: 1. Low mass x-ray binaries A. P. Cowley, P. C. Schmidtke, D. Crampton, J. B. Hutchings, C. A. Haswell, E. L. Robinson, K. D. Horne, H. M. Johnston, S. R. Kulkarni, S. Kitamoto, X. Han, R. M. Hjellming, R. M. Wagner, S. L. Morris, P. Hertz, A. N. Parmar, L. Stella, P. Giommi, P. J. Callanan, T. Naylor, P. A. Charles, C. D. Bailyn, J. N. Imamura, T. Steiman-Cameron, J. Kristian, J. Middleditch, L. Angelini and J. P. Noris; 2. Nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables R. S. Polidan, C. W. Mauche, R. A. Wade, R. H. Kaitchuck, E. M. Schlegel, P. A. Hantzios, R. C. Smith, J. H. Wood, F. Hessman, A. Fiedler, D. H. P. Jones, J. Casares, P. A. Charles, J. van Paradijs, E. Harlaftis, T. Naylor, G. Sonneborn, B. J. M. Hassall, K. Horne, C. A. la Dous, A. W. Shafter, N. A. Hawkins, D. A. H. Buckley, D. J. Sullivan, F. V. Hessman, V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, J. Singh, S. Seetha, F. Giovannelli, A. Bianchini, E. M. Sion, D. J. Mullan, H. L. Shipman, G. Machin, P. J. Callanan, S. B. Howell, P. Szkody, E. M. Schlegel and R. F. Webbink; 3. Magnetic cataclysmic variables C. Hellier, K. O. Mason, C. W. Mauche, G. S. Miller, J. C. Raymond, F. K. Lamb, J. Patterson, A. J. Norton, M. G. Watson, A. R. King, I. M. McHardy, H. Lehto, J. P. Osborne, E. L. Robinson, A. W. Shafter, S. Balachandran, S. R. Rosen, J. Krautter, W. Buchholz, D. A. H. Buckley, I. R. Tuoly, D. Crampton, B. Warner, R. M. Prestage, B. N. Ashoka, M. Mouchet, J. M. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M. Hameury, P. Szkody, P. Garnavich, S. Howell, T. Kii, M. Cropper, K. Mason, J. Bailey, D. T. Wickramasinghe, L. Ferrario, K. Beuermann, A. D. Schwope, H.-C. Thomas, S. Jordan, J. Schachter, A. V. Filippenko, S. M. Kahn, F. B. S. Paerels, K. Mukai, M. L. Edgar, S. Larsson, R. F. Jameson, A. R. King, A. Silber, R. Remillard, H. Bradt, M. Ishida, T. Ohashi and G. D. Schmidt; Part II. Accretion Theory: 4. Nonmagnetic W. Kley, F. Geyer, H. Herold, H
Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vassiliki Kalogera
2004-10-01
We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.
Gravitational Radiation from Compact Binary Pulsars
Antoniadis, John
2014-01-01
An outstanding question in modern Physics is whether general relativity (GR) is a complete description of gravity among bodies at macroscopic scales. Currently, the best experiments supporting this hypothesis are based on high-precision timing of radio pulsars. This chapter reviews recent advances in the field with a focus on compact binary millisecond pulsars with white-dwarf (WD) companions. These systems - if modeled properly - provide an unparalleled test ground for physically motivated alternatives to GR that deviate significantly in the strong-field regime. Recent improvements in observational techniques and advances in our understanding of WD interiors have enabled a series of precise mass measurements in such systems. These masses, combined with high-precision radio timing of the pulsars, result to stringent constraints on the radiative properties of gravity, qualitatively very different from what was available in the past.
Two Improved Access Methods on Compact Binary (CB) Trees.
Shishibori, Masami; Koyama, Masafumi; Okada, Makoto; Aoe, Jun-ichi
2000-01-01
Discusses information retrieval and the use of binary trees as a fast access method for search strategies such as hashing. Proposes new methods based on compact binary trees that provide faster access and more compact storage, explains the theoretical basis, and confirms the validity of the methods through empirical observations. (LRW)
Parameter estimation of gravitational wave compact binary coalescences
Haster, Carl-Johan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration
2017-01-01
The first detections of gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes have allowed unprecedented inference on the astrophysical parameters of such binaries. Given recent updates in detector capabilities, gravitational wave model templates and data analysis techniques, in this talk I will describe the prospects of parameter estimation of compact binary coalescences during the second observation run of the LIGO-Virgo collaboration.
Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations
Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John
2017-03-01
The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multidimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed neutron star-black hole binaries with tens of observations.
Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations
Mandel, Ilya; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John
2016-01-01
The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed black hole -- neutron star binaries.
Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations
Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John
2016-01-01
The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations t...
Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Influence of Rotation
Fuller, Jim
2014-01-01
Tidal interactions play an important role in the evolution and ultimate fate of compact white dwarf (WD) binaries. Not only do tides affect the pre-merger state (such as temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs, but they may also determine which systems merge and which undergo stable mass transfer. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the effects of rotation on tidal angular momentum transport in binary stars, with specific calculations applied to WD stellar models. We incorporate the effect of rotation using the traditional approximation, in which the dynamically excited gravity waves within the WDs are transformed into gravito-inertial Hough waves. The Coriolis force has only a minor effect on prograde gravity waves, and previous results predicting the tidal spin-up and heating of inspiraling WDs are not significantly modified. However, rotation strongly alters retrograde gravity waves and inertial waves, with important consequences for the tidal spin-down of accreting WDs. We identify new dynamical tidal...
Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R
2014-01-01
This paper is motivated by the need to improve the post-Newtonian (PN) amplitude accuracy of waveforms for gravitational waves generated by inspiralling compact binaries, both for use in data analysis and in the comparison between post-Newtonian approximations and numerical relativity computations. It presents: (i) the non-linear couplings between multipole moments of general post-Newtonian matter sources up to order 3.5PN, including all contributions from tails, tails-of-tails and the non-linear memory effect; and (ii) the source mass-type octupole moment of (non-spinning) compact binaries up to order 3PN, which permits to complete the expressions of the octupole modes (3,3) and (3,1) of the gravitational waveform to order 3.5PN. At this occasion we reconfirm by means of independent calculations our earlier results concerning the source mass-type quadrupole moment to order 3PN. Related discussions on factorized resummed waveforms and the occurence of logarithmic contributions to high order are also included.
Faye, Guillaume; Blanchet, Luc; Iyer, Bala R.
2015-02-01
This paper is motivated by the need to improve the post-Newtonian (PN) amplitude accuracy of waveforms for gravitational waves generated by inspiralling compact binaries, both for use in data analysis and in the comparison between post-Newtonian approximations and numerical relativity computations. It presents (i) the non-linear couplings between multipole moments of general post-Newtonian matter sources up to order 3.5PN, including all contributions from tails, tails-of-tails and the non-linear memory effect; and (ii) the source mass-type octupole moment of (non-spinning) compact binaries up to order 3PN, which permits completion of the expressions of the octupole modes (3,3) and (3,1) of the gravitational waveform to order 3.5PN. On this occasion we reconfirm by means of independent calculations our earlier results concerning the source mass-type quadrupole moment to order 3PN. Related discussions on factorized resummed waveforms and the occurence of logarithmic contributions to high order are also included.
Hans A. Bethe Prize: Mergers of Binary Compact Objects
Kalogera, Vassiliki
2016-03-01
The inspiral and eventual merger of two compact objects in binary systems are important in astrophysics across the electromagnetic spectrum and as potential gravitational-wave sources. In this talk I will select a few topics of current interest to highlight compact-object mergers, including in the context of multi-messenger astrophysics.
Magnetic activity of interacting binaries
Hill, Colin A.
2017-10-01
Interacting binaries provide unique parameter regimes, both rapid rotation and tidal distortion, in which to test stellar dynamo theories and study the resulting magnetic activity. Close binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been found to differentially rotate, and so can provide testbeds for tidal dissipation efficiency in stellar convective envelopes, with implications for both CV and planet-star evolution. Furthermore, CVs show evidence of preferential emergence of magnetic flux tubes towards the companion star, as well as large, long-lived prominences that form preferentially within the binary geometry. Moreover, RS CVn binaries also show clear magnetic interactions between the two components in the form of coronal X-ray emission. Here, we review several examples of magnetic interactions in different types of close binaries.
The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futamase Toshifumi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.
A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Kumar, Prayush
2016-03-01
The detection of compact binaries with significant eccentricity in the sensitivity band of gravitational wave detectors will provide critical insights on the dynamics and formation channels of these events. In order to search for these systems and place constraints on their rates, we present an inspiral-merger-ringdown time domain waveform model that describes the GW emission from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity. We use this model to explore the detectability of these events in the context of advanced LIGO.
Compact Stars in low-mass X-ray binaries
Hossein, Sk. Monowar; Molla, Sajahan; Jafry, Md. Abdul Kayum; Kalam, Mehedi
2014-01-01
We propose a model for compact stars in low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) namely KS 1731-260, EXO 1745-248 and 4U 1608-52. Here we investigate the physical phenomena of a compact star in the LMXBs. Using our model, we have calculated central density, surface density, mass(M) and red-shift for the above mentioned compact stars, which is very much consistent with the reported data. We also obtain the possible equation of state(EOS) of the stars which is physically acceptable.
Expected Bounds on Compact Binary Coalescence Rates from LIGO Observations
Sampson, Laura; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
The Advanced LIGO detectors have recently completed their first observing run, with a sensitive spacetime volume over 27 times larger than the initial LIGO configuration. In this talk we will examine the expected bounds on compact binary coalescence rates from O1 observations, and discuss the corresponding impact on astrophysical models.
Hot subdwarf binaries - Masses and nature of their heavy compact companions
Geier, Stephan; Edelmann, Heinz; Kupfer, Thomas; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Podsiadlowski, Philipp
2009-01-01
Neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes are the remnants of massive stars, which ended their lives in supernova explosions. These exotic objects can only be studied in relatively rare cases. If they are interacting with close companions they become bright X-ray sources. If they are neutron stars, they may be detected as pulsars. Only a few hundred such systems are presently known in the Galaxy. However, there should be many more binaries with basically invisible compact objects in non-interacting binaries. Here we report the discovery of unseen compact companions to hot subdwarfs in close binary systems. Hot subdwarfs are evolved helium-core-burning stars that have lost most of their hydrogen envelopes, often due to binary interactions. Using high-resolution spectra and assuming tidal synchronisation of the subdwarfs, we were able to constrain the companion masses of 32 binaries. While most hot subdwarf binaries have white-dwarf or late-type main sequence companions, as predicted by binary evolution models...
Hot subdwarf binaries - Masses and nature of their heavy compact companions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geier, Stephan; Heber, Uli; Edelmann, Heinz; Kupfer, Thomas [Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte, Institute for Astronomy, University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Napiwotzki, Ralf [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Podsiadlowski, Philipp, E-mail: geier@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.d [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
2009-06-01
Neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes are the remnants of massive stars, which ended their lives in supernova explosions. These exotic objects can only be studied in relatively rare cases. If they are interacting with close companions they become bright X-ray sources. If they are neutron stars, they may be detected as pulsars. Only a few hundred such systems are presently known in the Galaxy. However, there should be many more binaries with basically invisible compact objects in non-interacting binaries. Here we report the discovery of unseen compact companions to hot subdwarfs in close binary systems. Hot subdwarfs are evolved helium-core-burning stars that have lost most of their hydrogen envelopes, often due to binary interactions. Using high-resolution spectra and assuming tidal synchronisation of the subdwarfs, we were able to constrain the companion masses of 31 binaries. While most hot subdwarf binaries have white-dwarf or late-type main sequence companions, as predicted by binary evolution models, at least 5% of the observed subdwarfs must have very massive companions: unusually heavy white dwarfs, neutron stars and, in some cases, even black holes. We present evolutionary models which show that such binaries can indeed form if the system has evolved through two common-envelope phases. This new connection between hot subdwarfs, which are numerous in the Galaxy, and massive compact objects may lead to a tremendous increase in the number of known neutron stars and black holes and shed some light on this dark population and its evolutionary link to the X-ray binary population.
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gold, Roman
2011-09-27
In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on
Busting Up Binaries: Encounters Between Compact Binaries and a Supermassive Black Hole
Addison, Eric; Larson, Shane
2015-01-01
Given the stellar density near the galactic center, close encounters between compact object binaries and the supermassive black hole are a plausible occurrence. We present results from a numerical study of close to 13 million such encounters. Consistent with previous studies, we corroborate that, for binary systems tidally disrupted by the black hole, the component of the binary remaining bound to the hole has eccentricity ~ 0.97 and circularizes dramatically by the time it enters the classical LISA band. Our results also show that the population of surviving binaries merits attention. These binary systems experience perturbations to their internal orbital parameters with potentially interesting observational consequences. We investigated the regions of parameter space for survival and estimated the distribution of orbital parameters post-encounter. We found that surviving binaries harden and their eccentricity increases, thus accelerating their merger due gravitational radiation emission and increasing the p...
Estimating gravitational radiation from super-emitting compact binary systems
Hanna, Chad; Lehner, Luis
2016-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are among the most violent events in the Universe, leading to extreme warping of spacetime and copious emission of gravitational radiation. Even though black holes are the most compact objects they are not necessarily the most efficient emitters of gravitational radiation in binary systems. The final black hole resulting from a binary black hole merger retains a significant fraction of the pre-merger orbital energy and angular momentum. A non-vacuum system can in principle shed more of this energy than a black hole merger of equivalent mass. We study these super-emitters through a toy model that accounts for the possibility that the merger creates a compact object that retains a long-lived time-varying quadrupole moment. This toy model can capture the merger of neutron stars, but it can also be used to consider more exotic compact binaries. We hope that this toy model can serve as a guide to more rigorous numerical investigations into these systems.
Detectability of compact binary merger macronovae
Rosswog, S; Korobkin, O; Wu, M -R; Sollerman, J; Goobar, A; Martinez-Pinedo, G
2016-01-01
We study the optical and near-infrared luminosities and detectability of radioactively powered electromagnetic transients ('macronovae') occuring in the aftermath of binary neutron star and neutron star black hole mergers. We explore the transients that result from the dynamic ejecta and those from different types of wind outflows. Based on full nuclear network simulations we calculate the resulting light curves in different wavelength bands. We scrutinize the robustness of the results by comparing a) two different nuclear reaction networks and b) two macronova models. We explore in particular how sensitive the results are to the production of alpha-decaying trans-lead nuclei. We compare two frequently used mass models: the Finite-Range Droplet Model (FRDM) and the nuclear mass model of Duflo and Zuker (DZ31). We find that the abundance of alpha-decaying trans-lead nuclei has a significant impact on the observability of the resulting macronovae. For example, the DZ31 model yields considerably larger abundance...
Gravitational waves from cosmological compact binaries
Schneider, R; Matarrese, S; Zwart, S F P; Schneider, Raffaella; Ferrari, Valeria; Matarrese, Sabino; Zwart, Simon F. Portegies
2000-01-01
We consider gravitational waves emitted by various populations of compactbinaries at cosmological distances. We use population synthesis models tocharacterize the properties of double neutron stars, double black holes anddouble white dwarf binaries as well as white dwarf-neutron star, whitedwarf-black hole and black hole-neutron star systems. We use theobservationally determined cosmic star formation history to reconstruct theredshift distribution of these sources and their merging rate evolution. Thegravitational signals emitted by each source during its early-inspiral phaseadd randomly to produce a stochastic background in the low frequency band withspectral strain amplitude between 10^{-18} Hz^{-1/2} and 5 10^{-17} Hz^{-1/2} at frequencies in the interval [5 10^{-6}-5 10^{-5}] Hz.The overall signal which, at frequencies above 10^{-4}Hz, is largely dominatedby double white dwarf systems, might be detectable with LISA in the frequencyrange [1-10] mHz and acts like a confusion limited noise component which mi...
Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide
2013-01-01
In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.
Dynamics of spinning compact binaries in general relativity
Hartl, Michael David
This thesis investigates the dynamics of binary systems composed of spinning compact objects in the context of general relativity. Compact binaries are promising sources of gravitational radiation for both ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If the dynamics of these systems were chaotic, the number of waveform templates needed to match a given gravitational-wave signal would grow exponentially with increasing detection sensitivity, rendering the preferred matched filter detection method computationally impractical. It is therefore urgent to understand whether the binary dynamics can be chaotic, and, if so, how prevalent this chaos is. We first consider the dynamics of a spinning compact object orbiting a much more massive rotating black hole, as modeled by the Papapetrou equations in Kerr spacetime. We find that many initial conditions lead to positive Lyapunov exponents, indicating chaotic dynamics. Despite the formal existence of chaotic solutions, we find that chaos occurs only for physically unrealistic values of the small body's spin. As a result, chaos will not affect theoretical templates in the extreme mass-ratio limit for which the Papapetrou equations are valid. We next consider the dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries, as modeled by the post-Newtonian (PN) equations, which are valid for orbital velocities much smaller than the speed of light. We study thoroughly the special case of quasi-circular orbits with comparable mass ratios. Our survey shows that chaos occurs in a negligible fraction of possible configurations, and only for such small radii that the PN approximation is likely to be invalid. As a result, at least in the case of comparable mass black-hole binaries, theoretical templates will not be significantly affected by chaos. In a final, self-contained chapter, we discuss various methods for the calculation of Lyapunov exponents in systems of ordinary differential equations. We introduce several new techniques applicable
The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO
O'Shaughnessy, R.; Bellovary, J. M.; Brooks, A.; Shen, S.; Governato, F.; Christensen, C. R.
2017-01-01
Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest that the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with a similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimessenger astronomy with compact binary sources.
Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Compact Binary Systems
Evangelista, E F D
2015-01-01
Binary Systems are the most studied sources of gravitational waves. The mechanisms of emission and the behavior of the orbital parameters are well known and can be written in analytic form in several cases. Besides, the strongest indication of the existence of gravitational waves has arisen from the observation of binary systems. On the other hand, when the detection of gravitational radiation becomes a reality, one of the observed pattern of the signals will be probably of stochastic background nature, which are characterized by a superposition of signals emitted by many sources around the universe. Our aim here is to develop an alternative method of calculating such backgrounds emitted by cosmological compact binary systems during their periodic or quasiperiodic phases. We use an analogy with a problem of Statistical Mechanics in order to perform this sum as well as taking into account the temporal variation of the orbital parameters of the systems. Such a kind of background is of particular importance sinc...
A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
Huerta, E A; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela
2016-01-01
We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are non-spinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. The inspiral evolution is described using third order post-Newtonian equations both for the equations of motion of the binary, and its far-zone radiation field. This latter component also includes instantaneous, tails and tails-of-tails contributions, and a contribution due to non-linear memory. This framework reduces to the post-Newtonian approximant $\\texttt{TaylorT4}$ at third post-Newtonian order in the zero eccentricity limit. To improve phase accuracy, we also incorporate higher-order post-Newtonian corrections for the energy flux of quasi-circular binaries and gravitational self-force corrections to the binding energy of compact binaries. This enhanced prescription for the inspiral evolution is combined with a fully analytical prescription for the merger-ringdown evolution constructed using a c...
Accurate and efficient waveforms for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
Huerta, E A; McWilliams, Sean T; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Yunes, Nicolas
2014-01-01
Compact binaries that emit gravitational waves in the sensitivity band of ground-based detectors can have non-negligible eccentricities just prior to merger, depending on the formation scenario. We develop a purely analytic, frequency-domain model for gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries on orbits with small eccentricity, which reduces to the quasi-circular post-Newtonian approximant TaylorF2 at zero eccentricity and to the post-circular approximation of Yunes et al. (2009) at small eccentricity. Our model uses a spectral approximation to the (post-Newtonian) Kepler problem to model the orbital phase as a function of frequency, accounting for eccentricity effects up to ${\\cal{O}}(e^8)$ at each post-Newtonian order. Our approach accurately reproduces an alternative time-domain eccentric waveform model for eccentricities $e\\in [0, 0.4]$ and binaries with total mass less than 12 solar masses. As an application, we evaluate the signal amplitude that eccentric binaries produce in different networks of e...
Gravitational radiation from compact binaries in scalar-tensor gravity
Lang, Ryan N
2014-01-01
General relativity (GR) has been extensively tested in the solar system and in binary pulsars, but never in the strong-field, dynamical regime. Soon, gravitational-wave (GW) detectors like Advanced LIGO and eLISA will be able to probe this regime by measuring GWs from inspiraling and merging compact binaries. One particularly interesting alternative to GR is scalar-tensor gravity. We present progress in the calculation of second post-Newtonian (2PN) gravitational waveforms for inspiraling compact binaries in a general class of scalar-tensor theories. The waveforms are constructed using a standard GR method known as "direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations," appropriately adapted to the scalar-tensor case. We find that differences from general relativity can be characterized by a reasonably small number of parameters. Among the differences are new hereditary terms which depend on the past history of the source. In one special case, binary black hole systems, we find that the waveform is indistingu...
Binary sdB Stars with Massive Compact Companions
Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R
2008-01-01
The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. Based on high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. In the distribution of projected rotational velocities signs of tidal locking with the companions are visible. By detecting ellipsoidal variations in the lightcurve of an sdB binary we were able to show that subdwarf binaries with orbital periods up to 0.6 d are most likely synchronized. In this case, the inclination angles and companion masses of the binaries can be tightly constrained. Five invisible companions have masses that ar...
Near-Infrared Observations of Compact Binary Systems
Khargharia, Juthika
Low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are a subset of compact binary systems in which a main-sequence or slightly evolved star fills its Roche lobe and donates mass to a neutron star or a black hole (BH) via an accretion disk. Robust estimates of compact object masses in these systems are required to enhance our current understanding of the physics of compact object formation, accretion disks and jets. Compact object masses are typically determined at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths when the system is in quiescence and the donor star is the dominant source of flux. Previous studies have assumed that any non-stellar contribution at these wavelengths is minimal. However, this assumption is rarely true. By performing NIR spectroscopy, we determined the fractional donor star contribution to the NIR flux and the compact object masses in two LMXBs: V404 Cyg and Cen X-4. In our analysis, it was assumed that the light curve morphology remains consistent throughout quiescence. It has now been shown in several systems that veiling measurements from non-stellar sources are meaningful only if acquired contemporaneously with light curve measurements. We accounted for this in the measurement of the BH mass in the LMXB, XTE J1118+480. LMXBs are also considered to be the most likely candidates responsible for the formation of milli-second pulsars (MSP). Here, I present the unique case of PSR J1903+0327 that challenges this currently accepted theory of MSP formation and is a potential candidate for testing General Relativity. Observations in the NIR come with their own set of challenges. NIR detector arrays used in these observations generally have high dark current and readout noise. In an effort to lower the read noise in NICFPS at APO, we present a study done on the Hawaii-1RG engineering grade chip that served as a test bed for reducing the read noise in NICFPS.
Searching for Gravitational Waves from Compact Binaries with Precessing Spins
Harry, Ian; Bohé, Alejandro; Buonanno, Alessandra
2016-01-01
Current searches for gravitational waves from compact-object binaries with the LIGO and Virgo observatories employ waveform models with spins aligned (or anti-aligned) with the orbital angular momentum. Here, we derive a new statistic to search for compact objects carrying generic (precessing) spins. Applying this statistic, we construct banks of both aligned- and generic-spin templates for binary black holes and neutron-star--black-hole binaries, and compare the effectualness of these banks towards simulated populations of generic-spin systems. We then use these banks in a pipeline analysis of Gaussian noise to measure the increase in background incurred by using generic- instead of aligned-spin banks. Although the generic-spin banks have a factor of ten to twenty more templates than the aligned-spin banks, we find an overall improvement in signal recovery at fixed false-alarm rate for systems with high-mass ratio and highly precessing spins ---up to 60\\% for neutron-star--black-hole mergers. This gain in se...
Finding compact hot subdwarf binaries in the Galactic disc
Kupfer, T; McLeod, A Faye; Groot, P J; Verbeek, K; Schaenroth, V; Heber, U; Heuser, C; Ziegerer, E; Østensen, R; Nemeth, P; Dhillon, V S; Butterley, T; Littlefair, S P; Wilson, R W; Telting, J H; Shporer, A; Fulton, B J
2013-01-01
We started a new project which aims to find compact hot subdwarf binaries at low Galactic latitudes. Targets are selected from several photometric surveys and a spectroscopic follow-up campaign to find radial velocity variations on timescales as short as tens of minutes has been started. Once radial variations are detected phase-resolved spectroscopy is obtained to measure the radial velocity curve and the mass function of the system. The observing strategy is described and the discovery of two short period hot subdwarf binaries is presented. UVEXJ032855.25+503529.8 contains a hot subdwarf B star (sdB) orbited by a cool M-dwarf in a P=0.11017 days orbit. The lightcurve shows a strong reflection effect but no eclipses are visible. HS 1741+2133 is a short period (P=0.20 days) sdB most likely with a white dwarf (WD) companion.
Analytic gravitational waveforms for generic precessing compact binaries
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector. Previously, analytic solutions were only available for certain special cases or for simplified models. Here we describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully-precessing, quasi-circular binary inspirals.
Spin effects on the dynamics of compact binaries
Steinhoff, Jan
2015-01-01
Compact binaries are the most promising source for the advanced gravitational wave detectors, which will start operating this year. The influence of spin on the binary evolution is an important consequence of general relativity and can be large. It is argued that the spin supplementary condition, which is related to the observer dependence of the center, gives rise to a gauge symmetry in the action principle of spinning point-particles. These spinning point-particles serve as an analytic model for extended bodies. The internal structure can be modelled by augmenting the point-particle with higher-order multipole moments. Consequences of the recently discovered universal (equation of state independent) relations between the multipole moments of neutron stars are discussed.
The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO
O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Brooks, Alyson; Shen, Sijing; Governato, Fabio; Christensen, Charlotte
2016-01-01
Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting LIGO-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimes...
Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blanchet Luc
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part aaa of the article deals with general post-Newtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic post-Minkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the far-zone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the post-Newtonian source in the near-zone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many non-linear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tails-of-tails of gravitational waves. Part bbb of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third post-Newtonian (3PN order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitational-wave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary's orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument.
Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blanchet Luc
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general post-Newtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic post-Minkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the far-zone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the post-Newtonian source in the near-zone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many non-linear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tails-of-tails of gravitational waves. Part B of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third post-Newtonian (3PN order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitational-wave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary's orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument.
Chaos in Compact Binaries with Frequency Map Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Xie; Tian-Yi Huang
2006-01-01
The dynamics of compact binaries is very complicated because of spin-orbit coupling and spin-spin coupling. With Laskar's frequency map analysis (FMA) and frequency diffusion as an indicator, we found that misalignment of the spins and orbital angular momentum has a great effect on the dynamics, and for systems with different mass ratios β≡ m2/m1 chaos occurs at different spin-orbit configurations. For equal-mass binaries (β = 1), chaos occurs when the spins nearly cancel each other out. For some other systems (for exampleβ～1/2), the binaries are irregular, even chaotic, when the spins are perpendicular to the orbital angular momentum. For the case where gravitational radiation is taken into account, we give an analytic estimation for the frequency diffusion based on the decay of the orbit, which is roughly consistent with our simulations. This means the FMA is not suitable as a chaos indicator for weak chaotic cases with dissipative terms.
Compact Binary Mergers as Multimessenger Sources of Gravitational Waves
Shapiro, Stuart
2015-04-01
On the centennial anniversary of Einstein's theory of general relativity, we are on the verge of directly detecting one of its most remarkable predictions - gravitational waves (GWs). The inspiral and merger of compact binaries - binaries with black hole, neutron star or white dwarf companions - are among the most promising sources of GWs. Many of these sources are likely to generate observable electromagnetic (EM) and/or neutrino counterparts to the GWs, constituting a major advance in multimessenger astronomy. By way of illustration, we describe recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations in general relativity (GRMHD) that show how black hole-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We also discuss other recent GRMHD simulations that show how an inspiraling, supermassive binary black hole in a galaxy core stirs and accretes magnetized plasma that orbits the holes in a circumbinary disk. This process can generate ``precursor'' and ``aftermath'' EM radiation with respect to the peak GW emission at merger. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grant PHY-1300903 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Second post-Newtonian Lagrangian dynamics of spinning compact binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Li; Wu, Xin [Nanchang University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang (China); Ma, DaZhu [Hubei University for Nationalities, School of Science, Enshi (China)
2016-09-15
The leading-order spin-orbit coupling is included in a post-Newtonian Lagrangian formulation of spinning compact binaries, which consists of the Newtonian term, first post-Newtonian (1PN) and 2PN non-spin terms and 2PN spin-spin coupling. This leads to a 3PN spin-spin coupling occurring in the derived Hamiltonian. The spin-spin couplings are mainly responsible for chaos in the Hamiltonians. However, the 3PN spin-spin Hamiltonian is small and has different signs, compared with the 2PN spin-spin Hamiltonian equivalent to the 2PN spin-spin Lagrangian. As a result, the probability of the occurrence of chaos in the Lagrangian formulation without the spin-orbit coupling is larger than that in the Lagrangian formulation with the spin-orbit coupling. Numerical evidences support this claim. (orig.)
A Massive Pulsar in a Compact Relativistic Binary
Antoniadis, John; Wex, Norbert; Tauris, Thomas M; Lynch, Ryan S; van Kerkwijk, Marten H; Kramer, Michael; Bassa, Cees; Dhillon, Vik S; Driebe, Thomas; Hessels, Jason W T; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kondratiev, Vladislav I; Langer, Norbert; Marsh, Thomas R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Pennucci, Timothy T; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Verbiest, Joris P W; Whelan, David G; 10.1126/science.1233232
2013-01-01
Many physically motivated extensions to general relativity (GR) predict significant deviations in the properties of spacetime surrounding massive neutron stars. We report the measurement of a 2.01 +/- 0.04 solar mass pulsar in a 2.46-hr orbit with a 0.172 +/- 0.003 solar mass white dwarf. The high pulsar mass and the compact orbit make this system a sensitive laboratory of a previously untested strong-field gravity regime. Thus far, the observed orbital decay agrees with GR, supporting its validity even for the extreme conditions present in the system. The resulting constraints on deviations support the use of GR-based templates for ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Additionally, the system strengthens recent constraints on the properties of dense matter and provides insight to binary stellar astrophysics and pulsar recycling.
Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Compact Binary Mergers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masaomi Tanaka
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We review current understanding of kilonova/macronova emission from compact binary mergers (mergers of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. Kilonova/macronova is emission powered by radioactive decays of r-process nuclei and it is one of the most promising electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave sources. Emission from the dynamical ejecta of ~0.01M⊙ is likely to have a luminosity of ~1040–1041 erg s−1 with a characteristic timescale of about 1 week. The spectral peak is located in red optical or near-infrared wavelengths. A subsequent accretion disk wind may provide an additional luminosity or an earlier/bluer emission if it is not absorbed by the precedent dynamical ejecta. The detection of near-infrared excess in short GRB 130603B and possible optical excess in GRB 060614 supports the concept of the kilonova/macronova scenario. At 200 Mpc distance, a typical peak brightness of kilonova/macronova with 0.01M⊙ ejecta is about 22 mag and the emission rapidly fades to >24 mag within ~10 days. Kilonova/macronova candidates can be distinguished from supernovae by (1 the faster time evolution, (2 fainter absolute magnitudes, and (3 redder colors. Since the high expansion velocity (v~0.1–0.2c is a robust outcome of compact binary mergers, the detection of smooth spectra will be the smoking gun to conclusively identify the gravitational wave source.
Population synthesis of ultra-compact X-ray binaries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chun-Hua Zhu; Guo-Liang Lü; Zhao-Jun Wang
2012-01-01
Ultra-compact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) are very interesting and important objects.By taking the population synthesis approach to the evolution of binaries,we carry out a detailed study of UCXBs.We estimate that there are ～ 5000-10000 UCXBs in the Galaxy,and their birthrates are ～ 2.6-7.5 × 10-4 yr-1.Most UCXBs are transient X-ray sources,but their X-ray luminosities are much lower than those of persistent sources.Therefore,the majority of observed UCXBs should be persistent sources.About 40％-70％ of neutron stars (NSs) in UCXBs form via an accretion-induced collapse from an accreting ONe white dwarf (WD),1％-10％ of NSs in UCXBs form via core-collapse supernovae and others form via the evolution-induced collapse of a naked helium star.About 50％-80％ of UCXBs have naked helium star donors,5％-10％ of UCXBs have HeWD donors,15％-40％ of UCXBs have COWD donors and UCXBs with ONeWD donors are negligible.Our investigation indicates that the uncertainty mainly comes from evolution of the common-envelope which develops in these systems.
Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars
Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A
2007-01-01
We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...
Tessmer, Manuel; Schäfer, Gerhard
2013-01-01
This publication will deal with an explicit determination of the time evolution of the spin orientation axes and the evolution of the orbital phase in the case of circular orbits under next-to-leading order spin-orbit interactions. We modify the method of Schneider and Cui proposed in ["Theoreme \\"uber Bewegungsintegrale und ihre Anwendungen in Bahntheorien", Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, volume 212, 2005.] to iteratively remove oscillatory terms in the equations of motion for different masses that were not present in the case of equal masses. Our smallness parameter is chosen to be the difference of the symmetric mass ratio to the value 1/4. Before the first Lie transformation, the set of conserved quantities consists of the total angular momentum, the amplitudes of the orbital angular momentum and of the spins, $L, S_1,$ and $S_2$. In contrary, the magnitude of the total spin $S=|S_1+S_2|$ is not conserved and we wish to shift its non-conservation to higher orders of the smallness para...
Detecting gravitational waves from highly eccentric compact binaries
Tai, Kai Sheng; Pretorius, Frans
2014-01-01
In dense stellar regions, highly eccentric binaries of black holes and neutron stars can form through various n-body interactions. Such a binary could emit a significant fraction of its binding energy in a sequence of largely isolated gravitational wave bursts prior to merger. Given expected black hole and neutron star masses, many such systems will emit these repeated bursts at frequencies within the sensitive band of contemporary ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Unfortunately, existing gravitational wave searches are ill-suited to detect these signals. In this work, we adapt a "power stacking" method to the detection of gravitational wave signals from highly eccentric binaries. We implement this method as an extension of the Q-transform, a projection onto a multiresolution basis of windowed complex exponentials that has previously been used to analyze data from the network of LIGO/Virgo detectors. Our method searches for excess power over an ensemble of time-frequency tiles. We characterize the pe...
Veitch, John; Farr, Benjamin; Farr, Will M; Graff, Philip; Vitale, Salvatore; Aylott, Ben; Blackburn, Kent; Christensen, Nelson; Coughlin, Michael; Del Pozzo, Walter; Feroz, Farhan; Gair, Jonathan; Haster, Carl-Johan; Kalogera, Vicky; Littenberg, Tyson; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Pitkin, Matthew; Rodriguez, Carl; Röver, Christian; Sidery, Trevor; Smith, Rory; Van Der Sluys, Marc; Vecchio, Alberto; Vousden, Will; Wade, Leslie
2014-01-01
The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary coalescence (CBC) signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We are able to show using three independent sampling algorithms that our implementation consistently converges on the same results, giving confidence in the parameter estimates thus obtained. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star, a neutron star-black hole binary and a bin...
Mishra, Chandra Kant; Iyer, Bala R
2015-01-01
We compute the instantaneous contributions to the spherical harmonic modes of gravitational waveforms from compact binary systems in general orbits up to the third post-Newtonian order. We further extend these results for compact binaries in quasi-elliptical orbits using the 3PN quasi-Keplerian representation of the conserved dynamics of compact binaries in eccentric orbits. Using the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, starting from the different mass and current type multipole moments, we compute the spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the instantaneous part of the gravitational waveform. These are terms which are functions of the retarded time and do not depend on the history of the binary evolution. Together with the hereditary part, which depends on the binary's dynamical history, these waveforms form the basis for construction of accurate templates for the detection of gravitational wave signals from binaries moving in quasi-elliptical orbits.
Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars
Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.
2017-07-01
The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other
Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Compact Binary Mergers
Tanaka, Masaomi
2016-01-01
We review current understanding of kilonova/macronova emission from compact binary mergers (mergers of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole). Kilonova/macronova is optical and near-infrared emission powered by radioactive decays of r-process nuclei. Emission from the dynamical ejecta with ~0.01 Msun is likely to have a luminosity of ~10^{40}-10^{41} erg s^{-1} with a characteristic timescale of about 1 week. The spectral peak is located in red optical or near-infrared wavelengths. A subsequent accretion disk wind may provide an additional luminosity, or an earlier/bluer emission if it is not absorbed by the precedent dynamical ejecta. The detection of near-infrared excess in the afterglow of short GRB 130603B and possible optical excess in GRB 060614 supports the concept of the kilonova/macronova scenario. At 200 Mpc distance, a typical brightness of kilonova/macronova with 0.01 Msun ejecta is expected to be about 22 mag and the emission rapidly fades to >24 mag within ~10 days after the merge...
A compact binary merger model for GRB 050509b
Lee, W H; Granot, J; Lee, William H.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan
2005-01-01
The first X-ray afterglow for a short (30 ms), hard gamma-ray burst was detected by Swift on 9 May 2005 (GRB 050509b). No optical or radio counterpart was identified in follow--up observations. The tentative association of the GRB with a nearby giant elliptical galaxy at redshift z=0.2248 would imply the progenitor had traveled several tens of kpc from its point of origin, in agreement with expectations linking these events to the final merger of compact binaries driven by gravitational wave emission. We model the dynamical merger of such a system and the time--dependent evolution of the accretion tori thus created. The resulting energetics, variability, and expected durations are consistent with GRB 050509b originating from the tidal disruption of a neutron star by a stellar mass black hole, or of the merger of two neutron stars followed by prompt gravitational collapse of the massive remnant. We discuss how the available gamma-ray and X-ray data provides a probe for the nature of the relativistic ejecta and...
Mandel, Ilya; Dominik, Michal; Belczynsk, Krzysztof
2015-01-01
We analyze the distinguishability of populations of coalescing binary neutron stars, neutron-star black-hole binaries, and binary black holes, whose gravitational-wave signatures are expected to be observed by the advanced network of ground-based interferometers LIGO and Virgo. We consider population-synthesis predictions for plausible merging binary distributions in mass space, along with measurement accuracy estimates from the main gravitational-wave parameter-estimation pipeline. We find that for our model compact-object binary mass distribution, we can always distinguish binary neutron stars and black-hole--neutron-star binaries, but not necessarily black-hole--neutron-star binaries and binary black holes; however, with a few tens of detections, we can accurately identify the three subpopulations and measure their respective rates.
Levi, Michele
2016-01-01
In this work we complete the spin dependent conservative dynamics of inspiralling compact binaries at the fourth post-Newtonian order, and in particular the recent derivation of the next-to-next-to-leading order spin-squared interaction potential. We derive the physical equations of motion of the position and the spin from a direct variation of the action. Further, we derive the quadratic in spin Hamiltonians, as well as their expressions in the center of mass frame. We construct the conserved integrals of motion, which form the Poincare algebra. This construction provided a consistency check for the validity of our result, which is crucial in particular in the current absence of another independent derivation of the next-to-next-to-leading order spin-squared interaction. Finally, we provide here the complete gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to the fourth post-Newtonian order. These hi...
Status and Future of Deep Searches for Compact Binary Mergers
Nitz, Alexander` Harvey; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2016-06-01
Deep offline searches for gravitational waves from binary black hole, binary neutron star, and neutron star- black hole mergers were conducted during the first Advanced LIGO observing run, and recently Advanced LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. We discuss the recent results, the methodology of the high latency searches, along with improvements for the upcoming observing runs.
Coughlin, Michael; Thrane, Eric; Luo, Jialun; Christensen, Nelson
2014-01-01
Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass ($M_\\text{total}\\leq10M_\\odot$) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parameterization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity ($0\\leq\\epsilon\\leq0.6$) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parameterization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Base...
Veitch, J.; Raymond, V.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Graff, P.; Vitale, S.; Aylott, B.; Blackburn, K.; Christensen, N.; Coughlin, M.
2015-01-01
The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We show that our implementation is able to correctly recover the parameters of compact binary signals from simulated data from the advanced GW detectors. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star (BNS), a neutron star - black hole binary (NSBH) and a binary black hole (BBH), where we show a cross-comparison of results obtained using three independent sampling algorithms. These systems were analysed with non-spinning, aligned spin and generic spin configurations respectively, showing that consistent results can be obtained even with the full 15-dimensional parameter space of the generic spin configurations. We also demonstrate statistically that the Bayesian credible intervals we recover correspond to frequentist confidence intervals under correct prior assumptions by analysing a set of 100 signals drawn from the prior. We discuss the computational cost of these algorithms, and describe the general and problem-specific sampling techniques we have used to improve the efficiency of sampling the compact binary coalescence (CBC) parameter space.
Antonini, Fabio
2012-01-01
The environment near super massive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contain a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits in respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai-cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai-cycles, gravitational wave emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries which do not reside near a SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries, and strongly affect their...
Fast and Accurate Inference on Gravitational Waves from Precessing Compact Binaries
Smith, Rory; Blackburn, Kent; Haster, Carl-Johan; Pürrer, Michael; Raymond, Vivien; Schmidt, Patricia
2016-01-01
Inferring astrophysical information from gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries is one of the key science goals of gravitational-wave astronomy. In order to reach the full scientific potential of gravitational-wave experiments we require techniques to mitigate the cost of Bayesian inference, especially as gravitational-wave signal models and analyses become increasingly sophisticated and detailed. Reduced order models (ROMs) of gravitational waveforms can significantly reduce the computational cost of inference by removing redundant computations. In this paper we construct the first reduced order models of gravitational-wave signals that include the effects of spin-precession, inspiral, merger, and ringdown in compact object binaries, and which are valid for component masses describing binary neutron star, binary black hole and mixed binary systems. This work utilizes the waveform model known as "IMRPhenomPv2". Our ROM enables the use of a fast \\textit{reduced order quadrature} (ROQ) integration rule...
Tidal invariants for compact binaries on quasi-circular orbits
Dolan, Sam R; Ottewill, Adrian C; Warburton, Niels; Wardell, Barry
2014-01-01
We extend the gravitational self-force approach to encompass `self-interaction' tidal effects for a compact body of mass $\\mu$ on a quasi-circular orbit around a black hole of mass $M \\gg \\mu$. Specifically, we define and calculate at $O(\\mu)$ (conservative) shifts in the eigenvalues of the electric- and magnetic-type tidal tensors, and a (dissipative) shift in a scalar product between their eigenbases. This approach yields four gauge-invariant functions, from which one may construct other tidal quantities such as the curvature scalars and the speciality index. First, we analyze the general case of a geodesic in a regular perturbed vacuum spacetime admitting a helical Killing vector and a reflection symmetry. Next, we specialize to focus on circular orbits in the equatorial plane of Kerr spacetime at $O(\\mu)$. We present accurate numerical results for the Schwarzschild case for orbital radii up to the light-ring, calculated via independent implementations in Lorenz and Regge-Wheeler gauges. We show that our r...
Tremblay, S E; Ortiz, A A; Tremblay, C D; Helmboldt, J F; Romani, R W
2016-01-01
We present multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) follow-up observations of VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey sources identified as likely compact symmetric objects (CSOs) or super-massive binary black holes (SBBHs). We also present new spectroscopic redshifts for 11 sources observed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. While no new SBBHs can be confirmed from these observations, we have identified 24 CSOs in the sample, 15 of which are newly designated, and refuted 52 candidates leaving 33 unconfirmed candidates. This is the first large uniform sample of CSOs which can be used to elicit some of the general properties of these sources, including morphological evolution and environmental interaction. We have detected polarised emission from two of these CSOs the properties of which are consistent with Active Galactic Nuclei unification schemes.
Capano, Collin; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-03-01
Modeled searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence (CBC) use a ``bank'' of template waveforms to search the wide range of parameters that binaries may have. Recent advances in waveform modeling and template placement techniques have opened up the possibility to efficiently search for systems with non-precessing spin, using waveforms that model the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of coalescing binaries. I discuss how these advances were combined to produce the template bank used to search for CBCs in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This bank covered the full range of plausible masses and non-precessing spins of binary neutron stars, stellar-mass binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole.
Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luc Blanchet
2014-02-01
Full Text Available To be observed and analyzed by the network of gravitational wave detectors on ground (LIGO, VIRGO, etc. and by the future detectors in space (eLISA, etc., inspiralling compact binaries -- binary star systems composed of neutron stars and/or black holes in their late stage of evolution -- require high-accuracy templates predicted by general relativity theory. The gravitational waves emitted by these very relativistic systems can be accurately modelled using a high-order post-Newtonian gravitational wave generation formalism. In this article, we present the current state of the art on post-Newtonian methods as applied to the dynamics and gravitational radiation of general matter sources (including the radiation reaction back onto the source and inspiralling compact binaries. We describe the post-Newtonian equations of motion of compact binaries and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, paying attention to the self-field regularizations at work in the calculations. Several notions of innermost circular orbits are discussed. We estimate the accuracy of the post-Newtonian approximation and make a comparison with numerical computations of the gravitational self-force for compact binaries in the small mass ratio limit. The gravitational waveform and energy flux are obtained to high post-Newtonian order and the binary's orbital phase evolution is deduced from an energy balance argument. Some landmark results are given in the case of eccentric compact binaries -- moving on quasi-elliptical orbits with non-negligible eccentricity. The spins of the two black holes play an important role in the definition of the gravitational wave templates. We investigate their imprint on the equations of motion and gravitational wave phasing up to high post-Newtonian order (restricting to spin-orbit effects which are linear in spins, and analyze the post-Newtonian spin precession equations as well as the induced precession of the orbital plane.
Detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors
Coughlin, M.; Meyers, P.; Thrane, E.; Luo, J.; Christensen, N.
2015-03-01
Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass (Mtotal≤10 M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parametrization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity (0 ≤ɛ ≤0.6 ) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parametrization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Based on these results, we conclude that advanced detectors will have a chance of detecting eccentric binaries if optimistic models prove true. However, a null observation is unlikely to firmly rule out models of eccentric binary populations.
Evidence for compact binary systems around Kepler red giants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Colman, Isabel L.; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.
2017-01-01
We present an analysis of 168 oscillating red giants from NASA's Kepler mission that exhibit anomalous peaks in their Fourier amplitude spectra. These peaks result from ellipsoidal variations that are indicative of binary star systems, at frequencies such that the orbit of any stellar companion w...
Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order
Moore, Blake; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2016-01-01
[abridged] Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but nonnegligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasi-circular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. The quasi-Keplerian formalism provides an elegant but complex description of the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit the non-periodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be ex...
A synthetic model of the gravitational wave background from evolving binary compact objects
Dvorkin, Irina; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph
2016-01-01
Modeling the stochastic gravitational wave background from various astrophysical sources is a key objective in view of upcoming observations with ground- and space-based gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, eLISA and PTA. We develop a synthetic model framework that follows the evolution of single and binary compact objects in an astrophysical context. We describe the formation and merger rates of binaries, the evolution of their orbital parameters with time and the spectrum of emitted gravitational waves at different stages of binary evolution. Our approach is modular and allows us to test and constrain different ingredients of the model, including stellar evolution, black hole formation scenarios and the properties of binary systems. We use this framework in the context of a particularly well-motivated astrophysical setup to calculate the gravitational wave background from several types of sources, including inspiraling stellar-mass binary black holes that have not merged during a H...
Binary compact object mergers in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories
Hirschmann, Eric; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steve; Palenzuela, Carlos
2017-01-01
We present work on the dynamics and gravitational wae emission of binary black holes in a modified theory of gravity. Our particular model is inspired by low energy string theory and includes additional matter fields, such as a dilaton, not necessarily present in vacuum general relativity. We consider deviations from standard predictions for gravitational wave signatures and examine alternative scalar and electromagnetic channels for emission.
Evidence for compact binary systems around Kepler red giants
Colman, Isabel L.; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kuszlewicz, James S.; Yu, Jie; Beck, Paul G.; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael A.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Mathur, Savita; Stello, Dennis; White, Timothy R.
2017-08-01
We present an analysis of 168 oscillating red giants from NASA's Kepler mission that exhibit anomalous peaks in their Fourier amplitude spectra. These peaks result from ellipsoidal variations that are indicative of binary star systems, at frequencies such that the orbit of any stellar companion would be within the convective envelope of the red giant. Alternatively, the observed phenomenon may be due to a close binary orbiting a red giant in a triple system, or chance alignments of foreground or background binary systems contaminating the target pixel aperture. We identify 87 stars in the sample as chance alignments using a combination of pixel Fourier analysis and difference imaging. We find that in the remaining 81 cases, the anomalous peaks are indistinguishable from the target star to within 4 arcsec, suggesting a physical association. We examine a galaxia model of the Kepler field of view to estimate background star counts and find that it is highly unlikely that all targets can be explained by chance alignments. From this, we conclude that these stars may comprise a population of physically associated systems.
Galley, Chad R
2016-01-01
We utilize the dynamical renormalization group formalism to calculate the real space trajectory of a compact binary inspiral for long times via a systematic resummation of secularly growing terms. This method generates closed form solutions without orbit averaging, and the accuracy can be systematically improved. The expansion parameter is $v^5 \
Use of gravitational waves to measure alignment of spins in compact binaries
Vitale, Salvatore; Graff, Philip; Sturani, Riccardo
2015-01-01
Coalescences of compact objects, neutron star and black holes, in binary systems are very promising sources of gravitational waves for the ground based detectors Advanced LIGO and Virgo. Much about compact binaries is still uncertain, including how often they are formed in the Universe, and some key details about their formation channels. One of the key open questions about compact binary coalescences is whether or not common envelope evolution is highly efficient in aligning spins with the orbital angular momentum. In this paper we show how gravitational waves detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo can be used to verify if spins are preferentially aligned with the orbital angular momentum in compact binaries made of two black holes or a neutron star and a black hole. We first assume that all sources have either nearly aligned or non-aligned spins and use Bayesian model selection to calculate a cumulative odds ratio to compare the aligned and non-aligned models. We see that the correct model is typically preferr...
Massive Stars and Their Compact Remnants in High-Mass X-Ray Binaries
Kaper, L.; van der Meer, A.
2007-01-01
In a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) a massive star interacts with a neutron-star or black-hole companion in various ways. The gravitational interaction enables the measurement of fundamental parameters such as the mass of both binary components, providing important constraints on the evolutionary his
Modulated Gamma-ray emission from compact millisecond pulsar binary systems
Bednarek, W
2013-01-01
A significant amount of the millisecond pulsars has been discovered within binary systems. In several such binary systems the masses of the companion stars have been derived allowing to distinguish two classes of objects, called the Black Widow and the Redback binaries. Pulsars in these binary systems are expected to produce winds which, colliding with stellar winds, create conditions for acceleration of electrons. These electrons should interact with the anisotropic radiation from the companion stars producing gamma-ray emission modulated with the orbital period of the binary system. We consider the interaction of a millisecond pulsar (MSP) wind with a very inhomogeneous stellar wind from the companion star within binary systems of the Black Widow and Redback types. It is expected that the pulsar wind should mix efficiently with the inhomogeneous stellar wind. Electrons accelerated in such mixed, turbulent winds can interact with the magnetic field and also strong radiation from the companion star producing ...
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Zemp, Marcel; Diemand, Jürg; Mandel, Ilya
2010-01-01
Merging compact binaries are the most viable and best studied candidates for gravitational wave (GW) detection by the fully operational network of ground-based observatories. In anticipation of the first detections, the expected distribution of GW sources in the local universe is of considerable interest. Here we investigate the full phase space distribution of coalescing compact binaries at $z = 0$ using dark matter simulations of structure formation. The fact that these binary systems acquire large barycentric velocities at birth (``kicks") results in merger site distributions that are more diffusely distributed with respect to their putative hosts, with mergers occurring out to distances of a few Mpc from the host halo. Redshift estimates based solely on the nearest galaxy in projection can, as a result, be inaccurate. On the other hand, large offsets from the host galaxy could aid the detection of faint optical counterparts and should be considered when designing strategies for follow-up observations. The...
Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries
Blanchet, Luc
2013-01-01
To be observed and analyzed by the network of gravitational wave detectors on ground (LIGO, VIRGO, etc.) and by the future detectors in space (LISA, etc.), inspiralling compact binaries --- binary star systems composed of neutron stars and/or black holes in their late stage of evolution --- require high-accuracy templates predicted by general relativity theory. The gravitational waves emitted by these very relativistic systems can be accurately modelled using a high-order post-Newtonian gravitational wave generation formalism. In this article, we present the current state of the art on post-Newtonian methods as applied to the dynamics and gravitational radiation of general matter sources (including the radiation reaction back onto the source) and inspiralling compact binaries. We describe the post-Newtonian equations of motion, pay attention to the self-field regularizations at work, discuss several notions of innermost circular orbits, estimate the accuracy of the approximation and make a comparison with num...
Inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a new precessing convention
Gupta, Anuradha
2016-01-01
It is customary to use a precessing convention, based on Newtonian orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L}_{\\rm N}$, to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. A key feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a post-Newtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L}$, to evolve the ${\\bf L}_{\\rm N}$-based precessing source frame. This motivated us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly use ${\\bf L}$ to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the orbital phase and frequency evolution equations with respect to the usual ${\\bf L}_{\\rm N}$-based implementation of the precessing convention. The implications of these additional terms are explored by computing the match between in...
Post-newtonian analysis of precessing convention for spinning compact binaries
Gupta, Anuradha
2015-01-01
A precessing source frame, constructed using the Newtonian orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L_{\\rm N}}$, can be invoked to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. An attractive feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a post-Newtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum ${\\bf L}$, to evolve the ${\\bf L_{\\rm N}}$-based precessing source frame. This influenced us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly employ ${\\bf L}$ to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the evolution equations for the orbital phase and frequency with respect to the usual ${\\bf L_{\\rm N}}$-based implementation of the precessing convention. We examine the practical implications of these additional term...
Spectroscopic Analysis of subluminous B Stars in Binaries with compact Companions
Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R
2006-01-01
The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. Based on high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. The assumption of orbital synchronization makes it possible to constrain inclination angle and companion mass of the binaries. Five invisible companions have masses that are compatible with that of normal white dwarfs or late type main sequence stars. But four sdBs have very massive companions like heavy white dwarfs > 1 Mo, neutron stars or even black holes. Such a high fraction of massive compact companions is not expected from cu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arbutina Bojan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is a maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems (qmax ≈ 2/3 below which the mass transfer is stable. In this paper we derive slightly different value for qmax and more interestingly, by applying the same procedure, we find the maximum expected white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries.
Modeling Multi-Wavelength Stellar Astrometry. I. SIM Lite Observations of Interacting Binaries
Coughlin, Jeffrey L; Harrison, Thomas E; Hoard, D W; Ciardi, David R; Benedict, G Fritz; Howell, Steve B; McArthur, Barbara E; Wachter, Stefanie
2010-01-01
Interacting binaries consist of a secondary star which fills or is very close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in accretion onto the primary star, which is often, but not always, a compact object. In many cases, the primary star, secondary star, and the accretion disk can all be significant sources of luminosity. SIM Lite will only measure the photocenter of an astrometric target, and thus determining the true astrometric orbits of such systems will be difficult. We have modified the Eclipsing Light Curve code (Orosz & Hauschildt 2000) to allow us to model the flux-weighted reflex motions of interacting binaries, in a code we call REFLUX. This code gives us sufficient flexibility to investigate nearly every configuration of interacting binary. We find that SIM Lite will be able to determine astrometric orbits for all sufficiently bright interacting binaries where the primary or secondary star dominates the luminosity. For systems where there are multiple components that comprise the spectrum in the op...
A geometric approach to the precession of compact binaries
Boyle, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald P
2011-01-01
We propose a geometrical method to define a preferred reference frame for precessing binary systems. This minimal-rotation frame is aligned with the angular-momentum axis and fixes the rotation about that axis up to a constant angle, resulting in an essentially invariant frame. Gravitational waveforms decomposed in this frame are similarly invariant under rotations of the inertial frame and exhibit relatively smoothly varying phase. By contrast, earlier prescriptions for radiation-aligned frames induce extraneous features in the gravitational-wave phase which depend on the orientation of the inertial frame, which leads to fluctuations in the frequency and may compound to many gravitational-wave cycles. We suggest that the minimal-rotation frame provides a simplified framework for post-Newtonian approximations of precessing systems and describe the construction of analytical/numerical hybrid waveforms for such systems.
Non-conformally flat initial data for binary compact objects
Uryu, Koji; Friedman, John L; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Shibata, Masaru
2009-01-01
A new method is described for constructing initial data for a binary neutron-star (BNS) system in quasi-equilibrium circular orbit. Two formulations for non-conformally flat data, waveless (WL) and near-zone helically symmetric (NHS), are introduced; in each formulation, the Einstein-Euler system, written in 3+1 form on an asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface, is exactly solved for all the metric components including the spatially non-conformally flat part, and for irrotational flow. A numerical method applicable to both formulations is explained with an emphasis on the imposition of a spatial gauge condition. Results are shown for solution sequences of irrotational BNSs with matter approximated by a parametrized equations of state that uses a few segments of polytropic equations of state. WL/NHS formulations correct the results from the conformally flat -- Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews (IWM) -- formulation. Binding energy or total angular momentum of solution sequences computed within the IWM formulation are...
Seto, Naoki
2014-01-01
We analytically discuss probability distribution function (PDF) for inclinations of merging compact binaries whose gravitational waves are coherently detected by a network of ground based interferometers. The PDF would be useful for studying prospects of (1) simultaneously detecting electromagnetic signals (such as gamma-ray-bursts) associated with binary mergers and (2) statistically constraining the related theoretical models from the actual observational data of multi-messenger astronomy. Our approach is similar to Schutz (2011), but we explicitly include the dependence of the polarization angles of the binaries, based on the concise formulation given in Cutler and Flanagan (1994). We find that the overall profiles of the PDFs are similar for any networks composed by the second generation detectors (Advanced-LIGO, Advanced-Virgo, KAGRA, LIGO-India). For example, 5.1% of detected binaries would have inclination angle less than 10 degree with at most 0.1% differences between the potential networks. A perturb...
The exotic remnants of compact object binary mergers
Duez, Matthew
2017-01-01
The collision and merger of a neutron star with a black hole or another neutron star is a strong source of gravitational waves and a promising setup for the creation of bright infrared (kilonova) and gamma ray (gamma ray burst) transients. These violent events can be modeled by numerical simulations incorporating general relativity, fluid dynamics, and nuclear physics. In this talk, I will explain the findings of some of these simulations. Depending on the properties of the binary, the merger leaves a black hole, a black hole accreting matter from a torus at an incredible rate, or a massive spinning neutron star. The latter two cases are characterized by the importance of differential rotation, magnetohydrodynamic processes, and neutrino radiation. To understand these systems, I will focus on what we know of their dynamical and thermal equilibrium structure, what we know of the dynamical instabilities to which they might be prone, and what we can tentatively say about their subsequent secular evolution from outflow, magnetic, radiative, and other effects. Computer simulations are becoming ever more impressive but remain unequal to the problem at hand, so I will address the challenges still posed by small-scale magnetohydrodynamic effects and by radiation transport. The author is a member of the SXS Collaboration and acknowledges support from NSF.
Fast and accurate inference on gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries
Smith, Rory; Field, Scott E.; Blackburn, Kent; Haster, Carl-Johan; Pürrer, Michael; Raymond, Vivien; Schmidt, Patricia
2016-08-01
Inferring astrophysical information from gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries is one of the key science goals of gravitational-wave astronomy. In order to reach the full scientific potential of gravitational-wave experiments, we require techniques to mitigate the cost of Bayesian inference, especially as gravitational-wave signal models and analyses become increasingly sophisticated and detailed. Reduced-order models (ROMs) of gravitational waveforms can significantly reduce the computational cost of inference by removing redundant computations. In this paper, we construct the first reduced-order models of gravitational-wave signals that include the effects of spin precession, inspiral, merger, and ringdown in compact object binaries and that are valid for component masses describing binary neutron star, binary black hole, and mixed binary systems. This work utilizes the waveform model known as "IMRPhenomPv2." Our ROM enables the use of a fast reduced-order quadrature (ROQ) integration rule which allows us to approximate Bayesian probability density functions at a greatly reduced computational cost. We find that the ROQ rule can be used to speed-up inference by factors as high as 300 without introducing systematic bias. This corresponds to a reduction in computational time from around half a year to half a day for the longest duration and lowest mass signals. The ROM and ROQ rules are available with the main inference library of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, LALInference.
Haris, K
2016-01-01
Global network of advanced Interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors are expected to be on-line soon. Coherent observation of GW from a distant compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of interferometers located in different continents give crucial information about the source such as source location and polarization information. In this paper we compare different multi-detector network detection statistics for CBC search. In maximum likelihood ratio (MLR) based detection approaches, the likelihood ratio is optimized to obtain the best model parameters and the best likelihood ratio value is used as statistic to make decision on the presence of signal. However, an alternative Bayesian approach involves marginalization of the likelihood ratio over the parameters to obtain the average likelihood ratio. We obtain an analytical expression for the Bayesian statistic using the two effective synthetic data streams for targeted search of non-spinning compact binary systems with an uninformative prior on...
Toward Early-Warning Detection of Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence
Cannon, K.; Cariou, R.; Chapman, A.; Crispin-Ortuzar, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frei, M.; Hanna, C.; Kara, E.; Keppel, D.; Liao, L; Privitera, S.; A Searle; Singer, L.; Weinstein, A.
2012-01-01
Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from (CBC). We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.
Methods for Reducing False Alarms in Searches for Compact Binary Coalescences in LIGO Data
Slutsky, J; Brown, D A; Cadonati, L; Cain, J; Cavaglià, M; Chatterji, S; Christensen, N; Coughlin, M; Desai, S; González, G; Isogai, T; Katsavounidis, E; Rankins, B; Reed, T; Riles, K; Shawhan, P; Smith, J R; Zotov, N; Zweizig, J
2010-01-01
The LIGO detectors are sensitive to a variety of noise transients of non-astrophysical origin. Instrumental glitches and environmental disturbances increase the false alarm rate in the searches for gravitational waves. Using times already identified when the interferometers produced data of questionable quality, or when the channels that monitor the interferometer indicated non-stationarity, we have developed techniques to safely and effectively veto false triggers from the compact binary coalescences (CBCs) search pipeline.
Methods for reducing false alarms in searches for compact binary coalescences in LIGO data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slutsky, J; Gonzalez, G [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brown, D A; Smith, J R [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States); Cadonati, L [University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cain, J; Cavaglia, M; Rankins, B [University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Chatterji, S; Zweizig, J [California Institute of Technology, Pasedena, CA 91125 (United States); Christensen, N; Coughlin, M; Isogai, T [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Desai, S [NCSA at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Reed, T; Zotov, N [Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Riles, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shawhan, P, E-mail: jsluts@tigers.lsu.ed [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2010-08-21
The LIGO detectors are sensitive to a variety of noise transients of non-astrophysical origin. Instrumental glitches and environmental disturbances increase the false alarm rate in the searches for gravitational waves. Using times already identified when the interferometers produced data of questionable quality, or when the channels that monitor the interferometer indicated non-stationarity, we have developed techniques to safely and effectively veto false triggers from the compact binary coalescences search pipeline.
Sintes, A M
2000-01-01
The set up of matched filters for the detection of gravitational waves from in-spiraling compact binaries is usually carried out using the restricted post-Newtonian approximation: the filter phase is modelled including post-Newtonian corrections, whereas the amplitude is retained at the Newtonian order. Here we investigate the effects of the introduction of post-Newtonian corrections also to the amplitude and we discuss some of the implications for signal detection and parameter estimation.
Synthetic model of the gravitational wave background from evolving binary compact objects
Dvorkin, Irina; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph
2016-11-01
Modeling the stochastic gravitational wave background from various astrophysical sources is a key objective in view of upcoming observations with ground- and space-based gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, eLISA, and the pulsar timing array. We develop a synthetic model framework that follows the evolution of single and binary compact objects in an astrophysical context. We describe the formation and merger rates of binaries, the evolution of their orbital parameters with time, and the spectrum of emitted gravitational waves at different stages of binary evolution. Our approach is modular and allows us to test and constrain different ingredients of the model, including stellar evolution, black hole formation scenarios, and the properties of binary systems. We use this framework in the context of a particularly well-motivated astrophysical setup to calculate the gravitational wave background from several types of sources, including inspiraling stellar-mass binary black holes that have not merged during a Hubble time. We find that this signal, albeit weak, has a characteristic shape that can help constrain the properties of binary black holes in a way complementary to observations of the background from merger events. We discuss possible applications of our framework in the context of other gravitational wave sources, such as supermassive black holes.
Farr, Benjamin; Farr, Will M; O'Shaughnessy, Richard
2014-01-01
Ground-based gravitational wave detectors are sensitive to a narrow range of frequencies, effectively taking a snapshot of merging compact-object binary dynamics just before merger. We demonstrate that by adopting analysis parameters that naturally characterize this 'picture', the physical parameters of the system can be extracted more efficiently from the gravitational wave data, and interpreted more easily. We assess the performance of MCMC parameter estimation in this physically intuitive coordinate system, defined by (a) a frame anchored on the binary's spins and orbital angular momentum and (b) a time at which the detectors are most sensitive to the binary's gravitational wave emission. Using anticipated noise curves for the advanced-generation LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors, we find that this careful choice of reference frame and reference time significantly improves parameter estimation efficiency for BNS, NS-BH, and BBH signals.
Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars
Sana, H.; de Mink, S.E.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Evans, C.J.; Gieles, M.; Gosset, E.; Izzard, R.G.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Schneider, F.R.N.
2012-01-01
The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously meas
Observational Evidence for Tidal Interaction in Close Binary Systems
Mazeh, Tsevi
2008-01-01
This paper reviews the rich corpus of observational evidence for tidal effects in short-period binaries. We review the evidence for ellipsoidal variability and for the observational manifestation of apsidal motion in eclipsing binaries. Among the long-term effects, circularization was studied the most, and a transition period between circular and eccentric orbits has been derived for eight coeval samples of binaries. As binaries are supposed to reach synchronization before circularization, one can expect finding eccentric binaries in pseudo-synchronization state, the evidence for which is reviewed. The paper reviews the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and its potential to study spin-orbit alignment. We discuss the tidal interaction in close binaries that are orbited by a third distant companion, and review the effect of pumping the binary eccentricity by the third star. We then discuss the idea that the tidal interaction induced by the eccentricity modulation can shrink the binary separation. The paper discusses t...
Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars
Sana, H; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Bouquin, J -B Le; Schneider, F R N; 10.1126/science.1223344
2012-01-01
The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, X-ray binaries and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. Over seventy per cent of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.
Cho, Hee-Suk
2015-09-01
In gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, the parameter estimate is performed to find the physical parameters of GW sources. The result of the parameter estimate is given by a posterior probability density function, and the measurement errors can be computed by using the Fisher matrix method. Using this method, we investigate the accuracy in estimates of neutron star (NS) masses ( M NS) for GWs emitted from merging compact binaries. As GW sources, we consider nonspinning binaries in which the primary component is assumed to be a NS and the companion is assumed to be a NS or a stellar-mass black hole (BH). Adopting GW signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 for Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) sensitivity, we calculate measurement errors (σ) of M NS. We find that the errors strongly depend on the mass ratio of the companion mass ( M com) to the NS mass ( M NS). For NS-NS binaries, the fractional errors (σ/ M NS) are larger than 10% only in the symmetric mass region. For BH-NS binaries, the fractional errors tend to decrease with increasing mass ratio ( M com/ M NS), and the measurement accuracies are better than those for NS-NS binaries. In this case, the errors are always smaller than ~ 3%.
Magnetic Interactions in Coalescing Neutron Star Binaries
Piro, Anthony L
2012-01-01
It is expected on both evolutionary and empirical grounds that many merging neutron star (NS) binaries are composed of a highly magnetized NS in orbit with a relatively low magnetic field NS. I study the magnetic interactions of these binaries using the framework of a unipolar inductor model. The e.m.f. generated across the non-magnetic NS as it moves through the magnetosphere sets up a circuit connecting the two stars. The exact features of this circuit depend on the uncertain resistance in the space between the stars R_space. Nevertheless, I show that there are interesting observational and/or dynamical effects irrespective of its exact value. When R_space is large, electric dissipation as great as ~10^{46} erg/s (for magnetar-strength fields) occurs in the magnetosphere, which would exhibit itself as a hard X-ray precursor in the seconds leading up to merger. With less certainty, there may also be an associated radio transient, but this would be observed well past merger (~hrs) because of interstellar disp...
Qiang, Li-E.; Zhao, Shu Hong; Xu, Peng
2016-12-01
Gravitational waves from coalescing black-hole binaries (BHBs) were recently observed by the advanced LIGO detectors. Based on the perturbation analysis, for general Kaluza-Klein theories with compact extra dimensions, we find a 1st-order post-Newtonian correction to the inspiral gravitational waveforms of black-hole binaries, that comes from the variations of the volume of the extra dimensions in near source zones. Such correction depends on a new parameter χ=\\frac{n}{2+n} with n the dimensionality of the extra space and it is irrelevant to the particular choice of the topology of the extra space. For the ideal case of a black-hole binary system following nearly circular orbital motion with almost equal or intermediate mass ratio, such higher-dimensional corrections to the chirping amplitude are worked out. Giving the power of tracing inspiral waves from coalescing massive BHBs with high signal-to-noise ratios, the planned space-borne antennas such as the eLISA and DECIGO may give us a measurement of the parameter χ in the near future and may serve us as new probes in the searching for the evidence of the hidden compact dimensions.
The coupled effect of tides and stellar winds on the evolution of compact binaries
Repetto, Serena
2014-01-01
We follow the evolution of compact binaries under the coupled effect of tides and stellar winds until the onset of Roche-lobe overflow. These binaries contain a compact object (either a black-hole, a neutron-star, or a planet) and a stellar component. We integrate the full set of tidal equations, which are based on Hut's model for tidal evolution, and we couple them with the angular momentum loss in a stellar wind. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we wish to highlight some interesting evolutionary outcomes of the coupling. When tides are coupled with a non-massive stellar wind, one interesting outcome is that in certain types of binaries, the stellar spin tends to reach a quasi-equilibrium state, where the effect of tides and wind are counteracting each other. When tides are coupled with a massive wind, we parametrize the evolution in terms of the decoupling radius, at which the wind decouples from the star. Even for small decoupling radii this \\emph{wind braking} can drive systems on the main sequence to Roche-l...
Use of gravitational waves to probe the formation channels of compact binaries
Vitale, Salvatore; Lynch, Ryan; Sturani, Riccardo; Graff, Philip
2017-02-01
With the discovery of the binary black hole coalescences GW150914 and GW151226, the era of gravitational-wave astrophysics has started. Gravitational-wave signals emitted by compact binary coalescences will be detected in large number by LIGO and Virgo in the coming months and years. Much about compact binaries is still uncertain, including some key details about their formation channels. The two scenarios which are typically considered, common envelope evolution and dynamical capture, result in different distributions for the orientation of the black hole spins. In particular, common envelope evolution is expected to be highly efficient in aligning spins with the orbital angular momentum. In this paper we simulate catalogs of gravitational-wave signals in which a given fraction of events comes from common envelope evolution, and has spins nearly aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We show how the fraction of aligned systems can be accurately estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation, with 1 σ uncertainties of the order of 10% after 100–200 sources are detected.
EXPLORING X-RAY BINARY POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES WITH CHANDRA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, Mail Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gallagher, S. C.; Lenkić, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Centre for Planetary and Space Exploration, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Desjardins, T. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chem.-Phys. Building, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington KY 40506-0055202 (United States); Walker, L. M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Mulchaey, J. S. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
2016-02-01
We obtain total galaxy X-ray luminosities, L{sub X}, originating from individually detected point sources in a sample of 47 galaxies in 15 compact groups of galaxies (CGs). For the great majority of our galaxies, we find that the detected point sources most likely are local to their associated galaxy, and are thus extragalactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) or nuclear active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For spiral and irregular galaxies, we find that, after accounting for AGNs and nuclear sources, most CG galaxies are either within the ±1σ scatter of the Mineo et al. L{sub X}–star formation rate (SFR) correlation or have higher L{sub X} than predicted by this correlation for their SFR. We discuss how these “excesses” may be due to low metallicities and high interaction levels. For elliptical and S0 galaxies, after accounting for AGNs and nuclear sources, most CG galaxies are consistent with the Boroson et al. L{sub X}–stellar mass correlation for low-mass XRBs, with larger scatter, likely due to residual effects such as AGN activity or hot gas. Assuming non-nuclear sources are low- or high-mass XRBs, we use appropriate XRB luminosity functions to estimate the probability that stochastic effects can lead to such extreme L{sub X} values. We find that, although stochastic effects do not in general appear to be important, for some galaxies there is a significant probability that high L{sub X} values can be observed due to strong XRB variability.
Favata, Marc
2008-01-01
The Christodoulou memory is a nonlinear contribution to the gravitational-wave field that is sourced by the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor. For quasi-circular, inspiralling binaries, the Christodoulou memory produces a growing, non-oscillatory change in the gravitational-wave "plus" polarization, resulting in the permanent displacement of a pair of freely-falling test masses after the wave has passed. In addition to its non-oscillatory behavior, the Christodoulou memory is interesting because even though it originates from 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order multipole interactions, it affects the waveform at leading-(Newtonian)-order. The memory is also potentially detectable in binary black hole mergers. While the oscillatory pieces of the gravitational-wave polarizations for quasi-circular, inspiralling compact binaries have been computed to 3PN order, the memory contribution to the polarizations has only been calculated to leading-order (the next-to-leading order 0.5PN term has previously been shown to ...
The PyCBC search for compact binary mergers in the second run of Advanced LIGO
Dal Canton, Tito; PyCBC Team
2017-01-01
The PyCBC software implements a matched-filter search for gravitational-wave signals associated with mergers of compact binaries. During the first observing run of Advanced LIGO, it played a fundamental role in the discovery of the binary-black-hole merger signals GW150914, GW151226 and LVT151012. In preparation for Advanced LIGO's second run, PyCBC has been modified with the goal of increasing the sensitivity of the search, reducing its computational cost and expanding the explored parameter space. The ability to report signals with a latency of tens of seconds and to perform inference on the parameters of the detected signals has also been introduced. I will give an overview of PyCBC and present the new features and their impact.
Hereditary Effects in Eccentric Compact Binary Inspirals to Third Post-Newtonian Order
Loutrel, Nicholas
2016-01-01
While there has been much success in understanding the orbital dynamics and gravitational wave emission of eccentric compact binaries in the post-Newtonian formalism, some problems still remain. The largest of these concerns hereditary effects: non-linear phenomena related to the scattering off of the background curved spacetime (tails) and to the generation of gravitational waves by gravitational waves (memory). Currently, these hereditary effects are only known numerically for arbitrary eccentricity through infinite sums of Bessel functions, with closed-form, analytic results only available in the small eccentricity limit. We here calculate, for the first time, closed-form, analytic expressions for all hereditary effects to third post-Newtonian order in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity. For the tails, we first asymptotically expand all Bessel functions in high eccentricity and find a superasymptotic series for each enhancement factor, accurate to better than $10^{-3}$ relative to post-Newtonian numerica...
XMM-Newton observations of the ultra-compact binary RX J1914+24
Ramsay, G; Wu, K; Cropper, M; Mason, K O; Cordova, F A; Priedhorsky, W; Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Wu, Kinwah; Cropper, Mark
2004-01-01
We present XMM-Newton observations of the 569 sec period system RX J1914+24 (V407 Vul). This period is believed to represent the binary orbital period making it an ultra-compact binary system. By comparing the phase of the rise to maximum X-ray flux at various epochs (this includes observations made using ROSAT, ASCA and Chandra) we find that the system is spinning up at a rate of 3.17+/-0.07x10^{-12} s/s. We find that the spectra softens as the X-ray flux declines towards the off-phase of the 569 sec period. Further, the spectra are best fitted by an absorbed blackbody component together with a broad emission feature around 0.59keV. This emission feature is most prominent at the peak of the on-phase. We speculate on its origin.
Compact object detection in self-lensing binary systems with a main-sequence star
Rahvar, S; Dominik, M
2010-01-01
Detecting compact objects by means of their gravitational lensing effect on an observed companion in a binary system has already been suggested almost four decades ago. However, these predictions were made even before the first observations of gravitational lensing, whereas nowadays gravitational microlensing surveys towards the Galactic bulge yield almost 1000 events per year where one star magnifies the light of a more distant one. With a specific view on those experiments, we therefore carry out simulations to assess the prospects for detection of the transient periodic magnification of the companion star, which lasts typically only a few hours binaries involving a main-sequence star. We find that detectability is given by the achievability of dense monitoring with the required photometric accuracy. In sharp contrast to earlier expectations by other authors, we find that main-sequence stars are not substantially less favourable targets to observe this effect than white dwarfs. The requirement of an almost ...
Tanay, Sashwat; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2016-01-01
Inspiraling compact binaries with non-negligible orbital eccentricities are plausible gravitational wave (GW) sources for the upcoming network of GW observatories. In this paper, we present two prescriptions to compute post-Newtonian (PN) accurate inspiral templates for such binaries. First, we adapt and extend the post-circular scheme of Yunes {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] to obtain a Fourier-domain inspiral approximant that incorporates the effects of PN-accurate orbital eccentricity evolution. This results in a fully analytic frequency-domain inspiral waveform with Newtonian amplitude and 2PN order Fourier phase while incorporating eccentricity effects up to sixth order at each PN order. The importance of incorporating eccentricity evolution contributions to the Fourier phase in a PN consistent manner is also demonstrated. Second, we present an accurate and efficient prescription to incorporate orbital eccentricity into the quasi-circular time-domain {\\texttt{TaylorT4}} approximant at 2PN o...
Tuning gravitational-wave detector networks to measure compact binary mergers
Hughes, Scott A.
2002-11-01
Gravitational waves generated by the final merger of compact binary systems depend on the structure of the binary's members. If the binary contains neutron stars, measuring such waves can teach us about the properties of matter at extreme densities. Unfortunately, these waves are typically at high frequency where the sensitivity of broadband detectors is not good. Learning about dense matter from these waves will require networks of broadband detectors combined with narrowband detectors that have good sensitivity at high frequencies. This paper presents an algorithm by which a network can be ``tuned,'' in accordance with the best available information, in order to most effectively measure merger waves. The algorithm is presented in the context of a toy model that captures the qualitative features of narrowband detectors and of certain binary neutron star merger wave models. By using what is learned from a sequence of merger measurements, the network can be gradually tuned in order to accurately measure the waves. The number of measurements needed to reach this stage depends upon the waves' signal strength, the number of narrowband detectors available for the measurement, and the detailed characteristics of the waves that carry the merger information. Future studies will go beyond this toy model, encompassing a more realistic description of both the detectors and the gravitational waves.
Tuning gravitational-wave detector networks to measure compact binary mergers
Hughes, S A
2002-01-01
Gravitational waves generated by the final merger of compact binary systems depend on the structure of the binary's members. If the binary contains neutron stars, measuring such waves can teach us about the properties of matter at extreme densities. Unfortunately, these waves are typically at high frequency where the sensitivity of broad-band detectors is not good. Learning about dense matter from these waves will require networks of broad-band detectors combined with narrow-band detectors that have good sensitivity at high frequencies. This paper presents an algorithm by which a network can be ``tuned'', in accordance with the best available information, in order to most effectively measure merger waves. The algorithm is presented in the context of a toy model that captures the qualitative features of narrow-band detectors and of certain binary neutron star merger wave models. By using what is learned from a sequence of merger measurements, the network can be gradually tuned in order to accurately measure th...
Haris, K.; Pai, Archana
2016-05-01
In this article, we revisit the coherent gravitational wave search problem of compact binary coalescences with multidetector network consisting of advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of the optimal multidetector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio (MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives few false alarms compared to the multidetector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We demonstrate that, for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination ɛ 11 0 ° , the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of the network optimum matched filter SNR with a low false alarm rate. The Monte Carlo exercise with two distributions of incoming inclination angles—namely, U [cos ɛ ] and a more realistic distribution proposed by B. F. Schutz [Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 125023 (2011)]—are performed with the hybrid statistic and give approximately 5% and 7% higher detection probabilities, respectively, compared to the two stream multidetector MLR statistic for a fixed false alarm probability of 1 0-5.
The PyCBC search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence
Usman, Samantha A.; Nitz, Alexander H.; Harry, Ian W.; Biwer, Christopher M.; Brown, Duncan A.; Cabero, Miriam; Capano, Collin D.; Dal Canton, Tito; Dent, Thomas; Fairhurst, Stephen; Kehl, Marcel S.; Keppel, Drew; Krishnan, Badri; Lenon, Amber; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pekowsky, Larne P.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Saulson, Peter R.; West, Matthew; Willis, Joshua L.
2016-11-01
We describe the PyCBC search for gravitational waves from compact-object binary coalescences in advanced gravitational-wave detector data. The search was used in the first Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) observing run and unambiguously identified two black hole binary mergers, GW150914 and GW151226. At its core, the PyCBC search performs a matched-filter search for binary merger signals using a bank of gravitational-wave template waveforms. We provide a complete description of the search pipeline including the steps used to mitigate the effects of noise transients in the data, identify candidate events and measure their statistical significance. The analysis is able to measure false-alarm rates as low as one per million years, required for confident detection of signals. Using data from initial LIGO's sixth science run, we show that the new analysis reduces the background noise in the search, giving a 30 % increase in sensitive volume for binary neutron star systems over previous searches.
Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries
Madau, Piero
2016-01-01
We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct HeI photoionizations are the main source of IGM ...
Dietrich, Tim; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Markakis, Charalampos M; Bruegmann, Bernd; Tichy, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Information about the last stages of a binary neutron star inspiral and the final merger can be extracted from quasi-equilibrium configurations and dynamical evolutions. In this article, we construct quasi-equilibrium configurations for different spins, eccentricities, mass ratios, compactnesses, and equations of state. For this purpose we employ the SGRID code, which allows us to construct such data in previously inaccessible regions of the parameter space. In particular, we consider spinning neutron stars in isolation and in binary systems; we incorporate new methods to produce highly eccentric and eccentricity reduced data; we present the possibility of computing data for significantly unequal-mass binaries; and we create equal-mass binaries with individual compactness up to 0.23. As a proof of principle, we explore the dynamical evolution of three new configurations. First, we simulate a $q=2.06$ mass ratio which is the highest mass ratio for a binary neutron star evolved in numerical relativity to date. ...
Gravitational-radiation damping of compact binary systems to second post-newtonian order
Blanchet, L; Iyer, B R; Will, C M; Wiseman, A G; Blanchet, Luc; Damour, Thibault; Iyer, Bala R; Will, Clifford M; Wiseman, Alan G
1995-01-01
The rate of gravitational-wave energy loss from inspiralling binary systems of compact objects of arbitrary mass is derived through second post-Newtonian (2PN) order O[(Gm/rc^2)^2] beyond the quadrupole approximation. The result has been derived by two independent calculations of the (source) multipole moments. The 2PN terms, and in particular the finite mass contribution therein (which cannot be obtained in perturbation calculations of black hole spacetimes), are shown to make a significant contribution to the accumulated phase of theoretical templates to be used in matched filtering of the data from future gravitational-wave detectors.
MG13 proceedings: On the validity of the adiabatic approximation in compact binary inspirals
Maselli, Andrea; Pannarale, Francesco; Ferrari, Valeria
2013-01-01
We use the post-Newtonian-Affine model to assess the validity of the adiabatic approximation in modeling tidal effects in the phase evolution of compact binary systems. We compute the dynamical evolution of the tidal tensor, which we estimate at the 2 PN order, and of the quadrupole tensor, finding that their ratio, i.e. the tidal deformability, increases in the last phases of the inspiral. We derive the gravitational wave phase corrections due to this phenomenon and quantify how they affect gravitational wave detectability.
New Evidence for a Black Hole in the Compact Binary Cygnus X-3
Shrader, Chris; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai
2010-01-01
The bright and highly variable X-ray and radio source known as Cygnus X-3 was among the first X-ray sources discovered, yet it remains in many ways an enigma. Its known to consist of a massive, Wolf-Rayet primary in an extremely tight orbit with a compact object. Yet one of the most basic of parameters - the mass of the compact object - is not known. Nor is it even clear whether its is a neutron star or a black hole. In this Paper we present our analysis of the broad-band high-energy continua covering a substantial range in luminosity and spectral morphology. We apply these results to a recently identified scaling relationship which has been demonstrated to provide reliable estimates of the compact object mass in a number of accretion powered binaries. This analysis leads us to conclude that the compact object in Cygnus X-3 has a mass greater than $4.2M_\\odot$ thus clearly indicative of a black hole and as such resolving a long-standing issue. The full range of uncertainty in our analysis and from using a ran...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schäfer, Gerhard [Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Max-Wien-Pl. 1, D-07743 Jena, EU (Germany)
2014-01-14
The current knowledge in the post-Newtonian (PN) dynamics and motion of non-spinning and spinning compact binaries will be presented based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian approach to general relativity. The presentation will cover the binary dynamics with non-spinning components up to the 4PN order and for spinning binaries up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in the spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings. Radiation reaction will be treated for both non-spinning and spinning binaries. Explicit analytic expressions for the motion will be given, innermost stable circular orbits will be discussed.
Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order
Moore, Blake; Favata, Marc; Arun, K. G.; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2016-06-01
Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but non-negligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary [M. Favata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 101101 (2014)]. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasicircular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. Damour, Gopakumar, Iyer, and others have developed an elegant but complex quasi-Keplerian formalism for describing the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here, we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit, the nonperiodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be expressed explicitly as simple functions of frequency or time, with little additional complexity beyond the well-known formulas for circular binaries. These eccentric phase corrections are computed to 3PN order and to leading order in the eccentricity for the standard PN approximants. For a variety of systems, these eccentricity corrections cause significant corrections to the number of gravitational-wave cycles that sweep through a detector's frequency band. This is evaluated using several measures, including a modification of the useful cycles. By comparing to numerical solutions valid for any eccentricity, we find that our analytic solutions are valid up to e0≲0.1 for comparable-mass systems, where e0 is the eccentricity when the source enters the detector band. We also evaluate the role of periodic terms that enter the phasing and discuss how they can be incorporated into some of
Topics in the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Inspirals
Kapadia, Shasvath Jagat
Orbiting compact binaries - such as binary black holes, binary neutron stars and neutron star-black hole binaries - are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based interferometric detectors. Despite numerous sophisticated engineering techniques, the gravitational wave signals will be buried deep within noise generated by various instrumental and environmental processes, and need to be extracted via a signal processing technique referred to as matched filtering. Matched filtering requires large banks of signal templates that are faithful representations of the true gravitational waveforms produced by astrophysical binaries. The accurate and efficient production of templates is thus crucial to the success of signal processing and data analysis. To that end, the dissertation presents a numerical technique that calibrates existing analytical (Post-Newtonian) waveforms, which are relatively inexpensive, to more accurate fiducial waveforms that are computationally expensive to generate. The resulting waveform family is significantly more accurate than the analytical waveforms, without incurring additional computational costs of production. Certain kinds of transient background noise artefacts, called "glitches'', can masquerade as gravitational wave signals for short durations and throw-off the matched-filter algorithm. Identifying glitches from true gravitational wave signals is a highly non-trivial exercise in data analysis which has been attempted with varying degrees of success. We present here a machine-learning based approach that exploits the various attributes of glitches and signals within detector data to provide a classification scheme that is a significant improvement over previous methods. The dissertation concludes by investigating the possibility of detecting a non-linear DC imprint, called the Christodoulou memory, produced in the arms of ground-based interferometers by the recently detected gravitational waves. The
Banerjee, Sambaran; Ghosh, Pranab
2008-06-01
We continue the exploration that we began in Paper I of using the Boltzmann scheme to study the evolution of compact binary populations of globular clusters, introducing in this paper our method of handling the stochasticity inherent in the dynamical processes of binary formation, destruction, and hardening in globular clusters. We describe these stochastic processes as "Wiener processes," whereupon the Boltzmann equation becomes a stochastic partial differential equation, the solution of which involves the use of "Itō calculus" (this use being the first, to our knowledge, in this subject), in addition to ordinary calculus. As in Paper I, we focus on the evolution of (1) the number of X-ray binaries NXB in globular clusters and (2) the orbital period distribution of these binaries. We show that, although the details of the fluctuations in the above quantities differ from one "realization" to another of the stochastic processes, the general trends follow those found in the continuous-limit study of Paper I, and the average result over many such realizations is very close to the continuous-limit result. We investigate the dependence of NXB found by these calculations on two essential globular cluster properties, namely, the star-star and star-binary encounter rate parameters Γ and γ, for which we coined the name "Verbunt parameters" in Paper I. We compare our computed results with those from Chandra observations of Galactic globular clusters, showing that the expected scalings of NXB with the Verbunt parameters are in good agreement with those observed. We indicate additional features that can be incorporated into the scheme in the future, as well as how more elaborate problems can be tackled.
Yu, Hao; Gu, Bao-Min; Huang, Fa Peng; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Meng, Xin-He; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2017-02-01
The future gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. However, if there exist extra dimensions and only GWs can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of GWs and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are in general different. In this paper, we study null geodesics of GWs and EMWs in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time in the presence of the curvature of the universe. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of GW is longer than EMW within equal time. Taking the GW150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor as an example, we study how the curvature k and the constant curvature radius l affect the horizon radii of GW and EMW in the de Sitter and Einstein-de Sitter models of the universe. This provides an alternative method for probing extra dimension through future GW observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts.
Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.
2016-09-01
Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of
Gravitational waves from spinning compact object binaries: New post-Newtonian results
Marsat, Sylvain; Bohe, Alejandro; Faye, Guillaume
2013-01-01
We report on recent results obtained in the post-Newtonian framework for the modelling of the gravitational waves emitted by binary systems of spinning compact objects (black holes and/or neutron stars). These new results are obtained at the spin-orbit (linear-in-spin) level and solving Einstein's field equations iteratively in harmonic coordinates as well as the multipolar post-Newtonian formalism. The dynamics of the binary was tackled at the next-to-next-to-leading order, corresponding to the 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order for maximally spinning objects, and the result is found to be consistent with a previously obtained reduced Hamiltonian in the ADM approach. The corresponding contribution to the energy flux emitted by the binary was obtained at the 3.5PN order, as well as the next-to-leading 4PN tail contribution to this flux, an imprint of the non-linearity in the propagation of the wave. These new terms can be used to build more accurate PN templates for the next generation of gravitational wave detect...
Cokelaer, Thomas
2007-01-01
Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the deployment of a set of templates, also called a template bank, to cover the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. In a companion paper, we described the template-bank algorithm used in the analysis of LIGO data to search for signals from non-spinning binaries made of neutron star and/or stellar-mass black holes; this template bank is based upon physical template families. In this paper, we describe the phenomenological template bank that was used to search for gravitational waves from non-spinning black hole binaries (from stellar mass formation) in the second, third and fourth LIGO science runs. We briefly explain the design of the bank, whose templates are based on a phenomenological detection template family. We show that this template bank gives matches greater than 95% with the physical t...
McKechan, D J A
2011-01-01
This thesis concerns the use, in gravitational wave data analysis, of higher order waveform models of the gravitational radiation emitted by compact binary coalescences. We begin with an introductory chapter that includes an overview of the theory of general relativity, gravitational radiation and ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We then discuss, in Chapter 2, the gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences, with an explanation of higher order waveforms and how they differ from leading order waveforms; we also introduce the post-Newtonian formalism. In Chapter 3 the method and results of a gravitational wave search for low mass compact binary coalescences using a subset of LIGO's 5th science run data are presented and in the subsequent chapter we examine how one could use higher order waveforms in such analyses. We follow the development of a new search algorithm that incorporates higher order waveforms with promising results for detection efficiency and parameter esti...
Dynamics of High-Order Spin-Orbit Couplings about Linear Momenta in Compact Binary Systems*
Huang, Li; Wu, Xin; Mei, Li-Jie; Huang, Guo-Qing
2017-09-01
This paper relates to the post-Newtonian Hamiltonian dynamics of spinning compact binaries, consisting of the Newtonian Kepler problem and the leading, next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading order spin-orbit couplings as linear functions of spins and momenta. When this Hamiltonian form is transformed to a Lagrangian form, besides the terms corresponding to the same order terms in the Hamiltonian, several additional terms, third post-Newtonian (3PN), 4PN, 5PN, 6PN and 7PN order spin-spin coupling terms, yield in the Lagrangian. That means that the Hamiltonian is nonequivalent to the Lagrangian at the same PN order but is exactly equivalent to the full Lagrangian without any truncations. The full Lagrangian without the spin-spin couplings truncated is integrable and regular. Whereas it is non-integrable and becomes possibly chaotic when any one of the spin-spin terms is dropped. These results are also supported numerically.
First correlation between compact object and circumstellar disk in the Be/X-ray binaries
Zamanov, R K
2000-01-01
A remarkable correlation between the H-alpha emission line and the radio behaviour of LSI+61 303 (V615 Cas, GT 0236+610) over its 4 yr modulation is discovered. The radio outburst peak is shifted by a quarter of the 4 yr modulation period (about 400 days) with respect to the equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line variability. The onset of the LSI+61 303 radio outbursts varies in phase with the changes of the H-alpha emission line, at least during the increase of H-alpha equivalent width. This is the first clear correlation between the emission associated to the compact object and the Be circumstellar disk in a Be/X-ray binary system.
Pankow, C; Ochsner, E; O'Shaughnessy, R
2015-01-01
We introduce a highly-parallelizable architecture for estimating parameters of compact binary coalescence using gravitational-wave data and waveform models. Using a spherical harmonic mode decomposition, the waveform is expressed as a sum over modes that depend on the intrinsic parameters (e.g. masses) with coefficients that depend on the observer dependent extrinsic parameters (e.g. distance, sky position). The data is then prefiltered against those modes, at fixed intrinsic parameters, enabling efficiently evaluation of the likelihood for generic source positions and orientations, independent of waveform length or generation time. We efficiently parallelize our intrinsic space calculation by integrating over all extrinsic parameters using a Monte Carlo integration strategy. Since the waveform generation and prefiltering happens only once, the cost of integration dominates the procedure. Also, we operate hierarchically, using information from existing gravitational-wave searches to identify the regions of pa...
Fokker action of non-spinning compact binaries at the fourth post-Newtonian approximation
Bernard, Laura; Bohé, Alejandro; Faye, Guillaume; Marsat, Sylvain
2015-01-01
The Fokker action governing the motion of compact binary systems without spins is derived in harmonic coordinates at the fourth post-Newtonian approximation (4PN) of general relativity. Dimensional regularization is used for treating the local UV divergences associated with point particles, followed by a renormalization of the poles into a redefinition of the trajectories of the point masses. Effects at the 4PN order associated with wave tails propagating at infinity are included consistently at the level of the action. A finite part procedure based on analytic continuation deals with the IR divergencies at spatial infinity, which are shown to be fully consistent with the presence of near zone tails. Our end result at 4PN order satisfies all expected physical requirements. However, we find that it disagrees with the recently published result derived within the ADM Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity.
Adams, T; Germain, V; Guidi, G M; Marion, F; Montani, M; Mours, B; Piergiovanni, F; Wang, G
2015-01-01
The Multi-Band Template Analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences (CBCs). MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.
Periodic X-ray Modulation and its relation with orbital elements in Compact Binaries
Ghosh, Arindam
2014-01-01
Stellar companion of a black hole orbiting in an eccentric orbit will experience modulating tidal force with a periodicity same as that of the orbital period. This, in turn, would modulate accretion rates, and the seed photon flux which are inverse Comptonized to produce harder X-rays. By analyzing complete all sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of RXTE and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift/BAT we discover this periodicity in several objects. We also estimate eccentricities from the RMS power of the peak around quasi-orbital periods (QOP). Our method provides an independent way to obtain time periods and eccentricities of such compact binaries.
Georg, Ira
2015-01-01
Based on a recent paper by Rothe and Sch\\"afer on compact binary systems, explicit expressions for canonical center and relative coordinates in terms of standard canonical coordinates are derived for spinless objects up to second post-Newtonian approximation of Einstein's theory of gravity. The inverse relations, i.e. the dependence of the standard canonical coordinates on the canonical center and relative coordinates, are also given up to the second post-Newtonian approximation. The famous Pythagorean-theorem-type Lorentz-invariant relation between the system's total energy or Hamiltonian squared, the rest energy or mass squared - solely depending on relative coordinates -, and the total linear momentum squared are explicitly shown through second post-Newtonian approximation.
Secular precessing compact binary dynamics, spin and orbital angular momentum flip-flops
Tápai, Márton; Gergely, László Árpád
2016-01-01
We derive the conservative secular evolution of precessing compact binaries to second post-Newtonian order accuracy, with leading-order spin-orbit, spin-spin and mass quadrupole-monopole contributions included. The emerging closed system of first-order differential equations evolves the pairs of polar and azimuthal angles of the spin and orbital angular momentum vectors together with the periastron angle. In contrast with the instantaneous dynamics, the secular dynamics is autonomous. This secular dynamics reliably characterizes the system over timescales starting from a few times the radial period to several precessional periods, but less than the radiation reaction timescale. We numerically compare the instantaneous and secular evolutions and estimate the number of periods for which dissipation has no significant effect, e.g. the conservative timescale. We apply the analytic equations to study the spin flip-flop effect, recently found by numerical relativity methods. Our investigations show that the effect ...
A coherent triggered search for single-spin compact binary coalescences in gravitational wave data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harry, I W; Fairhurst, S, E-mail: ian.harry@astro.cf.ac.uk, E-mail: Stephen.Fairhurst@astro.cf.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)
2011-07-07
In this paper, we present a method for conducting a coherent search for single-spin compact binary coalescences in gravitational wave data and compare this search to the existing coincidence method for single-spin searches. We propose a method to characterize the regions of the parameter space where the single-spin search, both coincident and coherent, will increase detection efficiency over the existing non-precessing search. We also show example results of the coherent search on a stretch of data from Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory's fourth science run, but note that a set of signal-based vetoes will be needed before this search can be run to try to make detections.
Mitra, S; Finn, L S
2005-01-01
Inspiraling compact binaries are promising sources of gravitational waves for ground and space-based laser interferometric detectors. The time-dependent signature of these sources in the detectors is a well-characterized function of a relatively small number of parameters; thus, the favored analysis technique makes use of matched filtering and maximum likelihood methods. Current analysis methodology samples the matched filter output at parameter values chosen so that the correlation between successive samples is 97% for which the filtered output is closely correlated. Here we describe a straightforward and practical way of using interpolation to take advantage of the correlation between the matched filter output associated with nearby points in the parameter space to significantly reduce the number of matched filter evaluations without sacrificing the efficiency with which real signals are recognized. Because the computational cost of the analysis is driven almost exclusively by the matched filter evaluations...
Adams, T.; Buskulic, D.; Germain, V.; Guidi, G. M.; Marion, F.; Montani, M.; Mours, B.; Piergiovanni, F.; Wang, G.
2016-09-01
The multi-band template analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.
Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endröczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Langley, A; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Roux, A Le; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Lhuillier, V; Li, J; Li, T G F; Lindquist, P E; Litvine, V; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Logue, J; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow--Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Oldenberg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pihlaja, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pöld, J; Postiglione, F; Poux, C; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, M; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2013-01-01
Compact binary systems with neutron stars or black holes are one of the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Gravitational radiation encodes rich information about source physics; thus parameter estimation and model selection are crucial analysis steps for any detection candidate events. Detailed models of the anticipated waveforms enable inference on several parameters, such as component masses, spins, sky location and distance that are essential for new astrophysical studies of these sources. However, accurate measurements of these parameters and discrimination of models describing the underlying physics are complicated by artifacts in the data, uncertainties in the waveform models and in the calibration of the detectors. Here we report such measurements on a selection of simulated signals added either in hardware or software to the data collected by the two LIGO instruments and the Virgo detector during their most recent joint science run, including a "blind injection" wher...
Gravitational radiation from compact binary systems in the massive Brans-Dicke theory of gravity
Alsing, Justin; Will, Clifford; Zaglauer, Helmut
2011-01-01
We derive the equations of motion, the periastron shift, and the gravitational radiation damping for quasicircular compact binaries in a massive variant of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We also study the Shapiro time delay and the Nordtvedt effect in this theory. By comparing with recent observational data, we put bounds on the two parameters of the theory: the Brans-Dicke coupling parameter \\omega_{BD} and the scalar mass m_s. We find that the most stringent bounds come from Cassini measurements of the Shapiro time delay in the Solar System, that yield a lower bound \\omega_{BD}>40000 for scalar masses m_s1000 for m_s1250 for m_s<10^{-20} eV. A first estimate suggests that bounds comparable to the Shapiro time delay may come from observations of radiation damping in the eccentric white dwarf-neutron star binary PSR J1141-6545, but a quantitative prediction requires the extension of our work to eccentric orbits.
Cokelaer, Thomas
2007-01-01
Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from the ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the design of a template bank that covers the astrophysically pertinent parameter space. In an earlier paper, we described a template bank that is based on a square lattice. Although robust, we showed that the square placement is over-efficient, with the implication that it is computationally more demanding than required. In this paper, we present a template bank based on an hexagonal lattice, which size is reduced by 40% with respect to the proposed square placement. We describe the practical aspects of the hexagonal template bank implementation, its size, and computational cost. We have also performed exhaustive simulations to characterize its efficiency and safeness. We show that the bank is adequate to search for a wide variety of binary systems (primordial black holes, neutron stars and stellar mass black hol...
Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Tidal Synchronization and Dissipation
Fuller, Jim
2011-01-01
In compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems (with periods ranging from minutes to hours), dynamical tides involving the excitation and dissipation of gravity waves play a dominant role in determining the physical conditions of the WDs prior to mass transfer or binary merger. We calculate the amplitude of the tidally excited gravity waves as a function of the tidal forcing frequency \\omega=2(\\Omega-\\Omega_s) (where \\Omega is the orbital frequency and \\Omega_s is the spin frequency) for several realistic carbon-oxygen WD models, assuming that the waves are efficiently dissipated in the outer layer of the star by nonlinear effects or radiative damping. The mechanism of wave excitation in WDs is complex due to the sharp features associated with composition changes inside the WD, and in our WD models gravity waves are launched just below the helium-carbon boundary. We find that the tidal torque on the WD and the related tidal energy transfer rate, \\dot E_{\\rm tide}, depend on \\omega in an erratic way. On average, \\...
Galley, Chad R.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
2017-05-01
We utilize the dynamical renormalization group formalism to calculate the real space trajectory of a compact binary inspiral for long times via a systematic resummation of secularly growing terms. This method generates closed form solutions without orbit averaging, and the accuracy can be systematically improved. The expansion parameter is v5ν Ω (t -t0) where t0 is the initial time, t is the time elapsed, and Ω and v are the angular orbital frequency and initial speed, respectively. ν is the binary's symmetric mass ratio. We demonstrate how to apply the renormalization group method to resum solutions beyond leading order in two ways. First, we calculate the second-order corrections of the leading radiation reaction force, which involves highly nontrivial checks of the formalism (i.e., its renormalizability). Second, we show how to systematically include post-Newtonian corrections to the radiation reaction force. By avoiding orbit averaging, we gain predictive power and eliminate ambiguities in the initial conditions. Finally, we discuss how this methodology can be used to find analytic solutions to the spin equations of motion that are valid over long times.
Comparison of LIGO/Virgo upper limits with predicted compact binary merger rates
Belczynski, K; Holz, D; O'Shaughnessy, R; Bulik, T; Berti, E; Fryer, C; Dominik, M
2015-01-01
We compare evolutionary predictions of double compact object merger rate densities with initial and forthcoming LIGO/Virgo upper limits. We find that: (i) Due to the cosmological reach of advanced detectors, current conversion methods of population synthesis predictions into merger rate densities are insufficient. (ii) Our optimistic models are a factor of 18 below the initial LIGO/Virgo upper limits for BH-BH systems, indicating that a modest increase in observational sensitivity (by a factor of 2.5) may bring the first detections or first gravitational wave constraints on binary evolution. (iii) Stellar-origin massive BH-BH mergers should dominate event rates in advanced LIGO/Virgo and can be detected out to redshift z=2 with templates including inspiral, merger, and ringdown. Normal stars (<150 Msun) can produce such mergers with total redshifted mass up to 400 Msun. (iv) High black hole natal kicks can severely limit the formation of massive BH-BH systems (both in isolated binary and in dynamical dense...
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Bao, Y.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorsher, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Farr, B. F.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M. A.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gelencser, G.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.
2013-09-01
Compact binary systems with neutron stars or black holes are one of the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Gravitational radiation encodes rich information about source physics; thus parameter estimation and model selection are crucial analysis steps for any detection candidate events. Detailed models of the anticipated waveforms enable inference on several parameters, such as component masses, spins, sky location and distance, that are essential for new astrophysical studies of these sources. However, accurate measurements of these parameters and discrimination of models describing the underlying physics are complicated by artifacts in the data, uncertainties in the waveform models and in the calibration of the detectors. Here we report such measurements on a selection of simulated signals added either in hardware or software to the data collected by the two LIGO instruments and the Virgo detector during their most recent joint science run, including a “blind injection” where the signal was not initially revealed to the collaboration. We exemplify the ability to extract information about the source physics on signals that cover the neutron-star and black-hole binary parameter space over the component mass range 1M⊙-25M⊙ and the full range of spin parameters. The cases reported in this study provide a snapshot of the status of parameter estimation in preparation for the operation of advanced detectors.
Classification of compact binaries: an X-ray analog to the HR diagram
Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Raymond, John C.; Gopalan, Giri; Boroson, Bram Seth; Bornn, Luke
2016-06-01
X-ray binary systems (XRBs), when examined in an appropriate coordinate system derived from X-ray spectral and intensity information, appear to cluster based on their compact object type. We introduce such a coordinate system, in which two coordinates are hardness ratios and the third is a broadband X-ray intensity. In Gopalan, Vrtilek, & Bornn (2015) we developed a Bayesian statistical model that estimates the probability that an XRB contains a black hole, non-pulsing neutron star, or pulsing neutron star, depending on its location in our coordinate space. In particular, we utilized a latent variable model in which the latent variables follow a Gaussian process prior distribution. Here we expand our work to incorporate systems where the compact object is a white dwarf: cataclysmic variables (CVs). The fact that the CVs also fall into a location spatially distinct from the other XRB types supports the use of X-ray color-color-intensity diagrams as 3-dimensional analogs to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for normal stars.
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Cardenas, L.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R. C.; Cornish, N.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dueck, J.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Edgar, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Faltas, Y.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Finn, L. S.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G. D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D. R.; Isogai, T.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, H.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonor, I.; Li, C.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McKenzie, K.; Mehmet, M.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Muhammad, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ochsner, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perraca, A.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Punken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raics, Z.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Raymond, V.
2009-08-01
We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries, of total mass between 2 and 35M⊙, using LIGO observations between November 14, 2006 and May 18, 2007. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass. The LIGO cumulative 90%-confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of neutron stars, black holes and black hole-neutron star systems are 1.4×10-2, 7.3×10-4 and 3.6×10-3yr-1L10-1, respectively, where L10 is 1010 times the blue solar luminosity.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lin-Sen Li
2014-06-01
The influence of the gravitational radiation damping on the evolution of the orbital elements of compact binary stars is examined by using the method of perturbation. The perturbation equations with the true anomaly as an independent variable are given. This effect results in both the secular and periodic variation of the semi-major axis, the eccentricity, the mean longitude at the epoch and the mean longitude. However, the longitude of periastron exhibits no secular variation, but only periodic variation. The effect of secular variation of the orbit would lead to collapse of the system of binary stars. The deduced formulae are applied to the calculation of secular variation of the orbital elements for three compact binary stars: PSR 1913+16, PSR J0737-3039 and M33X-7. The results obtained are discussed.
Binary Disk interaction II: Gap-Opening criteria for unequal mass binaries
del Valle, Luciano
2013-01-01
We study the interaction between an unequal mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk, motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies, a massive gaseous disk with a SMBH binary will be formed in the nuclear region. We focus on the gravitational torques that the binary exerts onto the disk and how these torques can drive the formation of a gap in the disk. This exchange of angular momentum between the binary and the disk is mainly driven by the gravitational interaction between the binary and a strong non-axisymmetric density perturbation that is produced in the disk, as response to the presence of the binary. Using SPH numerical simulations we tested two gap-opening criterion, one that assumes that the geometry of the density perturbation is an ellipsoid/thick-spirals and another that assumes a geometry of flat-spirals for the density perturbation. We find that the flat-spirals gap opening criterion successfully predicts which simulations will hav...
Binary-disk interaction. II. Gap-opening criteria for unequal-mass binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Valle, Luciano; Escala, Andrés, E-mail: ldelvalleb@gmail.com [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)
2014-01-01
We study the interaction of an unequal-mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk, motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies, a massive gaseous disk with a supermassive black hole binary will be formed in the nuclear region. We focus on the gravitational torques that the binary exerts on the disk and how these torques can drive the formation of a gap in the disk. This exchange of angular momentum between the binary and the disk is mainly driven by the gravitational interaction between the binary and a strong nonaxisymmetric density perturbation that is produced in the disk, in response to the presence of the binary. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations, we test two gap-opening criteria, one that assumes the geometry of the density perturbation is an ellipsoid/thick spiral and another that assumes a flat spiral geometry for the density perturbation. We find that the flat spiral gap-opening criterion successfully predicts which simulations will have a gap in the disk and which will not. We also study the limiting cases predicted by the gap-opening criteria. Since the viscosity in our simulations is considerably smaller than the expected value in the nuclear regions of gas-rich merging galaxies, we conclude that in such environments the formation of a circumbinary gap is unlikely.
An Apparent Precessing Helical Outflow from a Massive Evolved Star: Evidence for Binary Interaction
Lau, Ryan M; Herter, Terry L; Morris, Mark R; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Ressler, Michael E
2015-01-01
Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal-enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) of a conical ``helix'' of warm dust ($\\sim180$ K) that appears to extend from the Wolf-Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to $800\\,\\mathrm{d}
Binary-disk interaction: Gap-Opening criteria
del Valle, Luciano
2012-01-01
We study the interaction of an equal mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence of the formation of massive black holes binaries surrounded by gas, after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies. We focus on the torques that the binary produces on the disk and how the exchange of angular momentum can drive the formation of a gap on it. We propose that the angular momentum exchange between the binary and the disk is through the gravitational interaction of the binary and a (tidally formed) global non-axisymmetric perturbation in the disk. Using this gravitational interaction we derive an analytic criterion for the formation of a gap in the disk that can be expressed on the structural parameters h/a and M(< r)/M_{bin}. Using SPH simulations we show that the simulations where the binary opens a gap in the disk and the simulations where the disk does not have a gap are distributed in two well separate regions. Our analytic gap-opening criterion predicts ...
Is there a compact companion orbiting the late O-type binary star HD 164816?
Trepl, L.; Hambaryan, V. V.; Pribulla, T.; Tetzlaff, N.; Chini, R.; Neuhäuser, R.; Popov, S. B.; Stahl, O.; Walter, F. M.; Hohle, M. M.
2012-12-01
We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray, γ-ray, optical and radio) study of HD 164816, a late O-type X-ray detected spectroscopic binary. X-ray spectra are analysed and the X-ray photon arrival times are checked for pulsation. In addition, newly obtained optical spectroscopic monitoring data on HD 164816 are presented. They are complemented by available radio data from several large-scale surveys as well as the Fermi γ-ray data from its Large Area Telescope. We report the detection of a low energy excess in the X-ray spectrum that can be described by a simple absorbed blackbody model with a temperature of ˜50 eV as well as a 9.78 s pulsation of the X-ray source. The soft X-ray excess, the X-ray pulsation and the kinematical age would all be consistent with a compact object like a neutron star as companion to HD 164816. The size of the soft X-ray excess emitting area is consistent with a circular region with a radius of about 7 km, typical for neutron stars, while the emission measure (EM) of the remaining harder emission is typical for late O-type single or binary stars. If HD 164816 includes a neutron star born in a supernova, this supernova should have been very recent and should have given the system a kick, which is consistent with the observation that the star HD 164816 has a significantly different radial velocity than the cluster mean. In addition we confirm the binarity of HD 164816 itself by obtaining an orbital period of 3.82 d, projected masses m1sin3i = 2.355(69) M⊙, m2sin3i = 2.103(62) M⊙ apparently seen at low inclination angle, determined from high-resolution optical spectra.
Evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries: dependence on the mass of the compact object
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qian Xu; Tao Li; Xiang-Dong Li
2012-01-01
We perform numerical calculations to simulate the evolution of low-mass X-ray binary systems.For the accreting compact object we consider the initial mass of 1.4,10,20,100,200,500 and 1000 M☉,corresponding to neutron stars (NSs),stellarmass black holes (BHs) and intermediate-mass BHs.Mass transfer in these binaries is driven by nuclear evolution of the donors and/or orbital angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking and gravitational wave radiation.For the different systems,we determine their bifurcation periods Pbif that separate the formation of converging systems from the diverging ones,and show that Pbif changes from ～ 1 d to (≥)3 d for a 1 M☉ donor star,with increasing initial accretor mass from 1.4 to 1000 M☉.This means that the dominant mechanism of orbital angular momentum loss changes from magnetic braking to gravitational radiation.As an illustration we compare the evolution of binaries consisting of a secondary star of 1 M☉ at a fixed initial period of 2 d.In the case of the NS or stellar-mass BH accretor,the system evolves to a well-detached He white dwarf-neutron star/black hole pair,but it evolves to an ultracompact binary if the compact object is an intermediate-mass BH.Thus the binary evolution heavily depends upon the mass of the compact object.However,we show that the final orbital period-white dwarf mass relation found for NS low-mass X-ray binaries is fairly insensitive to the initial mass of the accreting star,even if it is an intermediate-mass BH.
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.
2010-01-01
We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the concurrent S5 (UGO) and VSRI (Virgo) science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35 Solar Mass. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for non-spinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7 x 10(exp -3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) 2.2 x 10-3 yr-1L101, and 4.4 x 10(exp -4)3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) respectively, where L (sub 10) is 10(exp 10) times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Aoudia, S.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, K.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bigotta, S.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Blomberg, A.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corda, C.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J. P.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dari, A.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J. C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J. D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, H.
2010-09-01
We present an up-to-date, comprehensive summary of the rates for all types of compact binary coalescence sources detectable by the initial and advanced versions of the ground-based gravitational-wave detectors LIGO and Virgo. Astrophysical estimates for compact-binary coalescence rates depend on a number of assumptions and unknown model parameters and are still uncertain. The most confident among these estimates are the rate predictions for coalescing binary neutron stars which are based on extrapolations from observed binary pulsars in our galaxy. These yield a likely coalescence rate of 100 Myr-1 per Milky Way Equivalent Galaxy (MWEG), although the rate could plausibly range from 1 Myr-1 MWEG-1 to 1000 Myr-1 MWEG-1 (Kalogera et al 2004 Astrophys. J. 601 L179; Kalogera et al 2004 Astrophys. J. 614 L137 (erratum)). We convert coalescence rates into detection rates based on data from the LIGO S5 and Virgo VSR2 science runs and projected sensitivities for our advanced detectors. Using the detector sensitivities derived from these data, we find a likely detection rate of 0.02 per year for Initial LIGO-Virgo interferometers, with a plausible range between 2 × 10-4 and 0.2 per year. The likely binary neutron-star detection rate for the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network increases to 40 events per year, with a range between 0.4 and 400 per year.
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bigotta, S.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cain, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; de Rosa, R.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; Derosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Palma, I.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh–Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.
2010-11-01
We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory’s S5 and Virgo’s VSR1 science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35M⊙. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for nonspinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7×10-3yr-1L10-1, 2.2×10-3yr-1L10-1, and 4.4×10-4yr-1L10-1, respectively, where L10 is 1010 times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; G. Allen; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, W.
2010-01-01
We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory’s S5 and Virgo’s VSR1 science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35M_⊙. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits o...
Results of the GstLAL Search for Compact Binary Mergers in Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run
Lang, Ryan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration Collaboration
2017-01-01
Advanced LIGO's first observing period ended in January 2016. We discuss the GstLAL matched-filter search over this data set for gravitational waves from compact binary objects with total mass up to 100 solar masses. In particular, we discuss the recovery of the unambiguous gravitational wave signals GW150914 and GW151226, as well as the possible third signal LVT151012. Additionally, we discuss the constraints we can place on binary-neutron-star and neutron-star-black-hole system merger rates.
Explicit Symplectic-like Integrators with Midpoint Permutations for Spinning Compact Binaries
Luo, Junjie; Wu, Xin; Huang, Guoqing; Liu, Fuyao
2017-01-01
We refine the recently developed fourth-order extended phase space explicit symplectic-like methods for inseparable Hamiltonians using Yoshida’s triple product combined with a midpoint permuted map. The midpoint between the original variables and their corresponding extended variables at every integration step is readjusted as the initial values of the original variables and their corresponding extended ones at the next step integration. The triple-product construction is apparently superior to the composition of two triple products in computational efficiency. Above all, the new midpoint permutations are more effective in restraining the equality of the original variables and their corresponding extended ones at each integration step than the existing sequent permutations of momenta and coordinates. As a result, our new construction shares the benefit of implicit symplectic integrators in the conservation of the second post-Newtonian Hamiltonian of spinning compact binaries. Especially for the chaotic case, it can work well, but the existing sequent permuted algorithm cannot. When dissipative effects from the gravitational radiation reaction are included, the new symplectic-like method has a secular drift in the energy error of the dissipative system for the orbits that are regular in the absence of radiation, as an implicit symplectic integrator does. In spite of this, it is superior to the same-order implicit symplectic integrator in accuracy and efficiency. The new method is particularly useful in discussing the long-term evolution of inseparable Hamiltonian problems.
An improved pipeline to search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence
Usman, Samantha A; Nitz, Alexander H; Harry, Ian W; Brown, Duncan A; Capano, Collin D; Dent, Thomas; Fairhurst, Stephen; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Biwer, Christopher M; Canton, Tito Dal; Keppel, Drew; Saulson, Peter R; West, Matthew; Willis, Joshua L
2015-01-01
The second generation of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin taking data in September 2015. Sensitive and computationally-efficient data analysis methods will be required to maximize what we learn from their observations. We describe improvements made to the offline analysis pipeline searching for gravitational waves from stellar-mass compact binary coalescences, and assess how these improvements affect search sensitivity. Starting with the two-stage ihope pipeline used in S5, S6 and VSR1-3 and using two weeks of S6/VSR3 data as test periods, we first demonstrate a pipeline with a simpler workflow. This single-stage pipeline performs matched filtering and coincidence testing only once. This simplification allows us to reach much lower false-alarm rates for loud candidate events. We then describe an optimized chi-squared test which minimizes computational cost. Next, we compare methods of generating template banks, demonstrating that a fixed bank may be used for extended stretches of time. Fix...
Ghosh, Arindam
2016-01-01
Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. By the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays needs not reflect the true variation of the rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale also to spread around a mean value. In HMXBs, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller & thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the LMXBs. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a full knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term RXTE/ASM(1.5-12 keV) & Swift/BAT(15-50keV) data to look for such effects & to infer what the...
Cannon, Kipp; Keppel, Drew
2012-01-01
Coalescing compact binary systems consisting of neutron stars and/or black holes should be detectable with upcoming advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, GEO and {KAGRA}. Gravitational-wave experiments to date have been riddled with non-Gaussian, non-stationary noise that makes it challenging to ascertain the significance of an event. A popular method to estimate significance is to time shift the events collected between detectors in order to establish a false coincidence rate. Here we propose a method for estimating the false alarm probability of events using variables commonly available to search candidates that does not rely on explicitly time shifting the events while still capturing the non-Gaussianity of the data. We present a method for establishing a statistical detection of events in the case where several silver-plated (3--5$\\sigma$) events exist but not necessarily any gold-plated ($>5\\sigma$) events. We use LIGO data and a simulated, realistic, blind signal population to test ...
Lamb, Gavin P
2016-01-01
Compact binary mergers, with neutron stars or neutron star and black-hole components, are thought to produce various electromagnetic counterparts: short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from ultra-relativistic jets followed by broadband afterglow; semi-isotropic kilonova from radioactive decay of r-process elements; and late time radio flares; etc. If the jets from such mergers follow a similar power-law distribution of Lorentz factors as other astrophysical jets then the population of merger jets will be dominated by low-{\\Gamma} values. The prompt gamma-rays associated with short GRBs would be suppressed for a low-{\\Gamma} jet and the jet energy will be released as X-ray/optical/radio transients when a shock forms in the ambient medium. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of such transients as candidate electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources detectable by LIGO/Virgo. Approximately 78% of merger-jets result in failed GRB with optical peaks 14-22 magnitude and an all-sky rate of ...
Is there a compact companion orbiting the late O-type binary star HD 164816?
Trepl, L; Pribulla, T; Tetzlaff, N; Chini, R; Neuhäuser, R; Popov, S B; Stahl, O; Walter, F M; Hohle, M M
2012-01-01
We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray, $\\gamma$-ray, optical and radio) study of HD 194816, a late O-type X-ray detected spectroscopic binary. X-ray spectra are analyzed and the X-ray photon arrival times are checked for pulsation. In addition, newly obtained optical spectroscopic monitoring data on HD 164816 are presented. They are complemented by available radio data from several large scale surveys as well as the \\emph{FERMI} $\\gamma$-ray data from its \\emph{Large Area Telescope}. We report the detection of a low energy excess in the X-ray spectrum that can be described by a simple absorbed blackbody model with a temperature of $\\sim$ 50 eV as well as a 9.78 s pulsation of the X-ray source. The soft X-ray excess, the X-ray pulsation, and the kinematical age would all be consistent with a compact object like a neutron star as companion to HD 164816. The size of the soft X-ray excess emitting area is consistent with a circular region with a radius of about 7 km, typical for neutron stars, while the emission m...
On the validity of the adiabatic approximation in compact binary inspirals
Maselli, A; Pannarale, F; Ferrari, V
2012-01-01
Using a semi-analytical approach recently developed to model the tidal deformations of neutron stars in inspiralling compact binaries, we study the dynamical evolution of the tidal tensor, which we explicitly derive at second post-Newtonian order, and of the quadrupole tensor. Since we do not assume a priori that the quadrupole tensor is proportional to the tidal tensor, i.e. the so called "adiabatic approximation", our approach enables us to establish to which extent such approximation is reliable. We find that the ratio between the quadrupole and tidal tensors (i.e., the Love number) increases as the inspiral progresses, but this phenomenon only marginally affects the emitted gravitational waveform. We estimate the frequency range in which the tidal component of the gravitational signal is well described using the stationary phase approximation at next-to-leading post-Newtonian order, comparing different contributions to the tidal phase. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the Love number, which...
Yu, Hao; Huang, Fa Peng; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Meng, Xin-He; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-01-01
The gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along the null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. But when one considers that there exists the fifth dimension and only the GW can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of the GW and electromagnetic wave (EMW) are in general different. In this paper, we compute the null geodesics of the GW and EMW in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time and our four-dimensional universe in the present of the curvature of universe $k$, respectively. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of the GW is longer than the EMW within the equal time. Taking the GW 150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Mo...
Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellison, T. L.
1977-10-01
The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams.
Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Allwine, E; Ceron, E Amador; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Arun, K G; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Astone, P; Atkinson, D E; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barnum, S; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M G; Belczynski, K; Benacquista, M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bigotta, S; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Blomberg, A; Boccara, C; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bork, R; Born, M; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Boyle, M; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Buckleitner, D; Budzyński, R; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Corda, C; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coulon, J -P; Coward, D; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dari, A; Das, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Davis, A; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Degallaix, J; del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Devanka, P; Dhurandhar, S; Di Cintio, A; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Douglas, E S D; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Dueck, J; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Goetz, E A; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hall, P; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh--Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Jackson, B; Jaranowski, P; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, H; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Krause, T; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kullman, J; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lang, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Leong, J; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Lundgren, A; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mackowski, J M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Mak, C; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIvor, G; McKechan, D J A; Meadors, G; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Mercer, R A; Merill, L; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mino, Y; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreau, J; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Morioka, T; Mors, K; Mosca, S; Moscatelli, V; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; MowLowry, C; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Nash, T; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G H; Oldenburg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Pardi, S; Pareja, M; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Peralta, C; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabaste, O; Rabeling, D S; Radke, T; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, P; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Röver, C; Rogstad, S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Sakosky, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; de la Jordana, L Sancho; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santostasi, G; Saraf, S; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Satterthwaite, M; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shafer, D; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Stein, A J; Stein, L C; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S; Stroeer, A; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Trummer, J; Tseng, K; Tucker, R S; Ugolini, D; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vaishnav, B; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A; Vinet, J -Y; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Wei, P; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zimmermann, P J Z; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2010-01-01
We present an up-to-date, comprehensive summary of the rates for all types of compact binary coalescence sources detectable by the Initial and Advanced versions of the ground-based gravitational-wave detectors LIGO and Virgo. Astrophysical estimates for compact-binary coalescence rates depend on a number of assumptions and unknown model parameters, and are still uncertain. The most confident among these estimates are the rate predictions for coalescing binary neutron stars which are based on extrapolations from observed binary pulsars in our Galaxy. These yield a likely coalescence rate of 100 per Myr per Milky Way Equivalent Galaxy (MWEG), although the rate could plausibly range from 1 per Myr per MWEG to 1000 per Myr per MWEG. We convert coalescence rates into detection rates based on data from the LIGO S5 and Virgo VSR2 science runs and projected sensitivities for our Advanced detectors. Using the detector sensitivities derived from these data, we find a likely detection rate of 0.02 per year for Initial L...
Effect of squeezing on parameter estimation of gravitational waves emitted by compact binary systems
Lynch, Ryan; Vitale, Salvatore; Barsotti, Lisa; Dwyer, Sheila; Evans, Matthew
2015-02-01
The LIGO gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin collecting data in 2015, with Virgo following shortly after. These detectors are expected to reach design sensitivity before the end of the decade, and yield the first direct detection of GWs before then. The use of squeezing has been proposed as a way to reduce the quantum noise without increasing the laser power, and has been successfully tested at one of the LIGO sites and at GEO in Germany. When used in Advanced LIGO without a filter cavity, the squeezer improves the performances of detectors above ˜100 Hz , at the cost of a higher noise floor in the low-frequency regime. Frequency-dependent squeezing, on the other hand, will lower the noise floor throughout the entire band. Squeezing technology will have a twofold impact: it will change the number of expected detections and it will impact the quality of parameter estimation for the detected signals. In this work we consider three different GW detector networks, each utilizing a different type of squeezer—all corresponding to plausible implementations. Using LALInference, a powerful Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm, we study how each of these networks estimates the parameters of GW signals emitted by compact binary systems, and compare the results with a baseline advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that, even in its simplest implementation, squeezing has a large positive impact: the sky error area of detected signals will shrink by ˜30 % on average, increasing the chances of finding an electromagnetic counterpart to the GW detection. Similarly, we find that the measurability of tidal deformability parameters for neutron stars in binaries increases by ˜30 % , which could aid in determining the equation of state of neutron stars. The degradation in the measurement of the chirp mass, as a result of the higher low-frequency noise, is shown to be negligible when compared to systematic errors. Implementations of a quantum squeezer coupled with a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drago, Alessandro; Pagliara, Giuseppe [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dept. of Applied Science and Technology; INFN, Torino (Italy)
2016-02-15
We present several arguments which favor the scenario of two coexisting families of compact stars: hadronic stars and quark stars. Besides the well-known hyperon puzzle of the physics of compact stars, a similar puzzle exists also when considering delta resonances. We show that these particles appear at densities close to twice saturation density and must be therefore included in the calculations of the hadronic equation of state. Such an early appearance is strictly related to the value of the L parameter of the symmetry energy that has been found, in recent phenomenological studies, to lie in the range 40 < L < 62 MeV. We discuss also the threshold for the formation of deltas and hyperons for hot and lepton-rich hadronic matter. Similarly to the case of hyperons, also delta resonances cause a softening of the equation of state, which makes it difficult to obtain massive hadronic stars. Quark stars, on the other hand, can reach masses up to 2.75M {sub CircleDot} as predicted by perturbative QCD calculations. We then discuss the observational constraints on the masses and the radii of compact stars. The tension between the precise measurements of high masses and the indications of the existence of very compact stellar objects (with radii of the order of 10 km) is relieved when assuming that very massive compact stars are quark stars and very compact stars are hadronic stars. Finally, we discuss recent interesting measurements of the eccentricities of the orbits of millisecond pulsars in low mass X-ray binaries. The high values of the eccentricities found in some cases could be explained by assuming that the hadronic star, initially present in the binary system, converts to a quark star due to the increase of its central density. (orig.)
AN APPARENT PRECESSING HELICAL OUTFLOW FROM A MASSIVE EVOLVED STAR: EVIDENCE FOR BINARY INTERACTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mills, E. A. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O 1009, Lopezville Drive, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Ressler, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
2016-02-20
Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (∼180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf–Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τ{sub p} ∼ 1.4 × 10{sup 4} yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.
RIEPMA, KA; ZUURMAN, K; BOLHUIS, GK; DEBOER, AH; LERK, CF
1992-01-01
Tablets were compacted from a coarse fraction (250-315 mum), a fine fraction (32-45 mum) and from binary blends of a coarse and a fine fraction of different types of crystalline lactose. The results showed differences in consolidation and compaction between the granular lactose types, i.e., roller-d
Margon, Bruce; Homer, L; Pooley, D; Bassa, C G; Anderson, S F; Lewin, W H G; Verbunt, F; Kong, A K H; Plotkin, R M
2010-01-01
Highly sensitive and precise X-ray imaging from Chandra, combined with the superb spatial resolution of HST optical images, dramatically enhances our empirical understanding of compact binaries such as cataclysmic variables and low mass X-ray binaries, their progeny, and other stellar X-ray source populations deep into the cores of globular clusters. Our Chandra X-ray images of the globular cluster NGC 362 reveal 100 X-ray sources, the bulk of which are likely cluster members. Using HST color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we quantitatively consider the optical content of the NGC 362 Chandra X-ray error circles, especially to assess and identify the compact binary population in this condensed-core globular cluster. Despite residual significant crowding in both X-rays and optical, we identify an excess population of H{\\alpha}-emitting objects that is statistically associated with the Chandra X-ray sources. The X-ray and optical characteristics suggest that these are mainly cataclysmic variables, but we al...
Sokolov, V. V.
2016-06-01
It turns out that accumulation of data during 40-years observational studies just emphasized a contrast between pulsars and black hole (BH) candidates in Galactic close binary stellar systems: (1) the mass spectrum of these degenerate stellar objects (or collapsars) shows an evident absence of objects with masses within the interval from 2M_(Sun) (with a first peak at about 1.4M_(Sun)) to approximately 6M_(Sun), (2) and in close binary stellar systems with a low-massive (about 0.6M_(Sun)) optical companion the most probable mass value (the peak in the mass distribution of BH candidates) turned out to be close to 6.7M_(Sun). This puzzle of discrete mass spectra of collapsars in close binary systems demands some solution and explanation in stellar evolution scenarios in connection with the core-collapse supernovae explosion mechanism and in context of a relation between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar strong field - an analogue of BH in General Relativity - is investigated in a totally non-metric, dynamical model of gravitational interaction theory, in which extremely compact objects of the masses M_Q approx.= 6.7M_(Sun) with a quark-gluon plasma bag of radius r^* = GM_Q/c^2 approx.= 10 km exist.
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; DiGuglielmo, J.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Dorsher, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Farr, W.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Garcia, J.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardt, A.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kamaretsos, I.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.
2012-04-01
We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries using LIGO and Virgo observations between July 7, 2009, and October 20, 2010. We searched for signals from binaries with total mass between 2 and 25M⊙; this includes binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a black hole and neutron star. The detectors were sensitive to systems up to 40 Mpc distant for binary neutron stars, and further for higher mass systems. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass, including the results from previous LIGO and Virgo observations. The cumulative 90% confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of binary neutron star, neutron star-black hole, and binary black hole systems are 1.3×10-4, 3.1×10-5, and 6.4×10-6Mpc-3yr-1, respectively. These upper limits are up to a factor 1.4 lower than previously derived limits. We also report on results from a blind injection challenge.
Ajith, P
2011-01-01
This paper presents a post-Newtonian (PN) template family of gravitational waveforms from inspiralling compact binaries with non-precessing spins, where the spin effects are described by a single "reduced-spin" parameter. This template family, which reparametrizes all the spin-dependent PN terms in terms of the leading-order (1.5PN) spin-orbit coupling term in an approximate way, has very high overlaps (fitting factor > 0.99) with non-precessing binaries with arbitrary mass ratios and spins. We also show that this template family is "effectual" towards a significant fraction of generic spinning binaries in the comparable-mass regime (m_2/m_1 < 10), providing an attractive and feasible way of searching for gravitational waves (GWs) from spinning low-mass binaries. We also show that the secular (non-oscillatory) spin-dependent effects in the phase evolution (which are taken into account by the non-precessing templates) are more important than the oscillatory effects of precession in the comparable-mass (m_1 ...
Discovery of interaction signatures in the Hickson Compact Group 88
Brosch, Noah
2015-08-01
I describe new observations of the Hickson Compact Group 88 (HCG88) obtained during the commissioning of a new telescope at the Wise Observatory. The observations that reach low surface brightness levels reveal a diffuse, ~20-kpc long low-surface-brightness tail emerging from the brightest component (NGC 6878) to the NW, and possibly a morphological abnormally in component B (NGC 6977). The N6878 tail could explain the asymmetry in this galaxy’s optical rotation curve. These findings show that significant interactions, including possible galactic cannibalism, have taken place in at least two galaxies of this group, contrary to previous claims that HCG88 is in a very early stage of interaction. This work emphasizes the surprisingly interesting results that can be obtained from deep imaging of interesting targets.
Uryu, Koji; Grandclement, Philippe
2012-01-01
COCAL is a code for computing equilibriums or quasiequilibrium initial data of single or binary compact objects based on finite difference methods. We present the results of supplementary convergence tests of COCAL code using time symmetric binary black hole data (Brill-Lindquist solution). Then, we compare the initial data of binary black holes on the conformally flat spatial slice obtained from COCAL and KADATH, where KADATH is a library for solving a wide class of problems in theoretical physics including relativistic compact objects with spectral methods. Data calculated from the two codes converge nicely towards each other, for close as well as largely separated circular orbits of binary black holes. Finally, as an example, a sequence of equal mass binary black hole initial data with corotating spins is calculated and compared with data in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathore, Y.
2004-06-14
We consider the evolution of white dwarfs with compact object companions (specifically black holes with masses up to {approx} 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}, neutron stars, and other white dwarfs). We suppose that the orbits are initially quite elliptical and then shrink and circularize under the action of gravitational radiation. During this evolution, the white dwarfs will pass through resonances when harmonics of the orbital frequency match the stellar oscillation eigenfrequencies. As a star passes through these resonances, the associated modes will be excited and can be driven to amplitudes that are so large that there is a back reaction on the orbit which, in turn, limits the growth of the modes. A formalism is presented for describing this dynamical interaction for a non-rotating star in the linear approximation when the orbit can be treated as non-relativistic. A semi-analytical expression is found for computing the resonant energy transfer as a function of stellar and orbital parameters for the regime where back reaction may be neglected. This is used to calculate the results of passage through a sequence of resonances for several hypothetical systems. It is found that the amplitude of the {ell} = m = 2 f-mode can be driven into the non-linear regime for appropriate initial conditions. We also discuss where the no back reaction approximation is expected to fail, and the qualitative effects of back reaction.
Itoh, Y
2004-01-01
An equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries is derived through the third post-Newtonian (3 PN) approximation of general relativity. The strong field point particle limit and multipole expansion of the stars are used to solve iteratively the harmonically relaxed Einstein equations. We take into account the Lorentz contraction on the multipole moments defined in our previous works. We then derive a 3 PN acceleration of the binary orbital motion of the two spherical compact stars based on a surface integral approach which is a direct consequence of local energy momentum conservation. Our resulting equation of motion admits a conserved energy (neglecting the 2.5 PN radiation reaction effect), is Lorentz invariant and is unambiguous: there exist no undetermined parameter reported in the previous works. We shall show that our 3 PN equation of motion agrees physically with the Blanchet and Faye 3 PN equation of motion if $\\lambda = - 1987/3080$, where $\\lambda$ is the parameter which is undetermined with...
Tidal Tails in Interacting Galaxies: Formation of Compact Stellar Structures
Mullan, B; Konstantopoulos, I S; Bastian, N; Chandar, R; Durrell, P R; Elmegreen, D; English, J; Gallagher, S C; Gronwall, C; Hibbard, J E; Hunsberger, S; Johnson, K E; Kepley, A; Knierman, K; Koribalski, B; Lee, K H; Maybhate, A; Palma, C; Vacca, W D
2009-01-01
We have used V- and I- band images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to identify compact stellar clusters within the tidal tails of twelve different interacting galaxies. The seventeen tails within our sample span a physical parameter space of HI/stellar masses, tail pressure and density through their diversity of tail lengths, optical brightnesses, mass ratios, HI column densities, stage on the Toomre sequence, and tail kinematics. Our preliminary findings in this study indicate that star cluster demographics of the tidal tail environment are compatible with the current understanding of star cluster formation in quiescent systems, possibly only needing changes in certain parameters or normalization of the Schechter cluster initial mass function (CIMF) to replicate what we observe in color-magnitude diagrams and a brightest absolute magnitude -- log N plot.
Galaxy interactions in the Hickson Compact Group 88
Brosch, Noah
2015-01-01
I present observations of the Hickson Compact Group 88 (HCG88) obtained during the commissioning of a new 28-inch telescope at the Wise Observatory. This galaxy group was advertised to be non-interacting, or to be in a very early interaction stage, but this is not the case. The observations reported here were done using a "luminance" filter, essentially a very broad R filter, reaching a low surface brightness level of about 26 mag per square arcsec. Additional observations were obtained in a narrow spectral band approximately centered on the rest-frame H-alpha line from the group. Contrary to previous studies, my observations show that at least two of the major galaxies have had significant interactions in the past, although probably not between themselves. I report the discovery of a faint extended tail emerging from the brightest of the group galaxies, severe isophote twisting and possible outer shells around another galaxy, and map the HII regions in all the galaxies.
Kidder, Lawrence E.; Will, Clifford M.; Wiseman, Alan G.
1993-04-01
Late in its evolution, a binary system of compact objects will undergo a transition from an adiabatic inspiral induced by gravitational radiation damping to an unstable plunge, induced by strong spacetime curvature. This transition from inspiral to plunge is studied in detail using higher-order post-Newtonian methods. First, we study the innermost stable circular orbits of binary systems of nonrotating, compact objects of arbitrary mass ratio in the absence of gravitational radiation reaction. The method uses ``hybrid'' two-body equations of motion that are valid through (post)2-Newtonian order [order (Gm/rc2)2 ], but that also include the test-body limit in the Schwarzschild geometry exactly. Using a critical-point analysis, we show that circular orbits inside this innermost orbit are unstable to plunge. The separation of the innermost stable orbit (in harmonic, or de Donder coordinates) is found to vary with mass ratio, from the test-body value of 5m to about 6m for equal masses, where m is the total mass of the system. The orbital energy, angular momentum, and frequency of the innermost stable orbit are also determined as a function of the ratio of the two masses. We study the sensitivity of these values to higher-order post-Newtonian corrections. Incorporating gravitational radiation reaction in the hybrid equations of motion, we evaluate such variables as radial velocity, angular velocity, energy, and angular momentum for a coalescing binary at the corresponding innermost stable orbit, as a function of mass ratio. These variables could be used as initial conditions for numerical calculations of the ensuing coalescence.
Next-Generation Sequencing for Binary Protein-Protein Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernhard eSuter
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H system exploits host cell genetics in order to display binary protein-protein interactions (PPIs via defined and selectable phenotypes. Numerous improvements have been made to this method, adapting the screening principle for diverse applications, including drug discovery and the scale-up for proteome wide interaction screens in human and other organisms. Here we discuss a systematic workflow and analysis scheme for screening data generated by Y2H and related assays that includes high-throughput selection procedures, readout of comprehensive results via next-generation sequencing (NGS, and the interpretation of interaction data via quantitative statistics. The novel assays and tools will serve the broader scientific community to harness the power of NGS technology to address PPI networks in health and disease. We discuss examples of how this next-generation platform can be applied to address specific questions in diverse fields of biology and medicine.
Patel, Sarsvatkumar; Bansal, Arvind Kumar
2011-01-17
The aim of the study was to develop, compare and validate predictive model for mechanical property of binary systems. The mechanical properties of binary mixtures of ibuprofen (IBN) a poorly compressible high dose drug, were studied in presence of different excipients. The tensile strength of tablets of individual components viz. IBN, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) and binary mixtures of IBN with excipients was measured at various relative densities. Prediction of the mechanical property of binary mixtures, from that of single components, was attempted using Ryshkewitch-Duckworth (R-D) and Percolation theory, by assuming a linear mixing rule or a power law mixing rule. The models were compared, and the best model was proposed based on the distribution of residuals and the Akaike's information criterion. Good predictions were obtained with the power law combined with linear mixing rule, using R-D and Percolation models. The results indicated that the proposed model can well predict the mechanical properties of binary system containing predominantly poorly compressible drug candidate. The predictions of these models and conclusions can be systematically generalized to other pharmaceutical powders.
The Mass of the Compact Object in the Low-Mass X-ray Binary 2S 0921-630
Abubekerov, M K; Cherepashchuk, A M; Shimanskii, V V
2012-01-01
We interpret the observed radial-velocity curve of the optical star in the low-mass X-ray binary 2S 0921-630 using a Roche model, taking into account the X-ray heating of the optical star and screening of X-rays coming from the relativistic object by the accretion disk. Consequences of possible anisotropy of the X-ray radiation are considered.We obtain relations between the masses of the optical and compact (X-ray) components, mv and mx, for orbital inclinations i=60, 75, 90 degrees. Including X-ray heating enabled us to reduce the compact object's mass by near 0.5-1Msun, compared to the case with no heating. Based on the K0III spectral type of the optical component (with a probable mass of mv=2.9Msun, we concluded that mx=2.45-2.55Msun (for i=75-90 degrees). If the K0III star has lost a substantial part of its mass as a result of mass exchange, as in the V404 Cyg and GRS 1905+105 systems, and its mass is $m_v=0.65-0.75Msun, the compact object's mass is close to the standard mass of a neutron star, mx=1.4Msun...
Drappeau, S; Belmont, J; Gandhi, P; Corbel, S
2014-01-01
In recent years, compact jets have been playing a growing role in the understanding of accreting black hole engines. In the case of X-ray binary systems, compact jets are usually associated with the hard state phase of a source outburst. Recent observations of GX 339-4 have demonstrated the presence of a variable synchrotron spectral break in the mid-infrared band that was associated with its compact jet. In the model used in this study, we assume that the jet emission is produced by electrons accelerated in internal shocks driven by rapid fluctuations of the jet velocity. The resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) and variability properties are very sensitive to the Fourier power spectrum density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. These fluctuations are likely to be triggered by the variability of the accretion flow which is best traced by the X-ray emission. Taking the PSD of the jet Lorentz factor fluctuations to be identical to the observed X-ray PSD, our study finds that t...
Analysis Framework for the Prompt Discovery of Compact Binary Mergers in Gravitational-wave Data
Messick, Cody; Brady, Patrick; Brockill, Patrick; Cannon, Kipp; Caudill, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney J; Creighton, Jolien D E; Everett, Ryan; Hanna, Chad; Lang, Ryan N; Li, Tjonnie G F; Meacher, Duncan; Pankow, Chris; Privitera, Stephen; Qi, Hong; Sachdev, Surabhi; Sadeghian, Laleh; Sathyaprakash, B; Singer, Leo; Thomas, E Gareth; Wade, Leslie; Wade, Madeline; Weinstein, Alan
2016-01-01
We describe a stream-based analysis pipeline to detect gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and neutron-star-black-hole binaries within ~ 1 minute of the arrival of the merger signal at Earth. Such low-latency detection is crucial for the prompt response by electromagnetic facilities in order to observe any fading electromagnetic counterparts that might be produced by mergers involving at least one neutron star. Even for systems expected not to produce counterparts, analysis of the data in low-latency for their GW signals is useful for deciding when not to point telescopes, and as feedback to observatory operations. The pipeline also operates in an offline mode, in which it incorporates more refined information about data quality and employs acausal methods that are inapplicable to the online mode.
General relativistic simulations of compact binary mergers as engines of short gamma-ray bursts
Paschalidis, Vasileios
2016-01-01
Black hole - neutron star (BHNS) and neutron star - neutron star (NSNS) binaries are among the favored candidates for the progenitors of the black hole - disk systems that may be the engines powering short-hard gamma ray bursts. After almost two decades of simulations of binary NSNSs and BHNSs in full general relativity we are now beginning to understand the ingredients that may be necessary for these systems to launch incipient jets. Here, we review our current understanding, and summarize the surprises and lessons learned from state-of-the-art (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations in full general relativity of BHNS and NSNS mergers as jet engines for short-hard gamma-ray bursts.
Non-coplanar planet-disc interactions in binary star systems
Martin, Rebecca G.; Lubow, Stephen H.; Nixon, Chris; Armitage, Philip J.
2016-06-01
About half of observed exoplanets are estimated to be in binary systems. Thus, understanding planet formation and evolution in binaries is essential for explaining observed exoplanet properties. We will show how planet-disc interactions in a mildly inclined disc around one component of a binary can lead to the formation of highly eccentric and highly inclined planets.
Shah, Sweta; Nelemans, Gijs
2012-01-01
We present a first-stage study of the effect of using knowledge from electromagnetic (EM) observations in the gravitational wave (GW) data analysis of Galactic binaries that are predicted to be observed by the new \\textit{Laser Interferometer Space Antenna} in the low-frequency range, $10^{-4} \\mathrm{Hz}
Gemini Spectroscopy of the Ultra-compact Binary Candidate V407 Vul
Steeghs, D.; Marsh, T.R.; Barros, S.C.C.; Nelemans, G.; Groot, P.J.; Roelofs, G.H.A.; Ramsay, G.; Cropper, M.
2006-01-01
We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the optical counterpart to the proposed ultracompact binary system V407 Vul (=RX J1914.4+2456). Our Gemini spectra resolve the 9.48 minute periodicity that has previously been reported for this source. We find that the optical counterpart is dominated by a re
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong-Mu Li; Zhan-Wen Han
2009-01-01
More than about 50% of stars are in binaries, but most stellar population studies take single star stellar population (ssSSP) models, which do not take binary interactions into account. In fact, the integrated peculiarities of ssSSPs are different from those of stellar populations with binary interactions (bsSSPs). Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of binary interactions on the Lick indices and colors of populations in detail.We show some formulae for calculating the difference between the Lick indices and colors of bsSSPs, and those of ssSSPs. Twenty-five Lick indices and 12 colors are studied in this work. The results can be conveniently used for calculating the effects of binary interactions on stellar population studies and for adding the effects of binary interactions into present ssSSP models. The electronic data and fortran procedures in the paper can be obtained on request from the authors.
Del Pozzo, Walter; Mandel, Ilya; Vecchio, Alberto
2014-01-01
The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity. Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER, have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from general relativity can be detected, Cornish et al. and Vallisneri recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a general-relativity gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrised by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal and the fitting factor between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within general relativity. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula agains...
Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi
2015-01-01
We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.
Sidery, Trevor; Christensen, Nelson; Farr, Ben; Farr, Will; Feroz, Farhan; Gair, Jonathan; Grover, Katherine; Graff, Philip; Hanna, Chad; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Pitkin, Matthew; Price, Larry; Raymond, Vivien; Roever, Christian; Singer, Leo; Van der Sluys, Marc; Smith, Rory J E; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore
2013-01-01
The problem of reconstructing the sky position of compact binary coalescences detected via gravitational waves is a central one for future observations with the ground-based network of gravitational-wave laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Different techniques for sky localisation have been independently developed. They can be divided in two broad categories: fully coherent Bayesian techniques, which are high-latency and aimed at in-depth studies of all the parameters of a source, including sky position, and "triangulation-based" techniques, which exploit the data products from the search stage of the analysis to provide an almost real-time approximation of the posterior probability density function of the sky location of a detection candidate. These techniques have previously been applied to data collected during the last science runs of gravitational-wave detectors operating in the so-called initial configuration. Here, we develop and analyse methods for assessing the self-consi...
Bose, S
2002-01-01
The robust statistic proposed by Creighton (Creighton J D E 1999 Phys. Rev. D 60 021101) and Allen et al (Allen et al 2001 Preprint gr-gc/010500) for the detection of stationary non-Gaussian noise is briefly reviewed. We compute the robust statistic for generic weak gravitational-wave signals in the mixture-Gaussian noise model to an accuracy higher than in those analyses, and reinterpret its role. Specifically, we obtain the coherent statistic for detecting gravitational-wave signals from inspiralling compact binaries with an arbitrary network of earth-based interferometers. Finally, we show that excess computational costs incurred owing to non-Gaussianity is negligible compared to the cost of detection in Gaussian noise.
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2013-01-01
The detection of an electromagnetic transient which may originate from a binary neutron star merger can increase the probability that a given segment of data from the LIGO-Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave detector network contains a signal from a binary coalescence. Additional information contained in the electromagnetic signal, such as the sky location or distance to the source, can help rule out false alarms, and thus lower the necessary threshold for a detection. Here, we develop a framework for determining how much sensitivity is added to a gravitational-wave search by triggering on an electromagnetic transient. We apply this framework to a variety of relevant electromagnetic transients, from short GRBs to signatures of r-process heating to optical and radio orphan afterglows. We compute the expected rates of multi-messenger observations in the Advanced detector era, and find that searches triggered on short GRBs --- with current high-energy instruments, such as Fermi --- and nucleosynthetic `kilonov...
Hotokezaka, Kenta; Hallinan, Gregg; Lazio, T Joseph W; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2016-01-01
Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation of accelerated electrons in shocks formed with the circum-merger medium. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produces radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produces $\\gamma$-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of a week to a month. The intensity and duration of these radio counterparts depend on the kinetic energies of the outflows and on circum-merger densities. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts ...
First law of compact binary mechanics with gravitational-wave tails
Blanchet, Luc; Le Tiec, Alexandre
2017-08-01
We derive the first law of binary point-particle mechanics for generic bound (i.e. eccentric) orbits at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) order, accounting for the non-locality in time of the dynamics due to the occurence of a gravitational-wave tail effect at that order. Using this first law, we show how the periastron advance of the binary system can be related to the averaged redshift of one of the two bodies for a slightly non-circular orbit, in the limit where the eccentricity vanishes. Combining this expression with existing analytical self-force results for the averaged redshift, we recover the known 4PN expression for the circular-orbit periastron advance, to linear order in the mass ratio.
General relativistic simulations of compact binary mergers as engines for short gamma-ray bursts
Paschalidis, Vasileios
2017-04-01
Black hole—neutron star (BHNS) and neutron star—neutron star (NSNS) binaries are among the favored candidates for the progenitors of the black hole—disk systems that may be the engines powering short-hard gamma ray bursts. After almost two decades of simulations of binary NSNSs and BHNSs in full general relativity we are now beginning to understand the ingredients that may be necessary for these systems to launch incipient jets. Here, we review our current understanding, and summarize the surprises and lessons learned from state-of-the-art (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations in full general relativity of BHNS and NSNS mergers as jet engines for short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We also propose a new approach to probing the nuclear equation of state by virtue of multimessenger observations.
Self-bound interacting QCD matter in compact stars
Franzon, B.; Fogaça, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.
2012-09-01
The quark gluon plasma (QGP) at zero temperature and high baryon number is a system that may be present inside compact stars. It is quite possible that this cold QGP shares some relevant features with the hot QGP observed in heavy ion collisions, being also a strongly interacting system. In a previous work we have derived from the QCD Lagrangian an equation of state (EOS) for the cold QGP, which can be considered an improved version of the MIT bag-model EOS. Compared to the latter, our EOS reaches higher values of the pressure at comparable baryon densities. This feature is due to perturbative corrections and also to nonperturbative effects. Here we apply this EOS to the study of neutron stars, discussing the absolute stability of quark matter and computing the mass-radius relation for self-bound (strange) stars. The maximum masses of the sequences exceed two solar masses, in agreement with the recently measured values of the mass of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230, and the corresponding radii of around 10-11 km.
Self-bound Interacting QCD Matter in Compact Stars
Franzon, B; Navarra, F S; Horvath, J E
2012-01-01
The quark gluon plasma (QGP) at zero temperature and high baryon number is a system that may be present inside compact stars. It is quite possible that this cold QGP shares some relevant features with the hot QGP observed in heavy ion collisions, being also a strongly interacting system. In a previous work we have derived from the QCD Lagrangian an equation of state (EOS) for the cold QGP, which can be considered an improved version of the MIT bag model EOS. Compared to the latter, our equation of state reaches higher values of the pressure at comparable baryon densities. This feature is due to perturbative corrections and also to non-perturbative effects. Here we apply this EOS to the study of neutron stars, discussing the absolute stability of quark matter and computing the mass-radius relation for self-bound (strange) stars. The maximum masses of the sequences exceed two solar masses, in agreement with the recently measured values of the mass of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230, and the corresponding radii around...
Haiman, Zoltán
2017-07-01
The gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole (BBH) with masses 104≲M ≲107 M⊙ can be detected with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) once their orbital frequency exceeds 10-4- 10-5 Hz . The binary separation at this stage is a =O (100 )Rg (gravitational radius), and the orbital speed is v /c =O (0.1 ). We argue that at this stage, the binary will be producing bright electromagnetic (EM) radiation via gas bound to the individual BHs. Both BHs will have their own photospheres in x-ray and possibly also in optical bands. Relativistic Doppler modulations and lensing effects will inevitably imprint periodic variability in the EM light curve, tracking the phase of the orbital motion, and serving as a template for the GW inspiral waveform. Advanced localization of the source by LISA weeks to months prior to merger will enable a measurement of this EM chirp by wide-field x-ray or optical instruments. A comparison of the phases of the GW and EM chirp signals will help break degeneracies between system parameters, and probe a fractional difference Δ v in the propagation speed of photons and gravitons as low as Δ v /c ≈10-17.
Sidney, T.; Aylott, B.; Christensen, N.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Feroz, F.; Gair, J.; Grover, K.; Graff, P.; Hanna, C.; Kalogera, V.; Mandel, I.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Pitkin, M.; Price, L.; Raymond, V.; Roever, C.; Singer, L.; vanderSluys, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Vitale, S.
2014-01-01
The problem of reconstructing the sky position of compact binary coalescences detected via gravitational waves is a central one for future observations with the ground-based network of gravitational-wave laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Different techniques for sky localization have been independently developed. They can be divided in two broad categories: fully coherent Bayesian techniques, which are high latency and aimed at in-depth studies of all the parameters of a source, including sky position, and "triangulation-based" techniques, which exploit the data products from the search stage of the analysis to provide an almost real-time approximation of the posterior probability density function of the sky location of a detection candidate. These techniques have previously been applied to data collected during the last science runs of gravitational-wave detectors operating in the so-called initial configuration. Here, we develop and analyze methods for assessing the self consistency of parameter estimation methods and carrying out fair comparisons between different algorithms, addressing issues of efficiency and optimality. These methods are general, and can be applied to parameter estimation problems other than sky localization. We apply these methods to two existing sky localization techniques representing the two above-mentioned categories, using a set of simulated inspiralonly signals from compact binary systems with a total mass of equal to or less than 20M solar mass and nonspinning components. We compare the relative advantages and costs of the two techniques and show that sky location uncertainties are on average a factor approx. equals 20 smaller for fully coherent techniques than for the specific variant of the triangulation-based technique used during the last science runs, at the expense of a factor approx. equals 1000 longer processing time.
Manzotti, Alessandro; Dietz, Alexander
2012-01-01
A leading candidate source of detectable gravitational waves is the inspiral and merger of pairs of stellar-mass compact objects. The advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo detectors will allow scientists to detect inspiral signals from more massive systems and at earlier times in the detector band, than with first generation detectors. The signal from a coalescence of two neutron stars is expected to stay in the sensitive band of advanced detectors for several minutes, thus allowing detection befo...
Shapiro, Stuart
2017-01-01
Hans A. Bethe elucidated our understanding of the fundamental forces of Nature by exploring and explaining countless phenomena occurring in nuclear laboratories and in stars. With the dawn of gravitational wave astronomy we now can probe compact binary mergers - Nature's cosmic collision experiments - to deepen our understanding, especially where strong-field gravitation is involved. In addition to gravitational waves, some mergers are likely to generate observable electromagnetic and/or neutrino radiation, heralding a new era of multimessenger astronomy. Robust numerical algorithms now allow us to simulate these events in full general relativity on supercomputers. We will describe some recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations that show how binary black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short gamma-ray bursts. We will also show how the magnetorotational collapse of very massive stars to spinning black holes immersed in magnetized accretion disks can launch jets as well, reinforcing the belief that such ``collapsars'' are the progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grants 1300903 and 1602536 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G.
Bose, Sukanta; Parameswaran, Ajith
2012-01-01
We study the astrophysical impact of inaccurate and incomplete modeling of the gravitational waveforms from compact binary coalescences (CBCs). We do so by the matched filtering of complete inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) signals with a bank of inspiral-phase templates modeled after the 3.5 post-Newtonian TaylorT1 approximant. The rationale for the choice of the templates is threefold: (1) The inspiral phase of the Phenomenological signals, which are an example of complete IMR signals, is modeled on the same TaylorT1 approximant. (2) In the low-mass limit, where the merger and ringdown phases last much shorter than the inspiral phase, the errors should tend to vanishingly small values and, thus, provide an important check on the numerical aspects of our simulations. (3) Since the binary black hole (BBH) signals are not yet known for mass-ratios above ten and since signals from CBCs involving neutron stars are affected by uncertainties in the knowledge of their equation of state, inspiral templates are still in...
Monte Carlo Simulations of Globular Cluster Evolution. III. Primordial Binary Interactions
Fregeau, J M; Joshi, K J; Rasio, F A
2003-01-01
We study the dynamical evolution of globular clusters using our 2D Monte Carlo code with the inclusion of primordial binary interactions for equal-mass stars. We use approximate analytical cross sections for energy generation from binary-binary and binary-single interactions. After a brief period of slight contraction or expansion of the core over the first few relaxation times, all clusters enter a much longer phase of stable "binary burning" lasting many tens of relaxation times. The structural parameters of our models during this phase match well those of most observed globular clusters. At the end of this phase, clusters that have survived tidal disruption undergo deep core collapse, followed by gravothermal oscillations. Our results clearly show that the presence of even a small fraction of binaries in a cluster is sufficient to support the core against collapse significantly beyond the normal core collapse time predicted without the presence of binaries. For tidally truncated systems, collapse is easily...
Itoh, Y; Asada, H; Itoh, Yousuke; Futamase, Toshifumi; Asada, Hideki
2001-01-01
We study the equation of motion appropriate to an inspiralling binary star system whose constituent stars have strong internal gravity. We use the post-Newtonian approximation with the strong field point particle limit by which we can introduce into general relativity a notion of a point-like particle with strong internal gravity without using Dirac delta distribution. Besides this limit, to deal with strong internal gravity we express the equation of motion in surface integral forms and calculate these integrals explicitly. As a result we obtain the equation of motion for a binary of compact bodies accurate through the second and half post-Newtonian (2.5 PN) order. This equation is derived in the harmonic coordinate. Our resulting equation perfectly agrees with Damour and Deruelle 2.5 PN equation of motion. Hence it is found that the 2.5 PN equation of motion is applicable to a relativistic compact binary.
VLT Phase Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of the Ultra-Compact Binary HM Cnc
Mason, Elena; Dall'Osso, S; Stella, L; Munari, U; Marconi, G; O'Brian, K; Covino, S; Fugazza, D
2010-01-01
A 321.5 s modulation was discovered in 1999 in the X-ray light curve of HM Cnc. In 2001 and 2002, optical photometric and spectroscopic observations revealed that HM Cnc is a very blue object with no intrinsic absorptions but broad (FWHM 1500 km s^-1) low equivalent width emission lines (EW 1-6A), which were first identified with the HeII Pickering series. The combination of X-ray and optical observations pictures HM Cnc as a double degenerate binary hosting two white dwarfs, and possibly being the shortest orbital period binary discovered so far. The present work is aimed at studying the orbital motion of the two components by following the variations of the shape, centroid and intensity of the emission lines through the orbit. In February 2007, we carried out the first phase resolved optical spectroscopic study with the VLT/FORS2 in the High Time Resolution (HIT) mode, yielding five phase bins in the 321 s modulation. Despite the low SNR, the data show that the intensity of the three most prominent emission...
Swift Observations of MAXI J1659-152: A Compact Binary with a Black Hole Accretor
Kennea, J A; Mangano, V; Beardmore, A P; Evans, P A; Curran, P A; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; Yamaoka, K
2011-01-01
We report on the detection and follow-up high cadence monitoring observations of MAXI J1659-152, a bright Galactic X-ray binary transient with a likely black-hole accretor, by Swift over a 27 day period after its initial outburst detection. MAXI J1659-152 was discovered almost simultaneously by Swift and MAXI on 2010 Sept 25, and was monitored intensively from the early stages of the outburst through the rise to a brightness of ~0.5 Crab by the Swift XRT, UVOT, and BAT. We present temporal and spectral analysis of the Swift observations. The broadband light-curves show variability characteristic of black-hole candidate transients. We present the evolution of thermal and non-thermal components of the 0.5-150 keV combined X-ray spectra during the outburst. MAXI J1659-152 displays accretion state changes typically associated with black-hole binaries, transitioning from its initial detection in the Hard State, to the Steep Power-Law State, followed by a slow evolution towards the Thermal State, signified by an in...
Can percolation model describe the evolution of mechanical properties of compacts of binary systems?
Evesque, Pierre; Busignies, Virginie; Porion, Patrice; Leclerc, Bernard; Tchoreloff, Pierre
2009-06-01
In pharmaceutical field, the percolation theory is used to describe the change of tablet's properties with the relative density. It defines critical tablet densities from which the mechanical properties start to change. The exponent in the law is expected to be universal for a mechanical property and numerical values are proposed in the literature. In this work, the percolation model was applied to the tensile strength and the reduced modulus of elasticity of three compacted pharmaceutical excipients. This work showed that the exponent seems not universal and that the model must be used carefully.
Gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries a post-newtonian approach
Will, C M
1994-01-01
Inspiralling binary systems of neutron stars or black holes are promising sources of gravitational radiation detectable by large-scale laser interferometric gravitational observatories, such as the US LIGO and Italian-French VIRGO projects. Accurate theoretical gravitational-waveform templates will be needed to carry out matched filtering data analysis of the detectors' output once they are on the air by the end of this decade. For all but the final, strongly general relativistic coalescence of the two bodies, high-order post-Newtonian methods are playing a major role in the theorists' efforts to develop the needed templates. This paper discusses the foundations of this method, and provides a compendium of useful formulae and results. Figures available upon request. (Invited talk given at the 8th Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium, October 28, 1993.)
Light scalar field constraints from gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries
Berti, Emanuele; Horbatsch, Michael; Alsing, Justin
2012-01-01
Scalar-tensor theories are among the simplest extensions of general relativity. In theories with light scalars, deviations from Einstein's theory of gravity are determined by the scalar mass m_s and by a Brans-Dicke-like coupling parameter \\omega_{BD}. We show that gravitational-wave observations of nonspinning neutron star-black hole binary inspirals can be used to set upper bounds on the combination m_s/\\sqrt{\\omega_{BD}}. We estimate via a Fisher matrix analysis that individual observations with signal-to-noise ratio \\rho would yield (m_s/\\sqrt{\\omega_{\\rm BD}})(\\rho/10)\\lesssim 10^{-15}, 10^{-16} and 10^{-19} eV for Advanced LIGO, ET and eLISA, respectively. A statistical combination of multiple observations may further improve this bound.
Mikóczi, Balázs; Vasúth, Mátyás
2015-01-01
The inspiral and merger of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are among the promising sources of the advanced gravitational wave observatories. In this paper we derive analytic ready-to-use first post-Newtonian eccentric waveform in Fourier domain with the use of Hansen coefficients. Introducing generic perturbations of celestial mechanics we have generalized the Hansen expansion to the first post-Newtonian order which are then used to express the waveforms. Taking into account the high eccentricity of the orbit leads to the appearance of secular terms in the waveform which are eliminated with the introduction of a phase shift. The waveforms have a systematic structure and as our main result these are expressed in a tabular form.
Hotokezaka, K.; Nissanke, S.; Hallinan, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Nakar, E.; Piran, T.
2016-11-01
Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron-generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produce radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produce γ-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan-radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of weeks. Based on the derived light curves, we suggest an optimized survey at 1.4 GHz with five epochs separated by a logarithmic time interval. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts of simulated GW-merger events to be detected by advanced LIGO and Virgo by current and future radio facilities. The detectable distances for these GW merger events could be as high as 1 Gpc. Around 20%-60% of the long-lasting radio remnants will be detectable in the case of the moderate kinetic energy of 3\\cdot {10}50 erg and a circum-merger density of 0.1 {{cm}}-3 or larger, while 5%-20% of the orphan-radio afterglows with kinetic energy of 1048 erg will be detectable. The detection likelihood increases if one focuses on the well-localizable GW events. We discuss the background noise due to radio fluxes of host galaxies and false positives arising from extragalactic radio transients and variable active galactic nuclei, and we show that the quiet radio transient sky is of great advantage when searching for the radio counterparts.
Bose, Sukanta; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew
2016-12-01
Gravitational wave signals were recently detected directly by LIGO from the coalescences of two stellar mass black hole pairs. These detections have strengthened our long held belief that compact binary coalescences (CBCs) are the most promising gravitational wave detection prospects accessible to ground-based interferometric detectors. For detecting CBC signals, it is of vital importance to characterize and identify non-Gaussian and nonstationary noise in these detectors. In this work, we model two important classes of transient artifacts that contribute to this noise and adversely affect the detector sensitivity to CBC signals. One of them is the sine-Gaussian "glitch," characterized by a central frequency f0 and a quality factor Q and the other is the chirping sine-Gaussian glitch, which is characterized by f0, Q as well as a chirp parameter. We study the response that a bank of compact binary inspiral templates has to these two families of glitches when they are used to match filter data containing any of these glitches. Two important characteristics of this response are the distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio and the time lag (i.e., how long after the occurrence of a glitch the signal-to-noise ratio of a trigger arises from its matched filtering by a template peaks) of individual templates. We show how these distributions differ from those when the detector data has a real CBC signal instead of a glitch. We argue that these distinctions can be utilized to develop useful signal-artifact discriminators that add negligibly to the computational cost of a CBC search. Specifically, we show how the central frequency of a glitch can be used to set adaptive time windows around it so that any template trigger occurring in that window can be quarantined for further vetting of its supposed astrophysical nature. Second, we recommend focusing efforts on reducing the incidence of glitches with low central-frequency values because they create CBC triggers with the
Chemical mixture interactions of chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, and methyl mercury were evaluated in Hyalella azteca. Survival of adult and juvenile organisms was evaluated following exposure to individual chemicals and in binary combinations. Binary interactions of the model chemicals...
Buonanno, Alessandra; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Sathyaprakash, B S
2009-01-01
The two-body dynamics in general relativity has been solved perturbatively using the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation. The evolution of the orbital phase and the emitted gravitational radiation are now known to a rather high order up to O(v^8), v being the characteristic velocity of the binary. The orbital evolution, however, cannot be specified uniquely due to the inherent freedom in the choice of parameter used in the PN expansion as well as the method pursued in solving the relevant differential equations. The goal of this paper is to determine the (dis)agreement between different PN waveform families in the context of initial and advanced gravitational-wave detectors. The waveforms employed in our analysis are those that are currently used by Initial LIGO/Virgo, that is the time-domain PN models TaylorT1, TaylorT2, TaylorT3, TaylorT4 and TaylorEt, the effective one-body (EOB) model, and the Fourier-domain representation TaylorF2. We examine the overlaps of these models with one another and with the proto...
Nishizawa, Atsushi
2016-01-01
In testing gravity a model-independent way, one of crucial tests is measuring the propagation speed of a gravitational wave (GW). In general relativity, a GW propagates with the speed of light, while in the alternative theories of gravity the propagation speed could deviate from the speed of light due to the modification of gravity or spacetime structure at a quantum level. Previously we proposed the method measuring the GW speed by directly comparing the arrival times between a GW and a photon from the binary merger of neutron stars or neutron star and black hole, assuming that it is associated with a short gamma-ray burst. The sensitivity is limited by the intrinsic time delay between a GW and a photon at the source. In this paper, we extend the method to distinguish the intrinsic time delay from the true signal caused by anomalous GW speed with multiple events at cosmological distances, also considering the redshift distribution of GW sources, redshift-dependent GW propagation speed, and the statistics of ...
Relativistic mergers of compact binaries in clusters: The fingerprint of the spin
Brem, Patrick; Spurzem, Rainer
2013-01-01
Dense stellar systems such as globular clusters and dense nuclear clusters are the breeding ground of sources of gravitational waves for the advanced detectors LIGO and Virgo. These systems deserve a close study to estimate rates and parameter distribution. This is not an easy task, since the evolution of a dense stellar cluster involves the integration of $N$ bodies with high resolution in time and space and including hard binaries and their encounters and, in the case of gravitational waves (GWs), one needs to take into account important relativistic corrections. In this work we present the first implementation of the effect of spin in mergers in a direct-summation code, NBODY6. We employ non-spinning post-Newtonian corrections to the Newtonian accelerations up to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order as well as the spin-orbit coupling up to next-to-lowest order and the lowest order spin-spin coupling. We integrate spin precession and add a consistent treatment of mergers. We analyse the implementation by running a...
Multiwavelength observations of V479 Andromedae: a close compact binary with an identity crisis
Gonzalez-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; Yungelson, Lev; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Echevarria, Juan; Aviles, Andres; Valyavin, Gennady
2013-01-01
We conducted a multi-wavelength study to unveil the properties of the extremely long-period cataclysmic variable V479 And. We performed series of observations, including moderate to high spectral resolution optical spectrophotometry, X-ray observations with Swift, linear polarimetry and near-IR photometry. This binary system is a low-inclination ~ 17^o system with a 0.594093(4) day orbital period. The absorption line complex in the spectra indicate a G8--K0 spectral type for the donor star, which has departed from the zero-age main sequence. This implies a distance to the object of about 4 kpc. The primary is probably a massive 1.1-1.4 Msun magnetic white dwarf, accreting matter at a rate M(dot) > 10^-10 Msun/ yr. This rate can be achieved if the donor star fills its corresponding Roche lobe, but there is little observational evidence for a mass-transfer stream in this system. An alternative explanation is a stellar wind from the donor star, although such a high rate mass loss is not anticipated from a subgia...
Gravitational Waves and Inspiraling Compact Binaries in Alternative Theories of Gravity
Mirshekari, Saeed
2013-01-01
This dissertation consists of four parts. In Part I, we briefly review fundamental theories of gravity, performed experimental tests, and gravitational waves. The framework and the methods that we use in our calculations are discussed in Part II. This part includes reviewing the methods of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) framework, Direct Integration of Relaxed Einstein Equations (DIRE), and Matched Filtering. In Part III, we calculate the explicit equations of motion for non-spinning compact objects (neutron stars or black holes) to 2.5 post-Newtonian order, or $O(v/c)^5$ beyond Newtonian gravity, in a general class of alternative theories to general relativity known as scalar-tensor theories. For the conservative part of the motion, we obtain the two-body Lagrangian and conserved energy and momentum through second post-Newtonian order. We find the contributions to gravitational radiation reaction to 1.5 post-Newtonian and 2.5 post-Newtonian orders, the former corresponding to the effects of dipole gra...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Sukanta; Ghosh, Shaon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, 1245 Webster, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States); Ajith, P, E-mail: sukanta@wsu.ed, E-mail: shaonghosh@mail.wsu.ed, E-mail: ajith@caltech.ed [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2010-06-07
We study the astrophysical impact of inaccurate and incomplete modeling of the gravitational waveforms from compact binary coalescences (CBCs). We do so by the matched filtering of phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) signals with a bank of inspiral-phase templates modeled on the 3.5 post-Newtonian TaylorT1 approximant. The rationale for the choice of the templates is threefold. (1) The inspiral phase of the phenomenological IMR signals, which are an example of complete IMR signals, is modeled on the same TaylorT1 approximant. (2) In the low-mass limit, where the merger and ringdown phases are much shorter than the inspiral phase, the errors should tend to vanishingly small values and, thus, provide an important check on the numerical aspects of our simulations. (3) Since the binary black hole signals are not yet known for mass ratios above ten and since signals from CBCs involving neutron stars are affected by uncertainties in the knowledge of their equation of state, inspiral templates are still in use in searches for those signals. The results from our numerical simulations are compared with analytical calculations of the systematic errors using the Fisher matrix on the template parameter space. We find that the loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be as large as 45% even for binary black holes with component masses m{sub 1} = 10 M{sub o-dot} and m{sub 2} = 40 M{sub o-dot}. Also the estimated total mass for the same pair can be off by as much as 20%. Both of these are worse for some higher mass combinations. Even the estimation of the symmetric mass ratio {eta} suffers a nearly 20% error for this example and can be worse than 50% for the mass ranges studied here. These errors significantly dominate their statistical counterparts (at a nominal SNR of 10). It may, however, be possible to mitigate the loss in SNR by allowing for templates with unphysical values of {eta}.
On the evolutionary stage of the interacting binary AU Mon
Mennickent, R E
2014-01-01
We present a study of the evolutionary stage of the interacting binary and Double Periodic Variable AU Monocerotis. A multi-parametric Chi2 minimization is made between the observed parameters and those predicted by the grid of non-conservative and conservative evolutionary models by Van Rensbergen et al., finding the model that best represents the current stellar and system parameters. According to this model, the system started with initial masses 4 M_sun and 3.6 M_sun and orbital period 3.0 days, 196 million years ago, and at present undergoes a Case-B mass-exchange episode. This evolutionary stage is consistent with the reported existence of a circumprimary accretion disk. However, the implied high mass transfer rate contrasts with the absence of significant orbital period change if the mass exchange is conservative. We show that this can occur if the system has recently entered in a non-conservative stage of mass transfer and the efficiency of mass and angular momentum loss satisfy certain conditions.
Escape dynamics in a binary system of interacting galaxies
Zotos, Euaggelos E
2016-01-01
The escape dynamics in an analytical gravitational model which describes the motion of stars in a binary system of interacting dwarf spheroidal galaxies is investigated in detail. We conduct a numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. In order to distinguish safely and with certainty between ordered and chaotic motion, we apply the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) method. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins through the openings around the collinear Lagrangian points $L_1$ and $L_2$ and relate them with the corresponding spatial distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Our exploration takes place both in the configuration $(x,y)$ and in the phase $(x,\\dot{x})$ space in order to elucidate the escape process as well as the overall orbital properties of the galactic system. Our numerical analysis reveals the strong dependence of the properties of the con...
Bernard, Laura; Bohé, Alejandro; Faye, Guillaume; Marsat, Sylvain
2016-01-01
In this paper, we complete our preceding work on the Fokker Lagrangian describing the dynamics of compact binary systems at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) order in harmonic coordinates. We clarify the impact of the non-local character of the Fokker Lagrangian or the associated Hamiltonian on both the conserved energy and the relativistic periastron precession for circular orbits. We show that the non-locality of the action, due to the presence of the tail effect at the 4PN order, gives rise to an extra contribution to the conserved integral of energy with respect to the Hamiltonian computed on shell, which was not taken into account in our previous work. We also provide a direct derivation of the periastron advance by taking carefully into account this non-locality. We then argue that the infra-red (IR) divergences in the calculation of the gravitational part of the action are problematic, which motivates us to introduce a second ambiguity parameter, in addition to the one already assumed previously. After f...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trenti, Michele [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico)
2015-04-01
Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars.
Derivation of the local-in-time fourth post-Newtonian ADM Hamiltonian for spinless compact binaries
Jaranowski, Piotr
2015-01-01
The paper gives full details of the computation within the canonical formalism of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner of the local-in-time part of the fourth post-Newtonian, i.e. of power eight in one over speed of light, conservative Hamiltonian of spinless compact binary systems. The Hamiltonian depends only on the bodies positions and momenta. Dirac delta distributions are taken as source functions. Their full control is furnished by dimensional continuation, by means of which the occurring ultra-violet (UV) divergences are uniquely regularized. The applied near-zone expansion of the time-symmetric Green function leads to infra-red (IR) divergences. Their analytic regularization results in one single ambiguity parameter. Unique fixation of it was successfully performed in T.Damour, P.Jaranowski, and G.Sch\\"afer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014) through far-zone matching. Technically as well as conceptually (back-scatter binding energy), the level of the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics is reached. In a first ru...
Marsat, Sylvain; Faye, Guillaume; Blanchet, Luc
2012-01-01
We compute next-to-next-to-leading order spin contributions to the post-Newtonian equations of motion for binaries of compact objects, such as black holes or neutron stars. For maximally spinning black holes, those contributions are of third-and-a-half post-Newtonian (3.5PN) order, improving our knowledge of the equations of motion, already known for non-spinning objects up to this order. Building on previous work, we represent the rotation of the two bodies using a pole-dipole matter stress-energy tensor, and iterate Einstein's field equations for a set of potentials parametrizing the metric in harmonic coordinates. Checks of the result include the existence of a conserved energy, the approximate global Lorentz invariance of the equations of motion in harmonic coordinates, and the recovery of the motion of a spinning object on a Kerr background in the test-mass limit. We verified the existence of a contact transformation, together with a redefinition of the spin variables that makes our result equivalent to ...
X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultra-compact X-ray binaries
Madej, O K; Jonker, P G; Parker, M L; Ross, R; Fabian, A C; Chenevez, J
2014-01-01
We present spectroscopic X-ray data of two candidate ultra-compact X-ray binaries: 4U~0614+091 and 4U~1543$-$624. We confirm the presence of a broad O VIII Ly$\\alpha$ reflection line (at $\\approx18\\ \\AA$) using {\\it XMM-Newton} and {\\it Chandra} observations obtained in 2012 and 2013. The donor star in these sources is carbon-oxygen or oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf. Hence, the accretion disc is enriched with oxygen which makes the O VIII Ly$\\alpha$ line particularly strong. We also confirm the presence of a strong absorption edge at $\\approx14$ \\AA\\ so far interpreted in the literature as due to absorption by neutral neon in the circumstellar and interstellar medium. However, the abundance required to obtain a good fit to this edge is $\\approx3-4$ times solar, posing a problem for this interpretation. Furthermore, modeling the X-ray reflection off a carbon and oxygen enriched, hydrogen and helium poor disc with models assuming solar composition likely biases several of the best-fit parameters. In order to...
Will, C M; Will, Clifford M.; Wiseman, Alan G.
1996-01-01
We derive the gravitational waveform and gravitational-wave energy flux generated by a binary star system of compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), accurate through second post-Newtonian order ($O[(v/c)^4] \\sim O[(Gm/rc^2)^2]$) beyond the lowest-order quadrupole approximation. We cast the Einstein equations into the form of a flat-spacetime wave equation together with a harmonic gauge condition, and solve it formally as a retarded integral over the past null cone of the chosen field point. The part of this integral that involves the matter sources and the near-zone gravitational field is evaluated in terms of multipole moments using standard techniques; the remainder of the retarded integral, extending over the radiation zone, is evaluated in a novel way. The result is a manifestly convergent and finite procedure for calculating gravitational radiation to arbitrary orders in a post-Newtonian expansion. Through second post-Newtonian order, the radiation is also shown to propagate toward the observer a...
Polarimetric and spectroscopic optical observations of the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 0614+091
Baglio, M C; D'Avanzo, P; Campana, S; Covino, S; Russell, D M; Shahbaz, T
2014-01-01
Aims: We present a polarimetric and spectroscopic study of the persistent ultra compact X-ray binary 4U 0614+091 aimed at searching for the emission of a relativistic particle jet and at unveiling the orbital period of the system. Methods: We obtained r-band polarimetric observations with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) equipped with the PAOLO polarimeter and with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with the ALFOSC instrument, covering ~ 2 hours and ~ 0.5 hours observations, respectively. We carried out low resolution spectroscopy of the system using the ESO Very Large Telescope equipped with FORS1 for ~ 1.5 hours (16 spectra covering the range 430-800 nm). Results: The polarimetric analysis performed starting from the TNG dataset revealed a polarisation degree in the r-band of 3 % +/- 1 %. From the NOT dataset, due to the lower S/N ratio, we could obtain only a 3 sigma upper limit of 3.4 %. From the joining of a spectroscopic and photometric analysis, through the study of the equivalent width ...
Van den Broeck, C; Broeck, Chris Van Den; Sengupta, Anand S.
2006-01-01
We study the phenomenological consequences of amplitude-corrected post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms, as opposed to the more commonly used restricted PN waveforms, for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of compact binary objects. In the case of initial detectors it has been shown that the use of amplitude-corrected waveforms for detection templates would lead to significantly lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than those suggested by simulations based exclusively on restricted waveforms. We further elucidate the origin of the effect by an in-depth analytic treatment. The discussion is extended to advanced detectors, where new features emerge. Non-restricted waveforms are linear combinations of harmonics in the orbital phase, and in the frequency domain the $k$th harmonic is cut off at $k f_{LSO}$, with $f_{LSO}$ the orbital frequency at the last stable orbit. As a result, with non-restricted templates it is possible to achieve sizeable signal-to-noise ratios in cases where the dominant harmonic ...
The effect of a wider initial separation on common envelope binary interaction simulations
Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Staff, Jan; De Marco, Orsola; Passy, Jean-Claude; Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Herwig, Falk
2016-09-01
We present hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope binary interaction between a giant star and a compact companion carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO and the smooth particle hydrodynamics code PHANTOM. These simulations mimic the parameters of one of the simulations by Passy et al., but assess the impact of a larger, more realistic initial orbital separation on the simulation outcome. We conclude that for both codes the post-common envelope separation is somewhat larger and the amount of unbound mass slightly greater when the initial separation is wide enough that the giant does not yet overflow or just overflows its Roche lobe. PHANTOM has been adapted to the common envelope problem here for the first time and a full comparison with ENZO is presented, including an investigation of convergence as well as energy and angular momentum conservation. We also set our simulations in the context of past simulations. This comparison reveals that it is the expansion of the giant before rapid in-spiral and not spinning up of the star that causes a larger final separation. We also suggest that the large range in unbound mass for different simulations is difficult to explain and may have something to do with simulations that are not fully converged.
Folberg, R; Dickinson, L K; Christiansen, R A; Huntley, J S; Lind, D G
1993-06-01
The authors designed and implemented a complete curriculum in ophthalmic pathology using IBM- and Macintosh-based interactive videodisc (IVD) technology. They also redesigned a portion of this curriculum for a new television-based platform, compact disc-interactive (CD-I). The following issues were addressed: curriculum design, instructional design, the assembly of illustrations and the ownership of such materials, the generation of computer-based medical art and animation, and programming. The issue of academic credit for faculty participating in this effort also was considered. The computer-based IVD program provides the following features: (1) rapid access to thousands of high-quality illustrations with the option of superimposing graphic labels and text directly over pictures; (2) the ability to view enlargements of photographs; (3) an online glossary to view definition of terms coupled with high-quality photographs; and (4) a dynamic introduction to pathophysiology using interactive animation sequences. The authors were able to incorporate the same interactive features into the CD-I version. High-quality medical illustrations can be used effectively on the CD-I platform. Computer-based multimedia workstations are relatively expensive for personal use but may be useful if the equipment can be shared in a learning center or library. Compared with interactive computer-based solutions, consumer-oriented television-based technology such as CD-I is a relatively inexpensive vehicle for providing continuing medical education programs intended for use in the individual practitioner's office or home.
Migliari, S; Gallo, E; Maccarone, T J; Nelemans, G; Russell, D M; Tomsick, J A
2006-01-01
Spitzer observations of the neutron star (ultra-compact) X-ray binary (XRB) 4U 0614+091 with the Infrared Array Camera reveal emission of non-thermal origin in the range 3.5-8 um. The mid-infrared spectrum is well fit by a power law with spectral index of alpha=-0.57+/-0.04 (where the flux density is F_nu \\propto nu^(alpha)). Given the ultra-compact nature of the binary system, we exclude the possibility that either the companion star or the accretion disk can be the origin of the observed emission. These observations represent the first spectral evidence for a compact jet in a low-luminosity neutron star XRB and furthermore of the presence, already observed in two black hole (BH) XRBs, of a `break' in the synchrotron spectrum of such compact jets. We can derive a firm upper limit on the break frequency of the spectrum of nu_thin=3.7x10^(13) Hz, which is lower than that observed in BH XRBs by at least a factor of 10. Assuming a high-energy cooling cutoff at ~1 keV, we estimate a total (integrated up to X-rays...
Interacting quark matter equation of state for compact stars
Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2014-01-01
Lattice QCD studies of the thermodynamics of the hot quark-gluon plasma (QGP) demonstrate the importance of accounting for the interactions of quarks and gluons, if one wants to investigate the phase structure of strongly interacting matter. Motivated by this observation and using state-of-the-art results from perturbative QCD, we construct a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.
Interacting Quark Matter Equation of State for Compact Stars
Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2014-02-01
Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of the thermodynamics of hot quark-gluon plasma demonstrate the importance of accounting for the interactions of quarks and gluons if one wants to investigate the phase structure of strongly interacting matter. Motivated by this observation and using state-of-the-art results from perturbative QCD, we construct a simple, effective equation of state (EOS) for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an EOS that is equally straightforward to use. We also demonstrate that, at moderate densities, our EOS can be made to smoothly connect to hadronic EOSs, with the two exhibiting very similar behavior near the matching region. The resulting hybrid stars are seen to have masses similar to those predicted by the purely nucleonic EOSs.
INTERACTING QUARK MATTER EQUATION OF STATE FOR COMPACT STARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraga, Eduardo S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kurkela, Aleksi [Theory Division, PH-TH, Case C01600, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)
2014-02-01
Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of the thermodynamics of hot quark-gluon plasma demonstrate the importance of accounting for the interactions of quarks and gluons if one wants to investigate the phase structure of strongly interacting matter. Motivated by this observation and using state-of-the-art results from perturbative QCD, we construct a simple, effective equation of state (EOS) for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an EOS that is equally straightforward to use. We also demonstrate that, at moderate densities, our EOS can be made to smoothly connect to hadronic EOSs, with the two exhibiting very similar behavior near the matching region. The resulting hybrid stars are seen to have masses similar to those predicted by the purely nucleonic EOSs.
Dayanga, Waduthanthree Thilina
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts the existence of gravitational waves (GWs). Direct detection of GWs will provide enormous amount of new information about physics, astronomy and cosmology. Scientists around the world are currently working towards the first direct detection of GWs. The global network of ground-based GW detectors are currently preparing for their first advanced detector Science runs. In this thesis we focus on detection of GWs from compact binary coalescence (CBC) systems. Ability to accurately model CBC GW waveforms makes them the most promising source for the first direct detection of GWs. In this thesis we try to address several challenges associated with detecting CBC signals buried in ground-based GW detector data for past and future searches. Data analysis techniques we employ to detect GW signals assume detector noise is Gaussian and stationary. However, in reality, detector data is neither Gaussian nor stationary. To estimate the performance loss due to these features, we compare the efficiencies of detecting CBC signals in simulated Gaussian and real data. Additionally, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of multi-detector signal based consistency tests such ad null-stream. Despite, non-Gaussian and non-stationary features of real detector data, with effective data quality studies and signal-based vetoes we can approach the performance of Gaussian and stationary data. As we are moving towards advanced detector era, it is important to be prepared for future CBC searches. In this thesis we investigate the performances of non-spinning binary black hole (BBH) searches in simulated Gaussian using advanced detector noise curves predicted for 2015--2016. In the same study, we analyze the GW detection probabilities of latest pN-NR hybrid waveforms submitted to second version of Numerical Injection Analysis (NINJA-2) project. The main motivation for this study is to understand the ability to detect realistic BBH signals of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Sukanta; Dayanga, Thilina; Ghosh, Shaon; Talukder, Dipongkar, E-mail: sukanta@wsu.edu, E-mail: wdayanga@wsu.edu, E-mail: shaonghosh@mail.wsu.edu, E-mail: talukder_d@wsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, 1245 Webster, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States)
2011-07-07
We describe a hierarchical data analysis pipeline for coherently searching for gravitational-wave signals from non-spinning compact binary coalescences (CBCs) in the data of multiple earth-based detectors. This search assumes no prior information on the sky position of the source or the time of occurrence of its transient signals and, hence, is termed 'blind'. The pipeline computes the coherent network search statistic that is optimal in stationary, Gaussian noise. More importantly, it allows for the computation of a suite of alternative multi-detector coherent search statistics and signal-based discriminators that can improve the performance of CBC searches in real data, which can be both non-stationary and non-Gaussian. Also, unlike the coincident multi-detector search statistics that have been employed so far, the coherent statistics are different in the sense that they check for the consistency of the signal amplitudes and phases in the different detectors with their different orientations and with the signal arrival times in them. Since the computation of coherent statistics entails searching in the sky, it is more expensive than that of the coincident statistics that do not require it. To reduce computational costs, the first stage of the hierarchical pipeline constructs coincidences of triggers from the multiple interferometers, by requiring their proximity in time and component masses. The second stage follows up on these coincident triggers by computing the coherent statistics. Here, we compare the performances of this hierarchical pipeline with and without the second (or coherent) stage in Gaussian noise. Although introducing hierarchy can be expected to cause some degradation in the detection efficiency compared to that of a single-stage coherent pipeline, nevertheless it improves the computational speed of the search considerably. The two main results of this work are as follows: (1) the performance of the hierarchical coherent pipeline on
Itoh, Yousuke
2009-01-01
We report our rederivation of the equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries through the third-and-a-half post-Newtonian (3.5 PN) order approximation to general relativity using the strong field point particle limit to describe self-gravitating stars instead of the Dirac delta functional. The computation is done in harmonic coordinates. Our equations of motion describe the orbital motion of the binary consisting of spherically symmetric non-rotating stars. The resulting equations of motion fully agree with the 3.5 PN equations of motion derived in the previous works. We also show that the locally defined energy of the star has a simple relation with its mass up to the 3.5 PN order.
Arun, K G; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha
2009-01-01
The angular momentum flux from an inspiralling binary system of compact objects moving in quasi-elliptical orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) order using the multipolar post-Minkowskian wave generation formalism. The 3PN angular momentum flux involves the instantaneous, tail, and tail-of-tails contributions as for the 3PN energy flux, and in addition a contribution due to non-linear memory. We average the angular momentum flux over the binary's orbit using the 3PN quasi-Keplerian representation of elliptical orbits. The averaged angular momentum flux provides the final input needed for gravitational wave phasing of binaries moving in quasi-elliptical orbits. We obtain the evolution of orbital elements under 3PN gravitational radiation reaction in the quasi-elliptic case. For small eccentricities, we give simpler limiting expressions relevant for phasing up to order $e^2$. This work is important for the construction of templates for quasi-eccentric binaries, and for the comparison of post-New...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arbutina B.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We recalculated the maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries obtained in an earlier paper (Arbutina 2011, by taking the effects of super-Eddington accretion rate on the stability of mass transfer into account. It is found that, although the value formally remains the same (under the assumed approximations, for white dwarf masses M2 >~0.1MCh mass ratios are extremely low, implying that the result for Mmax is likely to have little if any practical relevance.
Jiang, Long; Chen, Wen-Cong; Li, Xiang-Dong
2017-03-01
It is generally thought that an ultra-compact X-ray Binary is composed of a neutron star and a helium white dwarf donor star. As one of the most compact binaries, 4U 1820-303 in globular cluster NGC 6624 was predicted to have an orbital period of \\dot{P}/P∼ 1.1× {10}-7 yr‑1 if the mass transfer is fully driven by gravitational radiation. However, recent analysis of 16 year data from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other historical records has yielded a negative orbital-period derivative in the past 35 years. In this work, we propose an evolutionary circumbinary (CB) disk model to account for this anomalous orbital-period derivative. 4U 1820-30 is known to undergo superburst events caused by runaway thermal nuclear burning on the neutron star. We assume that, for a small fraction of the superbursts, part of the ejected material may form a CB disk around the binary. If the recurrence time of such superbursts is ∼10,000 year and ∼10% of the ejected mass feeds a CB disk, the abrupt angular-momentum loss causes a temporary orbital shrink, and the donor’s radius and its Roche lobe radius do not keep in step. Driven by mass transfer and angular-momentum loss, the binary would adjust its orbital parameters to recover a new stable stage. Based on theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, we find that the required feed mass at the CB disk is approximately ∼10‑8 M ⊙.
Moving and Interaction of Compact-like Pulses in Klein-Gordon Lattice System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Qing-Lin; YI Jian-Hong; YE Tu-Ming; DU Juan
2005-01-01
We study the moving and interaction of the compact-like pulses in the system of an anharmonic lattice with a double well on-site potential by a direct algebraic method and numerical experiments. It is found that the localization of the compact-like pulse is related to the nonlinear coupling parameter Cnl and the potential barrier height V0 of the double well potential. The velocity of the moving compact-like pulse is determined by the linear coupling parameter Cl, the localization parameter q (the nonlinear coupling parameter Cnl) and the potential barrier height Vo.Numerical experiments demonstrate that appropriate Cl is not detrimental to a stable moving of the compact-like pulse.However, the head on interaction of two compact-like pulses in the lattice system with comparatively small Cl leads to the appearance of a discrete stationary localized mode and small amplitude nonlinear oscillation background, while moderate Cl results in the emergence of two moving deformed pulses with damping amplitude and decay velocity and radiating oscillations, and biggish Cl brings on the appearing of four deformed kinks with radiating oscillations and different moving velocities.
Moving and Interaction of Compact-like Pulses in Klein-Gordon Lattice System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAQing-Lin; YIJian-Hong; YETu-Ming; DUJuan
2005-01-01
We study the moving and interaction of the compact-like pulses in the system of an anharmonlc lattice with a double well on-site potential by a direct algebraic method and numerical experiments. It is found that the localization of the compact-like pulse is rClated to the nonlinear coupling parameter Cnl and the potential barrier height Vo of the double well potential. The velocity of the moving compact-like pulse is determined by the linear coupling parameter Cl, the localization parameter q (the nonlinear coupling parameter Cnl) and the potential barrier height Vo.Numerical experiments demonstrate that appropriate Cl is not detrimental to a stable moving of the compact-like pulse.However, the head on interaction of two compact-like pulses in the lattice system with comparatively small Cl leads to the appearance of a discrete stationary localized mode and small amplitude nonlinear oscillation background, while moderate Cl results in the emergence of two moving deformed pulses with damping amplitude and decay velocity and radiating oscillations, and biggish Cl brings on the appearing of four deformed kinks with radiating oscillations and different moving velocities.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benacquista Matthew J.
2006-02-01
Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benacquista Matthew
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Binary-single-star scattering; 6, automatic determination of interaction cross sections
McMillan, S L W; McMillan, Stephen L W; Hut, Piet
1996-01-01
Scattering encounters between binaries and single stars play a central role in determining the dynamical evolution of a star cluster. In addition, three-body scattering can give rise to many interesting exceptional objects: merging can produce blue stragglers; exchange can produce binaries containing millisecond pulsars in environments quite different from those in which the pulsars were spun up; various types of X-ray binaries can be formed, and their activity can be either shut off or triggered as a result of triple interactions. To date, all published results on three-body scattering have relied on human guidance for determining the correct parameter range for the envelope within which to perform Monte--Carlo scattering experiments. In this paper, we describe the first fully automatic determination of cross sections and reaction rates for binary--single-star scattering. Rather than relying on human inspection of pilot calculations, we have constructed a feedback system that ensures near-optimal coverage of...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Sanjiv
1986-11-15
Accretion discs formed out of the symmetry plane of a compact object are likely to be twisted due to the effects of precession. The radius at which they align with the compact object spin axis depends on viscosity and surface-density distribution along with the dominant external forcing on the disc. Only isothermal discs are treated because of their tractability. The results are applied to X-ray binaries with resonably well-determined parameters which exhibit long-term periodic behaviour, particularly Her X-1. It is found that the case for alignment in Her X-1 and 2S0614 + 091 is inconclusive, but alignment is ruled out in SMCX-1 and LMC X-4, in this model.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Bose, Sukanta; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew
2016-01-01
Gravitational wave (GW) signals were recently detected directly by LIGO from the coalescences of two stellar mass black hole pairs. These detections have strengthened our long held belief that compact binary coalescences (CBCs) are the most promising GW detection prospects accessible to ground-based interferometric detectors. For detecting CBC signals it is of vital importance to characterize and identify non-Gaussian and non-stationary noise in these detectors. In this work we model two important classes of transient artifacts that contribute to this noise and adversely affect the detector sensitivity to CBC signals. One of them is the sine-Gaussian "glitch", characterized by a central frequency $f_0$ and a quality factor $Q$ and the other is the chirping sine-Gaussian glitch, which is characterized by $f_0$, $Q$ as well as a chirp parameter. We study the response a bank of compact binary inspiral templates has to these two families of glitches when they are used to match-filter data containing any of these ...
Kapadia, Shasvath J; Ajith, Parameswaran
2016-01-01
In the adiabatic post-Newtonian (PN) approximation, the phase evolution of gravitational waves (GWs) from inspiralling compact binaries in quasicircular orbits is computed by equating the change in binding energy with the GW flux. This energy balance equation can be solved in different ways, which result in multiple approximants of the PN waveforms. Due to the poor convergence of the PN expansion, these approximants tend to differ from each other during the late inspiral. Which of these approximants should be chosen as templates for detection and parameter estimation of GWs from inspiraling compact binaries is not obvious. In this paper, we present estimates of the effective higher order (beyond the currently available 4PN and 3.5PN) non-spinning terms in the PN expansion of the binding energy and the GW flux that minimize the difference of multiple PN approximants (TaylorT1, TaylorT2, TaylorT4, TaylorF2) with effective one body waveforms calibrated to numerical relativity (EOBNR). We show that PN approximant...
Blanchet, Luc; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha
2008-01-01
The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) To provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) To provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contribut...
Migliari, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Maccarone, T. J.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R. P.; Nelemans, G.; Russell, D. M.
2006-05-01
Spitzer observations of the neutron star (ultracompact) X-ray binary (XRB) 4U 0614+091 with the Infrared Array Camera reveal emission of nonthermal origin in the range 3.5-8 μm. The mid-infrared spectrum is well fit by a power law with spectral index of α=-0.57+/-0.04 (where the flux density is Fν~να). Given the ultracompact nature of the binary system, we exclude the possibility that either the companion star or the accretion disk can be the origin of the observed emission. These observations represent the first spectral evidence for a compact jet in a low-luminosity neutron star XRB and furthermore of the presence, already observed in two black hole (BH) XRBs, of a ``break'' in the synchrotron spectrum of such compact jets. We can derive a firm upper limit on the break frequency of the spectrum of νthin=3.7×1013 Hz, which is lower than that observed in BH XRBs by at least a factor of 10. Assuming a high-energy cooling cutoff at ~1 keV, we estimate a total (integrated up to X-rays) jet power to X-ray bolometric luminosity ratio of ~5%, much lower than that inferred in BHs.
Khargharia, Juthika; Robinson, Edward L
2010-01-01
We present near-infrared (NIR) broadband (0.80--2.42 $\\mu$m) spectroscopy of two low mass X-ray binaries: V404 Cyg and Cen X-4. One important parameter required in the determination of the mass of the compact objects in these systems is the binary inclination. We can determine the inclination by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations of the Roche-lobe filling donor star, but the contamination of the donor star light from other components of the binary, particularly the accretion disk, must be taken into account. To this end, we determined the donor star contribution to the infrared flux by comparing the spectra of V404 Cyg and Cen X-4 to those of various field K-stars of known spectral type. For V404 Cyg, we determined that the donor star has a spectral type of K3 III. We determined the fractional donor contribution to the NIR flux in the H- and K-bands as $0.98 \\pm .05$ and $0.97 \\pm .09$, respectively. We remodeled the H-band light curve from \\citet{sanwal1996} after correcting for the donor star contribution...
Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars
Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam
2016-07-01
Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.
PREDICTION OF THE MIXING ENTHALPIES OF BINARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MOLECULAR INTERACTION VOLUME MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.W.Yang; D.P.Tao; Z.H.Zhou
2008-01-01
The mixing enthalpies of 23 binary liquid alloys are calculated by molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), which is a two-parameter model with the partial molar infinite dilute mixing enthalpies. The predicted values are in agreement with the experimental data and then indicate that the model is reliable and convenient.
Compact Mathematical Programs For DEC-MDPs With Structured Agent Interactions
Mostafa, Hala
2012-01-01
To deal with the prohibitive complexity of calculating policies in Decentralized MDPs, researchers have proposed models that exploit structured agent interactions. Settings where most agent actions are independent except for few actions that affect the transitions and/or rewards of other agents can be modeled using Event-Driven Interactions with Complex Rewards (EDI-CR). Finding the optimal joint policy can be formulated as an optimization problem. However, existing formulations are too verbose and/or lack optimality guarantees. We propose a compact Mixed Integer Linear Program formulation of EDI-CR instances. The key insight is that most action sequences of a group of agents have the same effect on a given agent. This allows us to treat these sequences similarly and use fewer variables. Experiments show that our formulation is more compact and leads to faster solution times and better solutions than existing formulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Avenue del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)], E-mail: konst@citedi.mx
2009-02-28
In this paper we consider the localization problem of compact invariant sets of the system describing the laser-plasma interaction. We establish that this system has an ellipsoidal localization for simple restrictions imposed on its parameters. Then we improve this localization by applying other localizing functions. In addition, we give sufficient conditions under which the origin is the unique compact invariant set.
Closca, Valentina; Ivan, Liliana Mihaela; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa
2014-03-01
Two cycloimmonium ylids with pyridinium and iso-quinolinium as heterocycle and having common carbanion were studied from the point of view of the solvent influence on electronic absorption spectra in binary and ternary solutions. The supplies of the universal and specific interactions to the spectral shifts in the electronic absorption spectra of hydroxyl solutions were separated. The strength of the specific interactions of the ylid molecules with octanol was estimated by using ternary solutions in binary solvent Octanol + Dichloroethane, in which the universal interactions have similar strengths. Quantum mechanical calculations and also the solvatochromic effect allowed us estimating the values of the molecular dipole moments in the excited state of the studied ylids. The conclusions showed that by excitation the molecular dipole moment of the studied ylids decreases or changes its sense, due to the electronic charge transport from the carbanion towards the heterocycle.
Kuruwita, Rajika L; De Marco, Orsola
2016-01-01
The common envelope interaction is thought to be the gateway to all evolved compact binaries and mergers. Hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope interaction between giant stars and their companions are restricted to the dynamical, fast, in-spiral phase. They find that the giant envelope is lifted during this phase, but remains mostly bound to the system. At the same time, the orbital separation is greatly reduced, but in most simulations it levels off? at values larger than measured from observations. We conjectured that during the post-in-spiral phase the bound envelope gas will return to the system. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we generate initial conditions for our simulation that result in a fall-back disk with total mass and angular momentum in line with quantities from the simulations of Passy et al. We find that the simulated fall-back event reduces the orbital separation efficiently, but fails to unbind the gas before the separation levels off once again. We also find that more massive fal...
Simakov, D A
2013-01-01
In this article we study a particular method of detection of chirp signals from coalescing compact binary stars -- the so-called dynamical tuning, i.e. amplification of the signal via tracking of its instantaneous frequency by the tuning of the signal-recycled detector. A time-domain consideration developed for signal-recycled interferometers, in particular GEO\\,600, describes the signal and noise evolution in the non-stationary detector. Its non-stationarity is caused by motion of the signal recycling mirror, whose position defines the tuning of the detector. We prove that the shot noise from the dark port and optical losses remains white. The analysis of the transient effects shows that during the perfect tracking of the chirp frequency only transients from amplitude changes arise. The signal-to-noise-ratio gain, calculated in this paper, is $\\sim 16$ for a shot-noise limited detector and $\\sim 4$ for a detector with thermal noise.
Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi
2015-07-17
We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.
Structure and expression of a novel compact myelin protein – Small VCP-interacting protein (SVIP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jiawen [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Peng, Dungeng [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Voehler, Markus [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States); Sanders, Charles R. [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States); Li, Jun, E-mail: jun.li.2@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS) – Nashville VA (United States)
2013-10-11
Highlights: •SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin. •We determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). •The helical content of SVIP increases dramatically during its interaction with negatively charged lipid membrane. •This study provides structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes. -- Abstract: SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) was initially identified as one of many cofactors regulating the valosin containing protein (VCP), an AAA+ ATPase involved in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Our previous study showed that SVIP is expressed exclusively in the nervous system. In the present study, SVIP and VCP were seen to be co-localized in neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, we also observed that SVIP co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin, where VCP was absent. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements, we determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). However, upon binding to the surface of membranes containing a net negative charge, the helical content of SVIP increases dramatically. These findings provide structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes.
Dynamics of binary-disk interaction. 1: Resonances and disk gap sizes
Artymowicz, Pawel; Lubow, Stephen H.
1994-01-01
We investigate the gravitational interaction of a generally eccentric binary star system with circumbinary and circumstellar gaseous disks. The disks are assumed to be coplanar with the binary, geometrically thin, and primarily governed by gas pressure and (turbulent) viscosity but not self-gravity. Both ordinary and eccentric Lindblad resonances are primarily responsible for truncating the disks in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity and nonextreme mass ratio. Starting from a smooth disk configuration, after the gravitational field of the binary truncates the disk on the dynamical timescale, a quasi-equilibrium is achieved, in which the resonant and viscous torques balance each other and any changes in the structure of the disk (e.g., due to global viscous evolution) occur slowly, preserving the average size of the gap. We analytically compute the approximate sizes of disks (or disk gaps) as a function of binary mass ratio and eccentricity in this quasi-equilibrium. Comparing the gap sizes with results of direct simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), we obtain a good agreement. As a by-product of the computations, we verify that standard SPH codes can adequately represent the dynamics of disks with moderate viscosity, Reynolds number R approximately 10(exp 3). For typical viscous disk parameters, and with a denoting the binary semimajor axis, the inner edge location of a circumbinary disk varies from 1.8a to 2.6a with binary eccentricity increasing from 0 to 0.25. For eccentricities 0 less than e less than 0.75, the minimum separation between a component star and the circumbinary disk inner edge is greater than a. Our calculations are relevant, among others, to protobinary stars and the recently discovered T Tau pre-main-sequence binaries. We briefly examine the case of a pre-main-sequence spectroscopic binary GW Ori and conclude that circumbinary disk truncation to the size required by one proposed spectroscopic model cannot be due to
Repetto, Serena; Igoshev, Andrei P.; Nelemans, Gijs
2017-01-01
The aim of this work is to study the imprints that different models for black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) formation have on the Galactic distribution of X-ray binaries (XRBs) which contain these objects. We find that the root mean square of the height above the Galactic plane of BH- and NS-XRBs is a powerful proxy to discriminate among different formation scenarios, and that binary evolution following the BH/NS formation does not significantly affect the Galactic distributions of the binaries. We find that a population model in which at least some BHs receive a (relatively) high natal kick fits the observed BH-XRBs best. For the NS case, we find that a high NK distribution, consistent with the one derived from the measurement of pulsar proper motion, is the most preferable. We also analyse the simple method we previously used to estimate the minimal peculiar velocity of an individual BH-XRB at birth. We find that this method may be less reliable in the bulge of the Galaxy for certain models of the Galactic potential, but that our estimate is excellent for most of the BH-XRBs.
Wade, Madeline; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Ochsner, Evan; Nielsen, Alex B.
2013-10-01
We study the ability of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole, χ≡j/m2≤1. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a nonrotating black hole (k2=0). Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparent violations, and we examine the effect of different post-Newtonian corrections to the amplitude of the compact binary coalescence gravitational waveform, as given in Arun et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 104023 (2009)]. In addition, we perform a brief study of how the recently calculated 3.0 pN and 3.5 pN spin-orbit corrections to the phase [Marsat et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 055007 (2013)] affect spin and mass parameter measurability. We find that physical priors on the symmetric mass ratio and higher harmonics in the gravitational waveform could significantly affect the ability of aLIGO to investigate cosmic censorship and the no-hair theorem for certain systems.
Analysis of compaction shock interactions during DDT of low density HMX
Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.
2017-01-01
Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined, low density granular HMX occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong combustion-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting dissipative heating within the microstructure during pore collapse. Inert meso-scale simulations of successive shock loading of low density HMX are performed to examine how dissipation and hot-spot formation are affected by the initial density, and the primary and secondary shock strengths. This information is used to formulate an ignition and burn model for low density HMX that accounts for the effect of shock densensitization on burn. Preliminary DDT predictions are presented that illustrate how primary shock strength affects the transition mechanism.
Brorby, Matthew; Feng, Hua
2015-01-01
We examine the X-ray spectra of VII Zw 403, a nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy. The galaxy has been observed to contain an X-ray source, likely a high mass X-ray binary (HMXB), with a luminosity of 1.3-23x10^38 erg s^-1 in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. A new Suzaku observation shows a transition to a luminosity of 1.7x10^40 erg s^-1 [0.3-8 keV], higher by a factor of 7-130. The spectra from the high flux state are hard, best described by a disk plus Comptonization model, and exhibit curvature at energies above 5 keV. This is consistent with many high-quality ultraluminous X-ray source spectra which have been interpreted as stellar mass black holes (StMBH) accreting at super-Eddington rates. However, this lies in contrast to another HMXB in a low-metallicity BCD, I Zw 18, that exhibits a soft spectrum at high flux, similar to Galactic black hole binaries and has been interpreted as a possible intermediate mass black hole. Determining the spectral properties of HMXBs in BCDs has important im...
Cokelaer, T
2009-01-01
Most of the inspiralling compact binaries are expected to be circularized by the time their gravitational-wave signals enter the frequency band of ground-based detectors such as LIGO or VIRGO. However, it is not excluded that some of these binaries might still possess a significant eccentricity at a few tens of hertz. Despite this possibility, current search pipelines based on matched filtering techniques consider only non-eccentric templates. The effect of such an approximation on the loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been investigated by Martel and Poisson (1999 Phys. Rev. D 60 124008) in the context of initial LIGO detector. They ascertained that non-eccentric templates will be successful at detecting eccentric signals. We revisit their work by incorporating current and future ground-based detectors and precisely quantify the exact loss of SNR. In order to be more faithful to an actual search, we maximized the SNR over a template bank, whose minimal match is set to 95%. PACS numbers: 02.70.-c, 07.05....
Johnstone, C P; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Bisikalo, D; Güdel, M; Eggl, S
2015-01-01
Context. In binary star systems, the winds from the two components impact each other, leading to strong shocks and regions of enhanced density and temperature. Potentially habitable circumbinary planets must continually be exposed to these interactions regions. Aims. We study, for the first time, the interactions between winds from low-mass stars in a binary system, to show the wind conditions seen by potentially habitable circumbinary planets. Methods. We use the advanced 3D numerical hydrodynamic code Nurgush to model the wind interactions of two identical winds from two solar mass stars with circular orbits and a binary separation of 0.5 AU. As input into this model, we use a 1D hydrodynamic simulation of the solar wind, run using the Versatile Advection Code. We derive the locations of stable and habitable orbits in this system to explore what wind conditions potentially habitable planets will be exposed to during their orbits. Results. Our wind interaction simulations result in the formation of two stron...
JET INTERACTIONS IN MASSIVE X-RAY BINARIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo E. Romero
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Los sistemas binarios masivos de rayos X están formados por un objeto compacto que acreta materia del viento estelar de una estrella donante de tipo temprano. En algunos de estos sistemas, llamados microcuásares, chorros de partículas relativistas son eyectados desde las cercanías del objeto compacto. Estos chorros interactúan con el campo de fotones de la estrella compañera, con el viento estelar, y, a grandes distancias, con el medio interestelar. En este trabajo se resumirán los principales resultados de tales interacciones con especial énfasis en la producción de fotones de alta energía y neutrinos. El caso de algún sistema particular, como ser LS I +61 303, será discutido con algún detalle. Además, se presentarán las perspectivas futuras para observaciones a diferentes longitudes de onda para este tipo de objetos.
A relativistically broadened O VIII Lyalpha line in the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 0614+091
Madej, O K; Fabian, A C; Pinto, C; Verbunt, F; de Plaa, J
2010-01-01
Ultra-compact X-ray binaries consist of a neutron star or black hole that accretes material from a white dwarf-donor star. The ultra-compact nature is expressed in very short orbital periods of less than 1 hour. In the case of 4U 0614+091 oxygen-rich material from a CO or ONe white dwarf is flowing to the neutron star. This oxygen-rich disc can reflect X-rays emitted by the neutron star giving a characteristic emission spectrum. We have analyzed high-resolution RGS and broad band EPIC spectra of 4U 0614+091 obtained by the XMM-Newton satellite. We detect a broad emission feature at ~0.7 keV in both instruments, which cannot be explained by unusual abundances of oxygen and neon in the line of sight, as proposed before in the literature. We interpret this feature as O VIII Lyalpha emission caused by reflection of X-rays off highly ionized oxygen, in the strong gravitational field close to the neutron star.
A PIONIER and incisive look at the interacting binary SS Lep
Blind, N; Berger, J -P; Lebouquin, J -B; Mérand, A
2011-01-01
Symbiotic stars are eccellent laboratories to study a broad range of poorly understood physical processes, such as mass loss of red giants, accretion onto compact objects, and evolution of nova-like outbursts. As their evolution is strongly influenced by the mass transfer episodes, understanding the history of these systems requires foremost to determine which process is at play: Roche lobe overflow, stellar wind accretion, or some more complex mixture of both. We report here an interferometric study of the symbiotic system SS Leporis, performed with the unique PIONIER instrument. By determining the binary orbit and revisiting the parameters of the two stars, we show that the giant does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the mass transfer most likely occurs via the accretion of an important part of the giant's wind.
Nemravová, J. A.; Harmanec, P.; Brož, M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Mourard, D.; Hummel, C. A.; Cameron, C.; Matthews, J. M.; Bolton, C. T.; Božić, H.; Chini, R.; Dembsky, T.; Engle, S.; Farrington, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Guenther, D. B.; Guinan, E. F.; Korčáková, D.; Koubský, P.; Kříček, R.; Kuschnig, R.; Mayer, P.; McCook, G. P.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Nardetto, N.; Prša, A.; Ribeiro, J.; Rowe, J.; Rucinski, S.; Škoda, P.; Šlechta, M.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; Votruba, V.; Weiss, W. W.; Wolf, M.; Zasche, P.; Zavala, R. T.
2016-10-01
Context. Compact hierarchical systems are important because the effects caused by the dynamical interaction among its members occur ona human timescale. These interactions play a role in the formation of close binaries through Kozai cycles with tides. One such system is ξ Tauri: it has three hierarchical orbits: 7.14 d (eclipsing components Aa, Ab), 145 d (components Aa+Ab, B), and 51 yr (components Aa+Ab+B, C). Aims: We aim to obtain physical properties of the system and to study the dynamical interaction between its components. Methods: Our analysis is based on a large series of spectroscopic photometric (including space-borne) observations and long-baseline optical and infrared spectro-interferometric observations. We used two approaches to infer the system properties: a set of observation-specific models, where all components have elliptical trajectories, and an N-body model, which computes the trajectory of each component by integrating Newton's equations of motion. Results: The triple subsystem exhibits clear signs of dynamical interaction. The most pronounced are the advance of the apsidal line and eclipse-timing variations. We determined the geometry of all three orbits using both observation-specific and N-body models. The latter correctly accounted for observed effects of the dynamical interaction, predicted cyclic variations of orbital inclinations, and determined the sense of motion of all orbits. Using perturbation theory, we demonstrate that prominent secular and periodic dynamical effects are explainable with a quadrupole interaction. We constrained the basic properties of all components, especially of members of the inner triple subsystem and detected rapid low-amplitude light variations that we attribute to co-rotating surface structures of component B. We also estimated the radius of component B. Properties of component C remain uncertain because of its low relative luminosity. We provide an independent estimate of the distance to the system
An Evolving Compact Jet in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary MAXI J1836-194
Russell, D.M.; et al; Markoff, S.; Homan, J.; Altamirano, D.
2013-01-01
We report striking changes in the broadband spectrum of the compact jet of the black hole transient MAXI J1836-194 over state transitions during its discovery outburst in 2011. A fading of the optical-infrared (IR) flux occurred as the source entered the hard-intermediate state, followed by a brightening as it returned to the hard state. The optical-IR spectrum was consistent with a power law from optically thin synchrotron emission, except when the X-ray spectrum was softest. By fitting the ...
Assessment of toxic interactions of heavy metals in binary mixtures: A statistical approach
Ince; Dirilgen; Apikyan; Tezcanli; Ustun
1999-05-01
Toxicity of zinc, copper, cobalt, and chromium ions and their binary interactions were studied at varying test levels by using a battery of two tests, Microtox and duckweed with Vibrio fisheri and Lemna minor as test organisms, respectively. The type of toxic interaction at each test combination was assessed by a statistical approach based on testing the null hypothesis of "additive toxicity" at 95% confidence level. The interactions were called "antagonistic," "additive," or "synergistic" in accordance with the statistical significance and the sign of the difference between the tested hypothesis and the value of the observed toxicity at the binary test level concerned. In the majority of the combinations studied by the two bioassays, the interactions were of antagonistic nature. Additive toxicity was the next frequently predicted interaction in both test results, the frequency being much higher in Microtox responses than in those of duckweed. Finally, synergism was found to be a rare interaction in Microtox results, but totally unlikely in duckweed within the selected test combinations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Jaya Madhuri
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured in the binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate with acetonitrile, benzonitrile at three temperatures 30, 40 and 50 °C. From the experimental data, thermodynamic parameters like adiabatic compressibility, internal pressure, enthalpy, activation energy etc., were computed and the molecular interactions were predicted based on the variation of excess parameters in the mixture. Also theoretical evaluation of velocities was made employing the standard theories. CFT and NOMOTO were found to have an edge. All the three mixtures have shown out strong intermolecular interactions between the unlike molecules and endothermic type of chemical reaction.
Jiang, Dengkai; Li, Lifang
2014-01-01
Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation and are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have different surface abundances, effective temperatures and luminosities from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. Thi...
Integrating economic and psychological insights in binary choice models with social interactions
Ostasiewicz, K; Magnuszewski, P; Radosz, A; Sendzimir, J; Tyc, M H; Goliczewski, Piotr; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Ostasiewicz, Katarzyna; Radosz, Andrzej; Sendzimir, Jan; Tyc, Michal H.
2006-01-01
We investigate a class of binary choice models with social interactions. We propose a unifying perspective that integrates economic models using a utility function and psychological models using an impact function. A general approach for analyzing the equilibrium structure of these models within mean-field approximation is developed. It is shown that within a mean-field approach both the utility function and the impact function models are equivalent to threshold models. The interplay between heterogeneity and randomness in model formulation is discussed. A general framework is applied in a number of examples leading to some well-known models but also showing the possibility of more complex dynamics related to multiple equilibria. Our synthesis can provide a basis for many practical applications extending the scope of binary choice models.
Thermo-acoustical molecular interaction study in binary mixtures of glycerol and ethylene glycol
Kaur, Kirandeep; Juglan, K. C.; Kumar, Harsh
2017-07-01
Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity are measured over the entire composition range for binary liquid mixtures of glycerol (CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) at different temperatures and constant frequency of 2MHz using ultrasonic interferometer, specific gravity bottle and viscometer respectively. Measured experimental values are used to obtained various acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, intermolecular free length, relaxation time, ultrasonic attenuation, effective molar weight, free volume, available volume, molar volume, Wada's constant, Rao's constant, Vander Waal's constant, internal pressure, Gibb's free energy and enthalpy. The variation in acoustical parameters are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions between the components of molecules of binary liquid mixtures.
Non-conservative evolution in short-period interacting binaries with the BINSTAR code
Deschamps, Romain; Siess, Lionel; Braun, Killian; Jorissen, Alain; Davis, Philip
2014-09-01
Systemic mass loss in interacting binaries such as of the Algol type has been inferred since the 1950s. There is indeed gathering indirect evidence indicating that some Algols follow non-conservative evolution, but still no direct detection of large mass outflows. As a result, little is known about the eventual ejection mechanism, the total amount of mass ejected or the specific angular momentum carried with this outflow. In order to reconcile stellar models and observations, we compute Algol models with the state-of-the-art binary star evolution code BINSTAR. We investigate systemic mass losses within the hotspot paradigm, where large outflows of material form from the accretion impact during the mass transfer phase. We then study the impact of this outflow on the spectral emission distribution of the system with the radiative transfer codes CLOUDY and SKIRT.
1RXS J180408.9-342058: an ultra compact X-ray binary candidate with a transient jet
Baglio, M C; Campana, S; Goldoni, P; Masetti, N; Munoz-Darias, T; Patino-Alvarez, V; Chavushyan, V
2016-01-01
We present a detailed NIR/optical/UV study of the transient low mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058 performed during its 2015 outburst, aimed at determining the nature of its companion star. We obtained three optical spectra at the 2.1 m San Pedro Martir Observatory telescope (Mexico). We performed optical and NIR photometric observations with both the REM telescope and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla. We obtained optical and UV observations from the Swift archive. Finally, we performed optical polarimetry of the source by using the EFOSC2 instrument mounted on the NTT. The optical spectrum of the source is almost featureless since the hydrogen and He I emissions lines, typically observed in LMXBs, are not detected. Similarly, carbon and oxygen lines are neither observed. We marginally detect the He II 4686 AA emission line, suggesting the presence of helium in the accretion disc. No significant optical polarisation level was observed. The lack of hydrogen and He I emission lines in the spe...
Simulations of an inhomogeneous stellar wind interacting with a pulsar wind in a binary system
Paredes-Fortuny, Xavier; Perucho, Manel; Ribó, Marc
2014-01-01
Binary systems containing a massive star and a non-accreting pulsar present strong interaction between the stellar and the pulsar winds. The properties of this interaction, which largely determine the non-thermal radiation in these systems, strongly depend on the structure of the stellar wind, which can be clumpy or strongly anisotropic, as in Be stars. We study numerically the influence of inhomogeneities in the stellar wind on the structure of the two-wind interaction region. We carried out for the first time axisymmetric, relativistic hydrodynamical simulations, with Lorentz factors of ~6 and accounting for the impact of instabilities, to study the impact in the two-wind interaction structure of an over-dense region of the stellar wind. We also followed the evolution of this over-dense region or clump as it faces the impact of the pulsar wind. For typical system parameters, and adopting a stellar wind inhomogeneity with a density contrast >~10, clumps with radii of a few percent of the binary size can sign...
Galaxy interactions in compact groups - II. Abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c
Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Heckman, Timothy M.; Yun, Min S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.
2015-07-01
Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star-forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of H II regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star-forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three H II regions harbour an oxygen abundance ˜0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star-forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km s-1 with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. H I observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broad-band optical images from Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System) suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain the origin of the peculiar star-forming regions detected with WiFeS, and show that evidence points towards infalling and collapsing extraplanar gas clouds at the disc-halo interface, possibly as a consequence of long-range gravitational perturbations of HCG 91c from the other group members. As such, HCG 91c provides evidence that some of the perturbations possibly associated with the early phase of galaxy evolution in compact groups impact the star-forming disc locally, and on sub-kpc scales.
An evolving compact jet in the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1836-194
Russell, D M; Miller-Jones, J C A; O'Brien, K; Soria, R; Sivakoff, G R; Slaven-Blair, T; Lewis, F; Markoff, S; Homan, J; Altamirano, D; Curran, P A; Rupen, M P; Belloni, T M; Bel, M Cadolle; Casella, P; Corbel, S; Dhawan, V; Fender, R P; Gallo, E; Gandhi, P; Heinz, S; Koerding, E G; Krimm, H A; Maitra, D; Migliari, S; Remillard, R A; Sarazin, C L; Shahbaz, T; Tudose, V
2013-01-01
We report striking changes in the broadband spectrum of the compact jet of the black hole transient MAXI J1836-194 over state transitions during its discovery outburst in 2011. A fading of the optical-infrared (IR) flux occurred as the source entered the hard-intermediate state, followed by a brightening as it returned to the hard state. The optical-IR spectrum was consistent with a power law from optically thin synchrotron emission, except when the X-ray spectrum was softest. By fitting the radio to optical spectra with a broken power law, we constrain the frequency and flux of the optically thick/thin break in the jet synchrotron spectrum. The break gradually shifted to higher frequencies as the source hardened at X-ray energies, from ~ 10^11 to ~ 4 x 10^13 Hz. The radiative jet luminosity integrated over the spectrum appeared to be greatest when the source entered the hard state during the outburst decay (although this is dependent on the high energy cooling break, which is not seen directly), even though ...
Tanvir, N R; Fruchter, A S; Hjorth, J; Wiersema, K; Tunnicliffe, R; Postigo, A de Ugarte
2013-01-01
The nature of short duration gamma-ray bursts (S-GRBs) represents one of the great unsolved mysteries of astrophysics today. While a favoured model for their origin is the merger of two compact objects (e.g., neutron stars) this lacks a smoking gun signature to date. However, these mergers are expected to create radioactive species, including heavy r-process elements, which should result in a faint, fast transient in the days following the burst, a so-called kilonova. Recent calculations suggest much energy comes out in the near-infrared in the days following the initial burst. Here we report a search for such an event accompanying GRB 130603B, the first S-GRB to have a firm redshift established directly from the afterglow. At z=0.36 the faint transient is expected to peak a few days after the burst at an H-band magnitude of ~25. Observing with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nine days post-burst, we indeed find a source at the location of the burst, with these properties, although we cannot yet say whether ...
MacLeod, Morgan Elowe
This thesis uses computational modeling to study of phases of dramatic interaction that intersperse stellar lifetimes. In galactic centers stars trace dangerously wandering orbits dictated by the combined gravitational force of a central, supermassive black hole and all of the surrounding stars. In binary systems, stars' evolution -- which causes their radii to increase substantially -- can bring initially non-interacting systems into contact. Moments of strong stellar interaction transform stars, their subsequent evolution, and the stellar environments they inhabit. In tidal disruption events, a star is partially or completely destroyed as tidal forces from a supermassive black hole overwhelm the star's self gravity. A portion of the stellar debris falls back to the black hole powering a luminous flare as it accretes. This thesis studies the relative event rates and properties of tidal disruption events for stars across the stellar evolutionary spectrum. Tidal disruptions of giant stars occur with high specific frequency; these objects' extended envelopes make them vulnerable to disruption. More-compact white dwarf stars are tidally disrupted relatively rarely. Their transients are also of very different duration and luminosity. Giant star disruptions power accretion flares with timescales of tens to hundreds of years; white dwarf disruption flares take hours to days. White dwarf tidal interactions can additionally trigger thermonuclear burning and lead to transients with signatures similar to type I supernovae. In binary star systems, a phase of hydrodynamic interaction called a common envelope episode occurs when one star evolves to swallow its companion. Dragged by the surrounding gas, the companion star spirals through the envelope to tighter orbits. This thesis studies accretion and flow morphologies during this phase. Density gradients across the gravitationally-focussed material lead to a strong angular momentum barrier to accretion during common envelope
Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion
Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang
2017-01-01
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.
Galaxy Interactions in Compact Groups II: abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c
Vogt, F P A; Borthakur, S; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Heckman, T M; Yun, M S; Chambers, K C
2015-01-01
Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of HII regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three HII regions harbor an oxygen abundance ~0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km/s with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. HI observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broadband optical images from Pan-STARRS suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain...
Memory effect from spinning unbound binaries
De Vittori, Lorenzo; Gupta, Anuradha; Jetzer, Philippe
2014-01-01
We present a recently developed prescription to obtain ready-to-use gravitational wave (GW) polarization states for spinning compact binaries on hyperbolic orbits. We include leading order spin-orbit interactions, invoking 1.5PN-accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for the radial part of the orbital dynamics. We also include radiation reaction effects on $h_+$ and $h_{\\times}$ during the interaction. In the GW signals from spinning binaries there is evidence of the memory effect in both polarizations, in contrast to the non-spinning case, where only the cross polarizations exhibits non-vanishing amplitudes at infinite time. We also compute 1PN-accurate GW polarization states for non-spinning compact binaries in unbound orbits in a fully parametric way, and compare them with existing waveforms.
EPIC 220204960: A Quadruple Star System Containing Two Strongly Interacting Eclipsing Binaries
Rappaport, S.; Vanderburg, A.; Borkovits, T.; Kalomeni, B.; Halpern, J. P.; Ngo, H.; Mace, G. N.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E. A.; Mawet, D.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Bieryla, A.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Nelson, L.
2017-01-01
We present a strongly interacting quadruple system associated with the K2 target EPIC 220204960. The K2 target itself is a Kp = 12.7 magnitude star at Teff ≃ 6100 K which we designate as "B-N" (blue northerly image). The host of the quadruple system, however, is a Kp ≃ 17 magnitude star with a composite M-star spectrum, which we designate as "R-S" (red southerly image). With a 3.2″ separation and similar radial velocities and photometric distances, `B-N' is likely physically associated with `R-S', making this a quintuple system, but that is incidental to our main claim of a strongly interacting quadruple system in `R-S'. The two binaries in `R-S' have orbital periods of 13.27 d and 14.41 d, respectively, and each has an inclination angle of ≳ 89°. From our analysis of radial velocity measurements, and of the photometric lightcurve, we conclude that all four stars are very similar with masses close to 0.4 M⊙. Both of the binaries exhibit significant ETVs where those of the primary and secondary eclipses `diverge' by 0.05 days over the course of the 80-day observations. Via a systematic set of numerical simulations of quadruple systems consisting of two interacting binaries, we conclude that the outer orbital period is very likely to be between 300 and 500 days. If sufficient time is devoted to RV studies of this faint target, the outer orbit should be measurable within a year.
An Evolving Compact Jet in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary MAXI J1836-194
Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; O'Brien, K.; Soria, R.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Slaven-Blair, T.; Lewis, F.; Markoff, S.; Homan, J.; Altamirano, D.; Curran, P. A.; Rupen, M. P.; Belloni, T. M.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Casella, P.; Corbel, S.; Dhawan, V.; Fender, R. P.; Gallo, E.; Gandhi, P.; Heinz, S.; Körding, E. G.; Krimm, H. A.; Maitra, D.; Migliari, S.; Remillard, R. A.; Sarazin, C. L.; Shahbaz, T.; Tudose, V.
2013-05-01
We report striking changes in the broadband spectrum of the compact jet of the black hole transient MAXI J1836-194 over state transitions during its discovery outburst in 2011. A fading of the optical-infrared (IR) flux occurred as the source entered the hard-intermediate state, followed by a brightening as it returned to the hard state. The optical-IR spectrum was consistent with a power law from optically thin synchrotron emission, except when the X-ray spectrum was softest. By fitting the radio to optical spectra with a broken power law, we constrain the frequency and flux of the optically thick/thin break in the jet synchrotron spectrum. The break gradually shifted to higher frequencies as the source hardened at X-ray energies, from ~1011 to ~4 × 1013 Hz. The radiative jet luminosity integrated over the spectrum appeared to be greatest when the source entered the hard state during the outburst decay (although this is dependent on the high-energy cooling break, which is not seen directly), even though the radio flux was fading at the time. The physical process responsible for suppressing and reactivating the jet (neither of which are instantaneous but occur on timescales of weeks) is uncertain, but could arise from the varying inner accretion disk radius regulating the fraction of accreting matter that is channeled into the jet. This provides an unprecedented insight into the connection between inflow and outflow, and has implications for the conditions required for jets to be produced, and hence their launching process. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under ESO Program IDs 087.D-0914 and 089.D-0970.
AN EVOLVING COMPACT JET IN THE BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARY MAXI J1836-194
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russell, D. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Soria, R.; Slaven-Blair, T.; Curran, P. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); O' Brien, K. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sivakoff, G. R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Lewis, F. [Faulkes Telescope Project, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); Markoff, S.; Altamirano, D. [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, J. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rupen, M. P.; Dhawan, V. [NRAO Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Belloni, T. M. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Cadolle Bel, M. [European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, ISOC, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Casella, P. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Corbel, S. [Laboratoire AIM, UMR 7158, CEA/DSM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fender, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gallo, E., E-mail: russell@iac.es [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); and others
2013-05-10
We report striking changes in the broadband spectrum of the compact jet of the black hole transient MAXI J1836-194 over state transitions during its discovery outburst in 2011. A fading of the optical-infrared (IR) flux occurred as the source entered the hard-intermediate state, followed by a brightening as it returned to the hard state. The optical-IR spectrum was consistent with a power law from optically thin synchrotron emission, except when the X-ray spectrum was softest. By fitting the radio to optical spectra with a broken power law, we constrain the frequency and flux of the optically thick/thin break in the jet synchrotron spectrum. The break gradually shifted to higher frequencies as the source hardened at X-ray energies, from {approx}10{sup 11} to {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} Hz. The radiative jet luminosity integrated over the spectrum appeared to be greatest when the source entered the hard state during the outburst decay (although this is dependent on the high-energy cooling break, which is not seen directly), even though the radio flux was fading at the time. The physical process responsible for suppressing and reactivating the jet (neither of which are instantaneous but occur on timescales of weeks) is uncertain, but could arise from the varying inner accretion disk radius regulating the fraction of accreting matter that is channeled into the jet. This provides an unprecedented insight into the connection between inflow and outflow, and has implications for the conditions required for jets to be produced, and hence their launching process.
Nakamura, Takashi; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Suwa, Yudai; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kawai, Nobuyuki
2013-01-01
We investigate the possible origin of extended emissions (EE) of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with an isotropic energy of $\\sim 10^{50\\mbox{-}51} \\ \\rm erg$ and a duration of $\\sim 100 \\ \\rm s$, based on the compact binary (neutron star (NS)-NS or NS-black hole (BH)) merger scenario. We analyze the evolution of magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disks of mass $\\sim 0.1 \\ M_\\odot$ around BHs formed after the mergers, and estimate the power of relativistic outflows via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. We show that a rotation energy of the BH up to $\\sim 10^{53} \\ \\rm erg$ can be extracted with a time scale of $\\sim 100 \\ \\rm s$ with a disk viscosity parameter of $\\alpha \\sim 0.01$. Such a BZ power dissipates by clashing with non-relativistic pre-ejected matter of mass $M \\sim 10^{-(2\\mbox{-}4)} \\ M_\\odot$, and form a mildly relativistic fireball. We show that the dissipative photospheric emissions from such fireballs are likely in soft X-ray band ($1\\mbox{-}10 \\ \\rm keV$) for $M \\sim 10^{-2} M_\\odot$ p...
Agathos, Michalis; Li, Tjonnie G F; Broeck, Chris Van Den; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore
2013-01-01
The direct detection of gravitational waves with upcoming second-generation gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo will allow us to probe the genuinely strong-field dynamics of general relativity (GR) for the first time. We present a data analysis pipeline called TIGER (Test Infrastructure for GEneral Relativity), which is designed to utilize detections of compact binary coalescences to test GR in this regime. TIGER is a model-independent test of GR itself, in that it is not necessary to compare with any specific alternative theory. It performs Bayesian inference on two hypotheses: the GR hypothesis $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm GR}$, and $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, which states that one or more of the post-Newtonian coefficients in the waveform are not as predicted by GR. By the use of multiple sub-hypotheses of $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, in each of which a different number of parameterized deformations of the GR phase are allowed, an arbitrarily large number of 'testing parameters' can be used with...
Jonker, P G; Méndez, M; Van der Klis, M
2007-01-01
We have observed the ultra-compact low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 1A 1246-588 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). In this manuscript we report the discovery of a kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in 1A 1246-588. The kilohertz QPO was only detected when the source was in a soft high-flux state reminiscent of the lower banana branch in atoll sources. Only one kilohertz QPO peak is detected at a relatively high frequency of 1258+-2 Hz and at a single trial significance of more than 7 sigma. Kilohertz QPOs with a higher frequency have only been found on two occasions in 4U 0614+09. Furthermore, the frequency is higher than that found for the lower kilohertz QPO in any source, strongly suggesting that the QPO is the upper of the kilohertz QPO pair often found in LMXBs. The full-width at half maximum is 25+-4 Hz, making the coherence the highest found for an upper kilohertz QPO. From a distance estimate of ~6 kpc from a radius expansion burst we derive that 1A 1246-588 is at a persistent flux of ~0....
Luan, Jing; Wen, Linqing; Chen, Yanbei
2011-01-01
Electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of gravitational wave (GW) events will help shed light on the nature of the sources, and more can be learned if the EM follow-ups can start as soon as the GW event becomes observable. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-domain algorithm capable of detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binaries of compact objects with nearly zero time delay. In case when the signal is strong enough, our algorithm also has the flexibility to trigger EM observation before the merger. The key to the efficiency of our algorithm arises from the use of chains of so-called Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters, which filter time-series data recursively. Computational cost is further reduced by a template interpolation technique that requires filtering to be done only for a much coarser template bank than otherwise required to sufficiently recover optimal signal-to-noise ratio. Towards future detectors with sensitivity extending to lower frequencies, ou...
Arun, K G; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sundararajan, P A; Iyer, Bala R; Sundararajan, Pranesh A
2004-01-01
(Abridged) We revisit the problem of parameter estimation of gravitational-wave chirp signals from inspiralling non-spinning compact binaries in the light of the recent extension of the post-Newtonian (PN) phasing formula to order $(v/c)^7$ beyond the leading Newtonian order. We study in detail the implications of higher post-Newtonian orders from 1PN up to 3.5PN in steps of 0.5PN ($\\sim v/c$), and examine their convergence. In both initial and advanced detectors the estimation of the chirp mass (${\\cal M}$) and symmetric mass ratio ($\\eta$) improve at higher PN orders but oscillate with every half-a-PN order. We compare parameter estimation in different detectors and assess their relative performance in two different ways: at a {\\it fixed SNR,} with the aim of understanding how the bandwidth improves parameter estimation, and for a {\\it fixed source}, to gauge the importance of sensitivity. Errors in parameter estimation at a fixed SNR are smaller for VIRGO than for both initial and advanced LIGO. However, f...
Discovery of a broad O VIII Ly alpha line in the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624
Madej, O K
2010-01-01
We report the discovery of a broad emission feature at ~0.7 keV in the spectra of the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624, obtained with the high-resolution spectrographs of the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. We confirm the presence of the feature in the broad band MOS2 spectrum of the source. As suggested before in the literature, the donor star in this source is a CO or ONe white dwarf, which transfers oxygen-rich material to the accretor, conceivably a neutron star. The X-rays reprocessed in this oxygen-rich accretion disc could give a reflection spectrum with O VIII Ly alpha as the most prominent emission line. Apart from the feature at ~0.7 keV we confirm the possible presence of a weak emission feature at ~6.6 keV, which was reported in the literature for this data set. We interpret the feature at ~0.7 keV and ~6.6 keV as O VIII Ly alpha and Fe K alpha emission respectively, caused by X-rays reflected off the accretion disc in the strong gravitational field close to the accretor.
Wade, Madeline; Ochsner, Evan; Nielsen, Alex B
2013-01-01
We study the ability of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a non-rotating black hole. Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparen...
Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at 30°C
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Ali; A K Nain
2002-04-01
Densities ρ and ultrasonic speeds of the binary mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) with 1-butanol and tert-butanol, at 30°C, over the entire composition range were measured. From these data isentropic compressibility, s, intermolecular free length f, relative association A, acoustic impedance , molar sound speed m, deviations in isentropic compressibility s, and excess volume E were calculated. The variation of these parameters with composition of the mixture helps us in understanding the nature and extent of interaction between unlike molecules in the mixtures. Further, theoretical values of ultrasonic speed were evaluated using theories and empirical relations. The relative merits of these theories and relations were discussed.
Study of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures by Acoustical Method at 303K
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Paul Divakar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were made in two binary liquid mixtures Isopropyl acetate (IPA and Isobutyl acetate (IBA with cyclohexanone (CY as a common component at 303K, at fixed frequency of 2MHz using single crystal variable path interferometer and specific gravity bottle respectively. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length and molar volume. The excess thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interactions.
Large attractive depletion interactions in soft repulsive-sphere binary mixtures.
Cinacchi, Giorgio; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Mederos, Luis; Navascués, Guillermo; Tani, Alessandro; Velasco, Enrique
2007-12-07
We consider binary mixtures of soft repulsive spherical particles and calculate the depletion interaction between two big spheres mediated by the fluid of small spheres, using different theoretical and simulation methods. The validity of the theoretical approach, a virial expansion in terms of the density of the small spheres, is checked against simulation results. Attention is given to the approach toward the hard-sphere limit and to the effect of density and temperature on the strength of the depletion potential. Our results indicate, surprisingly, that even a modest degree of softness in the pair potential governing the direct interactions between the particles may lead to a significantly more attractive total effective potential for the big spheres than in the hard-sphere case. This might lead to significant differences in phase behavior, structure, and dynamics of a binary mixture of soft repulsive spheres. In particular, a perturbative scheme is applied to predict the phase diagram of an effective system of big spheres interacting via depletion forces for a size ratio of small and big spheres of 0.2; this diagram includes the usual fluid-solid transition but, in the soft-sphere case, the metastable fluid-fluid transition, which is probably absent in hard-sphere mixtures, is close to being stable with respect to direct fluid-solid coexistence. From these results, the interesting possibility arises that, for sufficiently soft repulsive particles, this phase transition could become stable. Possible implications for the phase behavior of real colloidal dispersions are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Nagarjun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Speeds of sound and density for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate (EB with N,N-dimethylformamide (NNDMF, N,N-dimethyl acetamide (NNDMAc, and N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA were measured as a function of mole fraction at temperatures 303.15, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K and atmospheric pressure. From the experimental data, adiabatic compressibility (βad, intermolecular free length (Lf, and molar volume (V have been computed. The excess values of the above parameters were also evaluated and discussed in light of molecular interactions. Deviation in adiabatic compressibilities and excess intermolecular free length (LfE are found to be negative over the molefraction of ethyl benzoate indicating the presence of strong interactions between the molecules. The negative excess molar volume VE values are attributed to strong dipole-dipole interactions between unlike molecules in the mixtures. The binary data of Δβad, VE, and LfE were correlated as a function of molefraction by using the Redlich-Kister equation.
Developing an Interactive Instructional Compact Disk for the Course of Basic Housekeeping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurlaila Nurlaila
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This research aimed at creating the product based on the concept of learning for basic housekeeping. The development of interactive media in the form of interactive compact disk (CD was conducted at Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Based on the review from the media expert, the total average score was categorized good i.e. 4,31. Meanwhile, from the material expert, the average score was categorized good i.e. 4,51 with the percentage of 90,28% and categorized as very good. The individual test (one to one and the limited test showed the average scores of 4,13 and 4,09 respectively which were both categorized as good. In the field study, it was tested to 23 college students mutually and the total of average score was very good, i.e. 3,8 with the percentage score of 76 %. It showed that the quality of interactive CD of housekeeping course was very good.
Umadevi, M; Thomas, Ammu Elizabeth
2010-04-01
FTIR spectra of propionic acid (PA), 2-propanol (PROH) and its binary mixtures with varying molefraction of the PA were recorded in the region 500-3500 cm(-1), to investigate the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes in a mixed system. The observed features in nu(CO), nu(CO) and delta(COH) of PA, nu(CO) of PROH and delta(COH) of PA+PROH have been explained in terms of the hydrogen bonding interactions between PROH and PA and dipole-dipole interaction. The dipole moment derivative for the above mentioned vibrational modes have also been predicted from the integrated absorbance. The intrinsic linewidth for the vibrational modes nu(CO) and delta(COH) of PA has been elucidated using Bondarev and Mardaeva model.
Modeling the dynamics of tidally-interacting binary neutron stars up to merger
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Damour, Thibault
2014-01-01
We propose an effective-one-body (EOB) model that describes the general relativistic dynamics of neutron star binaries from the early inspiral up to merger. Our EOB model incorporates an enhanced attractive tidal potential motivated by recent analytical advances in the post-Newtonian and gravitational self-force description of relativistic tidal interactions. No fitting parameters are introduced for the description of tidal interaction in the late, strong-field dynamics. We compare the model dynamics (described by the gauge invariant relation between binding energy and orbital angular momentum), and the gravitational wave phasing, with new high-resolution multi-orbit numerical relativity simulations of equal-mass configurations with different equations of state. We find agreement essentially within the uncertainty of the numerical data for all the configurations. Our model is the first semi-analytical model which captures the tidal amplification effects close to merger. It thereby provides the most accurate a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Hinman, Melissa N.; Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.
2005-05-15
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and potential exists for concurrent exposures. The primary neurotoxic effects from OP pesticide exposures result from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their oxon metabolites. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic impact of acute binary exposures to CPF and DZN in rats were evaluated in this study. Rats were orally administered CPF, DZN or a CPF/DZN mixture (0, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) and blood (plasma and RBC), and brain were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, urine was also collected at 24 h. Chlorpyrifos, DZN and their respective metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) were quantified in blood and/or urine and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition was measured in brain, RBCs and plasma. Co-exposure to CPF/DZN at 15/15 mg/kg, did not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of CPF, DZN or their metabolites in blood; whereas, a 60/60 mg/kg dose resulted in a transient increase in Cmax, AUC, and decreased clearance of both compounds, likely due to competition between CPF and DZN for CYP450 metabolism. At lower doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental exposures, the pharmacokinetics were linear. A dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was noted in tissues for both the single and co-exposures. The overall potency for ChE inhibition was greater for CPF than DZN and the binary mixture response appeared to be strongly influenced by CPF. A comparison of the ChE binary response at the low dose (15 mg/kg), where there were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions, suggested that the overall ChE response was additive. These are the first reported experiments we are aware of that characterize both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between CPF and DZN in the rat, and will be used to further develop a binary physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sk. Md Nayeem
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic speed, u, and density, ρ, have been measured in binary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with the isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol at 308.15 K over the entire range of composition. Molar volume (Vm, adiabatic compressibility (ks, intermolecular free length (Lf, acoustic impedance (z, and their excess/deviation along with Δu have been calculated from the experimental data. These values have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. Positive values of VmE, Δks, LfE and negative values of zE, Δu have been observed for all the liquid mixtures indicating the existence of weak interactions between components. Rupture of H-bond or reduction in H-bond strength of isomers of butanol or breaking of the structure of one or both of the components in a solution causes the existence of dispersions in the present investigated binary mixtures. The data obtained from V-m,1, V-m,2, and excess partial molar volumes V-m, 1E, V-m, 2E, reflects the inferences drawn from VmE. Furthermore, FTIR spectra support the conclusions drawn from excess/deviation properties. The measured values of ultrasonic speed for all the investigated mixtures have been compared with the theoretically estimated values using empirical relations such as, Nomoto, Van Dael and Vangeels, Impedance and Rao specific sound speed.
Interactions between brown-dwarf binaries and Sun-like stars
Kaplan, M; Whitworth, A P
2012-01-01
Several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs, but there is as yet no consensus as to which -- if any -- are operative in nature. Any theory of brown dwarf formation must explain the observed statistics of brown dwarfs. These statistics are limited by selection effects, but they are becoming increasingly discriminating. In particular, it appears (a) that brown dwarfs that are secondaries to Sun-like stars tend to be on wide orbits, $a\\ga 100\\,{\\rm AU}$ (the Brown Dwarf Desert), and (b) that these brown dwarfs have a significantly higher chance of being in a close ($a\\la 10\\,{\\rm AU}$) binary system with another brown dwarf than do brown dwarfs in the field. This then raises the issue of whether these brown dwarfs have formed {\\it in situ}, i.e. by fragmentation of a circumstellar disc; or have formed elsewhere and subsequently been captured. We present numerical simulations of the purely gravitational interaction between a close brown-dwarf binary and a Sun-like star. These simulatio...
Formation of Tidal Captures and Gravitational Wave Inspirals in Binary-Single Interactions
Samsing, Johan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2016-01-01
We perform the first systematic study on how dynamical stellar tides and general relativistic (GR) effects affect the dynamics and outcomes of binary-single interactions. For this, we have constructed an N-body code that includes tides in the affine approximation, where stars are modeled as self-similar ellipsoidal polytropes, and GR corrections using the commonly-used post-Newtonian formalism. Using this numerical formalism, we are able resolve the leading effect from tides and GR across several orders of magnitude in both stellar radius and initial target binary separation. We find that the main effect from tides is the formation of two-body tidal captures that form during the chaotic and resonant evolution of the triple system. The two stars undergoing the capture spiral in and merge. The inclusion of tides can thus lead to an increase on the stellar coalescence rate. We also develop an analytical framework for calculating the cross section of tidal inspirals between any pair of objects with similar mass. ...
Karande, Pankaj; Jain, Amit; Mitragotri, Samir
2006-09-28
Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) are known to increase skin permeability to therapeutic drugs. Single chemicals, however, offer limited enhancements of skin permeability. Mixtures of chemicals can overcome this limitation owing to their synergistic interactions. However, identification of potent mixtures of chemicals requires screening of a large number of formulations. Discovery of CPE mixtures can be significantly accelerated by identifying patterns that occur in the existing data on CPEs. In this study, we systematically mine through a huge database on skin permeabilizing effect of over 4000 binary formulations generated by high throughput screening and extract general principles that govern the effect of binary combinations of chemicals on skin's barrier properties. Potencies and synergies of these formulations are analyzed to identify the role played by the formulation composition and chemistry. The analysis reveals several intuitive but some largely non-intuitive trends. For example, formulations made from enhancer mixtures are most potent when participating moieties are present in nearly equal fractions. Methyl pyrrolidone, a small molecule, is particularly effective in forming potent and synergistic enhancer formulations, and zwitterionic surfactants are more likely to feature in potent enhancers. Simple but invaluable rules like these will provide guiding principles for designing libraries to further speed up the formulation discovery process.
Coziol, R
2007-01-01
We present the results of a morphological study based on NIR images of 25 galaxies, with different levels of nuclear activity, in 8 Compact Groups of Galaxies (CGs). We perform independently two different analysis: a isophotal study and a study of morphological asymmetries. The results yielded by the two analysis are highly consistent. For the first time, it is possible to show that deviations from pure ellipses are produced by inhomogeneous stellar mass distributions related to galaxy interactions and mergers. We find evidence of mass asymmetries in 74% of the galaxies in our sample. In 59% of these cases, the asymmetries come in pairs, and are consistent with tidal effects produced by the proximity of companion galaxies. The symmetric galaxies are generally small in size or mass, inactive, and have an early-type morphology. In 20% of the galaxies we find evidence for cannibalism. In 36% of the early-type galaxies the color gradient is positive (blue nucleus) or flat. Summing up these results, as much as 52%...
Star Clusters as Tracers of Interactions in Stephan's Quintet (Hickson Compact Group 92)
Fedotov, K; Konstantopoulos, I S; Chandar, R; Bastian, N; Charlton, J C; Whitmore, B; Trancho, G
2011-01-01
Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a compact group of galaxies that exhibits numerous signs of interactions between its members. Using high resolution images of SQ in B438, V606, and I814 bands from the Early Release Science project obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we identify 496 star cluster candidates (SCCs), located throughout the galaxies themselves as well as in intergalactic regions. Our photometry goes \\sim2 mag deeper and covers an additional three regions, the Old Tail, NGC 7317, and the Southern Debris Region, compared to previous work. Through comparison of the B438 - V606 and V606 - I814 colors of the star cluster candidates with simple stellar population synthesis models we are able to constrain cluster ages. In particular, the most massive galaxy of SQ, NGC 7319, exhibits continuous star formation throughout its history, although at a lower rate over the past few tens of Myr. NGC 7318 A/B and the Northern Star Burst region both show ongoing active star formation; ther...
Budaj, Ján
2012-04-01
Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. The Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently, a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. ɛ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed a dark, inclined, disk of dust with a central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks: an internal optically thick disk and an external optically thin disk which absorbs and scatters radiation. Shallow mid-eclipse brightening may result from eclipses by nearly edge-on flared (dusty or gaseous) disks. Mid-eclipse brightening may also be due to strong forward scattering and optical properties of the dust which can have an important effect on the light-curves. There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and transiting extrasolar planets. The reflection effect which is briefly reviewed is one of them. The exact Roche shape and temperature distributions over the surface of all currently known transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. In some cases (HAT-P-32b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b), departures from the spherical shape can reach 7-15%.
Nazé, Yaël; Neiner, Coralie; Grunhut, Jason; Bagnulo, Stefano; Alecian, Evelyne; Rauw, Gregor; Wade, Gregg A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration
2017-01-01
Amongst O-type stars with detected magnetic fields, the fast rotator in the close binary called Plaskett's star shows a variety of unusual properties. Since strong binary interactions are believed to have occurred in this system, one may wonder about their potential role in generating magnetic fields. Stokes V spectra collected with the low-resolution FORS2 and high-resolution ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters were therefore used to search for magnetic fields in 15 interacting or post-interaction massive binaries. No magnetic field was detected in any of them, with 0 G always being within 2σ of the derived values. For 17 out of 25 stars in the systems observed at high-resolution, the 90% upper limit on the individual dipolar fields is below the dipolar field strength of Plaskett's secondary; a similar result is found for five out of six systems observed at low resolution. If our sample is considered to form a group of stars sharing similar magnetic properties, a global statistical analysis results in a stringent upper limit of ˜200 G on the dipolar field strength. Moreover, the magnetic incidence rate in the full sample of interacting or post-interaction systems (our targets + Plaskett's star) is compatible with that measured from large surveys, showing that they are not significantly different from the general O-star population. These results suggest that binary interactions play no systematic role in the magnetism of such massive systems.
From Observable Behaviors to Structures of Interaction in Binary Games of Strategic Complements
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Tomás Rodríguez Barraquer
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Consider a setting in which agents can take one of two ordered actions and in which the incentive to take the high action increases in the number of other agents taking it. Furthermore, assume that we do not know anything else about the game being played. What can we say about the details of the interaction between actions and incentives when we observe a set or a subset of all possible equilibria? In this paper, we study this question by exploring three nested classes of games: (a binary games of strategic complements; (b games in (a that admit a network representation; and (c games in (b in which the network is complete. Our main results are the following: It has long been established in the literature that the set of pure strategy Nash equilibria of any binary game of strategic complements among a set, N, of agents can be seen as a lattice on the set of all subsets of N under the partial order defined by the set inclusion relation (C. If the game happens to be strict in the sense that agents are never indifferent among outcomes (games in (a, then the resulting lattice of equilibria satisfies a straightforward sparseness condition. (1 We show that, in fact, for each such lattice, L, there is a game in (a, such that its set of equilibria is L (we say that such a game expresses L; (2 We show that there exists a game in (b, whose set of equilibria contains a given collection, C, of subsets of N, if and only C satisfies the sparseness condition, and the smallest game in (a expressing C is trade robust; (3 We show that there exists a game on the complete graph (games in (c, whose set of equilibria coincides with some collection, C, if and only if C is a chain satisfying the sparseness condition.
Wind-jet interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries
Zdziarski, Andrzej
2016-07-01
Jets in high-mass X-ray binaries can strongly interact with the stellar wind from the donor. The interaction leads, in particular, to formation of recollimation shocks. The shocks can then accelerate electrons in the jet and lead to enhanced emission, observable in the radio and gamma-ray bands. DooSoo, Zdziarski & Heinz (2016) have formulated a condition on the maximum jet power (as a function of the jet velocity and wind rate and velocity) at which such shocks form. This criterion can explain the large difference in the radio and gamma-ray loudness between Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The orbital modulation of radio emission observed in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 allows a measurement of the location of the height along the jet where the bulk of emission at a given frequency occurs. Strong absorption of X-rays in the wind of Cyg X-3 is required to account for properties of the correlation of the radio emission with soft and hard X-rays. That absorption can also account for the unusual spectral and timing X-ray properties of this source.
Binary drop interaction on surfaces: onset and bounding ligaments of Crescent-Moon fragmentation
Bourouiba, Lydia; Wang, Yongji
2016-11-01
Drop impacts on surfaces can splash and create secondary droplets. These have important implications for industrial, environmental, and health processes such as air contamination by secondary pathogen-bearing droplets shaping disease transmission. Most studies of splash on surfaces have focused on the impact of one drop on a dry surface. Nevertheless, the outcome of impacts by spray or rain are shaped by the presence of adjacent sessile drops on the surface. Recently, in the context of rain and spray-induced disease transmission in crops, one particular binary drop interaction, the crescent-moon splash, was identified as a frequent and efficient source of secondary droplets (Gilet and Bourouiba ICB 2014 and JRSI 2015). The crescent-moon results from the interaction of an impacting drop with a sessile drop in the neighborhood of the impact point. Here, we report and rationalize the existence of a critical transition of impact parameters that enables the crescent-moon fragmentation to emerge. We also report and rationalize the peculiar, yet universal emergence of two bounding ligaments that are important in shaping the crescent-moon sheet.
Effects of thermodynamic profiles on the interaction of binary tropical cyclones
Jang, Wook; Chun, Hye-Yeong
2015-09-01
The interactions between idealized binary tropical cyclones (TCs) on f and β planes with different separation distance and thermodynamic soundings obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data averaged over the western North Pacific are investigated through ensemble three-dimensional numerical simulations with a horizontal resolution of 10 km in a single domain. In the simulations on the f plane, two TCs show mutual cyclonic rotations with symmetric structures. Two TCs with thermodynamic profiles of larger convective available potential energy (CAPE) and maximum potential intensity (MPI) show greater interaction than those with a smaller CAPE and MPI due to the stronger tangential velocity near the TC center. In the simulations on the β plane, the two TCs do not merge, because the beta effect prevents the attraction of the two TCs by generating asymmetric motions of the TC with northwestward forcing. The relative strengths of the two TCs change with time and depend on the low-level inflow influenced by the Coriolis parameter. Similar to the results on the f plane, the two TCs only merge with the thermodynamic soundings of large CAPE and MPI.
Interaction behavior between binary xCe-yNd alloy and HT9
Kim, Jun Hwan; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, June Hyung
2016-10-01
Studies were carried out to investigate the role of Ce and Nd, contained inside metal fuel during reactor operation, and their effect on the Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interaction (FCCI) phenomenon, which limits fuel performance in the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Binary model alloys of xCe-yNd were manufactured, and then diffusion couple tests with HT9 (12Cr-1MoWV) ferritic-martensitic cladding material were carried out at a temperature of 660 °C for up to 25 h. The results showed that both Ce and Nd reacted with Fe in the cladding material to form an interaction layer. Analysis of the microstructure and reaction kinetics revealed that Fe in the cladding material rapidly migrates into Ce to form eutectic reaction, leaving a Fe depleted zone, in which Ce substitutes. In the case of Nd element, a typical solid-solid diffusion process governed to form a Fe17Nd2 type intermetallic compound. Synergism between Ce and Nd occurred so that the reaction thickness was increased, reaching the maximum reaction thickness in the case of the xCe-yNd alloy, whose composition was nearly 1:1.
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
Complicated Structure of Interacting Young Binary System: Outflows and Gas-Streams
Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, M.; Beck, T. L.; Chris, C. J.; Takami, M.
2014-07-01
It is important to understand the formation and evolution of the young binary system because many young stars are born in binary or multiple systems. We report recent discovery of binary jet and wind from UY Aur system with high-angular resolution observation by using NIFS (NIR Integral Field Spectrograph) /GEMINI combined with adaptive optics system, Altair. The primary, UY Aur A, reveals widely opened wind while the secondary, UY Aur B, shows small jets in NIR [Fe II] emission. Outflows from low-mass young binary or multiple systems have been observed from a few tens of samples. Outflows are closely related mass accretion. Many simulations show an accretion flow toward the individual circumstellar disks from the outer circumbinary disk as well as a stream bridge between the circumstellar disks. We will discuss how to use TMT and ALMA for anatomy of young binary systems.
Interactive Encoding and Decoding Based on Binary LDPC Codes with Syndrome Accumulation
Meng, Jin
2012-01-01
Interactive encoding and decoding based on binary low-density parity-check codes with syndrome accumulation (SA-LDPC-IED) is proposed and investigated. Assume that the source alphabet is $\\mathbf{GF}(2)$, and the side information alphabet is finite. It is first demonstrated how to convert any classical universal lossless code $\\mathcal{C}_n$ (with block length $n$ and side information available to both the encoder and decoder) into a universal SA-LDPC-IED scheme. It is then shown that with the word error probability approaching 0 sub-exponentially with $n$, the compression rate (including both the forward and backward rates) of the resulting SA-LDPC-IED scheme is upper bounded by a functional of that of $\\mathcal{C}_n$, which in turn approaches the compression rate of $\\mathcal{C}_n$ for each and every individual sequence pair $(x^n,y^n)$ and the conditional entropy rate $\\mathrm{H}(X |Y)$ for any stationary, ergodic source and side information $(X, Y)$ as the average variable node degree $\\bar{l}$ of the und...
[Fe II] emissions associated with the young interacting binary UY Aurige
Pyo, Tae-Soo; Beck, Tracy; Davis, Christopher J; Takami, Michihiro
2014-01-01
We present high resolution 1.06 -- 1.28 micron spectra toward the interacting binary UY Aur obtained with GEMINI/NIFS and the AO system Altair. We have detected [FeII] $\\lambda$~1.257 micron and [He I] $\\lambda$~1.083 micron lines from both UY Aur A (the primary source) and UY Aur B (the secondary). In [Fe II] UY Aur A drives fast and widely opening outflows with an opening angle of ~ 90 degree along a position angle of ~40 degree, while UY Aur B is associated with a redshifted knot. The blueshifted and redshifted emissions show complicated structure between the primary and secondary. The radial velocities of the [Fe II] emission features are similar for UY Aur A and B: ~ -100 km/s for the blueshifted emission and ~ +130 km/s for the red-shifted component. The [He I] line profile observed toward UY Aur A comprises a central emission feature with deep absorptions at both blueshifted and redshifted velocities. These absorption features may be explained by stellar wind models. The [He I] line profile of UY Aur B...
HD 85567: A Herbig B[e] star or an interacting B[e] binary
Wheelwright, H E; Garatti, A Caratti o; Lopez, R Garcia
2013-01-01
Context. HD 85567 is an enigmatic object exhibiting the B[e] phenomenon, i.e. an infrared excess and forbidden emission lines in the optical. The object's evolutionary status is uncertain and there are conflicting claims that it is either a young stellar object or an evolved, interacting binary. Aims. To elucidate the reason for the B[e] behaviour of HD 85567, we have observed it with the VLTI and AMBER. Methods. Our observations were conducted in the K-band with moderate spectral resolution (R~1500, i.e. 200 km/s). The spectrum of HD 85567 exhibits Br gamma and CO overtone bandhead emission. The interferometric data obtained consist of spectrally dispersed visibilities, closure phases and differential phases across these spectral features and the K-band continuum. Results. The closure phase observations do not reveal evidence of asymmetry. The apparent size of HD 85567 in the K-band was determined by fitting the visibilities with a ring model. The best fitting radius, 0.8 +/- 0.3 AU, is relatively small maki...
[Fe II] emissions associated with the young interacting binary UY Aurigae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyo, Tae-Soo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hayashi, Masahiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beck, Tracy L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Davis, Christopher J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Takami, Michihiro, E-mail: pyo@subaru.naoj.org [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2014-05-01
We present high-resolution 1.06-1.28 μm spectra toward the interacting binary UY Aur obtained with GEMINI/NIFS and the adaptive optics system Altair. We have detected [Fe II] λ1.257 μm and He I λ1.083 μm lines from both UY Aur A (the primary source) and UY Aur B (the secondary). In [Fe II] UY Aur A drives fast and widely opening outflows with an opening angle of ∼90° along a position angle of ∼40°, while UY Aur B is associated with a redshifted knot. The blueshifted and redshifted emissions show a complicated structure between the primary and secondary. The radial velocities of the [Fe II] emission features are similar for UY Aur A and B: ∼ –100 km s{sup –1} for the blueshifted emission and ∼ +130 km s{sup –1} for the redshifted component. The He I line profile observed toward UY Aur A comprises a central emission feature with deep absorptions at both blueshifted and redshifted velocities. These absorption features may be explained by stellar wind models. The He I line profile of UY Aur B shows only an emission feature.
Budaj, Jan
2011-01-01
Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, ufo, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. $\\epsilon$ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed dark, inclined, disk of dust with the central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks. Internal optically thi...
Reduced order model for binary neutron star waveforms with tidal interactions
Lackey, Benjamin; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Galley, Chad
2016-03-01
Observations of inspiralling binary neutron star (BNS) systems with Advanced LIGO can be used to determine the unknown neutron-star equation of state by measuring the phase shift in the gravitational waveform due to tidal interactions. Unfortunately, this requires computationally efficient waveform models for use in parameter estimation codes that typically require 106-107 sequential waveform evaluations, as well as accurate waveform models with phase errors less than 1 radian over the entire inspiral to avoid systematic errors in the measured tidal deformability. The effective one body waveform model with l = 2 , 3, and 4 tidal multipole moments is currently the most accurate model for BNS systems, but takes several minutes to evaluate. We develop a reduced order model of this waveform by constructing separate orthonormal bases for the amplitude and phase evolution. We find that only 10-20 bases are needed to reconstruct any BNS waveform with a starting frequency of 10 Hz. The coefficients of these bases are found with Chebyshev interpolation over the waveform parameter space. This reduced order model has maximum errors of 0.2 radians, and results in a speedup factor of more than 103, allowing parameter estimation codes to run in days to weeks rather than decades.
Hillwig, Todd; De Marco, Orsola; Bond, Howard; Margheim, Steve; Frew, David
2016-01-01
A current issue in the study of planetary nebulae with close binary central stars is the extent to which the binaries affect the shaping of the nebulae. Recent studies have begun to show a high coincidence rate between nebulae with large-scale axial or point symmetries and close binary stars. In addition, combined binary-star and spatio-kinematic modeling of the nebulae have demonstrated that all of the systems studied to date appear to have their central binary axis aligned with the primary axis of the nebula. Here we add two more systems to the list, the central stars and nebulae of NGC 6337 and Sp 1. We show both systems to be low inclination, with their binary axis nearly aligned with our line-of-sight. Their inclinations match published values for the inclinations of their surrounding nebulae. Including these two systems with the existing sample statistically demonstrates a direct link between the central binary and the nebular morphology. In addition to the systems' inclinations we give ranges for other...
Evolution of intermediate mass and massive binary stars: physics, mass loss, and rotation
Vanbeveren, D
2016-01-01
In the present review we discuss the past and present status of the interacting OB-type binary frequency. We critically examine the popular idea that Be-stars and supergiant sgB[e] stars are binary evolutionary products. The effects of rotation on stellar evolution in general, stellar population studies in particular, and the link with binaries will be evaluated. Finally a discussion is presented of massive double compact star binary mergers as possible major sites of chemical enrichment of r-process elements and as the origin of recent aLIGO GW events.
Runaway Massive Binaries and Cluster Ejection Scenarios
McSwain, M V; Boyajian, T S; Grundstrom, E D; Roberts, M S E; Ransom, Scott M.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Grundstrom, Erika D.
2006-01-01
The production of runaway massive binaries offers key insights into the evolution of close binary stars and open clusters. The stars HD 14633 and HD 15137 are rare examples of such runaway systems, and in this work we investigate the mechanism by which they were ejected from their parent open cluster, NGC 654. We discuss observational characteristics that can be used to distinguish supernova ejected systems from those ejected by dynamical interactions, and we present the results of a new radio pulsar search of these systems as well as estimates of their predicted X-ray flux assuming that each binary contains a compact object. Since neither pulsars nor X-ray emission are observed in these systems, we cannot conclude that these binaries contain compact companions. We also consider whether they may have been ejected by dynamical interactions in the dense environment where they formed, and our simulations of four-body interactions suggest that a dynamical origin is possible but unlikely. We recommend further X-ra...
Gyergyovits, M; Lohinger, E Pilat -; Theis, Ch
2014-01-01
Context. More than 60 planets have been discovered so far in systems that harbour two stars, some of which have binary semi-major axes as small as 20 au. It is well known that the formation of planets in such systems is strongly influenced by the stellar components, since the protoplanetary disc and the particles within are exposed to the gravitational influence of the binary. However, the question on how self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies a?ect the evolution of a radiative, circumprimary disc is still open. Aims. We present our 2D hydrodynamical GPU-CPU code and study the interaction of several thousands of self-gravitating particles with a viscous and radiative circumprimary disc within a binary star system. To our knowledge this program is the only one at the moment that is capable to handle this many particles and to calculate their influence on each other and on the disc. Methods. We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a circumstellar disc assuming the binary system to be coplanar. Our gridbased ...
Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F A
2009-01-01
We investigate the secular evolution of the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity due to mass transfer in eccentric binaries, allowing for both mass and angular momentum loss from the system. Adopting a delta function mass transfer rate at the periastron of the binary orbit, we find that, depending on the initial binary properties at the onset of mass transfer, the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity can either increase or decrease at a rate linearly proportional to the magnitude of the mass transfer rate at periastron. The range of initial binary mass ratios and eccentricities that leads to increasing orbital semi-major axes and eccentricities broadens with increasing degrees of mass loss from the system and narrows with increasing orbital angular momentum loss from the binary. Comparison with tidal evolution timescales shows that the usual assumption of rapid circularization at the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries is not justified, irrespective of the degree of systemic mass and angular ...
Chun, Howard; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Ciardi, David; Hoard, Don; Howell, Steve; Stefaniak, Linda; Thomas, , Beth
2006-03-01
During the first year of the Spitzer Space Telescope Observing Program for Students and Teachers, our team observed a small sample of short orbital period interacting white dwarf binaries. Our scientific investigation was aimed at detection and characterization of the low mass, cool, brown dwarf-like mass donors in these systems. We used the Infrared Array Camera to obtain photometric observations of the polars EF Eri, GG Leo, V347 Pav, and RX J0154.0-5947 at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. In all our targets, we detected excess emission in the 3-8 micron region over that expected from a brown dwarf alone. One of the exciting discoveries we made with our IRAC observations is that the star EF Eri was found to be unexpectedly bright in the mid-IR (compared to its 2MASS magnitudes). This fact highlights an opportunity for us to observe EF Eri with the IRS as a follow-up proposal. EF Eri has a flux level of ~700 ?Jy at 8 microns. Thus, we are asking for time to obtain IRS data for only this star, our brightest source. We plan to obtain SL1 (7.4-14.5 microns) and SL2 (5.2-8.7 microns) spectroscopy only. We know the IRAC fluxes so our integration toies are well constrained and the spectral region covered by SL1, SL2 will yield sufficient S/N to differentiate between cool dust (rising BB like spectrum with PAH and other molecular features allowing us to determine dust size, temperature, and disk extent) and a T type dwarf showing characteristic spectral signatures and a falling Rayleigh-Jeans tail.
Iaconi, Roberto; Staff, Jan; De Marco, Orsola; Passy, Jean-Claude; Price, Daniel; Wurster, James
2016-01-01
We present hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope binary interaction between a giant star and a compact companion with an adaptive mesh refinement and a smooth particle hydrodynamics codes. These simulations mimic the parameters of one of the simulations by Passy et al., but start with a wider orbital separation to assess the influence of a larger initial orbital separation on the common envelope simulation outcome. We conclude that the post-common envelope separation is somewhat larger and the amount of unbound mass slightly greater when the initial separation is wide enough that the giant does not yet overflow or just overflows its Roche lobe. By setting our simulations in the context of those carried out in the past that contain at least one giant star, we conclude the following: the reason for the larger final orbital separation in simulations starting with a wider orbital separation has more to do with the expanded giant at the time of in-spiral and less to do with a larger amount of angular mom...
Migliari, S.; Tomsick, J.A.; Maccarone, T.J.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R. P.; Nelemans, G; Russell, D. M.
2006-01-01
Spitzer observations of the neutron star (ultracompact) X-ray binary (XRB) 4U 0614+091 with the Infrared Array Camera reveal emission of nonthermal origin in the range 3.5-8 mum. The mid-infrared spectrum is well fit by a power law with spectral index of alpha=-0.57+/-0.04 (where the flux density is Fnu~nualpha). Given the ultracompact nature of the binary system, we exclude the possibility that either the companion star or the accretion disk can be the origin of the observed emission. These ...
RIEPMA, KA; LERK, CF; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; KUSSENDRAGER, KD
1990-01-01
Binary powder mixtures of four different types of crystalline lactose: alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous alpha-lactose, roller-dried beta-lactose and crystalline beta-lactose, were compressed into tablets. The results showed a proportional intercorrelation of the crushing strength and internal sp
Migliari, S.; Tomsick, J.A.; Maccarone, T.J.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R.P.; Nelemans, G.; Russell, D.M.
2006-01-01
Spitzer observations of the neutron star (ultracompact) X-ray binary (XRB) 4U 0614+091 with the Infrared Array Camera reveal emission of nonthermal origin in the range 3.5-8 mum. The mid-infrared spectrum is well fit by a power law with spectral index of alpha=-0.57+/-0.04 (where the flux density is
de Mink, S E; Izzard, R G; Sana, H; de Koter, A
2012-01-01
Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars, especially at low metallicity, with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux and final fate. The natal rotation-rate distribution of stars is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive star formation and as input for models of stellar populations in the local Universe and at high redshift. Recently, it has become clear that the majority of massive stars interact with a binary companion before they die. We investigate how this affects the distribution of rotation rates. For this purpose, we simulate a massive binary-star population typical for our Galaxy assuming continuous star formation. We find that, because of binary interaction, 20^+5_-10% of all massive main-sequence stars have projected rotational velocities in excess of 200km/s. We evaluate the effect of uncertain input distributions and physical processes and conclude that the main uncertainties are the mass transfer efficiency an...
Chen, Jian-Xin; Hu, Peng; Chen, Ze-Shao
2008-12-01
The Peng-Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules was used to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for HFC/HC, HFC/HFC, and HC/HC binary mixtures. The interaction parameter k ij was obtained for every binary mixture. It was assumed that k ij has contributions from the two components, and each component has its own constant contribution factor k i for the mixture, and the values of k ij indicate the degree in difference of properties between the two components. Therefore, the interaction parameters k ij is proposed as: k ij = k i - k j . The values of the mixing factor k i for Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrocarbons (HCs), including propane, isobutane, n-butane, R23, R32, R125, R143a, R134a, R152a, R227ea R236fa, R236ea, and R245fa, were obtained by least-square fitting. In total, 39 refrigerant binary mixtures were analyzed on the basis of this method, and the results showed good agreement with experimental data. The overall average absolute deviations of pressure and vapor mole fraction are 1.3 % and 0.0089, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Ubagaramary
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Molecular interaction studies using ultrasonic technique in the binary liquid mixtures of 4 –Methyl-2-pentanone With Butan-2-One,Furfuraldehyde and Cyclohexanonehas been carried out at different temperature. Using the measured values of ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity, acoustical parameters and their excess values are evaluated. From these excess parametersare used to discussing about the nature and strength of the interactions in these binary systems.
Thanuja, B; Kanagam, Charles; Sreedevi, S
2011-11-01
Density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (u) of binary mixtures of methyl orange and water were measured at different concentrations and at different temperatures; several useful parameters such as excess volume, excess velocity, and excess adiabatic compressibility have been calculated. These parameters are used to explain the nature of intermolecular interactions taking place in the binary mixture. The above study is helpful in understanding the dye/solvent interaction at different concentration and temperatures.
Non-compact QED(3) coupled to a four-fermi interaction
Kogut, J B; Tziligakis, I N
2005-01-01
We present preliminary numerical results for the three dimensional non-compact QED with a weak four-fermion term in the lattice action. Approaches based on Schwinger-Dyson studies, arguments based on thermodynamic inequalities and numerical simulations lead to estimates of the critical number of fermion flavors (below which chiral symmetry is broken) ranging from $N_{fc}=1$ to $N_{fc}=4$. The weak four-fermion coupling provides the framework for an improved algorithm, which allows us to simulate the chiral limit of massless fermions and expose delicate effects.
Rotkiewicz, Krystyna; Rettig, Wolfgang; Köhler, Gottfried; Rechthaler, Karl; Danel, Andrzej; Grabka, Danuta
2004-12-01
Some extended electron donor and acceptor substituted π-electron systems, composed of a dimethyl- or diethylanilino (DMA or DEA, respectively) group as electron donor and bis-pyrazoloquinoline (DPPQ) or bis-pyrazolopyridine (DMPP) derivatives as acceptors, were studied with the aim to elucidate the contributions of various solute interactions with solvent molecules upon intramolecular charge separation. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies were performed for DMA-DPPQ, DMA-DMPP and DEA-DMPP in alcohols and their binary mixtures with heptane. The decay kinetics of the fluorescence of DMA-DPPQ was also studied in neat 1-propanol in dependence of the temperature between 170 and 293 K. Several different fluorescent species, which were ascribed to different complexes with alcohol molecules, contribute to the fluorescence of the various compounds in these binary mixtures and account for the complex fluorescence decay. A simplified consecutive model is proposed to explain the decay behaviour of the excited species.
Effects of drug-carrier interactions on drug dissolution from binary and ternary matrices
Iqbal, Zafar
For nearly five decades, pharmaceutical researchers have studied solid solutions of drugs in polymers as a potential means to enhance the dissolution of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. This has become of greater importance in recent years because most new potential drug compounds (new chemical entities) exhibit poor water solubility and present great challenges to scientists who must design dosage forms from which the drugs are bioavailable. During the formulation of a solid solution, the drug undergoes physical but not chemical alterations that increase its chemical potential in the formulation relative to that of the pure drug in its stable form. This increased chemical potential is responsible for enhanced dissolution as well as physical instabilities, such as amorphous to crystalline conversions and precipitation within the solid state. The chemical potential is derived from the Gibbs free energy, so it is reasonable to explain the behavior of solid solution systems in terms of thermodynamics. Solid solutions and dispersions have been extensively studied by pharmaceutical scientists, both with regard to manufacturing aspects and the proposal of various models in attempts to explain the physical bases for how these systems work. Recently, Dave and Bellantone proposed a model based on the thermodynamic changes resulting from the formulation of binary solid solutions of a drug in the polymer PVP. Their model introduced a modification of the F-H theory, which was used to quantify the drug-polymer interaction energies and calculate the entropy of mixing of the drug and polymer. In this work, the model of Dave and Bellantone was extended to include three-component systems, consisting of one drug mixed in a carrier matrix consisting of mixture of two polymers or a polymer and a surfactant. For this research, solid solutions were formed using various drug weight fractions in the formulations. The study focused on the following points: (1) Prepare solid solution
Radionuclide interaction with clays in dilute and heavily compacted systems: a critical review.
Miller, Andrew W; Wang, Yifeng
2012-02-21
Given the unique properties of clays (i.e., low permeability and high ion sorption/exchange capacity), clays or clay formations have been proposed either as an engineered material or as a geologic medium for nuclear waste isolation and disposal. A credible evaluation of such disposal systems relies on the ability to predict the behavior of these materials under a wide range of thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMc) conditions. Current model couplings between THM and chemical processes are simplistic and limited in scope. This review focuses on the uptake of radionuclides onto clay materials as controlled by mineral composition, structure, and texture (e.g., pore size distribution), and emphasizes the connections between sorption chemistry and mechanical compaction. Variable uptake behavior of an array of elements has been observed on various clays as a function of increasing compaction due to changes in pore size and structure, hydration energy, and overlapping electric double layers. The causes for this variability are divided between "internal" (based on the fundamental structure and composition of the clay minerals) and "external" (caused by a force external to the clay). New techniques need to be developed to exploit known variations in clay mineralogy to separate internal from external effects.
Galaxy Interactions in Compact Groups I : The Galactic Winds of HCG16
Vogt, Frédéric P A; Kewley, Lisa J
2013-01-01
Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we have undertaken a series of observations of star-forming galaxies in Compact Groups. In this first paper dedicated to the project, we present the analysis of the spiral galaxy NGC838, a member of the Hickson Compact Group 16, and of its galactic wind. Our observations reveal that the wind forms an asymmetric, bipolar, rotating structure, powered by a nuclear starburst. Emission line ratio diagnostics indicate that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism at the base of the wind. Mixing from slow shocks (up to 20%) increases further out along the outflow axis. The asymmetry of the wind is most likely caused by one of the two lobes of the wind bubble bursting out of its HI envelope, as indicated by line ratios and radial velocity maps. The characteristics of this galactic wind suggest that it is caught early (a few Myr) in the wind evolution sequence. The wind is also quite different to the galactic wind in the partner galaxy NGC839 which contains a sy...
Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F A
2010-01-01
The rapid circularization and synchronization of the stellar components in an eccentric binary system at the onset of mass transfer is a fundamental assumption common to all binary stellar evolution and population synthesis codes, even though the validity of this assumption is questionable both theoretically and observationally. Here we calculate the evolution of the orbital elements of an eccentric binary through the direct three-body integration of a massive particle ejected through the inner Lagrangian point of the donor star at periastron. The trajectory of this particle leads to three possible outcomes: direct accretion onto the companion star within a single orbit, self-accretion back onto the donor star within a single orbit, or a quasi-periodic orbit around the companion star, possibly leading to the formation of a disk. We calculate the secular evolution of the binary orbit in the first two cases and conclude that direct impact accretion can increase as well as decrease the orbital semi-major axis an...
Wei, S.Y.; Tan, W.F.; Zhao, W.; Yu, Y.T.; Liu, F.; Koopal, L.K.
2012-01-01
Goethite and kaolinite are ubiquitous in natural environments. In soils they are often cemented together as a binary association, which has a significant influence on the structure and properties of soils. In this study, the mineralogy (using X-ray diffraction [XRD], thermal analyses, and infrared a
Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan
2010-07-15
The method presented in this paper was developed to predict liquid-liquid equilibria in ternary liquid mixtures by using a combination of a thermodynamic model and molecular dynamics simulations. In general, common classical thermodynamic models have many parameters which are determined by fitting a model with experimental data. This proposed method, however, provides a simple procedure for calculating liquid-liquid equilibria utilizing binary interaction parameters and molecular size parameters determined from molecular dynamics simulations. This method was applied to mixtures containing water, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorides, ketones, acids, and other organic liquids over various temperature ranges. The predicted results agree well with the experimental data without the use of adjustable parameters.
Liu, F K
2004-01-01
A supermassive black hole binary may form during galaxy mergering. we investigate the interaction of the supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) and an accretion disk and show that the detected X-shaped structure in some FRII radio galaxies may be due to the interaction-realignment of inclined binary and accretion disk occurred within the pc scale of the galaxy center. We compare in detail the model and observations and show that the configuration is consistent very well with the observations of X-shaped radio sources. X-shaped radio feature form only in FRII radio sources due to the strong interaction between the binary and a standard disk, while the absence of X-shaped FRI radio galaxies is due to that the interaction between the binary and the radiatively inefficient accretion flow in FRI radio sources is negligible. It is suggested that the binary would keep misaligned with the outer disk for most of the life time of FRII radio galaxies and the orientation of jet in most FRII radio galaxies distributes r...
Reig, Pablo
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...
Tidal Interaction among Red Giants Close Binary Systems in APOGEE Database
Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Majewski, Steven R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Weinberg, Nevin N.
2017-01-01
Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), the tidal evolution of binaries containing a red giant branch (RGB) star with a stellar or substellar companion was investigated. The tide raised by the companion in the RGB star leads to exchange of angular momentum between the orbit and the stellar spin, causing the orbit to contract. The tidal dissipation rate is computed using turbulent viscosity acting on the equilibrium tidal flow, where careful attention is paid to the effects of reduced viscosity for close-in companions. Evolutionary models for the RGB stars, from the zero-age main sequence to the present, were acquired from the MESA code. "Standard" turbulent viscosity gives rise to such a large orbital decay that many observed systems have decay times much shorter than the RGB evolution time. Several theories for "reduced" turbulent viscosity are investigated, and reduce the number of systems with uncomfortably short decay times.
A semi-relativistic model for tidal interactions in BH-NS coalescing binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, V; Gualtieri, L; Pannarale, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G Marconi' , Sapienza Universita di Roma and Sezione INFN ROMA1, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)
2009-06-21
We study the tidal effects of a Kerr black hole on a neutron star in black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binary systems by using a semi-analytical approach which describes the neutron star as a deformable ellipsoid. Relativistic effects on the neutron star self-gravity are taken into account by employing a scalar potential resulting from relativistic stellar structure equations. We calculate quasi-equilibrium sequences of BH-NS binaries and the critical orbital separation at which the star is disrupted by the black hole tidal field: the latter quantity is of particular interest because when it is greater than the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit, a short gamma-ray burst scenario may develop.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Resta-Lopez, J; Burrows, P N; Christian, G, E-mail: j.restalopez@physics.ox.ac.u [John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
2010-09-15
To achieve the design luminosity at future linear colliders, control of beam stability at the sub-nanometre level at the interaction point will be necessary. Any source of beam motion which results in relative vertical offsets of the two beams at the interaction point may significantly reduce the luminosity from the nominal value. Beam-based intra-train feedback systems located in the interaction region are foreseen to correct the relative beam-beam offset and thus to steer the two beams into collision. These feedback systems must be capable of acting within the bunch train. In addition, these feedback systems might considerably help to relax the tight stability tolerances required for the final doublet magnets. For the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), the extremely short nominal bunch spacing (0.5 ns) and very short nominal pulse duration (156 ns) make the intra-train feedback implementation technically very challenging. In this paper the conceptual design of an intra-train feedback system for the CLIC interaction point is described. Results of luminosity performance simulations are presented and discussed for different scenarios of ground motion. We also show how the intra-train feedback system can help to relax the very tight tolerances of the vertical vibration on the CLIC final doublet quadrupoles.
Physical parameters and evolutionary route for the LMC interacting binary OGLE 05155332-6925581
Garrido, Hernán; Djuraŝevic, Gojko; Kołaczkowski, Zbigniew; Niemzcura, Ewa; Mennekens, Nicki
2012-01-01
We analyze multicolor light curves and high resolution optical spectroscopy of the eclipsing binary and Double Periodic Variable OGLE 05155332-6925581. According to Mennickent et al., this system shows a significant change in the long non-orbital photometric cycle, a loop in the color-magnitude diagram during this cycle and discrete spectral absorption components that were interpreted as evidence of systemic mass loss. We find that the best fit to the multi-band light curves requires a circumprimary optically thick disc with a radius about twice the radius of the more massive star. The spectroscopy indicates a mass ratio of 0.21+-0.02 and masses for the hot and cool stars of 9.1+-0.5 and 1.9+-0.2 M_sun, respectively. A comparison with synthetic binary-star evolutionary models indicates that the system has an age of 4.76E7 years, is in the phase of rapid mass transfer, the second one in the life of this binary, in a Case-B mass-exchange stage. Donor-subtracted H_alpha profiles show the presence of double emiss...
Evolution of Mass Functions of Coeval Stars through Wind Mass Loss and Binary Interactions
Schneider, F R N; Langer, N; de Mink, S E
2015-01-01
Accurate determinations of stellar mass functions and ages of stellar populations are crucial to much of astrophysics. We analyse the evolution of stellar mass functions of coeval main sequence stars including all relevant aspects of single- and binary-star evolution. We show that the slope of the upper part of the mass function in a stellar cluster can be quite different to the slope of the initial mass function. Wind mass loss from massive stars leads to an accumulation of stars which is visible as a peak at the high mass end of mass functions, thereby flattening the mass function slope. Mass accretion and mergers in close binary systems create a tail of rejuvenated binary products. These blue straggler stars extend the single star mass function by up to a factor of two in mass and can appear up to ten times younger than their parent stellar cluster. Cluster ages derived from their most massive stars that are close to the turn-off may thus be significantly biased. To overcome such difficulties, we propose t...
MERLIN radio detection of an interaction zone within a binary Orion proplyd system
Graham, M F; Garrington, S T; O'Brien, T J; Henney, W J; O'Dell, C R
2002-01-01
Presented here are high angular resolution MERLIN 5 GHz (6 cm) continuum observations of the binary proplyd system, LV 1 in the Orion nebula, which consists of proplyd 168--326SE and its binary proplyd companion 168--326NW (separation 0.4 arcsec). Accurate astrometric alignment allows a detailed comparison between these data and published HST PC Halpha and [Oiii] images. Thermal radio sources coincide with the two proplyds and originate in the ionized photoevaporating flows seen in the optical emission lines. Flow velocities of approx 50 km/s from the ionized proplyd surfaces and \\geq 100 km/s from a possible micro-jet have been detected using the Manchester Echelle spectrometer. A third radio source is found to coincide with a region of extended, high excitation, optical line emission that lies between the binary proplyds 168--326SE/326NW . This is modelled as a bowshock due to the collision of the photoevaporating flows from the two proplyds. Both a thermal and a non-thermal origin for the radio emission in...
Critical Casimir interactions around the consolute point of a binary solvent.
Mohry, T F; Kondrat, S; Maciołek, A; Dietrich, S
2014-08-14
Spatial confinement of a near-critical medium changes its fluctuation spectrum and modifies the corresponding order parameter distribution, resulting in effective, so-called critical Casimir forces (CCFs) acting on the confining surfaces. These forces are attractive for like boundary conditions of the order parameter at the opposing surfaces of the confinement. For colloidal particles dissolved in a binary liquid mixture acting as a solvent close to its critical point of demixing, one thus expects the emergence of phase segregation into equilibrium colloidal liquid and gas phases. We analyze how such phenomena occur asymmetrically in the whole thermodynamic neighborhood of the consolute point of the binary solvent. By applying field-theoretical methods within mean-field approximation and the semi-empirical de Gennes-Fisher functional, we study the CCFs acting between planar parallel walls as well as between two spherical colloids and their dependence on temperature and on the composition of the near-critical binary mixture. We find that for compositions slightly poor in the molecules preferentially adsorbed at the surfaces, the CCFs are significantly stronger than at the critical composition, thus leading to pronounced colloidal segregation. The segregation phase diagram of the colloid solution following from the calculated effective pair potential between the colloids agrees surprisingly well with experiments and simulations.
The effect of interacting binaries on the chemical evolution of Globular Clusters
Vanbeveren, D; De Greve, J P
2011-01-01
The chemical processes during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) evolution of intermediate mass single stars (IMSSs) predict most of the observations of the different populations in globular clusters (GCs) although some important issues still need to be further clarified. In particular, to reproduce the observed anticorrelations of Na-O and Al-Mg and the helium distribution function, chemically enriched gas lost during the AGB phase of IMSSs must be mixed by pristine matter. The source of this pristine gas is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, observations reveal that a significant fraction of the intermediate mass and massive stars are born as components of close binaries. We will investigate the effects of binaries on the chemical evolution of GCs and on the origin of pristine matter that is needed for the single star AGB scenario to work. We use a population number synthesis code that accounts for all known binary physics in order to estimate the amount and the nature of the matter returned to the inter...
Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems
Ivanova, Natalia
2011-01-01
In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H
2004-04-01
As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo eLambrughi
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs are key regulatory proteins of the eukaryotic cell cycle, which modulate cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk activity. CKIs perform their inhibitory effect by the formation of ternary complexes with a target kinase and its cognate cyclin. These regulators generally belong to the class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs, which lack a well-defined and organized three-dimensional structure in their free state, undergoing folding upon binding to specific partners. Unbound IDPs are not merely random-coil structures, but can present intrinsically folded structural units (IFSUs and collapsed conformations. These structural features can be relevant to protein function in vivo.The yeast CKI Sic1 is a 284-amino acid IDP that binds to Cdk1 in complex with the Clb5,6 cyclins, preventing phosphorylation of G1 substrates and, therefore, entrance to the S phase. Sic1 degradation, triggered by multiple phosphorylation events, promotes cell-cycle progression. Previous experimental studies pointed out a propensity of Sic1 and its isolated domains to populate both extended and compact conformations. The present contribution provides models of the compact conformations of the Sic1 kinase-inhibitory domain (KID by all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent and in the absence of interactors. The results are integrated by spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Helical IFSUs are identified, along with networks of intramolecular interactions. The results identify a group of hub residues and electrostatic interactions which are likely to be involved in the stabilization of globular states.
Fujiwara, H; Nagae, T; Matsuda, T; Fujiwara, Hidekazu; Makita, Makoto; Nagae, Takizo; Matsuda, Takuya
2001-01-01
The hydrodynamic behavior of an accretion disk in a close binary system is numerically simulated. Calculation is made for a region including the compact star and the gas-supplying companion. The equation of state is that of an ideal gas characterized by the specific heat ratio $\\gamma$. Two cases with $\\gamma$ of 1.01 and 1.2 are studied. Our calculations show that the gas, flowing from the companion via a Lagrangian L1 point towards the accretion disk, forms a fine gas beam (L1 stream), which penetrates into the disk. No hot spot therefore forms in these calculations. Another fact discovered is that the gas rotating with the disk forms, on collision with the L1 stream, a bow shock wave, which may be called an L1 shock. The disk becomes hot because the L1 shock heats the disk gas in the outer parts of the disk, so that the spiral shocks wind loosely even with $\\gamma=1.01$. The L1 shock enhances the non-axisymmetry of the density distribution in the disk, and therefore the angular momentum transfer by the tid...
Nilavarasi, K; Kartha, Thejus R; Madhurima, V
2018-01-05
At low concentrations of methanol in a binary system of ethanol and methanol, uniquely complex molecular interactions are reported here. Previous studies indicate that ethanol molecules form aggregates held together by hydrogen bonding (O-H-O) and also dispersive forces. Addition of small amount of methanol tends to break the hydrogen bond network of ethanol due to the larger polarity of methanol. This leads to the ethanol molecules becoming somewhat isolated from each other within a scaffolding network of methanol molecules, as seen from the present molecular dynamics simulations. This is an indication of a repulsive force that dominates among the two different alcohols. At higher molar concentration of methanol (Xm > 0.3817), the strength and extent (number) of formation of hydrogen bonds between ethanol and methanol increase. The geometry of molecular structure at high concentration favors the fitting of component molecules with each other. Intermolecular interactions in the ethanol-methanol binary system over the entire concentration range were investigated in detail using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, surface tension and refractive index studies. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the hydrogen bond density is a direct function of the number of methanol molecules present, as the ethanol aggregates are not strictly hydrogen-bond constructed which is in agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sand, J.R.
1994-12-31
An analytical method is proposed for finding numerical values of binary interaction coefficients for non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures when the Lee-Kesler (LK) equation of state is applied. The method is based on solving simultaneous equations, which are Ploecker`s mixing rules for pseudocritical parameters of a mixture, and the Lee-Kesler equation for the saturation line. For a hydrocarbon mixture, the method allows prediction of {kappa}{sub ij} interaction coefficients (ICs) which are close to values obtained by processing experimental p-v-t data on the saturation line and subsequent averaging. For mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules containing from 2 to 9 carbon atoms, the divergence between calculated and experimentally based ICs is no more than {plus_minus}0.4%. The possibility of extending application of this method to other non-polar substances is discussed.
Basic Approaches of Complex Interaction DrumTerrain for Vibratory Compaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gigel Florin Capatana
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the author tries to use a new method to evaluate and analyze the interaction between roller and terrain. The analysis is rheological approached, with a predominantly dynamic behaviour, so as to reveal the compatibility of the working body performances with the characteristics of the terrain. The basic idea shows that it must be assured the energy transfer maximization in the interaction between the two components of the system. The model must have permanent and continuous adjustments of the material characteristics so it can be evaluated the technological capability. The fulfilling of these objectives will be provided by using a complex model with both distributed and concentrated elements which can have rheology of elastic, dissipative and plastic types. The first conclusions of the presented study goes to the idea that the harmonization of the basic parameters of the model with the experimental values can lead to structural and functional optimizations of the entire technological system.
Evidence of accretion triggered oscillations in the pre-main-sequence interacting binary AK Sco
de Castro, Ana I Gomez; Talavera, Antonio
2012-01-01
Pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries are surrounded by circumbinary disks from which matter falls onto both components. The material dragged from the circumbinary disk flows onto each star through independent streams channelled by the variable gravitational field. The action of the bar-like potential is most prominent in high eccentricity systems made of two equal mass stars. AK Sco is a unique PMS system composed of two F5 stars in an orbit with e=0.47. Henceforth, it is an ideal laboratory to study matter infall in binaries and its role in orbit circularization. In this letter, we report the detection of a 1.3mHz ultra low frequency oscillation in the ultraviolet light curve at periastron passage. This oscillation last 7 ks being most likely fed by the gravitational energy released when the streams tails spiralling onto each star get in contact at periastron passage enhancing the accretion flow; this unveils a new mechanism for angular momentum loss during pre-main sequence evolution and a new type of interacti...
Non-Ideal Behaviour and Solution Interactions in Binary DMSO Solutions.
Virk, Amninder S; Codling, Dale J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S
2015-12-21
The structure and dynamics of hydrogen-bonded structures are of significant importance in understanding many binary mixtures. Since self-diffusion is very sensitive to changes in the molecular weight and shape of the diffusing species, hydrogen-bonded associated structures in dimethylsulfoxide-methanol (DMSO-MeOH) and DMSO-ethanol (DMSO-EtOH) mixtures are investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over the entire composition range at 298 K. The self-diffusion coefficients of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures decrease by up to 15% and 10%, respectively, with DMSO concentration, indicating weaker association as compared to DMSO-water mixtures. The calculated heat of mixing and radial distribution functions reveal that the intermolecular structures of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures do not change on mixing. DMSO-alcohol hydrogen-bonded dimers are the dominant species in mixtures. Direct comparison of the simulated and experimental data afford greater insights into the structural properties of binary mixtures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F A
2007-01-01
We investigate the secular evolution of the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity due to mass transfer in eccentric binaries, assuming conservation of total system mass and orbital angular momentum. Assuming a delta function mass transfer rate centered at periastron, we find rates of secular change of the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity which are linearly proportional to the magnitude of the mass transfer rate at periastron. The rates can be positive as well as negative, so that the semi-major axis and eccentricity can increase as well as decrease in time. Adopting a delta-function mass-transfer rate of $10^{-9} M_\\sun {\\rm yr}^{-1}$ at periastron yields orbital evolution timescales ranging from a few Myr to a Hubble time or more, depending on the binary mass ratio and orbital eccentricity. Comparison with orbital evolution timescales due to dissipative tides furthermore shows that tides cannot, in all cases, circularize the orbit rapidly enough to justify the often adopted assumption of instantan...
Leon, Andrew C; Heo, Moonseong
2009-01-15
Mixed-effects linear regression models have become more widely used for analysis of repeatedly measured outcomes in clinical trials over the past decade. There are formulae and tables for estimating sample sizes required to detect the main effects of treatment and the treatment by time interactions for those models. A formula is proposed to estimate the sample size required to detect an interaction between two binary variables in a factorial design with repeated measures of a continuous outcome. The formula is based, in part, on the fact that the variance of an interaction is fourfold that of the main effect. A simulation study examines the statistical power associated with the resulting sample sizes in a mixed-effects linear regression model with a random intercept. The simulation varies the magnitude (Δ) of the standardized main effects and interactions, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ ), and the number (k) of repeated measures within-subject. The results of the simulation study verify that the sample size required to detect a 2 × 2 interaction in a mixed-effects linear regression model is fourfold that to detect a main effect of the same magnitude.
Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian
2015-02-01
Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.
Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Sun, Hai-Yuan; Deng, Geng; Yu, Zhi-Wu
2014-07-01
The hydrogen bond interactions in C2H5OHsbnd CH3CN binary system have been studied in detail by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), attenuated total reflection (ATR) mid-infrared spectroscopy (mid-IR), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The collected spectra were analyzed with excess spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) including moving-window 2D-COS. The main conclusions are: (1) A number of species, namely multimer, trimmer, and dimer of C2H5OH, and C2H5OH⋯CD3CN hydrogen bonding complex, have been identified in the binary system C2H5OHsbnd CH3CN experimentally. The linear relationship between the observed and calculated wavenumbers of the concerned species assisted us in doing the assignments. (2) Adding acetonitrile, the hydrogen bonds in C2H5OH are weakened and C2H5OH multimers dissociate. Meanwhile, C2H5OH dimers and C2H5OH⋯CD3CN hydrogen bonding complex form, and the former also transform to the latter. The dissociation of C2H5OH multimers slows down gradually during the dilution process and at the mole fraction 0.7 of acetonitrile, all the C2H5OH multimers have dissociated.
CoRoT photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of the interacting eclipsing binary AU Mon
Desmet, M; Baudin, F; Harmanec, P; Lampens, P; Pacheco, E Janot; Briquet, M; Degroote, P; Neiner, C; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Amado, P J; Valtier, J -C; Prsa, A; Maceroni, C; Aerts, C
2009-01-01
Analyses of very accurate CoRoT space photometry, past Johnson V photoelectric photometry and high-resolution \\'echelle spectra led to the determination of improved and consistent fundamental stellar properties of both components of AU Mon. We derived new, accurate ephemerides for both the orbital motion (with a period of 11.113d) and the long-term, overall brightness variation (with a period of 416.9d) of this strongly interacting Be + G semi-detached binary. It is shown that this long-term variation must be due to attenuation of the total light by some variable circumbinary material. We derived the binary mass ratio $M_{\\rm G}/M_{\\rm B}$ = 0.17\\p0.03 based on the assumption that the G-type secondary fills its Roche lobe and rotates synchronously. Using this value of the mass ratio as well as the radial velocities of the G-star, we obtained a consistent light curve model and improved estimates of the stellar masses, radii, luminosities and effective temperatures. We demonstrate that the observed lines of the...
Richards, Mercedes T; Fisher, John G; Conover, Marshall J
2014-01-01
We have used 2D back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries which undergo mass transfer from a magnetically-active star onto a non-magnetic main sequence star. This multi-tiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The H$\\alpha$ tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several me...
Algol-like Interacting Binaries with Long Non-orbital Periodicities
Mennickent, R. E.
The phenomenon of Double Periodic Variables (DPVs) is summarized, enlightening their photometric and spectroscopic characteristics. The current evidence for binarity, accretion discs and inflows/outflows is presented. Stellar masses, radii, temperature and luminosities, along with orbital and disc parameters, have been obtained for some systems as the result of a multicomponent fit to the light curves. These parameters have been compared with those of published binary star evolutionary tracks obtaining the best synthetic model for those systems. This allow us to discuss their evolutionary stage determining their age and mass transfer rate, and explore the possible relation between DPVs, W Serpentids and classical Algols. We provide clues on the origin of the long-term variability, mainly based on spectroscopic studies and photometric insights.
Schwahn, D
2002-01-01
Binary blends of statistical polybutadiene copolymers of different vinyl content and molar volume were explored by small-angle neutron scattering. These samples represent the most simple class of statistical copolymer mixtures. In spite of this simplicity, changes in vinyl content, molar volume, and deuterium and hydrogen content of the chains give rise to strong effects; phase separation occurs from minus 230 C to more than plus 200 C and can even reverse from an enthalpically driven one at low temperatures to an entropically driven one at high temperatures. The entropic and enthalpic terms of the Flory-Huggins parameter as determined from the experiment are in excellent agreement with lattice cluster theory calculations. (orig.)
Wave-driven stellar expansion and binary interaction in pre-supernova outbursts
Mcley, Liron
2014-01-01
We suggest that the main outcome of energy leakage carried by waves from the core to the envelope of pre-collapse massive stars is envelope expansion rather than major mass ejection. We show that the propagating waves add to the pressure in the envelope at radii smaller than the radius where the convection driven by the waves becomes supersonic, the driven radius. The extra wave pressure and wave energy dissipation lead to envelope expansion. Using the numerical code MESA we show that the envelope expansion absorbs most of the energy carried by the waves. A possible conclusion from our results is that pre-explosion outbursts (PEOs) result from a binary companion accreting mass from the extended envelope and releasing a huge amount of energy. The accreting companion is likely to expel mass in a bipolar morphology, e.g., jets and an equatorial ring.
Design of Experiments Relevant to Accreting Stream-Disk Impact in Interacting Binaries
Krauland, Christine; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Young, R.; Plewa, T.
2010-05-01
In many Cataclysmic Binary systems, mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow onto an accretion disk occurs. This produces a hot spot from the heating created by the supersonic impact of the infalling flow with the rotating accretion disk, which can produce a radiative reverse shock in the infalling flow. This collision region has many ambiguities as a radiation hydrodynamic system. Depending upon conditions, it has been argued (Armitgae & Livio, ApJ 493, 898) that the shocked region may be optically thin, thick, or intermediate, which has the potential to significantly alter its structure and emissions. Laboratory experiments have yet to produce colliding flows that create a radiative reverse shock or to produce obliquely incident colliding flows, both of which are aspects of these Binary systems. We have undertaken the design of such an experiment, aimed at the Omega-60 laser facility. The design elements include the production of postshock flows within a dense material layer or ejecta flows by release of material from a shocked layer. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires producing a sufficiently fast flow (> 100 km/s) within a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable layers. In this poster we will discuss the astrophysical context, the experimental design work we have done, and the challenges of implementing and diagnosing an actual experiment. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, by the National Laser User Facility Program in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC. The corresponding grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.
Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars
Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster
Giesbertz, K J H
2014-01-01
Electron correlations in molecules can be divided in short range dynamical correlations, long range Van der Waals type interactions and near degeneracy static correlations. In this work we analyze how these three types of correlations can be incorporated in a simple wave function of restricted functional form consisting of an orbital product multiplied by a single correlation function $f(r_{12})$ depending on the interelectronic distance $r_{12}$. Since the three types of correlations mentioned lead to different signatures in terms of the natural orbital (NO) amplitudes in two-electron systems we make an analysis of the wave function in terms of the NO amplitudes for a model system of a diatomic molecule. In our numerical implementation we fully optimize the orbitals and the correlation function on a spatial grid without restrictions on their functional form. For the model system we can prove that none of the amplitudes vanishes and moreover that it displays a distinct sign pattern and a series of avoided cro...
Rotational mixing in close binaries
de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R
2008-01-01
Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.
Bitsakis, T; Le Floc'h, E; Diaz-Santos, T; Slater, S K; Xilouris, E; Haynes, M P
2010-01-01
Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) are among the densest galaxy environments of the local universe. To examine the effects of the environment on the infrared properties of these systems, we present an analysis of Spitzer and ISO mid-infrared imaging as well as deep ground based near-infrared imaging of 14 HCGs containing a total of 69 galaxies. Based on mid-infrared color diagnostics we identify the galaxies which appear to host an active nucleus, while using a suite of templates, we fit the complete infrared spectral energy distribution for each group member. We compare our estimates of galaxy mass, star formation rate, total infrared luminosities, and specific star formation rates (sSFR) for our HCG sample, to samples of isolated galaxies and interacting pairs and find that overall there is no discernible difference among them. However, HCGs which can be considered as dynamically "old", host late-type galaxies with a slightly lower sSFR than the one found in dynamically "young" groups. This could be attributed t...
Soker, Noam
2016-01-01
We propose that two recent intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs), M31LRN 2015 and SNHunt 275 (PTF 13efv) can be accounted for with a stellar binary model involving mass transfer that leads to the launching of jets. We inspect observations of the ILOT M31LRN 2015 and conclude that it cannot be explained by the onset of a common envelope evolution (CEE). Instead we conjecture that a $M \\simeq 0.5 - 1 ~M_\\odot$ main sequence star accreted $0.05 ~M_\\odot$ from the giant star, possibly during a periastron passage. The main sequence star accreted mass through an accretion disc, that launches jets. The radiation from the disk and the collision of the jets with the ambient gas can account for the luminosity of the event. Along similar lines, we suggest that the 2013 eruption of SNHunt 275 can also be explained by the High-Accretion-Powered ILOT (HAPI) model. In this case a massive secondary star $M_2 \\gtrsim 10 ~M_\\odot$ accreted $\\approx 0.05 ~M_\\odot$ from a much more massive and more evolved star duri...
IRAS 19135+3937: An SRd variable as interacting binary surrounded by a circumbinary disc
Gorlova, N; Ikonnikova, N P; Burlak, M A; Komissarova, G V; Jorissen, A; Gielen, C; Debosscher, J; Degroote, P
2015-01-01
Semi-regular (SR) variables are not a homogeneous class and their variability is often explained due to pulsations and/or binarity. This study focuses on IRAS 19135+3937, an SRd variable with an infra-red excess indicative of a dusty disc. A time-series of high-resolution spectra, UBV photometry as well as a very accurate light curve obtained by the Kepler satellite, allowed us to study the object in unprecedented detail. We discovered it to be a binary with a period of 127 days. The primary has a low surface gravity and an atmosphere depleted in refractory elements. This combination of properties unambiguously places IRAS 19135+3937 in the subclass of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch stars with dusty discs. We show that the light variations in this object can not be due to pulsations, but are likely caused by the obscuration of the primary by the circumbinary disc during orbital motion. Furthermore, we argue that the double-peaked Fe emission lines provide evidence for the existence of a gaseous circumbinary Kep...
Spectroscopy, MOST Photometry, and Interferometry of MWC 314: Is it an LBV or an interacting binary?
Richardson, Noel D; Maltais-Tariant, Raphaël; Pablo, Herbert; Gies, Douglas R; Saio, Hideyuki; St-Louis, Nicole; Schaefer, Gail; Miroshnichenko, Anatoly S; Farrington, Chris; Aldoretta, Emily J; Artigau, Étienne; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Gordon, Kathryn; Jones, Jeremy; Matson, Rachel; McAlister, Harold A; O'Brien, David; Raghavan, Deepak; Ramiaramanantsoa, Tahina; Ridgway, Stephen T; Scott, Nic; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Brummelaar, Theo ten; Thomas, Joshua D; Turner, Nils; Vargas, Norm; Zharikov, Sergey; Matthews, Jaymie; Cameron, Chris; Guenther, David; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason; Rucinski, Slavek; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner
2015-01-01
MWC 314 is a bright candidate luminous blue variable that resides in a fairly close binary system, with an orbital period of 60.753$\\pm$0.003 d. We observed MWC 314 with a combination of optical spectroscopy, broad-band ground- and space-based photometry, as well as with long baseline, near-infrared interferometry. We have revised the single-lined spectroscopic orbit and explored the photometric variability. The orbital light curve displays two minima each orbit that can be partially explained in terms of the tidal distortion of the primary that occurs around the time of periastron. The emission lines in the system are often double-peaked and stationary in their kinematics, indicative of a circumbinary disc. We find that the stellar wind or circumbinary disc is partially resolved in the K\\prime-band with the longest baselines of the CHARA Array. From this analysis, we provide a simple, qualitative model in an attempt to explain the observations. From the assumption of Roche Lobe overflow and tidal synchronisa...
Soker, Noam; Kashi, Amit
2016-10-01
We propose that two recent intermediate-luminosity optical transients (ILOTs), M31LRN 2015 and SN 2015bh (SNHunt 275; PTF 13efv) can be accounted for with a stellar binary model involving mass transfer that leads to the launching of jets. We inspect observations of the ILOT M31LRN 2015 and conclude that it cannot be explained by the onset of a common envelope evolution (CEE). Instead, we conjecture that an M ˜eq 1 - 3 {M_{⊙}} main-sequence star accreted ≃ 0.04 M⊙ from the giant star, possibly during a periastron passage. The main-sequence star-accreted mass through an accretion disc, that launches jets. The radiation from the disc and the collision of the jets with the ambient gas can account for the luminosity of the event. Along similar lines, we suggest that the 2013 eruption of SN 2015bh (SNHunt 275) can also be explained by the high-accretion-powered ILOT (HAPI) model. In this case, a massive secondary star M2 ≳ 10 M⊙ accreted ≈ 0.05 M⊙ from a much more massive and more evolved star during a periastron passage. If the much more energetic 2015 outburst of SN 2015bh (SNHunt 275) was not a supernova explosion, it might have been a full almost head-on merger event, or else can be accounted for by the HAPI-jets model in a very highly eccentric orbit.
A combined binary interaction and phenotypic map of C. elegans cell polarity proteins
Koorman, Thijs; Lemmens, Irma; Ramalho, João J.; Nieuwenhuize, Susan; van den Heuvel, Sander; Tavernier, Jan; Nance, Jeremy; Boxem, Mike
2015-01-01
The establishment of cell polarity is an essential process for the development of multicellular organisms and the functioning of cells and tissues. Here, we combine large-scale protein interaction mapping with systematic phenotypic profiling to study the network of physical interactions that underlies polarity establishment and maintenance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a fragment-based yeast two-hybrid strategy, we identified 439 interactions between 296 proteins, as well as the protein regions that mediate these interactions. Phenotypic profiling of the network resulted in the identification of 100 physically interacting protein pairs for which RNAi-mediated depletion caused a defect in the same polarity-related process. We demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the network by showing that the physical interaction between the RhoGAP PAC-1 and PAR-6 is required for radial polarization of the C. elegans embryo. Our network represents a valuable resource of candidate interactions that can be used to further our insight into cell polarization. PMID:26780296
Modulated Phase of a Potts Model with Competing Binary Interactions on a Cayley Tree
Ganikhodjaev, N.; Temir, S.; Akin, H.
2009-11-01
We study the phase diagram for Potts model on a Cayley tree with competing nearest-neighbor interactions J 1, prolonged next-nearest-neighbor interactions J p and one-level next-nearest-neighbor interactions J o . Vannimenus proved that the phase diagram of Ising model with J o =0 contains a modulated phase, as found for similar models on periodic lattices, but the multicritical Lifshitz point is at zero temperature. Later Mariz et al. generalized this result for Ising model with J o ≠0 and recently Ganikhodjaev et al. proved similar result for the three-state Potts model with J o =0. We consider Potts model with J o ≠0 and show that for some values of J o the multicritical Lifshitz point be at non-zero temperature. We also prove that as soon as the same-level interaction J o is nonzero, the paramagnetic phase found at high temperatures for J o =0 disappears, while Ising model does not obtain such property. To perform this study, an iterative scheme similar to that appearing in real space renormalization group frameworks is established; it recovers, as particular case, previous work by Ganikhodjaev et al. for J o =0. At vanishing temperature, the phase diagram is fully determined for all values and signs of J 1, J p and J o . At finite temperatures several interesting features are exhibited for typical values of J o / J 1.
Hamaguchi, Kosuke; Urano, Hiromitsu; Okada, Masato
2008-11-01
The properties of solid states, biophysical materials, neuronal circuits, and equilibrium states of a many-body system can be studied by using techniques in statistical physics. It has been common practice to represent a system composed of binary state units by using an Ising spin network where each unit has symmetric {-1,1} states. However, the asymmetry or symmetry of the binary states of the units can affect the property and ergodicity of the system, but better understanding of the quantitative difference is still needed. We compare systems of binary units with symmetric or asymmetric states. The network has spatially modulated interaction with quenched randomness. We can bridge the Ising spin network and McCulloch-Pitts neuron network and analyze the stability of the system via replica method by introducing an interpolating parameter. The effects of the asymmetry states affect the multistability of the system and the stability of replica-symmetry solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rathnam Manapragada V.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Density ρ, viscosity η, and refractive index nD were measured for the binary mixtures of diethyl malonate with ketones (acetophenone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone and 3-pentanone at temperatures (303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K over the entire composition range. Excess volume VE, deviation in viscosity Δη, excess Gibb’s free energy of activation for viscous flow ΔGE and deviation in molar refraction ÄR were determined from the experimental data and computed results were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The values of VE, Δη, ΔGE, and ΔR were plotted against the mole fraction of diethyl malonate. The observed positive and negative values of excess parameters for all the studied binary mixtures were explained on the basis of intermolecular interactions present in these mixtures. Further different empirical relations were used to correlate the binary mixture viscosities and refractive indices.
Vapor pressure and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters in binary polymeric solutions
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Khansary, Milad Asgarpour [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-15
This communication reports two unique relationships for (1) Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) and (2) vapor pressure of solvent (P), which explicitly show their composition dependency. There is no empirical constant in the proposed relationships, and no trial and error and/or data-fitting optimization is required for determination and/ or correlation of vapor pressure and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. A straightforward computational technique for implementation of models is provided. For a number of systems, the calculated data have been compared and evaluated against experimental ones and the reliability and accuracy of proposed relationships was assured. IARD (%) values on the order of 0.05 demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.
Cross-interaction drives stratification in drying film of binary colloidal mixtures
Zhou, Jiajia; Jiang, Ying; Doi, Masao
2017-01-01
When a liquid film of colloidal solution consisting of particles of different sizes is dried on a substrate, the colloids often stratify, where smaller colloids are laid upon larger colloids. This phenomenon is counter intuitive because larger colloids which have smaller diffusion constant are expected to remain near the surface during the drying process, leaving the layer of larger colloids on top of smaller colloids. Here we show that the phenomenon is caused by the interaction between the ...
Turley, Stewart; Khamrui, Susmita; Bergman, Lawrence W; Hol, Wim G J
2013-08-01
The myosin motor of the malaria parasite's invasion machinery moves over actin fibers while it is making critical contacts with the myosin-tail interacting protein (MTIP). Previously, in a "compact" Plasmodium falciparum MTIP•MyoA complex, MTIP domains 2 (D2) and 3 (D3) make contacts with the MyoA helix, and the central helix is kinked, but in an "extended" Plasmodium knowlesi MTIP•MyoA complex only D3 interacts with the MyoA helix, and the central helix is fully extended. Here we report the crystal structure of the compact P. knowlesi MTIP•MyoA complex. It appears that, depending on the pH, P. knowlesi MTIP can adopt either the compact or the extended conformation to interact with MyoA. Only at pH values above ~7.0, can key hydrogen bonds can be formed by the imidazole group of MyoA His810 with an aspartate carboxylate from the hinge of MTIP and a lysine amino group of MyoA simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Moradi
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a uniform classical fluid mixture comprising ellipsoidal molecules is studied. This mixture is composed of two types of ellipsoidal molecules interacting through the Gay-Berne potential with different sizes at temperature T. For this system, the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the Percus-Yevick closure relation is solved. Then the direct correlation function, pair correlation function and the pressure of the fluid at temperature T are calculated. The obtained results are in agreement with the previous theories and the results of molecular dynamic computer simulation.
The Effect of Tides on the Population of PN from Interacting Binaries
Madappatt, Niyas; Villaver, Eva
2016-01-01
We have used the tidal equations of Zahn to determine the maximum orbital distance at which companions are brought into Roche lobe contact with their giant primary, when the primary expands during the giant phases. This is a key step when determining the rates of interaction between giants and their companions. Our stellar structure calculations are presented as maximum radii reached during the red and asymptotic giant branch (RGB and AGB, respectively) stages of evolution for masses between 0.8 and 4.0 Mo (Z=0.001 - 0.04) and compared with other models to gauge the uncertainty on radii deriving from details of these calculations. We find overall tidal capture distances that are typically 1-4 times the maximum radial extent of the giant star, where companions are in the mass range from 1 Jupiter mass to a mass slightly smaller than the mass of the primary. We find that only companions at initial orbital separations between ~320 and ~630 Ro will be typically captured into a Roche lobe-filling interaction or a ...
Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A
2012-11-01
In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.
Wilce, A
2004-01-01
We initiate a study of topological orthoalgebras (TOAs), concentrating on the compact case. Examples of TOAs include topological orthomodular lattices, and also the projection lattice of a Hilbert space. As the latter example illustrates, a lattice-ordered TOA need not be a topological lattice. However, we show that a compact Boolean TOA is a topological Boolean algebra. Using this, we prove that any compact regular TOA is atomistic, and has a compact center. We prove also that any compact TOA with isolated 0 is of finite height. We then focus on stably ordered TOAs: those in which the upper-set generated by an open set is open. These include both topological orthomodular lattices and interval orthoalgebras -- in particular, projection lattices. We show that the topology of a compact stably-ordered TOA with isolated 0 is determined by that of of its space of atoms.
Interactions between discontinuities for binary mixture separation problem and hodograph method
Elaeva, M S; Yu, Zhukov M
2016-01-01
The Cauchy problem for first-order PDE with the initial data which have a piecewise discontinuities localized in different spatial points is completely solved. The interactions between discontinuities arising after breakup of initial discontinuities are studied with the help of the hodograph method. The solution is constructed in analytical implicit form. To recovery the explicit form of solution we propose the transformation of the PDEs into some ODEs on the level lines (isochrones) of implicit solution. In particular, this method allows us to solve the Goursat problem with initial data on characteristics. The paper describes a specific problem for zone electrophoresis (method of the mixture separation). However, the method proposed allows to solve any system of two first-order quasilinear PDEs for which the second order linear PDE, arising after the hodograph transformation, has the Riemann-Green function in explicit form.
Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Luty, Katarzyna
2014-04-01
In this work miscibility and interactions of sterols with choline plasmalogen (PC-plasm) in Langmuir monolayers were studied. Moreover, the properties of cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine/plasmalogen mixtures of different PC-plasm concentration were investigated. The foregoing systems were treated as a model of cancer cell membranes, which are of higher plasmalogen level than normal cells. Finally, the influence of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (phytosterols differing in anticancer potency) on these mixtures was verified. The properties of monolayers were analyzed based on the parameters derived from the surface pressure-area isotherms and images taken with Brewster Angle Microscope. It was found that at 30% of sterol in sterol/plasmalogen monolayer the lipids are immiscible and 3D crystallites are formed within the film. Cholesterol molecules mix favorably with PC-plasm at Xchol ≥ 0.5, while the investigated phytosterols only at their prevailing proportion in binary system. The increase of choline plasmalogen in cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine monolayer causes destabilization of the system. Moreover, the incorporation of phytosterols into cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine+PC-plasm mixtures disturbed membrane morphology and this effect was stronger for β-sitosterol as compared to stigmasterol. It was concluded that the presence of vinyl ether bond at sn-1 position in PC-plasm molecule strongly affects miscibility of choline plasmalogen with sterols. The comparison of the collected data with those reported in literature allowed one to conclude that miscibility and interactions of sterols with PC-plasm are less favorable than those with phosphatidylcholine. It was also suggested that overexpression of plasmalogens in cancer cell membranes may be a factor differentiating sensitivity of cells to anticancer effect of phytosterols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Manju Rani; Suman Gahlyan; Ankur Gaur; Sanjeev Maken
2015-01-01
Ultrasonic speeds have been measured at 298.15 K and 308.15 K for mixtures of formamide+1-propanol or 2-propanol. For an equimolar mixture, excess molar compressibility follows the sequence of 1-propanol N 2-propanol. The ultrasonic speed data are correlated by various correlations such as Nomoto's relation, van Dael's mixing relation and impedance dependence relation, and analyzed in terms of Jacobson's free length theory and Schaaff's collision factor theory. Excess isentropic compressibility is calculated from ex-perimental ultrasonic speed data and previously reported excess volume data. The excess molar ultrasonic speed and isentropic compressibility values are fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Other proper-ties such as molecular association, avallable volume, free volume, and intermolecular free length are also calculated. The excess isentropic compressibility data are also interpreted in terms of graph theoretical ap-proach. The calculated isentropic compressibility values are well consistent with the experimental data. It is found that the interaction between formamide and propanol increases when hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom has more–CH3 groups.
New Radio Continuum Observations of the Compact Source Projected Inside NGC 6334A
Rodr'\\iguez, Luis F; Dzib, Sergio A; Loinard, Laurent; Kurtz, Stanley E
2013-01-01
A handful of HII regions are known to exhibit a compact radio source near their centers. The nature of these compact radio sources is not well established. We present the analysis of new as well as archival Very Large Array observations of the compact source projected near the center of the NGC 6334A HII region, part of the NGC 6334 complex. We show that the compact source is time variable on a scale of years and determine for one epoch a non-thermal spectrum, suggestive of synchrotron emission. We propose that this source could be the wind interaction region of a massive binary system that could be the ionizing source of NGC 6334A.
A Compact Supermassive Binary Black Hole System
2006-04-03
Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS; Hill et al. 1998). Two 600s exposures were taken, using the G3 VPH Grism, a Schott OG 515 blocking filter and a 1.5...weighted 2005 VLBA images of 0402+379 at 0.3 and 5 GHz. Contours are drawn beginning at 3σ and increase by factors of 2 thereafter. The peak flux...15, 22 and 43 GHz. Contours are drawn beginning at 3σ and increase by factors of 2 thereafter. The peak flux density and rms noise for each frequency
Houtman, Jon C D; Brown, Patrick H; Bowden, Brent; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Appella, Ettore; Samelson, Lawrence E; Schuck, Peter
2007-01-01
Multisite interactions and the formation of ternary or higher-order protein complexes are ubiquitous features of protein interactions. Cooperativity between different ligands is a hallmark for information transfer, and is frequently critical for the biological function. We describe a new computational platform for the global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for the study of binary and ternary multisite interactions, implemented as part of the public domain multimethod analysis software SEDPHAT. The global analysis of titrations performed in different orientations was explored, and the potential for unraveling cooperativity parameters in multisite interactions was assessed in theory and experiment. To demonstrate the practical potential and limitations of global analyses of ITC titrations for the study of cooperative multiprotein interactions, we have examined the interactions of three proteins that are critical for signal transduction after T-cell activation, LAT, Grb2, and Sos1. We have shown previously that multivalent interactions between these three molecules promote the assembly of large multiprotein complexes important for T-cell receptor activation. By global analysis of the heats of binding observed in sets of ITC injections in different orientations, which allowed us to follow the formation of binary and ternary complexes, we observed negative and positive cooperativity that may be important to control the pathway of assembly and disassembly of adaptor protein particles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudharsana R Ande
Full Text Available Prohibitin (PHB or PHB1 is an evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional protein which is present in various cellular compartments including the plasma membrane. However, mechanisms involved in various functions of PHB are not fully explored yet. Here we report for the first time that PHB interacts with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT and is O-GlcNAc modified; and also undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin. Tyrosine 114 (Tyr114 and tyrosine 259 (Tyr259 in PHB are in the close proximity of potential O-GlcNAc sites serine 121 (Ser121 and threonine 258 (Thr258 respectively. Substitution of Tyr114 and Tyr259 residues in PHB with phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis results in reduced tyrosine phosphorylation as well as reduced O-GlcNAc modification of PHB. Surprisingly, this also resulted in enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation and activity of OGT. This is attributed to the presence of similar tyrosine motifs in PHB and OGT. Substitution of Ser121 and Thr258 with alanine and isoleucine respectively resulted in attenuation of O-GlcNAc modification and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of PHB suggesting an association between these two dynamic modifications. Sequence analysis of O-GlcNAc modified proteins having known O-GlcNAc modification site(s or known tyrosine phosphorylation site(s revealed a strong potential association between these two posttranslational modifications in various proteins. We speculate that O-GlcNAc modification and tyrosine phosphorylation of PHB play an important role in tyrosine kinase signaling pathways including insulin, growth factors and immune receptors signaling. In addition, we propose that O-GlcNAc modification and tyrosine phosphorylation is a novel previously unidentified binary switch which may provide new mechanistic insights into cell signaling pathways and is open for direct experimental examination.
Long-term variability of low-mass X-ray binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filippova E.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider modulations of mass captured by the compact object from the companion star’s stellar wind in Low Mass X-ray Binaries with late type giants. Based on 3D simulations with two different hydrodynamic codes used Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches – the SPH code GADGET and the Eulerian code PLUTO, we conclude that a hydrodynamical interaction of the wind matter within a binary system even without eccentricity results in variability of the mass accretion rate with characteristic time-scales close to the orbital period. Observational appearances of this wind might be similar to that of an accretion disc corona/wind.
Shchurova, L Yu; Namiot, V A; Sarkisyan, D R
2015-01-01
Coherent sources of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range are very promising for various applications, including biology and medicine. In this paper we propose a scheme of a compact terahertz source, in which terahertz radiation is generated due to effective interaction of electrons in a quantum well with an electromagnetic wave of a corrugated waveguide. We have shown that the generation of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 1012 sec(-1) and an output power of up to 25. mW is possible in the proposed scheme.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahaki, Hanie, E-mail: hanieh.mahaki@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina; Chamani, Jamshidkhan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Saberi, Mohammad [Medical Chemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-02-15
The aim of the present study was to describe the competition of ropinirole hydrochloride (RP) and aspirin (ASA) in binding to human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH=7.4) using multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta-potential measurements. Fluorescence analysis was used to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes in binary and ternary systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that in the presence of RP, the binding constant of HSA-ASA was increased. Static quenching was confirmed to result in the fluorescence quenching and FRET. The effect of drugs on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD). The RLS method determined the critical aggregation concentration of drugs on HSA in binary and ternary systems that confirmed the zeta potential results. Structural modeling showed that the affinity of each of the drugs to HSA in binary and ternary systems confirms the spectroscopic results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the interaction of ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular modeling and zeta-potential used to describe competitive interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the critical induced aggregation concentration of both drugs on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding mechanism of drugs as separate and simultaneous to HSA has been compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding site of both drugs as simultaneous effects on HSA has been determined.
Kuiper Binary Object Formation
Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.
2005-01-01
It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...
Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs
Fleming, David P
2016-01-01
The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...
Wide- and contact-binary formation in substructured young stellar clusters
Dorval, J.; Boily, C. M.; Moraux, E.; Roos, O.
2017-02-01
We explore with collisional gravitational N-body models the evolution of binary stars in initially fragmented and globally subvirial clusters of stars. Binaries are inserted in the (initially) clumpy configurations so as to match the observed distributions of the field-binary-stars' semimajor axes a and binary fraction versus primary mass. The dissolution rate of wide binaries is very high at the start of the simulations, and is much reduced once the clumps are eroded by the global infall. The transition between the two regimes is sharper as the number of stars N is increased, from N = 1.5 k up to 80 k. The fraction of dissolved binary stars increases only mildly with N, from ≈15 per cent to ≈25 per cent for the same range in N. We repeated the calculation for two initial system mean number densities of 6 per pc3 (low) and 400 per pc3 (high). We found that the longer free-fall time of the low-density runs allows for prolonged binary-binary interactions inside clumps and the formation of very tight (a ≈ 0.01 au) binaries by exchange collisions. This is an indication that the statistics of such compact binaries bear a direct link to their environment at birth. We also explore the formation of wide (a ≳ 5 × 104 au) binaries and find a low (≈0.01 per cent) fraction mildly bound to the central star cluster. The high-precision astrometric mission Gaia could identify them as outflowing shells or streams.
The delayed time distribution of massive double compact star mergers
Mennekens, N
2016-01-01
In order to investigate the temporal evolution of binary populations in general, double compact star binaries and mergers in particular within a galactic evolution context, a most straightforward method is obviously the implementation of a detailed binary evolutionary model in a galactic chemical evolution code. To our knowledge, only the Brussels galactic code explicitly accounts for binaries. With a galactic code that does not explicitly include binaries, the temporal evolution of the population of double compact star binaries and mergers can be estimated with reasonable accuracy if the delayed time distribution (DTD) for these mergers is available. The DTD for supernovae type Ia has been studied extensively the last decade. In the present paper we present the DTD for merging double neutron star binaries and mixed systems consisting of a neutron star and a black hole. The latter mergers are very promising sites for the production of r-process elements and the DTDs can be used to study the galactic evolution...
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
Kuiper Binary Object Formation
Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W
2005-01-01
It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.
Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanaka T.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.
Formation and evolution of X-ray binaries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We review recent progress in theoretical understanding of X-ray binaries,which has largely been driven by new observations.We select several topics including formation of compact low-mass X-ray binaries,the evolutionary connection between low-mass X-ray binaries and binary and millisecond radio pulsars,and ultraluminous X-ray sources,to illustrate the interplay between theories and observations.
Testing general gelativity using gravitational waves from binary neutron stars: Effect of spins
Agathos, Michalis; Li, Tjonnie G F; Broeck, Chris Van Den; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore
2013-01-01
We present a Bayesian data analysis pipeline for testing GR using gravitational wave signals from coalescing compact binaries, and in particular binary neutron stars. In this study, we investigate its performance when sources with spins are taken into account.
Mandel, Ilya; de Mink, Selma E.
2016-05-01
We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which we estimate typically merge 4-11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about 10 Gpc-3 yr-1 at redshift z = 0, peaking at twice this rate at z = 0.5. This means that this channel is competitive, in terms of expected rates, with the conventional formation scenarios that involve a common-envelope phase during isolated binary evolution or dynamical interaction in a dense cluster. The events from this channel may be distinguished by the preference for nearly equal-mass components and high masses, with typical total masses between 50 and 110 M⊙. Unlike the conventional isolated binary evolution scenario that involves shrinkage of the orbit during a common-envelope phase, short time delays are unlikely for this channel, implying that we do not expect mergers at high redshift.
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.
Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong
2015-07-28
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)
2014-06-01
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.
Bazeia, D; Marques, M A; Menezes, R; Zafalan, I
2016-01-01
We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)
2017-02-15
We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zubkova, Valentyna V. [Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 5 Checinska Street, 25-020 Kielce (Poland)
2002-05-20
Interaction between the components of a binary coal blend has been studied using X-ray examination of a coal charge with contrasting elements embedded in it. We were the first to study the influence of changes in the composition of coal blends on the process of displacement of the non-volatile mass while being carbonised. It is shown that the macrostructure of the coal plastic layer changes under the influence of changes in the blend composition and so does the pressure distribution measured by the compensation method.Based on the comparison of experimental and theoretical curves for the displacement of the non-volatile mass, we estimated the effect of the interaction between the components of a blend on the process of formation of a solid carbonisation residue.
Discs in misaligned binary systems
Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P
2016-01-01
We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...
Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.
2015-05-01
The Gaussian chain model is the classical description of a polymeric chain, which provides analytical results regarding end-to-end distance, the distribution of segments around the mass center of a chain, coarse-grained interactions between two chains and effective interactions in binary mixtures. This hierarchy of results can be calculated thanks to the α stability of the Gaussian distribution. In this paper we show that it is possible to generalize the model of Gaussian chain to the entire class of α -stable distributions, obtaining the analogous hierarchy of results expressed by the analytical closed-form formulas in the Fourier space. This allows us to establish the α -stable chain model. We begin with reviewing the applications of Levy flights in the context of polymer sciences, which include: chains described by the heavy-tailed distributions of persistence length; polymers adsorbed to the surface; and the chains driven by a noise with power-law spatial correlations. Further, we derive the distribution of segments around the mass center of the α -stable chain and construct the coarse-grained interaction potential between two chains. These results are employed to discuss the model of binary mixture consisting of the α -stable chains. In what follows, we establish the spinodal decomposition condition generalized to the mixtures of the α -stable polymers. This condition is further applied to compare the on-surface phase separation of adsorbed polymers (which are known to be described with heavy-tailed statistics) with the phase separation condition in the bulk. Finally, we predict the four different scenarios of simultaneous mixing and demixing in the two- and three-dimensional systems.
Fisher, Steven P.; Krueger, Herman R.; Groeneman, Ryan H.; Reinheimer, Eric W.
2016-01-01
Due to its proximity of Hg(II) atoms, electron-withdrawing properties and inherent accessibility to electrophilic sites on the molecular surface, trimeric perfluoro-ortho-phenylenemercury, (o-C6F4Hg)3, has demonstrated a capacity to form supramolecular adducts with a variety of neutral and anionic substrates. Often within these complexes the Lewis acid, (o-C6F4Hg)3, interacts with a Lewis base rather than itself in the solid state via various supramolecular interactions. Among these, perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions have been utilized in the construction of various supramolecular materials; however, within these molecular complexes, this category of non-covalent interaction is not often observed. Even though these perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions have been used to produce new materials, their overall strength has not been generally reported in the literature. In this contribution, we highlight not only the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic properties of a novel binary supramolecular adduct between (o-C6F4Hg)3 and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (4-ClBA) [(o-C6F4Hg)3(4-ClBA)] 1, but also report on the overall strength of the perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interaction energies determined by means of computational chemistry. The carbonyl group of the 4-ClBA substrate was found to interact with all three mercury atoms within (o-C6F4Hg)3 via Hg⋯O contacts. An infrared spectroscopic analysis of 1 demonstrated a lower wavenumber for the carbonyl stretching frequency when compared to that for the free substrate confirming the presence of these Hg⋯O interactions.
Gamma-ray binaries : a bridge between Be stars and high energy astrophysics
Lamberts, Astrid
2014-01-01
Advances in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new window on our universe and revealed a wide variety of binaries composed of a compact object and a Be star. In Be X-ray binaries, a neutron star accretes the Be disk and truncates it through tidal interactions. Such systems have important X-ray outbursts, some related to the disk structure. In other systems, strong gamma ray emission is observed. In gamma-ray binaries, the neutron star is not accreting but driving a highly relativistic wind. The wind collision region presents similarities to colliding wind binaries composed of massive stars. The high energy emission is coming from particles being accelerated at the relativistic shock. I will review the physics of X-ray and gamma-ray binaries, focusing particularly on the recent developments on gamma-ray binaries. I will describe physical mechanisms such as relativistic hydrodynamics, tidal forces and non thermal emission. I will highlight how high energy astrophysics can shed a new light on Be star ph...
Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Zhanwen
2011-01-01
Binary population synthesis （BPS）, an approach to evolving millions of stars （including binaries） simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis （EPS） model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giesbertz, Klaas J. H. [Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Robert van [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, Jyväskylä (Finland)
2014-05-14
Electron correlations in molecules can be divided in short range dynamical correlations, long range Van der Waals type interactions, and near degeneracy static correlations. In this work, we analyze for a one-dimensional model of a two-electron system how these three types of correlations can be incorporated in a simple wave function of restricted functional form consisting of an orbital product multiplied by a single correlation function f (r{sub 12}) depending on the interelectronic distance r{sub 12}. Since the three types of correlations mentioned lead to different signatures in terms of the natural orbital (NO) amplitudes in two-electron systems, we make an analysis of the wave function in terms of the NO amplitudes for a model system of a diatomic molecule. In our numerical implementation, we fully optimize the orbitals and the correlation function on a spatial grid without restrictions on their functional form. Due to this particular form of the wave function, we can prove that none of the amplitudes vanishes and moreover that it displays a distinct sign pattern and a series of avoided crossings as a function of the bond distance in agreement with the exact solution. This shows that the wave function ansatz correctly incorporates the long range Van der Waals interactions. We further show that the approximate wave function gives an excellent binding curve and is able to describe static correlations. We show that in order to do this the correlation function f (r{sub 12}) needs to diverge for large r{sub 12} at large internuclear distances while for shorter bond distances it increases as a function of r{sub 12} to a maximum value after which it decays exponentially. We further give a physical interpretation of this behavior.
Quasiequilibrium sequences of binary strange quark stars in general relativity
Limousin, F; Gourgoulhon, E; Limousin, Francois; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota; Gourgoulhon, Eric
2004-01-01
Inspiraling compact binaries are expected to be the strongest sources of gravitational waves for VIRGO, LIGO and other laser interferometers. We present the first computations of quasi-equilibrium sequences of compact binaries containing two strange quark stars (which are currently considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars). We study a precoalescing stage in the conformal flatness approximation of general relativity using a multidomain spectral method. A hydrodynamical treatment is performed under the assumption that the flow is irrotational.
Hydrodynamic moving-mesh simulations of the common envelope phase in binary stellar systems
Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Pakmor, Ruediger; Springel, Volker
2015-01-01
The common envelope (CE) phase is an important stage in binary stellar evolution. It is needed to explain many close binary stellar systems, such as cataclysmic variables, Type Ia supernova progenitors, or X-ray binaries. To form the resulting close binary, the initial orbit has to shrink, thereby transferring energy to the primary giant's envelope that is hence ejected. The details of this interaction, however, are still not understood. Here, we present new hydrodynamic simulations of the dynamical spiral-in forming a CE system. We apply the moving-mesh code AREPO to follow the interaction of a $1M_\\odot$ compact star with a $2M_\\odot$ red giant possessing a $0.4M_\\odot$ core. The nearly Lagrangian scheme combines advantages of smoothed particle hydrodynamics and traditional grid-based hydrodynamic codes and allows us to capture also small flow features at high spatial resolution. Our simulations reproduce the initial transfer of energy and angular momentum from the binary core to the envelope by spiral shoc...
Compactified pulsar wind nebula model of gamma-ray loud binary LSI +61 303
Neronov, A
2007-01-01
We show that radio-to-TeV properties of the binary system LSI +61 303 can be explained by interaction of the compact object (a young pulsar) with the inhomogeneities of the wind from companion Be star. We develop a model scenario of "compactified" pulsar wind nebula formed in result of such interaction. To test the model assumptions about geometry of the system we re-analyze the available X-ray observations to study in more details the variations of the hydrogen column density on long (orbital) and short (several kilosecond) time scales.
Shi, Jie-hua; Fan, Chun-hui
2012-09-01
The intermolecular interactions between medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and CHCl3 and CCl4 solvent in CHCl3/cyclo-C6H12 and CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent systems have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The experimental results showed that there are hydrogen bonding interactions between oxygen atoms of all carbonyl groups in MPA and hydrogen atom of CHCl3 so as to form 1:3 complex of MPA with CHCl3 and produce three new absorption bands at 1728.9-1736.1, 1712.7-1717.4 and 1661.9-1673.8 cm-1, respectively. And, 1:1 complex of MPA with CCl4 is formed in CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent as a result of hydrogen bonding interaction between C3 carbonyl group and empty d-orbital in chlorine atom of CCl4 leading to producing new absorption band at 1673.2-1674.2 cm-1. However, all free carbonyl and associated carbonyl stretching vibrations of MPA in CHCl3/cyclo-C6H12 and CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent systems shift to lower wavenumbers with the increasing of volume fraction of CHCl3 and CCl4 in binary solvent systems owing to the dipole-dipole interaction and the dipole-induced dipole interaction between MPA and solvents.
Arabas, S.; Jaruga, A.; Pawlowska, H.; Grabowski, W. W.
2012-12-01
Clouds may influence aerosol characteristics of their environment. The relevant processes include wet deposition (rainout or washout) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) recycling through evaporation of cloud droplets and drizzle drops. Recycled CCN physicochemical properties may be altered if the evaporated droplets go through collisional growth or irreversible chemical reactions (e.g. SO2 oxidation). The key challenge of representing these processes in a numerical cloud model stems from the need to track properties of activated CCN throughout the cloud lifecycle. Lack of such "memory" characterises the so-called bulk, multi-moment as well as bin representations of cloud microphysics. In this study we apply the particle-based scheme of Shima et al. 2009. Each modelled particle (aka super-droplet) is a numerical proxy for a multiplicity of real-world CCN, cloud, drizzle or rain particles of the same size, nucleus type,and position. Tracking cloud nucleus properties is an inherent feature of the particle-based frameworks, making them suitable for studying aerosol-cloud-aerosol interactions. The super-droplet scheme is furthermore characterized by linear scalability in the number of computational particles, and no numerical diffusion in the condensational and in the Monte-Carlo type collisional growth schemes. The presentation will focus on processing of aerosol by a drizzling stratocumulus deck. The simulations are carried out using a 2D kinematic framework and a VOCALS experiment inspired set-up (see http://www.rap.ucar.edu/~gthompsn/workshop2012/case1/).
Gerhardt, Claus
2016-01-01
In a recent paper we quantized the interaction of gravity with a Yang-Mills and Higgs field and obtained as a result a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Assuming that the Cauchy hypersurfaces are compact we proved a spectral resolution for the wave equation by applying the method of separation of variables. In this paper we extend the results to the case when the Cauchy hypersurfaces are non-compact by considering a Gelfand triplet and applying the nuclear spectral theorem.
Marion, G. H.; Brown, Peter J.; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sand, David J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Camacho, Yssavo; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Graham, Melissa L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M.; Maeda, Keiichi; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Pandya, Viraj; Rines, Kenneth J.; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang
2016-04-01
We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova (Sn Ia) SN 2012cg at 15 and 16 days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN 2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected {M}B=-19.62+/- 0.02 mag and {{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.86+/- 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in seven filters from five independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity vSi = -10,500 km s-1. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen favors a main-sequence companion of about six solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-sequence companions that have eluded detection because the emission from the impact is fleeting and faint.
Marion, G H; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sand, David J; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P; Wheeler, J Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R; Calkins, Michael L; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J; Friedman, Andrew S; Graham, Melissa L; Howell, D Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y; Irwin, Jonathan M; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Rines, Kenneth J; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang
2015-01-01
We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova SN~2012cg at fifteen and sixteen days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN~Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN~2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN~Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN~Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected M_B = -19.62 \\pm 0.02 mag and Delta m_{15}(B) = 0.86 \\pm 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in 7 filters from 5 independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity v_{Si} = -10,500 km/s. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen (2010) favors a main-sequence companion of about 6 solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-...
Grasso, E J; Oliveira, R G; Maggio, B
2016-02-15
The molecular packing, thermodynamics and surface topography of binary Langmuir monolayers of Insulin and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) or POCP (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) at the air/water interface on Zn(2+) containing solutions were studied. Miscibility and interactions were ascertained by the variation of surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherms, surface compressional modulus and surface (dipole) potential with the film composition. Brewster Angle Microscopy was used to visualize the surface topography of the monolayers. Below 20mN/m Insulin forms stable homogenous films with DPPC and POPC at all mole fractions studied (except for films with XINS=0.05 at 10mN/m where domain coexistence was observed). Above 20mN/m, a segregation process between mixed phases occurred in all monolayers without squeezing out of individual components. Under compression the films exhibit formation of a viscoelastic or kinetically trapped organization leading to considerable composition-dependent hysteresis under expansion that occurs with entropic-enthalpic compensation. The spontaneously unfavorable interactions of Insulin with DPPC are driven by favorable enthalpy that is overcome by unfavorable entropic ordering; in films with POPC both the enthalpic and entropic effects are unfavorable. The surface topography reveals domain coexistence at relatively high pressure showing a striped appearance. The interactions of Insulin with two major membrane phospholipids induces composition-dependent and long-range changes of the surface organization that ought to be considered in the context of the information-transducing capabilities of the hormone for cell functioning.
Das Adhikari, Akshay Kumar; Bhat, Paike Jayadeva
2016-09-01
Studies on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL/MEL genetic switch have revealed that its bistability is dependent on ultrasensitivity that can be altered or abolished by disabling different combinations of nested feedback loops. In contrast, we have previously demonstrated that weakening of the interaction between Gal80p and Gal4p alone is sufficient to abolish the ultrasensitivity (Das Adhikari et al. 2014). Here, we demonstrate that altering the epistatic interaction between Gal80p and Gal4p also abolishes the bistability, and the switch response to galactose becomes graded instead of binary. However, the GAL/MEL switch of wild-type and epistatically altered strains responded in a graded fashion to melibiose. The properties of the epistatically altered strain resemble Kluyveromyces lactis, which separated from the Saccharomyces lineage 100 mya before whole-genome duplication (WGD). Based on the results reported here, we propose that epistatic interactions played a crucial role in the evolution of the fine regulation of S. cerevisiae GAL/MEL switch following WGD.
Unraveling Binary Evolution from Gravitational-Wave Signals and Source Statistics
Mandel, Ilya; Kalogera, Vicky; O'Shaughnessy, Richard
2010-01-01
The next generation of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are likely to observe gravitational waves from the coalescences of compact-objects binaries. We describe the state of the art for predictions of the rate of compact-binary coalescences and report on initial efforts to develop a framework for converting gravitational-wave observations into improved constraints on astrophysical parameters.
Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs
Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.
2017-01-01
The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.
Chandra Imaging of Gamma-Ray Binaries
Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G
2013-01-01
We review the multiwavelength properties of the few known gamma-ray binaries, focusing on extended emission recently resolved with Chandra. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of compact objects and for physical processes operating in these systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald J Hause
Full Text Available First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2 domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry
Gotberg, Y.; de Mink, S.E.; Groh, J. H.
2017-01-01
Understanding ionizing fluxes of stellar populations is crucial for various astrophysical problems including the epoch of reionization. Massive short-lived Wolf-Rayet stars are generally considered as the main ionizing sources. We examine the role of less massive stars that lose their envelope through interaction with a companion. We use the evolutionary code MESA and the radiative transfer code CMFGEN to investigate stripped stars as a function of metallicity (Z). We show that typical progen...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Saberi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP and aspirin (ASA to human holo-transferrin (hTf has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering, as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.
Kalekar, Bhupesh; Raje, Naina; Reddy, A. V. R.
2017-02-01
Interaction behavior of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate (LaNH) have been investigated on the mixtures in different molar ratios of the two precursors and monitoring the reactions at elevated temperatures with thermoanalytical and X-ray diffraction measurement techniques. During the decomposition of equimolar mixture of LaNH and UNH, formation of lanthanum uranate (U0.5La0.5)O2, was seen by the temperature of 500 °C along with lanthanum oxide (La2O3) and uranium trioxide (UO3). By the temperature of 700 °C, the formation of uranium sesquioxide (U3O8) was observed along with (U0.5La0.5)O2 as end products in uranium rich mixtures. Lanthanum rich compositions decomposed by the temperature of 700 °C to give (U0.5La0.5)O2 and La2O3 as end products.
Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction
2012-01-01
The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force....
Observing Compact Stars with AstroSat
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Dipankar Bhattacharya
2017-09-01
This article presents a brief description of India’s AstroSat mission which is a powerful space based observatory for compact star research. An account is given of observational constraints and spectral and timing capabilities as realised post-launch. Some preliminary results of observations of the Crab pulsar and an X-ray binary system GX 301-2 are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of the mission.
Observing Compact Stars with AstroSat
Bhattacharya, Dipankar
2017-09-01
This article presents a brief description of India's AstroSat mission which is a powerful space based observatory for compact star research. An account is given of observational constraints and spectral and timing capabilities as realised post-launch. Some preliminary results of observations of the Crab pulsar and an X-ray binary system GX 301-2 are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of the mission.
New Insights into X-ray Binaries
Casares, Jorge
2009-01-01
X-ray binaries are excellent laboratories to study collapsed objects. On the one hand, transient X-ray binaries contain the best examples of stellar-mass black holes while persistent X-ray binaries mostly harbour accreting neutron stars. The determination of stellar masses in persistent X-ray binaries is usually hampered by the overwhelming luminosity of the X-ray heated accretion disc. However, the discovery of high-excitation emission lines from the irradiated companion star has opened new routes in the study of compact objects. This paper presents novel techniques which exploits these irradiated lines and summarises the dynamical masses obtained for the two populations of collapsed stars: neutron stars and black holes.
Binary properties of subdwarfs selected in the GALEX survey
Kawka, Adela; O'Toole, Simon; Vennes, Stephane; Nemeth, Peter; Williams, Andrew; Iliev, Lubomir; Kolaczkowski, Zbyszek; Steslicki, Marek
2012-01-01
We describe our programme to identify and analyse binary stars among the bright subdwarfs selected in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) survey. Radial velocity time-series helped us identify subdwarfs with low-mass or compact stellar companions: We describe work conducted on the bright binaries GALEX J0321+4727 and GALEX J2349+3844, and we present a radial velocity study of several objects that include three new likely binaries. We also carried out photometric observations that allowed us to detect long period pulsations in the subdwarf components in two of the close binaries.
Long time-scale variability of X-ray binaries with late type giant companions
Filippova, E; Parkin, E R
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose and examine a physical mechanism which can lead to the generation of noise in the mass accretion rate of low mass X-ray binaries on time-scales comparable to the orbital period of the system. We consider modulations of mass captured by the compact object from the companion star's stellar wind in binaries with late type giants, systems which usually have long orbital periods. We show that a hydrodynamical interaction of the wind matter within a binary system even without eccentricity results in variability of the mass accretion rate with characteristic time-scales close to the orbital period. The cause of the variability is an undeveloped turbulent motion (perturbed motion without significant vorticity) of wind matter near the compact object. Our conclusions are supported by 3D simulations with two different hydrodynamic codes based on Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches -- the SPH code GADGET and the Eulerian code PLUTO. In this work we assume that the wind mass loss rate of the second...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...
Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries
Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei
2017-04-01
The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.
Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.
Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R
2015-12-01
Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52} erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.
Gravitational waves from compact objects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
José Antonio de Freitas Pacheco
2010-01-01
Large ground-based laser beam interferometers are presently in operation both in the USA (LIGO) and in Europe (VIRGO) and potential sources that might be detected by these instruments are revisited. The present generation of detectors does not have a sensitivity high enough to probe a significant volume of the universe and,consequently, predicted event rates are very low. The planned advanced generation of interferometers will probably be able to detect, for the first time, a gravitational signal. Advanced LIGO and EGO instruments are expected to detect few (some): binary coalescences consisting of either two neutron stars, two black holes or a neutron star and a black hole. In space, the sensitivity of the planned LISA spacecraft constellation will allow the detection of the gravitational signals, even within a "pessimistic" range of possible signals, produced during the capture of compact objects by supermassive black holes, at a rate of a few tens per year.
Long-term optical variability of high-mass X-ray binaries. II. Spectroscopy
Reig, P.; Nersesian, A.; Zezas, A.; Gkouvelis, L.; Coe, M. J.
2016-05-01
profile variability (V/R ratio) timescales are shorter and the Hα equivalent widths are smaller in Be/X-ray binaries than in isolated Be stars; and vii) we provide new evidence that the disk in Be/X-ray binaries is, on average, denser than in classical Be stars. Conclusions: We carried out the most complete optical spectroscopic study of the global properties of high-mass X-ray binaries with the analysis of more than 1100 spectra from 20 sources. Our results provide further evidence for the truncation of the disk in Be/X-ray binaries. We conclude that the interaction between the compact object and the Be-type star works in two directions: the massive companion provides the source of matter for accretion, affecting the surroundings of the compact object, and the continuous revolution of the neutron star around the optical counterpart also produces the truncation of the Be star's equatorial disk. The reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A122
Measuring the spin of black holes in binary systems using gravitational waves
Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Raymond, Vivien; Sturani, Riccardo
2014-01-01
Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spin-orbit (and eventual spin-spin) interactions, and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this letter we analyze simulated signals emitted by spinning binaries with several values of masses, spins, orientation, and signal-to-noise ratio. We find that spin magnitudes and tilt angles can be estimated to accuracy of a few percent for neutron star--black hole systems and $\\sim$ 5-30% for black hole binaries. In contrast, the difference in the azimuth angles of the spins, which may be used to check if spins are locked into resonant configurations, cannot be constrained. We observe that the best performances are obtained when the line of sight is perpendicular to the system's total angular momentum, and that a sudden change of behavior occurs when a system is observed from ...
Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K; Khalil, Menna M; Elnabawy, Ahmed O
2013-03-01
Peng-Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij . In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron-Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Peng–Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij. In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation.
Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K.; Khalil, Menna M.; Elnabawy, Ahmed O.
2012-01-01
Peng–Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij. In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation. PMID:25685411
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping WANG; Jiong Sheng LI
2005-01-01
Let G be a finite simple graph with adjacency matrix A, and let P(A) be the convex closure of the set of all permutation matrices commuting with A. G is said to be compact if every doubly stochastic matrix which commutes with A is in P(A). In this paper, we characterize 3-regular compact graphs and prove that if G is a connected regular compact graph, G - v is also compact, and give a family of almost regular compact connected graphs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakasho Kazuhisa
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we mainly formalize in Mizar [2] the equivalence among a few compactness definitions of metric spaces, norm spaces, and the real line. In the first section, we formalized general topological properties of metric spaces. We discussed openness and closedness of subsets in metric spaces in terms of convergence of element sequences. In the second section, we firstly formalize the definition of sequentially compact, and then discuss the equivalence of compactness, countable compactness, sequential compactness, and totally boundedness with completeness in metric spaces.
Porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1999-03-01
In this study, the porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite, considered as an engineered barrier in the repository of spent fuel, has been studied in interaction experiments. Many parameters, like the composition and density of bentonite, composition of the solution, bentonite-to-water ratio (B/W), surrounding conditions and experimental time have been varied in the experiments. At the end of the interaction the equilibrating solution, the porewaters squeezed out of the bentonite samples, and bentonites themselves were analyzed to give information for the interpretation and modelling of the interaction. Equilibrium modelling was performed with the HYDRAQL/CE computer code 33 refs.
General Relativity and Compact Objects
Gupta, Patrick Das
2015-01-01
Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...
Enhanced parametric processes in binary metamaterials
Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2005-01-01
We suggest double-resonant (binary) metamaterials composed of two types of magnetic resonant elements, and demonstrate that in the nonlinear regime such metamaterials provide unique possibilities for phase-matched parametric interaction and enhanced second-harmonic generation.
Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries
Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em
2002-01-01
It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...
Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars
Moeckel, Nickolas
2012-01-01
Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...
Projected Constraints on Scalarization with Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binaries
Sampson, Laura; Cornish, Neil; Ponce, Marcelo; Barausse, Enrico; Klein, Antoine; Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis
2014-01-01
Certain scalar-tensor theories have the property of endowing stars with scalar hair, sourced either by the star's own compactness (spontaneous scalarization) or, for binary systems, by the companion's scalar hair (induced scalarization) or by the orbital binding energy (dynamical scalarization). Scalarized stars in binaries present different conservative dynamics than in General Relativity, and can also excite a scalar mode in the metric perturbation that carries away dipolar radiation. As a result, the binary orbit shrinks faster than predicted in General Relativity, modifying the rate of decay of the orbital period. In spite of this, scalar-tensor theories can pass existing binary pulsar tests, because observed pulsars may not be compact enough or sufficiently orbitally bound to activate scalarization. Gravitational waves emitted during the last stages of compact binary inspirals are thus ideal probes of scalarization effects. For the standard projected sensitivity of advanced LIGO, we here show that, if ne...
Chemically homogeneous evolution in massive binaries
de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Pols, O R
2010-01-01
Rotation can have severe consequences for the evolution of massive stars. It is now considered as one of the main parameters, alongside mass and metallicity that determine the final fate of single stars. In massive, fast rotating stars mixing processes induced by rotation may be so efficient that helium produced in the center is mixed throughout the envelope. Such stars evolve almost chemically homogeneously. At low metallicity they remain blue and compact, while they gradually evolve into Wolf-Rayet stars and possibly into progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts. In binaries this type of evolution may occur because of (I) tides in very close binaries, as a result of (II) spin up by mass transfer, as result of (III) a merger of the two stars and (IV) when one of the components in the binary was born with a very high initial rotation rate. As these stars stay compact, the evolutionary channels are very different from what classical binary evolutionary models predict. In this contribution we discuss examples of ne...
Compaction behavior of isomalt after roll compaction.
Quodbach, Julian; Mosig, Johanna; Kleinebudde, Peter
2012-09-27
The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.
Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Kleinebudde
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.
Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro
2003-01-01
Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.
Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro
2003-01-01
Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...
Compact Polarimetry Potentials
Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric
2011-01-01
The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.
Mechanics of tissue compaction.
Turlier, Hervé; Maître, Jean-Léon
2015-12-01
During embryonic development, tissues deform by a succession and combination of morphogenetic processes. Tissue compaction is the morphogenetic process by which a tissue adopts a tighter structure. Recent studies characterized the respective roles of cells' adhesive and contractile properties in tissue compaction. In this review, we formalize the mechanical and molecular principles of tissue compaction and we analyze through the prism of this framework several morphogenetic events: the compaction of the early mouse embryo, the formation of the fly retina, the segmentation of somites and the separation of germ layers during gastrulation.
Compact Polarimetry Potentials
Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric
2011-01-01
The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...