WorldWideScience

Sample records for compact elliptical galaxies

  1. Ellipticities of Elliptical Galaxies in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the ellipticity distributions of elliptical galaxies in different environments. From the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we selected galaxies with absolute {r}\\prime -band magnitudes between -21 and -22. We used the volume number densities of galaxies as the criterion for selecting the environments of the galaxies. Our samples were divided into three groups with different volume number densities. The ellipticity distributions of the elliptical galaxies differed considerably in these three groups of different density regions. We deprojected the observed 2D ellipticity distributions into intrinsic 3D shape distributions, and the result showed that the shapes of the elliptical galaxies were relatively spherically symmetric in the high density region (HDR) and that relatively more flat galaxies were present in the low density region (LDR). This suggests that the ellipticals in the HDRs and LDRs have different origins or that different mechanisms might be involved. The elliptical galaxies in the LDR are likely to have evolved from mergers in relatively anisotropic structures, such as filaments and webs, and might contain information on the anisotropic spatial distribution of their parent mergers. By contrast, elliptical galaxies in the HDR might be formed in more isotropic structures, such as galaxy clusters, or they might encounter more torqueing effects compared with galaxies in LDRs, thereby becoming rounder.

  2. Surface brightness and color distributions in blue compact dwarf galaxies. I. Haro 2, an extreme example of a star-forming young elliptical galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.H.; Thuan, T.X.; Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    The first results of a large-scale program to study the morphology and structure of blue compact dwarf galaxies from CCD observations are presented. The observations and reduction procedures are described, and surface brightness and color profiles are shown. The results are used to discuss the morphological type of Haro 2 and its stellar populations. It is found that Haro 2 appears to be an extreme example of an elliptical galaxy undergoing intense star formation in its central regions, and that the oldest stars it contains were made only about four million yr ago. The missing mass problem of Haro 2 is also discussed. 28 references

  3. Flattening and radio emission among elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Sparks, W.B.; Wall, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    In a sample of 132 bright elliptical galaxies it is shown that there is a strong correlation between radio activity and flattening in the sense that radio ellipticals are both apparently and inherently rounder than the average elliptical. Both extended and compact sources are subject to the same correlation. No galaxies with axial ratios below 0.65 are found to be radio emitters. (author)

  4. Triaxiality in elliptical galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benacchio, L; Galletta, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-12-01

    The existence of a triaxial shape for elliptical galaxies has been considered in recent years to explain the new kinematical and geometrical findings, i.e. (a) the low rotation/velocity dispersion ratio found also in some flat systems, (b) the presence of twisting in the isophotes, (c) the recently found correlation between maximum twisting and maximum flattening, (d) the presence of rotation along the minor axis. A simple geometrical model of elliptical galaxies having shells with different axial ratios c/a, b/a has been produced to interpret three fundamental key-features of elliptical galaxies: (i) the distribution of the maximum flattening observed; (ii) the percentage of ellipticals showing twisting; and (iii) the correlation between maximum twisting and maximum flattening. The model has been compared with observational data for 348 elliptical systems as given by Strom and Strom. It is found that a triaxial ellipsoid with coaxial shells having axial ratios c/a and b/a mutually dependent in a linear way can satisfy the observations.

  5. A FUNDAMENTAL LINE FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preethi; Van den Bergh, Sidney; Abraham, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that massive galaxies in the distant universe are surprisingly compact, with typical sizes about a factor of three smaller than equally massive galaxies in the nearby universe. It has been suggested that these massive galaxies grow into systems resembling nearby galaxies through a series of minor mergers. In this model the size growth of galaxies is an inherently stochastic process, and the resulting size-luminosity relationship is expected to have considerable environmentally dependent scatter. To test whether minor mergers can explain the size growth in massive galaxies, we have closely examined the scatter in the size-luminosity relation of nearby elliptical galaxies using a large new database of accurate visual galaxy classifications. We demonstrate that this scatter is much smaller than has been previously assumed, and may even be so small as to challenge the plausibility of the merger-driven hierarchical models for the formation of massive ellipticals.

  6. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Interstellar matter within elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of elliptical galaxies are reviewed, with an emphasis on their implications for theoretical models proposed to explain the origin and evolution of the interstellar matter. Particular attention is given to interstellar matter at T less than 100 K (atomic and molecular gas and dust), gas at T = about 10,000 K, and gas at T = 10 to the 6th K or greater. The data are shown to confirm the occurrence of mass loss from evolved stars, significant accretion from companion galaxies, and cooling inflows; no evidence is found for large mass outflow from elliptical galaxies.

  8. Elliptical and lenticular galaxies evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Different evolutionnary models for elliptical and lenticular galaxies are discussed. In the first part, we show that, at least some peculiar early types galaxies exhibit some activity. Then we describe the observationnal constraints: the color-magnitude diagram, the color gradient and the high metallicity of intraclusters gas. Among the different models, only the dissipation collapse followed by a hot wind driven by supernovae explosion explain in a natural way these constraints. Finally, the origin of SO is briefly discussed [fr

  9. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, N.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES were first identified by Shapley, who had noticed two very diffuse collections of stars on Harvard patrol plates. Although these systems had about as many stars as a GLOBULAR CLUSTER, they were of much lower density, and hence much larger radius, and thus were considered distinct galaxies. These two, named Fornax and Sculptor after the constellations in which they ap...

  10. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  11. Stellar Populations in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    The R1/n law for the radial surface brightness of elliptical galaxies and the "Best Accretion Model" together with the "Concentration Model" have been combined in order to determine the mass and dynamical structure of largely-populated star systems. Families of models depending on four parameters have been used to fit the observed surface radial profiles of some spectro-photometric indices of a sample of eleven galaxies. We present the best agreements of the spectral index Mg2 with observations for three selected galaxies representative of the full sample. For them we have also computed the spatial distributions of the metal abundances, which are essential to achieve a population synthesis.

  12. Kinematically Decoupled Cores in Dwarf (Elliptical) Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Brok, M. d.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    An overview is given of what we know about the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores in dwarf elliptical galaxies. New observations show that kinematically decoupled cores happen just as often in dwarf elliptical as in ordinary early-type galaxies. This has important consequences for the

  13. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  14. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  15. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  16. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  17. MINOR MERGERS AND THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2009-01-01

    Using a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of the formation of a massive spheroidal galaxy we show that elliptical galaxies can be very compact and massive at high redshift in agreement with recent observations. Accretion of stripped infalling stellar material increases the size of the system with time and the central concentration is reduced by dynamical friction of the surviving stellar cores. In a specific case of a spheroidal galaxy with a final stellar mass of 1.5 x 10 11 M sun we find that the effective radius r e increases from 0.7 ± 0.2 kpc at z = 3 to r e = 2.4 ± 0.4 kpc at z = 0 with a concomitant decrease in the effective density of an order of magnitude and a decrease of the central velocity dispersion by approximately 20% over this time interval. A simple argument based on the virial theorem shows that during the accretion of weakly bound material (minor mergers) the radius can increase as the square of the mass in contrast to the usual linear rate of increase for major mergers. By undergoing minor mergers compact high-redshift spheroids can evolve into present-day systems with sizes and concentrations similar to observed local ellipticals. This indicates that minor mergers may be the main driver for the late evolution of sizes and densities of early-type galaxies.

  18. Formation of Compact Ellipticals in the merging star cluster scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia Zapata, Fernanda Cecilia; Theory and star formation group

    2018-01-01

    In the last years, extended old stellar clusters have been observed. They are like globular clusters (GCs) but with larger sizes(a limit of Re=10 pc is currently seen as reasonable). These extended objects (EOs) cover a huge range of mass. Objects at the low mass end with masses comparable to normal globular clusters are called extended clusters or faint fuzzies Larsen & Brodie (2000) and objects at the high-mass end are called ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). Ultra compact dwarf galaxies are compact object with luminositys above the brigtest known GCs. UCDs are more compact than typical dwarf galaxies but with comparable luminosities. Usually, a lower mass limit of 2 × 10^6 Solar masses is applied.Fellhauer & Kroupa (2002a,b) demostrated that object like ECs, FFs and UCDs can be the remnants of the merger of star clusters complexes, this scenario is called the Merging Star Cluster Scenario. Amore concise study was performed by Bruens et al. (2009, 2011).Our work tries to explain the formation of compact elliptical(cE). These objects are a comparatively rare class of spheroidal galaxies, possessing very small Re and high central surface brightnesses (Faber 1973). cEs have the same parameters as extended objects but they are slightly larger than 100 pc and the luminosities are in the range of -11 to -12 Mag.The standard formation sceanrio of these systems proposes a galaxy origin. CEs are the result of tidal stripping and truncation of nucleated larger systems. Or they could be a natural extension of the class of elliptical galaxies to lower luminosities and smaller sizes.We want to propose a completely new formation scenario for cEs. In our project we try to model cEs in a similar way that UCDs using the merging star cluster scenario extended to much higher masses and sizes. We think that in the early Universe we might have produced sufficiently strong star bursts to form cluster complexes which merge into cEs. So far it is observationally unknown if cEs are

  19. Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.

  20. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  1. Can mergers make slowly rotating elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The results of numerical experiments are used to guide an analytic discussion of hyperbolic mergers among an uncorrelated galaxy population. The expected merger rate is derived as a function of progenitor mass and relative angular momentum, and is used to predict the distribution of the parameter V/sub c//sigma 0 for merger products where V/sub c/ is the maximum observed rotation velocity in a galaxy and sigma 0 is its central velocity dispersion. The median value of this parameter for mergers between comparable galaxies is estimated to be 0.65 and is higher than the observed value in any of the 14 galaxies for which data are available. It seems unlikely that most elliptical galaxies are the result of single or multiple mergers between initially unbound stellar systems; further observational and theoretical work is suggested which should lead to a conclusive test of this picture. The present arguments cannot, however, exclude formation from low angular momentum elliptical orbits

  2. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  3. Can elliptical galaxies be equilibrium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-08-01

    This paper deals with the question of whether elliptical galaxies can be considered as equilibrium systems (i.e., the gravitational + centrifugal potential is constant on the external surface). We find that equilibrium models such as Emden-Chandrasekhar polytropes and Roche polytropes with n = 0 can account for the main part of observations relative to the ratio of maximum rotational velocity to central velocity dispersion in elliptical systems. More complex models involving, for example, massive halos could lead to a more complete agreement. Models that are a good fit to the observed data are characterized by an inner component (where most of the mass is concentrated) and a low-density outer component. A comparison is performed between some theoretical density distributions and the density distribution observed by Young et al. (1978) in NGC 4473, but a number of limitations must be adopted. Alternative models, such as triaxial oblate non-equilibrium configurations with coaxial shells, involve a number of problems which are briefly discussed. We conclude that spheroidal oblate models describing elliptical galaxies cannot be ruled out until new analyses relative to more refined theoretical equilibrium models (involving, for example, massive halos) and more detailed observations are performed.

  4. Correlations Between Central Massive Objects And Their Host Galaxies: From Bulgeless Spirals to Ellipticals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuexing; Haiman, Zoltán; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations by Ferrarese et al. (2006) and Wehner et al. (2006) reveal that a majority of galaxies contain a central massive object (CMO), either a supermassive black hole (SMBH) or a compact stellar nucleus, regardless of the galaxy mass or morphological type, and that there is a tight relation between the masses of CMOs and those of the host galaxies. Several recent studies show that feedback from black holes can successfully explain the $\\msigma$ correlation in massive elliptical g...

  5. Constraints on stellar populations in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Photographic image-tube spectra in the wavelength interval 3400--4500 A have been obtained for 12 elliptical galaxy nuclei and for a number of Galactic globular and open clusters in integrated light. The spectra have a wavelength resolution of 2.5 A and a high signal-to-noise ratio. A new quantitative three-dimensional spectral-classification system that has been calibrated on a sample of approx.200 individual stars (Rose 1984) is used to analyze the integrated spectra of the ellipical galaxy nuclei and to compare them with those of the globular clusters. This system is based on spectral indices that are formed by comparing neighborhood spectral features and is unaffected by reddening. The following results have been found: (1) Hot stars (i.e., spectral types A and B) contribute only 2% to the integrated spectra of elliptical galaxies at approx.4000 A, except in the nucleus of NGC 205, where the hot component dominates. This finding is based on a spectral index formed from the relative central intensities in the Ca II H+Hepsilon and Ca II K lines, which is shown to be constant for late-type (i.e., F, G, and K) stars, but changes drastically at earlier types. The observed Ca II H+Hepsilon/Ca II K indices in ellipticals can be reproduced by the inclusion of a small metal-poor population (as in the globular cluster M5) that contributes approx.8% of the light at 4000 A. Such a contribution is qualitatively consistent with the amount of

  6. Diverse Formation Mechanisms for Compact Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ah; Paudel, Sanjaya; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Compact, quenched galaxies such as M32 are unusual ones located off the mass - size scaling relation defined by normal galaxies. Still, their formation mechanisms remain unsolved. Here we investigate the evolution of ~100 compact, quenched galaxies at z = 0 identified in the Illustris cosmological simulation. We identify three ways for a galaxy to become a compact one and, often, multiple mechanisms operate in a combined manner. First, stripping is responsible for making about a third of compact galaxies. Stripping removes stars from galaxies, usually while keeping their sizes intact. About one third are galaxies that cease their growth early on after entering into more massive, gigantic halos. Finally, about half of compact galaxies, ~ 35 % of which turn out to undergo stripping, experience the compaction due to the highly centrally concentrated star formation. We discuss the evolutionary path of compact galaxies on the mass – size plane for each mechanism in a broader context of dwarf galaxy formation and evolution.

  7. Elliptical Galaxies: Rotationally Distorted, After All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of earlier investigations onhomeoidally striated Mac Laurin spheroids and Jacobi ellipsoids (Caimmi and Marmo2005, Caimmi 2006a, 2007, different sequences of configurations are defined and represented in the ellipticity-rotation plane, $({sf O}hat{e}chi_v^2$. The rotation parameter, $chi_v^2$, is defined as the ratio, $E_mathrm{rot}/E_mathrm{res}$, of kinetic energy related to the mean tangential equatorial velocity component, $M(overline{v_phi}^2/2$, to kineticenergy related to tangential equatorial component velocity dispersion, $Msigma_{phiphi}^2/2$, andresidual motions, $M(sigma_{ww}^2+sigma_{33}^2/2$.Without loss of generality (above a thresholdin ellipticity values, the analysis is restricted to systems with isotropic stress tensor, whichmay be considered as adjoint configurationsto any assigned homeoidally striated density profile with anisotropic stress tensor, different angular momentum, and equal remaining parameters.The description of configurations in the$({sf O}hat{e}chi_v^2$ plane is extendedin two respects, namely (a from equilibriumto nonequilibrium figures, where the virialequations hold with additional kinetic energy,and (b from real to imaginary rotation, wherethe effect is elongating instead of flattening,with respect to the rotation axis.An application is made toa subsample $(N=16$ of elliptical galaxies extracted from richer samples $(N=25,~N=48$of early type galaxies investigated within theSAURON project (Cappellari et al. 2006, 2007.Sample objects are idealized as homeoidallystriated MacLaurinspheroids and Jacobi ellipsoids, and theirposition in the $({sf O}hat{e}chi_v^2$plane is inferred from observations followinga procedure outlined in an earlier paper(Caimmi 2009b. The position of related adjoint configurations with isotropic stresstensor is also determined. With a singleexception (NGC 3379, slow rotators arecharacterized by low ellipticities $(0lehat{e}<0.2$, low anisotropy parameters$(0ledelta<0

  8. On compact galaxies in the UGC catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshvili, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of separation of compact galaxies in the UGC Catalogue is considered. Value of surface brightness equal to or less than 21sup(m) was used as compactness criterion from a square second of arc. 96 galaxies, which are brighter than 14sup(m)5 satisfy this criterion. Among compact galaxies discovered in the UGC Catalogue 7% are the Zwicky galaxies, 15% belong to the Markarian galaxies and 27% of galaxies are part of a galaxy list with high surface brightness. Considerable divergence in estimates of total share of compact galaxies in the B.A. Worontsov-Veljaminov Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) and the UGC Catalogue is noted. This divergence results from systematical underestimation of visible sizes of compact galaxies in the MCG Catalogue as compared with the UGC Catalogue [ru

  9. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r b , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  10. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  11. Mergers of elliptical galaxies and the fundamental plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS; AvilaReese,; Firmani, C; Frenk, CS; Allen, YC

    2003-01-01

    N-body simulations have been carried out in order to explore the final state of elliptical galaxies after encounters and more expecifically whether the Fundamental Plane (FP hereafter) relation is affected by merging.

  12. Formation of S0s via disc accretion around high-redshift compact ellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jonathan; Bekki, Kenji; Forbes, Duncan A.; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Deeley, Simon

    2018-06-01

    We present hydrodynamical N-body models which demonstrate that elliptical galaxies can transform into S0s by acquiring a disc. In particular, we show that the merger with a massive gas-rich satellite can lead to the formation of a baryonic disc around an elliptical. We model the elliptical as a massive, compact galaxy which could be observed as a `red nugget' in the high-z universe. This scenario contrasts with existing S0 formation scenarios in the literature in two important ways. First, the progenitor is an elliptical galaxy whereas scenarios in the literature typically assume a spiral progenitor. Secondly, the physical conditions underlying our proposed scenario can exist in low-density environments such as the field, in contrast to scenarios in the literature which typically address dense environments like clusters and groups. As a consequence, S0s in the field may be the most likely candidates to have evolved from elliptical progenitors. Our scenario also naturally explains recent observations which indicate that field S0s may have older bulges than discs, contrary to cluster S0s which seem to have older discs than bulges.

  13. UV Visibility of Moderate-Redshift Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Rhee

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We show quantitatively whether giant elliptical galaxies would be visible at far UV wavelengths if they were placed at moderate redshift of 0.4-0.5. On the basis of simple cosmological tests, we conclude that giant elliptical galaxies can be detectable upto the redshift of 0.4-0.5 in the proposed GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. We also show that obtaining UV color index such as m_1550 - V from upcoming GALEX and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations should be feasible.

  14. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  15. Iron abundance evolution in spiral and elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical evolution models for the Galaxy and ellipticals, which take into account the most recent developments on theories of nucleosynthesis and supernova progenitors, are presented. The evolution of the abundance of iron in these systems, under the assumption that this element is mainly produced by type I SNe, originating from white dwarfs in binary systems, has been computed and the results have been compared with the observations. Overabundances of O, Si, Ne and Mg with respect to iron have been predicted for halo stars in their Galaxy. The existence of an Fe - total mass relation with a slope steeper than the corresponding relations for Mg and O has been predicted for ellipticals. The masses of Fe ejected by ellipticals of various masses into the intergalactic medium have also been computed in detail. The general agreement obtained between these theoretical models and the observations for galaxies of different morphological type supports the assumptions made about the origin of iron

  16. X-ray Point Source Populations in Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Weaver, K.; Strickland, D.

    2002-01-01

    The hard-X-ray luminosity of non-active galaxies has been known to be fairly well correlated with the total blue luminosity since the days of the Einstein satellite. However, the origin of this hard component was not well understood. Some possibilities that were considered included X-ray binaries, extended upscattered far-infrared light via the inverse-Compton process, extended hot 107 K gas (especially in ellipitical galaxies), or even an active nucleus. Chandra images of normal, elliptical and starburst galaxies now show that a significant amount of the total hard X-ray emission comes from individual point sources. We present here spatial and spectral analyses of the point sources in a small sample of Chandra obervations of starburst galaxies, and compare with Chandra point source analyses from comparison galaxies (elliptical, Seyfert and normal galaxies). We discuss possible relationships between the number and total hard luminosity of the X-ray point sources and various measures of the galaxy star formation rate, and discuss possible options for the numerous compact sources that are observed.

  17. Structure and stellar content of dwarf elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, N.

    1983-01-01

    A small number of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster and around other prominent galaxies have been studied using photoelectric and photographic techniques. The color-magnitude relation for ellipticals now extends from M/sub v/ = -23 to -15, and is linear over that range with a slope of 0.10 in U-V per visual magnitude. Galaxies which are known to contain a large number of young stars (''extreme cases'') are from 0.10 to 0.20 mag bluer in U-V than the lower envelope of the dwarf elliptical color-magnitude relation. This difference can be accounted for if the dwarf elliptical galaxies are young, but do not contain the massive blue stars that probably exist in the young populations of the extreme cases. Surface brightness profiles of the dwarfs have revealed some interesting distinctions between themselves and the brighter E's. In general, their intensity profiles are shallower than those of the bright E's, meaning they are of lower mean density. These mean densities are also a function of the total luminosity. Unlike the bright E's, the surface brightnesses near the centers are also a strong function of the total luminosity. The presence of a nucleation, which can be as much as 2 mag brighter than what the outer envelope would predict, does not appear to depend on any other measurable property of the galaxies. The variation in surface brightness profiles at the same total luminosity is suggestive that the low-luminosity dwarfs formed in more than one way. The flattening distribution of the dwarfs is like that of the bright ellipticals, and is also similar to the flattening distribution of field irregular galaxies

  18. Modelling the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Katy

    Since Lick indices were introduced in 1994, they have been used as a source of observational data against which computer models of galaxy evolution have been compared. However, as this thesis demonstrates, observed Lick indices lead to mathematical ill-conditioning: small variations in observations can lead to very large differences in population synthesis models attempting to recreate the observed values. As such, limited reliance should be placed on any results currently or historically in the literature purporting to give the star formation history of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, where this is deduced from Lick observations taken from a single instrument, without separate verification from at least one other source. Within these limitations, this thesis also constrains the star formation histories of 21 nearby elliptical galaxies, finding that they formed 13.26 +0.09 -0.06 Gyrs ago, that all mergers are dry, and that galactic winds are formed from AGN activity (rather than being supernovae-driven). This thesis also finds evidence to support the established galaxy-formation theory of "downsizing". An existing galactic model from the literature is examined and evaluated, and the reasons for it being unable to establish star formation histories of individual galaxies are ascertained. A brand-new model is designed, developed, tested and used with two separate data sets, corroborated for 10 galaxies by data from a third source, and compared to results from a Single Stellar Population model from the literature, to model the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies.

  19. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  20. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  1. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  2. Radial distributions of star populations in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    The dynamical structure of stars in low-ellipticity early-type galaxies has been approached in a conceptually simple manner by making use of the mass structure inferred from the radial surface brightness and the stellar metal abundance as derived from that of the contracting gas mass when the stars formed. Families of models depending on three parameters can be used to fit the surface radial profiles of spectro-photometric indices. In particular, the behavior of the spectral index Mg 2 is selected, and the observations for eleven galaxies are matched with models. With the fitting values of the free parameters, we have studied the spatial (within the galaxy) and projected (on the image of the galaxy) distributions of the metal abundances. We present the results for three chosen galaxies characterized by rather different values of the fitting parameters. Our results can be of interest for the formation of stellar populations and call attention to the need for more detailed observations.

  3. Structure and Formation of Elliptical and Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    New surface photometry of all known elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, ellipticity, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sérsic log I vprop r 1/n functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all ellipticals remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our ellipticals with total absolute magnitudes MVT 4 uncorrelated with MVT . They also are α-element enhanced, implying short star-formation timescales. And their stellar populations have a variety of ages but mostly are very old. Extra light ellipticals generally rotate rapidly, are more isotropic than core Es, and have disky isophotes. We show that they have n sime 3 ± 1 almost uncorrelated with MVT and younger and less α-enhanced stellar populations. These are new clues to galaxy formation. We suggest that extra light ellipticals got their low Sérsic indices by forming in relatively few binary mergers, whereas giant ellipticals have n > 4 because they formed in larger numbers of mergers of more galaxies at once plus later heating during hierarchical clustering. We confirm that core Es contain X-ray-emitting gas whereas extra light Es generally do not. This leads us to suggest why the E-E dichotomy arose. If energy feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires a "working surface" of hot gas, then this is present in core galaxies but absent in extra light galaxies. We suggest that AGN energy feedback is a strong function of galaxy mass: it is weak enough in small Es not to prevent merger starbursts but strong enough in giant Es and their progenitors to make dry mergers dry and to protect old stellar populations from late star formation. Finally, we verify that there is a strong

  4. A VIOLENT INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DWARF GALAXY UGC-7636 AND THE GIANT ELLIPTIC GALAXY NGC-4472

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCNAMARA, BR; SANCISI, R; HENNING, PA; JUNOR, W

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris similar to 5 arcmin in length and similar to 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc

  5. The fate of high redshift massive compact galaxies in dense environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; /Zurich, ETH; Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich U.; Carollo, Marcella; /Zurich, ETH; Feldmann, Robert; /Fermilab /Chicago U., KICP

    2012-01-01

    Massive compact galaxies seem to be more common at high redshift than in the local universe, especially in denser environments. To investigate the fate of such massive galaxies identified at z {approx} 2 we analyse the evolution of their properties in three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that form virialized galaxy groups of mass {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} hosting a central massive elliptical/S0 galaxy by redshift zero. We find that at redshift {approx} 2 the population of galaxies with M{sub *} > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} is diverse in terms of mass, velocity dispersion, star formation and effective radius, containing both very compact and relatively extended objects. In each simulation all the compact satellite galaxies have merged into the central galaxy by redshift 0 (with the exception of one simulation where one of such satellite galaxy survives). Satellites of similar mass at z = 0 are all less compact than their high redshift counterparts. They form later than the galaxies in the z = 2 sample and enter the group potential at z < 1, when dynamical friction times are longer than the Hubble time. Also, by z = 0 the central galaxies have increased substantially their characteristic radius via a combination of in situ star formation and mergers. Hence in a group environment descendants of compact galaxies either evolve towards larger sizes or they disappear before the present time as a result of the environment in which they evolve. Since the group-sized halos that we consider are representative of dense environments in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we conclude that the majority of high redshift compact massive galaxies do not survive until today as a result of the environment.

  6. Dynamics of Triaxial Elliptical Galaxies with Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Tema

    1997-06-01

    The gravitational potentials, orbital properties, and self-consistent equilibria of triaxial stellar systems with central density cusps are examined. Observations of the nuclei of early-type galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) suggest that their surface brightness profiles fall into two categories: the 'cores' and the 'power laws.' We show that this dichotomy results from an optical illusion associated with projection onto the plane of the sky. Galaxies of both types have deprojected density profiles that are well-described as power-laws at small radii, with slopes 0≤γ 0.8. Regular box orbits, which depend for their existence on the stability of the long-axis orbit, do not exist in these models. The next-lowest resonance, the 2: 1 banana family, is present whenever the long-axis orbit is unstable. However the banana orbits have a very restricted range of shapes and are thicker than the model isodensity surfaces when c/a/ ~self-consistent models of triaxial galaxies with Dehnen's (1993) density law. We consider central density cusps defined by γ = 1 (weak cusp) and γ = 2 (strong cusp). These values are representative of the nuclear density profiles of bright ('core') and faint ('power-law') galaxies as observed with HST. Both mass models have short-to-long axis ratios of 1:2 and are maximally triaxial. We compute libraries of ~7000 orbits in each of the models and map them as a function of energy. A large fraction of the orbits in both model potentials are stochastic, which diffuse relatively quickly through their allowed phase-space in the strong-cusp potential (~103 dynamical times) and more slowly in the weak-cusp potential (104 dynamical times or longer). Attempts to construct self-consistent solutions using just the regular orbits failed for both mass models. Quasi-equilibrium solutions that include the stochastic orbits exist for both models; however, real galaxies constructed in this way would evolve near the center due to the continued

  7. FCC046: A CANDIDATE GASEOUS POLAR RING DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXY IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rijcke, S.; Buyle, P.; Koleva, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-06-20

    FCC046 is a Fornax Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxy. Optical observations have shown that this galaxy, besides an old and metal-poor stellar population, also contains a very young centrally concentrated population and is actively forming stars, albeit at a very low level. Here, we report on 21 cm observations of FCC046 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array which we conducted in the course of a small survey of Fornax Cluster early-type dwarf galaxies. We have discovered a {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} H I cloud surrounding FCC046. We show that the presence of this significant gas reservoir offers a concise explanation for this galaxy's optical morphological and kinematical properties. Surprisingly, the H I gas, as evidenced by its morphology and its rotational motion around the galaxy's optical major axis, is kinematically decoupled from the galaxy's stellar body. This is the first time such a ring of gaseous material in minor-axis rotation is discovered around a dwarf galaxy.

  8. A statistical analysis of the Einstein normal galaxy sample. III - Radio and X-ray properties of elliptical and S0 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Klein, U.; Trinchieri, G.; Wielebinski, R.

    1987-01-01

    Radioastronomy, optical and X-ray data were used to probe the cause of high X-ray luminosities of 28 radio-quiet elliptical galaxies (RQE) and S0 galaxies previously scanned by the Einstein Observatory. Comparisons were made with similar data on double-lobed 3CR galaxies. Radio luminosities were highly correlated with the X-ray luminosities, agreeing with models of radio nuclear sources in early-type galaxies as accreting compact objects. Additionally, 3CR galaxies seemed to be large-scale versions of normal RQE. The significance of interstellar medium/intracluster medium interactions for high correlations between the core and total radio power from X-ray emitting galaxies is discussed.

  9. Statistical analysis of the Einstein normal galaxy sample. III. Radio and X-ray properties of elliptical and S0 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Klein, U.; Trinchieri, G.; Wielebinski, R.; Bonn Universitaet, West Germany; Arcetri, Osservatorio Astrofisico, Florence, Italy; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    Radioastronomy, optical and X-ray data were used to probe the cause of high X-ray luminosities of 28 radio-quiet elliptical galaxies (RQE) and S0 galaxies previously scanned by the Einstein Observatory. Comparisons were made with similar data on double-lobed 3CR galaxies. Radio luminosities were highly correlated with the X-ray luminosities, agreeing with models of radio nuclear sources in early-type galaxies as accreting compact objects. Additionally, 3CR galaxies seemed to be large-scale versions of normal RQE. The significance of interstellar medium/intracluster medium interactions for high correlations between the core and total radio power from X-ray emitting galaxies is discussed. 54 references

  10. The ellipticity of galaxy cluster haloes from satellite galaxies and weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-hyeon; Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Bernstein, Gary; Neil, Andrew; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli

    2018-04-01

    We study the ellipticity of galaxy cluster haloes as characterized by the distribution of cluster galaxies and as measured with weak lensing. We use Monte Carlo simulations of elliptical cluster density profiles to estimate and correct for Poisson noise bias, edge bias and projection effects. We apply our methodology to 10 428 Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters identified by the redMaPPer algorithm with richness above 20. We find a mean ellipticity =0.271 ± 0.002 (stat) ±0.031 (sys) corresponding to an axis ratio = 0.573 ± 0.002 (stat) ±0.039 (sys). We compare this ellipticity of the satellites to the halo shape, through a stacked lensing measurement using optimal estimators of the lensing quadrupole based on Clampitt and Jain (2016). We find a best-fitting axis ratio of 0.56 ± 0.09 (stat) ±0.03 (sys), consistent with the ellipticity of the satellite distribution. Thus, cluster galaxies trace the shape of the dark matter halo to within our estimated uncertainties. Finally, we restack the satellite and lensing ellipticity measurements along the major axis of the cluster central galaxy's light distribution. From the lensing measurements, we infer a misalignment angle with an root-mean-square of 30° ± 10° when stacking on the central galaxy. We discuss applications of halo shape measurements to test the effects of the baryonic gas and active galactic nucleus feedback, as well as dark matter and gravity. The major improvements in signal-to-noise ratio expected with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey and future surveys from Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope will make halo shapes a useful probe of these effects.

  11. Determining mass-to-light ratios in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    If the endstate of cooling hot gas in elliptical galaxies is a population of optically dark, low-mass stars near the galactic cores, the mass-to-light ratio could be expected to vary significantly with projected radius. No strong variation in M/L is observed. To investigate the sensitivity and reliability of observational mass-to-light determinations for a variety of galactic parameters, model galaxies having de Vaucouleurs profiles (but with central cores and outer cutoffs), variable velocity ellipsoid structure, and extended dark halos are constructed. Spurious radial variations in M/L can occur when none are present if the properties of the galactic models are processed similar to observational data. Conversely, when a population of diffuse dark stellar matter is added near the galactic cores, large gradients in M/L can escape detection. However, the magnitude of the central velocity dispersion and its variation with projected radius within the effective radius both suggest that a component of dark stars is unlikely to be more massive than about 30 times the core mass of luminous stars. This restriction is important in establishing the initial mass function of stars in elliptical galaxies and the history of winds and cooling inflows in the interstellar medium. 35 references

  12. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  13. Violent Relaxation, Dynamical Instabilities and the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, L. A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN: El problema de la formaci6n de galaxias elfpticas por medjo de colapso gravitacional sin disipaci6n de energfa es estudiado usando un gran numero de simulaciones numericas. Se muestra que este tipo de colapsos, partiendo de condiciones iniciales frfas donde la energfa cinetica inicial representa s6lo un 5%, 0 , de a potencial inicial, produce sistemas relajados de forma triaxial muy similares a las galaxias elfpticas reales en sus formas y perfiles de densidad en proyecci6i . La forina triaxial resulta de la acci6n de una inestabilidad dinamica que aparece en sistemas 'inicos dominados por movimientos radiales, mientras que el perfil de densidad final Cs debido al llamado relajamiento violento que tiende a producir una distribuci6n en espacio fase unica. Estos dos fen6menos tienden a borrar los detalles particulares sobre las condiciones iniciales y dan lugar a una evoluci6n convergente hacia sistemas realistas, esto innecesario el uso de condiciones iniciales especiales (excepto por Ia condici6i de que estas deben ser frfas). Las condiciones iniciales frfas producen los movimientos radiales y fluctuaciones de la energfa potencial requeridos por ambos fen6menos. ABSTRACT: The problem of formation of elliptical galaxies via dissipationless collapse is studied using a large set of numerical simulations. It is shown that dissipationless collapses from cold initial conditions, where the total initial kinetic energy is less than 5% ofthe initial potential energy, lead to relaxed triaxial systems ery similar to real elliptical galaxies ii projected shape and density profiles. The triaxial shape is due to the of a dynamical instability that appears on systems dominated by radial orbits, while final density profile is due to violent relaxation that tends to produce a unique distribution iii space. These two phenomena erase memory of the initial prodtice a convergent evolution toward realistic systems, thus making unnecessary use o[special initial conditions (other

  14. Stellar populations as a function of radius in giant elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    Accurate surface photometry has been obtained in J and K for 12 giant elliptical galaxies. Ellipses have been fitted, to obtain luminosity, ellipticity, and major axis position angle profiles. The results have been combined with visual profiles from CCD observations. It is found that elliptical

  15. Comparing Chemical Compositions of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies and Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2015-01-01

    Because of their abundance in cluster environments and fragility due to their low mass, dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) are excellent specimens for studying the physical processes that occur inside galaxy clusters. These studies can be used to expand our understanding of the process of galaxy (specifically dE) formation and the role of dark matter in the Universe. To move closer to better understanding these topics, we present a study of the relationship between dEs and globular clusters (GCs) by using the largest sample of dEs and GC satellites to date. We focus on comparing the ages and chemical compositions of dE nuclei with those of satellite GCs by analyzing absorption lines in their spectra. To better view the spectral features of these relatively dim objects, we employ a spectral co-addition process, where we add the fluxes of several objects to produce a single spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. Our finding that dE nuclei are younger and more metal rich than globular clusters establishes important benchmarks that future dE formation theories will consider. We also establish a means to identify GCs whose parent galaxies are uncertain, which allows us to make comparisons between this GC group and the satellite GCs.

  16. Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, P.W.; Trester, J.J.; Canizares, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount. 37 references

  17. Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Paul; De Oliveira, Claudia M.; Huchra, John P.; Palumbo, Giorgio G.

    1992-01-01

    Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hickson compact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured have velocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group. Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groups have at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from 1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to a median distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systems ranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds the densities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projected separation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of the galaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossing time and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weak anticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminosity contrast of the first-ranked galaxy.

  18. Nature of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo numerical simulation is used to calculate the probability for the chance occurrence of four galaxies projected on the sky satisfying the Hickson isolation criterion within a loose group of eight members. For the models which match most closely the size and galaxy multiplicity function of observed groups, this chance occurrence is found to be smaller by a factor of about 100 than the value obtained previously by Mamom from numerical simulations of dynamical models of groups. This and other direct independent observational results from the literature constitute strong evidence that nearly all of the Hickson compact groups are real physical systems. It is concluded that the tendency for the spiral fraction of a compact group to be larger than the value inferred from the galaxy morphology-group density relation of rich clusters and loose groups is a real physical effect indicating that galaxy morphology depends strongly on a second parameter which, it is suggested, is the velocity dispersion of a system. 21 references

  19. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E; Price, P A; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D-S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-12-15

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10(51) erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the coalescence of binary compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of the first radio afterglow from the short burst GRB 050724, which unambiguously associates it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.257. We show that the burst is powered by the same relativistic fireball mechanism as long GRBs, with the ejecta possibly collimated in jets, but that the total energy release is 10-1,000 times smaller. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy demonstrates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors.

  20. Stellar populations of elliptical galaxies in Virgo Cluster. I. The data and stellar population analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamada, Y; Arimoto, N; Vazdekis, A; Peletier, RF

    2006-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic ages of elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster using spectra of very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 100 angstrom(-1)). We observed eight galaxies with the Subaru Telescope and have combined this sample with six galaxies previously observed with the WHT. To

  1. Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of some bright galaxies in Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbon, R.; Benacchio, L.; Capaccioli, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of four lenticular and seven elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster are presented as a sample of a more complete photometric investigation. This work has been motivated by the increasing importance of this kind of information for the understanding of the spatial structure of E galaxies. The calibrated plate material from the Loiano 1.52 meter and Tautenburg Schmidt telescopes has been digitized with a PDS microdensitometer and analysed by means of the Interactive Numerical Mapping Package (INMP). Ellipticity and orientation profiles are presented in a graphical form together with a preliminary discussion. A correlation has been found between ellipticity and twisting in barred lenticulars which might help in the understanding of some E galaxies such as NGC 4406 and NGC 4374. Twisting has been detected in all of the seven ellipticals of the sample

  2. Angular ellipticity correlations in a composite alignment model for elliptical and spiral galaxies and inference from weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugendhat, Tim M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2018-05-01

    We investigate a physical, composite alignment model for both spiral and elliptical galaxies and its impact on cosmological parameter estimation from weak lensing for a tomographic survey. Ellipticity correlation functions and angular ellipticity spectra for spiral and elliptical galaxies are derived on the basis of tidal interactions with the cosmic large-scale structure and compared to the tomographic weak-lensing signal. We find that elliptical galaxies cause a contribution to the weak-lensing dominated ellipticity correlation on intermediate angular scales between ℓ ≃ 40 and ℓ ≃ 400 before that of spiral galaxies dominates on higher multipoles. The predominant term on intermediate scales is the negative cross-correlation between intrinsic alignments and weak gravitational lensing (GI-alignment). We simulate parameter inference from weak gravitational lensing with intrinsic alignments unaccounted; the bias induced by ignoring intrinsic alignments in a survey like Euclid is shown to be several times larger than the statistical error and can lead to faulty conclusions when comparing to other observations. The biases generally point into different directions in parameter space, such that in some cases one can observe a partial cancellation effect. Furthermore, it is shown that the biases increase with the number of tomographic bins used for the parameter estimation process. We quantify this parameter estimation bias in units of the statistical error and compute the loss of Bayesian evidence for a model due to the presence of systematic errors as well as the Kullback-Leibler divergence to quantify the distance between the true model and the wrongly inferred one.

  3. A search for HI in elliptical galaxies with nuclear radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, L.L.; Bania, T.M.; O'Connell, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Two of the galaxies with large HI mass, NGC 1052 and 4278, are known to have powerful nuclear continuum radio sources (P 2380 approximately 10 22 WHz -1 ). Since both of these attributes are fairly rare among elliptical galaxies, their coexistence in these galaxies is not likely to have occurred by chance. The authors have therefore observed twelve other elliptical galaxies with nuclear radio power P 2380 > 10 22 WHz -1 at Arecibo Observatory, to determine whether a large mass of HI is a necessary auxillary to nuclear continuum emission. (Auth.)

  4. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Zant, A. A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Sheikh Zayed, 12588 Giza (Egypt); The British University in Egypt, Sherouk City, Cairo 11837 (Egypt)

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positions—a context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N → ∞. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  5. The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a

  6. A violent interaction between the dwarf galaxy UGC 7636 and the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; Sancisi, Renzo; Henning, Patricia A.; Junor, William

    1994-01-01

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris approx. 5 arcmin in length and approx. 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc for a Virgo cluster distance of 20 Mpc) is projected northward from the dwarf galaxy. A cloud of H I is projected along the northwest edge of the debris between the dwarf and gE. The dwarf's nuclear morphology is irregular and bow-shaped on what appears to be its leading edge. Apart from a number of isolated blue regions, most of of the trailing debris is similar in color to the dwarf's nucleus. Only a modest enhancement of star formation appears to have been induced by the interaction. Although separated by 15 kpc, the H I and stellar morphologies are remarkably similar. The stars and H I appear to have been tidally distorted in situ, prior to the cloud's removal by ram pressure. If the H I has maintained its shape by magnetic support, a magnetic field strength an order of magnitude larger than the galaxy's is required. Ram pressure deceleration due to the cloud's motion through NGC 4472's x-ray-emitting interstellar medium shold be sufficient for the cloud to become gravitationally bound to NGC 4472. The H I cloud is not self-gravitating and may fragment and be destroyed in the interaction. UGC 7636 will probably be disrupted by NGC 4472's strong tidal forces; the stellar debris will disperse into the Virgo cluster or become bound to NGC 4472's halo on eccentric orbits. The debris captured in the collision will have a negligible impact on NGC 4472's stellar and gaseous content. On the other hand, if similar interactions are common in giant elliptical galaxies, they could alter or deplete surrounding dwarf galaxy populations, fuel bursts of nuclear activity, and perhaps provide a source of magnetic energy to their interstellar media.

  7. Mergers in galaxy groups. I. Structure and properties of elliptical remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranu, Dan S.; Dubinski, John; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present collisionless simulations of dry mergers in groups of 3 to 25 galaxies to test the hypothesis that elliptical galaxies form at the centers of such groups. Mock observations of the central remnants confirm their similarity to ellipticals, despite having no dissipational component. We vary the profile of the original spiral's bulge and find that ellipticals formed from spirals with exponential bulges have too low Sersic indices. Mergers of spirals with de Vaucouleurs (classical) bulges produce remnants with larger Sersic indices correlated with luminosity, as with Sloan Digital Sky Survey ellipticals. Exponential bulge mergers are better fits to faint ellipticals, whereas classical bulge mergers better match luminous ellipticals. Similarly, luminous ellipticals are better reproduced by remnants undergoing many (>5) mergers, and fainter ellipticals by those with fewer mergers. The remnants follow tight size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity (Faber-Jackson) relations (<0.12 dex scatter), demonstrating that stochastic merging can produce tight scaling relations if the merging galaxies also follow tight scaling relations. The slopes of the size-luminosity and Faber-Jackson relations are close to observations but slightly shallower in the former case. Both relations' intercepts are offset—remnants are too large but have too low dispersions at fixed luminosity. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, although most are slow rotators and few are very fast rotators (v/σ > 0.5). These findings contrast with previous studies concluding that dissipation is necessary to produce ellipticals from binary mergers of spirals. Multiple, mostly minor and dry mergers can produce bright ellipticals, whereas significant dissipation could be required to produce faint, rapidly rotating ellipticals.

  8. Digging for red nuggets: discovery of hot halos surrounding massive, compact, relic galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, N.; Lakhchaura, K.; Canning, R. E. A.; Gaspari, M.; Simionescu, A.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of Chandra X-ray observations of the isolated, massive, compact, relic galaxies MRK 1216 and PGC 032873. Compact massive galaxies observed at z > 2, also called red nuggets, formed in quick dissipative events and later grew by dry mergers into the local giant ellipticals. Due to the stochastic nature of mergers, a few of the primordial massive galaxies avoided the mergers and remained untouched over cosmic time. We find that the hot atmosphere surrounding MRK 1216 extends far beyond the stellar population and has an 0.5-7 keV X-ray luminosity of LX = (7.0 ± 0.2) × 1041 erg s-1, which is similar to the nearby X-ray bright giant ellipticals. The hot gas has a short central cooling time of ˜50 Myr and the galaxy has a ˜13 Gyr old stellar population. The presence of an X-ray atmosphere with a short nominal cooling time and the lack of young stars indicate the presence of a sustained heating source, which prevented star formation since the dissipative origin of the galaxy 13 Gyrs ago. The central temperature peak and the presence of radio emission in the core of the galaxy indicate that the heating source is radio-mechanical AGN feedback. Given that both MRK 1216 and PGC 032873 appear to have evolved in isolation, the order of magnitude difference in their current X-ray luminosity could be traced back to a difference in the ferocity of the AGN outbursts in these systems. Finally, we discuss the potential connection between the presence of hot halos around such massive galaxies and the growth of super/over-massive black holes via chaotic cold accretion.

  9. CHEMODYNAMICS OF COMPACT STELLAR SYSTEMS IN NGC 5128: HOW SIMILAR ARE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS, ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS, AND DWARF GALAXIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Hilker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Velocity dispersion measurements are presented for several of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) derived from high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES echelle spectrograph on the 8.2 m ESO/Very Large Telescope. The measurements are made utilizing a penalized pixel-fitting method that parametrically recovers line-of-sight velocity dispersions. Combining the measured velocity dispersions with surface photometry and structural parameter data from the Hubble Space Telescope enables both dynamical masses and mass-to-light ratios to be derived. The properties of these massive stellar systems are similar to those of both massive GCs contained within the Local Group and nuclear star clusters and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The fundamental plane relations of these clusters are investigated in order to fill the apparent gap between the relations of Local Group GCs and more massive early-type galaxies. It is found that the properties of these massive stellar systems match those of nuclear clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies and UCDs better than those of Local Group GCs, and that all objects share similarly old (∼>8 Gyr) ages, suggesting a possible link between the formation and evolution of nuclear star clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,Ns), UCDs, and massive GCs. We find a very steep correlation between dynamical mass-to-light ratio and dynamical mass of the form Υ V dyn ∝ M dyn 0.24±0.02 above M dyn ∼ 2x10 6 M sun . Formation scenarios are investigated with a chemical abundance analysis using absorption-line strengths calibrated to the Lick/IDS index system. The results lend support to two scenarios contained within a single general formation scheme. Old, massive, super-solar [α/Fe] systems are formed on short (∼ 13 -10 15 M sun potential wells of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  10. Young and Old X-ray Binary and IXO Populations in Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Strickland, D.; Weaver, K.

    2003-03-01

    We have analyzed Chandra ACIS observations of 32 nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies and present the results of 1441 X-ray point sources, which are presumed to be mostly X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs). The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of the point sources show that the slope of the elliptical galaxy XLFs are significantly steeper than the spiral galaxy XLFs, indicating grossly different types of point sources, or different stages in their evolution. Since the spiral galaxy XLF is so shallow, the most luminous points sources (usually the IXOs) dominate the total X-ray point source luminosity LXP. We show that the galaxy total B-band and K-band light (proxies for the stellar mass) are well correlated with LXP for both spirals and ellipticals, but the FIR and UV emission is only correlated for the spirals. We deconvolve LXP into two components, one that is proportional to the galaxy stellar mass (pop II), and another that is proportional to the galaxy SFR (pop I). We also note that IXOs (and nearly all of the other point sources) in both spirals and ellipticals have X-ray colors that are most consistent with power-law slopes of Gamma ˜ 1.5--3.0, which is inconsistent with high-mass XRBS (HMXBs). Thus, HMXBs are not important contributors to LXP. We have also found that IXOs in spiral galaxies may have a slightly harder X-ray spectrum than those in elliptical galaxies. The implications of these findings will be discussed.

  11. Co-evolution of elliptical galaxies and their central black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, I.

    2009-01-01

    After the discovery that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous at the center of stellar spheroids and that their mass M BH , in the range 10 6 M-10 9 M, is tightly related to global properties of the host stellar system, the idea of the co-evolution of elliptical galaxies and of their SMBHs has become a central topic of modern astrophysics. Here, I summarize some consequences that can be derived from the galaxy Scaling Laws (SLs) and present a coherent scenario for the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies and their central SMBHs, focusing in particular on the establishment and maintenance of their SLs. In particular, after a first observationally based part, the discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the Fundamental Plane. Then, two important processes in principle able to destroy the galaxy and SMBH SLs, namely galaxy merging and cooling flows, are analyzed. Arguments supporting the necessity to clearly distinguish between the origin and maintenance of the different SLs, and the unavoidable occurrence of SMBH feedback on the galaxy ISM in the late stages of galaxy evolution (when elliptical galaxies are sometimes considered as dead, red objects), are then presented. At the end of the paper I will discuss some implications of the recent discovery of super-dense ellipticals in the distant Universe. In particular, I will argue that, if confirmed, these new observations would lead to the conclusion that at early epochs a relation between the stellar mass of the galaxy and the mass of the central SMBH should hold, consistent with the present day Magorrian relation, while the proportionality coefficient between M BH and the scale of velocity dispersion of the hosting spheroids should be significantly smaller than that at the present epoch

  12. Equilibrium Figures inside the Dark-Matter Ring and the Shapes of Elliptical Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratyev B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We solve the general problem of the theory of equilibrium figures and analyze two classes of liquid rotating gravitating figures residing inside a gravitating ring or torus. These figures form families of sequences of generalized oblate spheroids and triaxial ellipsoids, which at the lower limit of the tidal parameter α = 0 have the form of the Maclaurin spheroids and the Jacobi ellipsoids. In intermediate cases 0 < α ≤ αmax each new sequence of axisymmetric equilibrium figures has two non-rotating boundary spheroids. At the upper limit αmax/(πGρ = 0.1867 the sequence degenerates into a single non-rotating spheroid with the eccentricity ecr ≈ 0.96 corresponding to the flattening limit of elliptical galaxies (E7. We also perform a detailed study of the sequences of generalized triaxial ellipsoids and find bifurcation points of triaxial ellipsoids in the sequences of generalized spheroids. We use this method to explain the shapes of E-galaxies. According to observations, very slowly rotating oblate E-type galaxies are known that have the shapes, which, because of instability, cannot be supported by velocity dispersion anisotropy exclusively. The hypothesis of a massive dark-matter outer ring requires no extreme anisotropy of pressure; it not only explains the shape of these elliptical galaxies, but also sheds new light on the riddle of the ellipticity limit (E7 of elliptical galaxies.

  13. Equilibrium figures inside the dark-matter ring and the shapes of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, B. P.; Trubitsyna, N. G.; Kireeva, E. N.

    We solve the general problem of the theory of equilibrium figures and analyze two classes of liquid rotating gravitating figures residing inside a gravitating ring or torus. These figures form families of sequences of generalized oblate spheroids and triaxial ellipsoids, which at the lower limit of the tidal parameter α = 0 have the form of the Maclaurin spheroids and the Jacobi ellipsoids. In intermediate cases 0 equilibrium figures has two non-rotating boundary spheroids. At the upper limit αmax/(π Gρ ) = 0.1867 the sequence degenerates into a single non-rotating spheroid with the eccentricity {e cr} ≈ 0.96 corresponding to the flattening limit of elliptical galaxies (E7). We also perform a detailed study of the sequences of generalized triaxial ellipsoids and find bifurcation points of triaxial ellipsoids in the sequences of generalized spheroids. We use this method to explain the shapes of E-galaxies. According to observations, very slowly rotating oblate E-type galaxies are known that have the shapes, which, because of instability, cannot be supported by velocity dispersion anisotropy exclusively. The hypothesis of a massive dark-matter outer ring requires no extreme anisotropy of pressure; it not only explains the shape of these elliptical galaxies, but also sheds new light on the riddle of the ellipticity limit (E7) of elliptical galaxies.

  14. How Does Abundance Affect the Strength of UV Emission in Elliptical Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Brown, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This program used the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) to observe elliptical galaxies with the intention of measuring the chemical abundances in their hot stellar populations. It was designed to complement an earlier FUSE program that observed elliptical galaxies with strong UV emission. The current program originally planned observations of two ellipticals with weak UV emission (M32 and M49). Once FUSE encountered pointing control problems in certain regions of the sky (particularly Virgo, which is very unfortunate for the study of ellipticals in general), M49 was replaced with the bulge of M31, which has a similar UV-to-optical flux ratio as the center of M49. As the closest elliptical galaxy and the one with the weakest UV-to-optical flux ratio, M32 was an obvious choice of target, but M49 was the ideal complementary target, because it has a very low reddening (unlike M32). With the inability of FUSE to point at Virgo, nearly all of the best elliptical galaxies (bright galaxies with low foreground extinction) were also lost, and this severely hampered three FUSE programs of the PI, all focused on the hot stellar populations of ellipticals. M31 was the best replacement for M49, but like M32, it suffers from significant foreground reddening. Strong Galactic ISM lines heavily contaminate the FUSE spectra of M31 and M32. These ISM lines are coincident with the photospheric lines from the stellar populations (whereas M49, with little foreground ISM and significant redshift, would not have suffered from this problem). We have reduced the faint (and thus difficult) data for M31 and M32, producing final co-added spectra representing all of the exposures, but we have not yet finished our analysis, due to the complication of the contaminating ISM. The silver lining here is the set of CHI lines at 1175 Angstroms, which are not significantly contaminated by the ISM. A comparison of the M31 spectrum with other galaxies observed by FEE showed a surprising result

  15. Central velocity dispersion in elliptical and lenticular galaxies as an extragalactic distance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; Olson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Faber-Jackson relation between absolute magnitude M/sub T/ 0 and central velocity dispersion sigma/sub upsilon/ is reexamined for a sample of 157 normal, noninteracting galaxies, 82 ellipticals (T = -5, -4), and 75 lenticulars (T = -3, -2, -1). The values of sigma/sub upsilon/ are weighted means from various sources reduced to a uniform system

  16. Deep imaging of the shell elliptical galaxy NGC3923 with MegaCam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 588, April (2016), A77/1-A77/12 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : elliptical and lenticular galaxies * peculiar * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  17. OPTICAL-NEAR-INFRARED COLOR GRADIENTS AND MERGING HISTORY OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Duho; Im, Myungshin

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that merging plays an important role in the formation and the evolution of elliptical galaxies. While gas dissipation by star formation is believed to steepen metallicity and color gradients of the merger products, mixing of stars through dissipation-less merging (dry merging) is believed to flatten them. In order to understand the past merging history of elliptical galaxies, we studied the optical-near-infrared (NIR) color gradients of 204 elliptical galaxies. These galaxies are selected from the overlap region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The use of optical and NIR data (g, r, and K) provides large wavelength baselines, and breaks the age-metallicity degeneracy, allowing us to derive age and metallicity gradients. The use of the deep SDSS Stripe 82 images makes it possible for us to examine how the color/age/metallicity gradients are related to merging features. We find that the optical-NIR color and the age/metallicity gradients of elliptical galaxies with tidal features are consistent with those of relaxed ellipticals, suggesting that the two populations underwent a similar merging history on average and that mixing of stars was more or less completed before the tidal features disappeared. Elliptical galaxies with dust features have steeper color gradients than the other two types, even after masking out dust features during the analysis, which can be due to a process involving wet merging. More importantly, we find that the scatter in the color/age/metallicity gradients of the relaxed and merging feature types decreases as their luminosities (or masses) increase at M > 10 11.4 M ☉ but stays large at lower luminosities. Mean metallicity gradients appear nearly constant over the explored mass range, but a possible flattening is observed at the massive end. According to our toy model that predicts how the distribution of metallicity gradients

  18. The different star formation histories of blue and red spiral and elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Masters, Karen L.; Richards, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Bamford, Steven P.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Skibba, Ramin; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We study the spectral properties of intermediate mass galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.7 M⊙) as a function of colour and morphology. We use Galaxy Zoo to define three morphological classes of galaxies, namely early types (ellipticals), late-type (disc-dominated) face-on spirals and early-type (bulge-dominated) face-on spirals. We classify these galaxies as blue or red according to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g - r colour and use the spectral fitting code Versatile Spectral Analyses to calculate time-resolved star formation histories, metallicity and total starlight dust extinction from their SDSS fibre spectra. We find that red late-type spirals show less star formation in the last 500 Myr than blue late-type spirals by up to a factor of 3, but share similar star formation histories at earlier times. This decline in recent star formation explains their redder colour: their chemical and dust content are the same. We postulate that red late-type spirals are recent descendants of blue late-type spirals, with their star formation curtailed in the last 500 Myr. The red late-type spirals are however still forming stars ≃17 times faster than red ellipticals over the same period. Red early-type spirals lie between red late-type spirals and red ellipticals in terms of recent-to-intermediate star formation and dust content. Therefore, it is plausible that these galaxies represent an evolutionary link between these two populations. They are more likely to evolve directly into red ellipticals than red late-type spirals, which show star formation histories and dust content closer to blue late-type spirals. Blue ellipticals show similar star formation histories as blue spirals (regardless of type), except that they have formed less stars in the last 100 Myr. However, blue ellipticals have different dust content, which peaks at lower extinction values than all spiral galaxies. Therefore, many blue ellipticals are unlikely to be descendants of blue spirals, suggesting there may

  19. Formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies from supergiant molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Morgan; Bekki, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is not yet clear. One possible formation path of UCDs is the threshing of a nucleated elliptical dwarf galaxy (dE, N), however, it remains unclear how such massive nuclear stellar systems were formed in dwarf galaxies. To better establish the early history of UCDs, we investigate the formation of UCD progenitor clusters from super giant molecular clouds (SGMCs), using hydrodynamical simulations. In this study we focus on SGMCs with masses 107 - 108 M_{\\odot } that can form massive star clusters that display physical properties similar to UCDs. We find that the clusters have extended star formation histories with two phases, producing multiple distinct stellar populations, and that the star formation rate is dependent on the feedback effects of SNe and AGB stars. The later generations of stars formed in these clusters are more compact, leading to a clearly nested structure, and these stars will be more He-rich than those of the first generation, leading to a slight colour gradient. The simulated clusters demonstrate scaling relations between Reff and M and σv and M consistent with those observed in UCDs and strongly consistent with those of the original SGMC. We discuss whether SGMCs such as these can be formed through merging of self-gravitating molecular clouds in galaxies at high-z.

  20. THE L∝σ8 CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion σ and total galaxy luminosity L V separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.268 or L V ∝σ 3.74 . This corresponds to dlog σ/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L∝L 0.32 . In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L V and M: dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.120, L V ∝σ 8.33 , and dlog σ/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve σ according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that σ increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause σ to decrease, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ –0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow σ∝L V +0.12 relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M . ∝σ 4 , ''saturates'' at high M . such that M . becomes almost independent of σ.

  1. Origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) recently observed in elliptical galaxies by using chemical evolution models with a non-universal IMF. We adopt the variable Kroupa IMF with the three slopes (α 1 , α 2 , and α 3 ) dependent on metallicities ([Fe/H]) and densities (ρ g ) of star-forming gas clouds and thereby search for the best IMF model that can reproduce (1) the observed steep IMF slope (α 2 ∼ 3, i.e., bottom-heavy) for low stellar masses (m ≤ 1 M ☉ ) and (2) the correlation of α 2 with chemical properties of elliptical galaxies in a self-consistent manner. We find that if the IMF slope α 2 depends on both [Fe/H] and ρ g , then elliptical galaxies with higher [Mg/Fe] can have steeper α 2 (∼3) in our models. We also find that the observed positive correlation of stellar mass-to-light ratios (M/L) with [Mg/Fe] in elliptical galaxies can be quantitatively reproduced in our models with α 2 ∝β[Fe/H] + γlog ρ g , where β ∼ 0.5 and γ ∼ 2. We discuss whether the IMF slopes for low-mass (α 2 ) and high-mass stars (α 3 ) need to vary independently from each other to explain a number of IMF-related observational results self-consistently. We also briefly discuss why α 2 depends differently on [Fe/H] in dwarf and giant elliptical galaxies.

  2. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  3. The chemical composition and age of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations are presented of the central star-forming nebula in the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 2 (MrK 33). Using the strengths of various emission lines, it is found that the electron temperature is roughly 9250 K and that the O abundance is comparable with that of the LMC. Weak Mg b 5175-A and Fe I 5335-A absorption lines have also been identified. An effort has been made to investigate the origin of these lines using synthetic spectra. It is concluded that, contrary to the findings of Loose and Thuan (1986), Haro 2 probably contains an old stellar substrate. Finally, it is suggested that Haro 2 may eventually evolve into a nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy. 44 refs

  4. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jaffé, Yara; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Nantais, Julie; Candlish, Graeme; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2017-01-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  5. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jaffé, Yara [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu/SAp CNRS Universite Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Nantais, Julie [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, 7591538 Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Candlish, Graeme [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Treister, Ezequiel, E-mail: yksheen@kasi.re.kr [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  6. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  7. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, I.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  8. Detection of CO (J=1-0) in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Rydbeck, Gustaf

    1987-01-01

    The detection of CO (J = 1-0) emission in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185 is reported. The presence of massive molecular clouds in this early-type galaxy supports the idea of recent or ongoing stellar formation indicated by the population of blue stars in the center. The CO was detected in two positions in the galaxy, the center, and a prominent dustcloud. The emission profile has two peaks, roughly centered around the systemic velocity. It is found that NGC 185 is overluminous in blue light for its CO luminosity compared with Sc galaxies. This might indicate a higher star-formation efficiency for NGC 185 than for the late-type galaxies.

  9. Galaxy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, F.

    1987-01-01

    Galaxies are not isolated systems of stars and gas, ''independent universes'' as believed by astronomers about ten years ago, but galaxies are formed and evolve by interaction with their environment, and in particular with their nearest neighbors. Gravitational interactions produce enormous tides in the disk of spiral galaxies, generate spiral arms and trigger bursts of star formation. Around elliptical galaxies, the collision with a small companion produces a series of waves, or shells. A galaxy interaction leads, in most cases, to the coalescence of the two coliders; therefore all galaxies are not formed just after the Big-Bang, when matter recombines: second generation galaxies are still forming now by galaxy mergers, essentially elliptical galaxies, but also compact dwarfs. Collisions between galaxies could also trigger activity in nuclei for radiogalaxies and quasars [fr

  10. H I absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    H I absorption studies yield information on both active galactic nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for H I absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disc. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with H I detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic discs. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of H I content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous H I surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  11. What drives the evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Clusters vs. the Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Crawford, Steven M.; Hunt, Lucas; Pisano, Daniel J.; Randriamampandry, Solohery M.

    2018-06-01

    Low-mass dwarf ellipticals are the most numerous members of present-day galaxy clusters, but the progenitors of this dominant population remain unclear. A prime candidate is the class of objects known as Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs), common in intermediate-redshift clusters but virtually extinct today. Recent cosmological simulations suggest that present-day dwarf galaxies begin as irregular field galaxies, undergo an environmentally-driven starburst phase as they enter the cluster, and stop forming stars earlier than their counterparts in the field. This model predicts that cluster dwarfs should have lower stellar mass per unit dynamical mass than their counterparts in the field. We are undertaking a two-pronged archival research program to test this key prediction using the combination of precision photometry from space and high-quality spectroscopy. First, we are combining optical HST/ACS imaging of five z=0.55 clusters (including two HST Frontier Fields) with Spitzer IR imaging and publicly-released Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to measure stellar-to-dynamical-mass ratios for a large sample of cluster LCBGs. Second, we are exploiting a new catalog of LCBGs in the COSMOS field to gather corresponding data for a significant sample of field LCBGs. By comparing mass ratios from these datasets, we aim to test theoretical predictions and determine the primary physical driver of cluster dwarf-galaxy evolution.

  12. Type Ia supernovae in elliptical and spiral galaxies - Possible differences in photometric homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippenko, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that beta, the initial postmaximum rate of SN brightness decline (in the B band) defined by Pskovskii (1977), may have a smaller dispersion among SNe Ia in elliptical galaxies than in all other types of galaxies. Contamination of the sample by SNe Ib is unlikely to be the primary cause of this difference. Although the number of objects is very small, it is also possible that the velocity of SN Ia ejecta in elliptical galaxies is lower than in spiral galaxies. If correct, these observations provide the first direct evidence for physical differences among SNe Ia in different environments; reddening variations due to gas and dust are unlikely to produce most of the observed dispersion in beta among spirals. One obvious possibility is that the SNe Ia in spiral galaxies come from intermediate-mass stars, and that differences in the metallicities, accretion rates, or other properties account for the observations. A more extreme, improbable explanation is that not all SNe Ia in spiral galaxies result from carbon deflagrations of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. 43 refs

  13. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than ∼5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

  14. A new strong-lensing galaxy at z=0.066: Another elliptical galaxy with a lightweight IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, William P.; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a new low-redshift galaxy-scale gravitational lens, identified from a systematic search of publicly available MUSE observations. The lens galaxy, 2MASXJ04035024-0239275, is a giant elliptical at z = 0.06604 with a velocity dispersion of σ = 314 km s-1. The lensed source has a redshift of 0.19165 and forms a pair of bright images on either side of the lens centre. The Einstein radius is 1.5 arcsec, projecting to 1.8 kpc, which is just one quarter of the galaxy effective radius. After correcting for an estimated 19 per cent dark matter contribution, we find that the stellar mass-to-light ratio from lensing is consistent with that expected for a Milky Way initial mass function (IMF). Combining the new system with three previously-studied low-redshift lenses of similar σ, the derived mean mass excess factor (relative to a Kroupa IMF) is ⟨α⟩ = 1.09±0.08. With all four systems, the intrinsic scatter in α for massive elliptical galaxies can be limited to <0.32, at 90 per cent confidence.

  15. COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Roussel, H. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris (France); Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Smith, M. W. L.; Gear, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, G. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-10-20

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ≥10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  16. Halo ellipticity of GAMA galaxy groups from KiDS weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Schneider, Peter; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Schrabback, Tim; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We constrain the average halo ellipticity of ˜2600 galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using the weak gravitational lensing signal measured from the overlapping Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). To do so, we quantify the azimuthal dependence of the stacked lensing signal around seven different proxies for the orientation of the dark matter distribution, as it is a priori unknown which one traces the orientation best. On small scales, the major axis of the brightest group/cluster member (BCG) provides the best proxy, leading to a clear detection of an anisotropic signal. In order to relate that to a halo ellipticity, we have to adopt a model density profile. We derive new expressions for the quadrupole moments of the shear field given an elliptical model surface mass density profile. Modelling the signal with an elliptical Navarro-Frenk-White profile on scales R < 250 kpc, and assuming that the BCG is perfectly aligned with the dark matter, we find an average halo ellipticity of ɛh = 0.38 ± 0.12, in fair agreement with results from cold dark matter only simulations. On larger scales, the lensing signal around the BCGs becomes isotropic and the distribution of group satellites provides a better proxy for the halo's orientation instead, leading to a 3σ-4σ detection of a non-zero halo ellipticity at 250 < R < 750 kpc. Our results suggest that the distribution of stars enclosed within a certain radius forms a good proxy for the orientation of the dark matter within that radius, which has also been observed in hydrodynamical simulations.

  17. Cool infalling gas and its interaction with the hot ISM of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe work leading to the suggestion that interaction between infalling cool gas and ambient hot, coronal plasma in elliptical galaxies is responsible for emission filaments, and might remove the need for large mass depositions in cooling flows. A test of the hypothesis is undertaken - the run of surface brightness with radius for the emission lines - and the prediction agrees well with the data.

  18. Broad-line high-excitation gas in the elliptical galaxy NGC5128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.M.; Taylor, K.; Axon, D.J.; Atherton, P.D.; Hook, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    A faint, but extensive component of broad-line ionized gas has been discovered in the peculiar giant elliptical galaxy NGC5128. This component has a radically different spatial distribution from the well-studied rotating photoionized gas associated with the dust lane although the velocity fields of the two components are similar. The origin of the broad-line gas is considered as its possible relation to the active nucleus and the X-ray jet discussed. (author)

  19. The Recent and Continuing Assembly of Field Elliptical Galaxies by Red Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study of tidal debris associated with 126 nearby red galaxies, selected from the 1.2 deg2 Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile and the 9.3 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. In the full sample, 67 galaxies (53%) show morphological signatures of tidal interactions consisting of broad fans of stars, tails, and other asymmetries at very faint surface brightness levels. When restricting the sample to the 86 bulge-dominated early-type galaxies, the fraction of tidally disturbed galaxies rises to 71%, which implies that for every ``normal'' undisturbed elliptical there are two that show clear signs of interactions. The tidal features are red and smooth and often extend over >50 kpc. Of the tidally distorted galaxies, about two-thirds are remnants, and one-third are interacting with a companion galaxy. The companions are usually bright red galaxies as well; the median R-band luminosity ratio of the tidal pairs is 0.31, and the median color difference after correcting for the slope of the color-magnitude relation is -0.02 in B-R. If the ongoing mergers are representative for the progenitors of the remnants, ~35% of bulge-dominated galaxies experienced a merger with mass ratio >1:4 in the recent past. With further assumptions it is estimated that the present-day mass accretion rate of galaxies on the red sequence ΔM/M=0.09+/-0.04 Gyr-1. For a constant or increasing mass accretion rate with redshift, we find that red mergers may lead to an evolution of a factor of >~2 in the stellar mass density in luminous red galaxies over the redshift range 0interesting to determine whether this mode of merging only plays an important role at low redshift or is relevant for galaxies at any redshift if they exceed a critical mass scale.

  20. Phenomenological approach to the modelling of elliptical galaxies: The problem of the mass-to-light ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the phenomenological modelling of elliptical galaxies using various available observational data is presented. Recently, Tortora, Cardona and Piedipalumbo (2007 suggested a double power law expression for the global cumulative mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies. We tested their expression on a sample of ellipticals for which we have the estimates of the mass-to-light ratio beyond ~ 3 effective radii, a region where dark matter is expected to play an important dynamical role. We found that, for all the galaxies in our sample, we have α + β > 0, but that this does not necessarily mean a high dark matter content. The galaxies with higher mass (and higher dark matter content also have higher value of α+β. It was also shown that there is an indication that the galaxies with higher value of the effective radius also have higher dark matter content. .

  1. EXPLORING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIA OF OPTICALLY COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Most, Hans P.; Cannon, John M.; Engstrom, Eric; Fliss, Palmer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L., E-mail: hmost@macalester.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jrosenb4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present new Very Large Array H I spectral line, archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and archival Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of eight star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies that were selected to be optically compact (optical radii <1 kpc). These systems have faint blue absolute magnitudes (M{sub B} {approx}> -17), ongoing star formation (based on emission-line selection by the H{alpha} or [O III] lines), and are nearby (mean velocity = 3315 km s{sup -1} {approx_equal} 45 Mpc). One galaxy in the sample, ADBS 113845+2008, is found to have an H I halo that extends 58 r-band scale lengths from its stellar body. In contrast, the rest of the sample galaxies have H I radii to optical-scale-length ratios ranging from 9.3 to 26. The size of the H I disk in the 'giant disk' dwarf galaxy ADBS 113845+2008 appears to be unusual as compared with similarly compact stellar populations.

  2. The effects of the initial mass function on the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Carlo; Matteucci, F.; Vincenzo, F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the use of our chemical evolution model to reproduce the abundance patterns observed in a catalogue of elliptical galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The model assumes ellipticals form by fast gas accretion, and suffer a strong burst of star formation followed by a galactic wind, which quenches star formation. Models with fixed initial mass function (IMF) failed in simultaneously reproducing the observed trends with the galactic mass. So, we tested a varying IMF; contrary to the diffused claim that the IMF should become bottom heavier in more massive galaxies, we find a better agreement with data by assuming an inverse trend, where the IMF goes from being bottom heavy in less massive galaxies to top heavy in more massive ones. This naturally produces a downsizing in star formation, favouring massive stars in largest galaxies. Finally, we tested the use of the integrated Galactic IMF, obtained by averaging the canonical IMF over the mass distribution function of the clusters where star formation is assumed to take place. We combined two prescriptions, valid for different SFR regimes, to obtain the Integrated Initial Mass Function values along the whole evolution of the galaxies in our models. Predicted abundance trends reproduce the observed slopes, but they have an offset relative to the data. We conclude that bottom-heavier IMFs do not reproduce the properties of the most massive ellipticals, at variance with previous suggestions. On the other hand, an IMF varying with galactic mass from bottom heavier to top heavier should be preferred.

  3. ELLIPTICAL GALAXY MASSES OUT TO FIVE EFFECTIVE RADII: THE REALM OF DARK MATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, A. J; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; McCarthy, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the masses of elliptical galaxies out to five effective radii using planetary nebulae and globular clusters as tracers. A sample of 15 elliptical galaxies with a broad variation in mass is compiled from the literature. A distribution function-maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate the overall potential slope, normalization, and velocity anisotropy of the tracers. We assume power-law profiles for the potential and tracer density and a constant velocity anisotropy. The derived potential power-law indices lie in between the isothermal and Keplerian regime and vary with mass: there is tentative evidence that the less massive galaxies have steeper potential profiles than the more massive galaxies. We use stellar mass-to-light ratios appropriate for either a Chabrier/KTG (Kroupa, Tout and Gilmore) or Salpeter initial mass function to disentangle the stellar and dark matter components. The fraction of dark matter within five effective radii increases with mass, in agreement with several other studies. We employ simple models to show that a combination of star formation efficiency and baryon extent are able to account for this trend. These models are in good agreement with both our measurements out to five effective radii and recent Sloan Lens ACS Survey measurements within one effective radii when a universal Chabrier/KTG initial mass function is adopted.

  4. The SAURON project : XIX. Optical and near-infrared scaling relations of nearby elliptical, lenticular and Sa galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R. F.; Bureau, M.; Jeong, H.; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; Shapiro, K. L.; van den Bosch, R.C.E.; van der Wolk, G.; Weijmans, A.; Yi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based MDM Observatory V-band and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera 3.6-mu m-band photometric observations of the 72 representative galaxies of the SAURON survey. Galaxies in our sample probe the elliptical E, lenticular S0 and spiral Sa populations in the nearby Universe, both in field

  5. The SAURON project - XIX. Optical and near-infrared scaling relations of nearby elliptical, lenticular and Sa galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R. F.; Bureau, M.; Jeong, H.; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; Shapiro, K. L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van der Wolk, G.; Weijmans, A.; Yi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based MDM Observatory V-band and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera 3.6-?m-band photometric observations of the 72 representative galaxies of the SAURON survey. Galaxies in our sample probe the elliptical E, lenticular S0 and spiral Sa populations in the nearby Universe, both in field

  6. Clues on the hot star content and the ultraviolet output of elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greggio, L.; Renzini, A.

    1990-01-01

    Purely energetic arguments are used here to investigate the conditions under which old, low-mass stars could be responsible for the UV rising branch of elliptical galaxies. It is argued that presently available observational data are insufficient to unambiguously decide which of various candidates provide the dominant contribution. It is found that the possibility for metal-rich, low-mass stars to evolve through sufficiently hot stages, provide enough UV photons, and produce the observed UV-metallicity correlation is primarily controlled by two poorly known trends with increasing metallicity: helium enrichment and mass-loss rate during the red giant phases. The classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars do not appear able to burn enough fuel to account for the most UV-powerful galaxies. Other hot star candidates which appear more promising are identified. It is shown that a very important role is played by the actual metallicity distribution within individual galaxies. 154 refs

  7. NH AND Mg INDEX TRENDS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serven, Jedidiah; Worthey, Guy; Toloba, Elisa; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    We examine the spectrum in the vicinity of the NH3360 index of Davidge and Clark, which was defined to measure the NH absorption around 3360 A and shows almost no trend with velocity dispersion, unlike other N-sensitive indices, which show a strong trend. Computing the effect of individual elements on the integrated spectrum with synthetic stellar population integrated spectra, we find that, while being well correlated with nitrogen abundance, NH3360 is almost equally well anti-correlated with Mg abundance. This prompts the definition of two new indices, Mg3334, which is mostly sensitive to magnesium, and NH3375, which is mostly sensitive to nitrogen. Rather surprisingly, we find that the new NH3375 index shows a trend versus optical absorption feature indices that is as shallow as the NH3360 index. We hypothesize that the lack of a strong index trend in these near-UV indices is due to the presence of an old metal-poor component of the galactic population. Comparison of observed index trends and those predicted by models shows that a modest fraction of an old, metal-poor stellar population could easily account for the observed flat trend in these near-UV indices while still allowing substantial N abundance increase in the larger galaxies.

  8. Compact features in radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, A.

    1981-05-01

    The structure of compact features ('hotspots') in the outer lobes of classical double radio sources over a large flux density interval at 81.5 MHz is investigated in order to understand more fully the structural evolution of radio sources with both luminosity and redshift. The technique of interplanetary scintillations is used. An account is given of the development of a new telescope, the 3.6-hectare Array. A method for eliminating zero level and phase drifts from interferometric records and a method for analysing data scattered according to a skewed probability distribution are described. New observations of hotspots in complete samples of bright 3CR sources and 4C quasars having an intermediate flux density are then presented. The problems of interpreting scintillation data are then considered and three methods are suggested to reduce the difficulties imposed by the observational limitation known as 'blending', whereby the whole outer lobe may scintillate and distort the measured hotspot size. Finally, all the new observational data are assimilated and this leads to models for (a) the dependence of source structure on luminosity and (b) for the dependence of observed hotspot size on both luminosity and redshift. (author)

  9. Hot gas metallicity and the history of supernova activity in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Mathews, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Calculations of the dynamical evolution of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in a massive elliptical galaxy are described, with a variety of past variations of the SN rate being assumed. The investigation focuses on iron enrichment in the ISM. The equivalent widths of the 6.7-keV iron line are calculated as a function of redshift and of galactic projected radius. The present-day interstellar gas in elliptical galaxies contains a fossil record of past SN activity that can be determined from measurements of iron line equivalent widths at several projected radii in the galaxy. It is proposed that the ISM iron abundance is likely to be quite inhomogeneous. The hydrogen-free ejecta of type Ia SN also result in pronounced ISM abundance inhomogeneities that probably eventually cool and move in pressure equilibrium with the local ISM flow velocity. The 6.7-keV iron line emission is greater if the iron is confined to ionized regions of pure iron. 25 refs

  10. Mass density slope of elliptical galaxies from strong lensing and resolved stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, N.; Churazov, E.; Naab, T.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss constraints on the mass density distribution (parametrized as ρ ∝ r-γ) in early-type galaxies provided by strong lensing and stellar kinematics data. The constraints come from mass measurements at two `pinch' radii. One `pinch' radius r1 = 2.2REinst is defined such that the Einstein (i.e. aperture) mass can be converted into the spherical mass almost independently of the mass-model. Another `pinch' radius r2 = Ropt is chosen so that the dynamical mass, derived from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, is least sensitive to the anisotropy of stellar orbits. We verified the performance of this approach on a sample of simulated elliptical galaxies and on a sample of 15 SLACS lens galaxies at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, which have already been analysed in Barnabè et al. by the self-consistent joint lensing and kinematic code. For massive simulated galaxies, the density slope γ is recovered with an accuracy of ˜13 per cent, unless r1 and r2 happen to be close to each other. For SLACS galaxies, we found good overall agreement with the results of Barnabè et al. with a sample-averaged slope γ = 2.1 ± 0.05. Although the two-pinch-radii approach has larger statistical uncertainties, it is much simpler and uses only few arithmetic operations with directly observable quantities.

  11. Keck Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Schweizer, Francois; Larsen, Soeren S.; Seitzer, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution Keck spectra of nine candidate globular clusters in the possible merger-remnant elliptical galaxy NGC 3610. Eight of the objects appear to be bona fide globular clusters of NGC 3610. We find that two of the clusters belong to an old metal-poor population, five to an old metal-rich population, and only one to an intermediate-age metal-rich population. The estimated age of the intermediate-age cluster is 1-5 Gyr, which is in agreement with earlier estimates of the...

  12. Infrared observations of giant elliptical galaxies: (V-K) colors and the infrared Hubble diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasdalen, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The (V-K) colors of giant elliptical galaxies as a function of redshift are discussed. Present data are consistent with mild color evolution at z approximately 0.45. An infrared Hubble (redshift-magnitude) diagram is given. Cosmological models with q 0 =0 and no luminosity evolution are clearly excluded by the present data. A wide variety of models including those with q 0 =0 are permissible if luminosity evolution is included. Instrumental and programmatic implications of these results are summarized. (Auth.)

  13. ALMA Observations of Molecular Clouds in Three Group-centered Elliptical Galaxies: NGC 5846, NGC 4636, and NGC 5044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Amblard, Alexandre; Gitti, Myriam; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gaspari, Massimo; Mathews, William G.; David, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    We present new ALMA CO(2–1) observations of two well-studied group-centered elliptical galaxies: NGC 4636 and NGC 5846. In addition, we include a revised analysis of Cycle 0 ALMA observations of the central galaxy in the NGC 5044 group. We find evidence that molecular gas is a common presence in bright group-centered galaxies (BGG). CO line widths are broader than Galactic molecular clouds, and using the reference Milky Way X CO, the total molecular mass ranges from 2.6 × 105 M ⊙ in NGC 4636 to 6.1 × 107 M ⊙ in NGC 5044. Complementary observations using the ALMA Compact Array do not exhibit any detection of a CO diffuse component at the sensitivity level achieved by current exposures. The origin of the detected molecular features is still uncertain, but these ALMA observations suggest that they are the end product of the hot gas cooling process and not the result of merger events. Some of the molecular clouds are associated with dust features as revealed by HST dust extinction maps, suggesting that these clouds formed from dust-enhanced cooling. The global nonlinear condensation may be triggered via the chaotic turbulent field or buoyant uplift. The large virial parameter of the molecular structures and correlation with the warm ({10}3{--}{10}5 {{K}})/hot (≥106) phase velocity dispersion provide evidence that they are unbound giant molecular associations drifting in the turbulent field, consistent with numerical predictions of the chaotic cold accretion process. Alternatively, the observed large CO line widths may be generated by molecular gas flowing out from cloud surfaces due to heating by the local hot gas atmosphere.

  14. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime; Brough, Sarah; Croton, Darren J.; Graham, Alister; Driver, Simon; Baldry, Ivan; Brown, Michael; Prescott, Matt; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between the two most luminous members, and the offset between the position of the BGG and the luminosity centroid of the group. We find that the radio luminosity of the largest galaxy in the group strongly depends on its environment, such that the BGGs in dynamically young (evolving) groups are an order of magnitude more luminous in the radio than those with a similar stellar mass but residing in dynamically old (relaxed) groups. This observation has been successfully reproduced by a newly developed semi-analytic model that allows us to explore the various causes of these findings. We find that the fraction of radio-loud BGGs in the observed dynamically young groups is ∼2 times that of the dynamically old groups. We discuss the implications of this observational constraint on the central galaxy properties in the context of galaxy mergers and the super massive black hole accretion rate.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, 19395-5746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brough, Sarah [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Croton, Darren J.; Graham, Alister [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Driver, Simon [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Baldry, Ivan [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Brown, Michael [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Prescott, Matt [Astrophysics Group, The University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Wang, Lingyu, E-mail: habib@ipm.ir [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-06-20

    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between the two most luminous members, and the offset between the position of the BGG and the luminosity centroid of the group. We find that the radio luminosity of the largest galaxy in the group strongly depends on its environment, such that the BGGs in dynamically young (evolving) groups are an order of magnitude more luminous in the radio than those with a similar stellar mass but residing in dynamically old (relaxed) groups. This observation has been successfully reproduced by a newly developed semi-analytic model that allows us to explore the various causes of these findings. We find that the fraction of radio-loud BGGs in the observed dynamically young groups is ∼2 times that of the dynamically old groups. We discuss the implications of this observational constraint on the central galaxy properties in the context of galaxy mergers and the super massive black hole accretion rate.

  16. BIMA CO (1-0) Observations of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. L.; Petitpas, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    We present high resolution observations of the CO emission in NGC 404, a nearby dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy (D = 3.3 Mpc). NGC 404 is only the third dwarf elliptical to have its CO emission mapped by interferometric observations, and is the first outside the Local Group. Our observations show a very concentrated, marginally resolved structure about 9 × 9 arcseconds in diameter. This corresponds to a very small cloud at the center of a much larger distribution of stars. NGC 404 is surrounded by a doughnut shaped distribution of HI gas centered on the stellar component. The CO and HI appear to be kinematically distinct components, suggesting that the HI may be part of the galaxy's original gas distribution, while the CO may be recycled from the products of stellar evolution. C.L.T. has been supported by CSU Sacramento via a Research and Creative Activity Award. G.R.P. has been supported by the Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy through NSF grant AST 99-81289

  17. Morphological Evolution in High-Redshift Radio Galaxies and the Formation of Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W.J. van; Stanford, S.A.; Spinrad, H.; Stern, D.; Graham, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared images of high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) obtained with the near-infrared camera (NIRC) on the Keck I telescope. In most cases, the near-IR data sample rest wavelengths that are free of contamination from strong emission lines and at λ rest > 4000 Angstrom, where older stellar populations, if present, might dominate the observed flux. At z > 3, the rest-frame optical morphologies generally have faint, large-scale (∼50 kpc) emission surrounding multiple, ∼10 kpc components. The brightest of these components are often aligned with the radio structures. These morphologies change dramatically at 2 rest ) ∼ -20 to -22] of the individual components in the z > 3 HzRGs are similar to the total sizes and luminosities of normal radio-quiet star forming galaxies at z = 3 - 4. For objects where such data are available, our observations show that the line-free, near-IR colors of the z > 3 galaxies are very blue, consistent with models in which recent star formation dominates the observed light. Direct spectroscopic evidence for massive star formation in one of the z > 3 HzRGs exists (4C 41.17). Our results suggest that the z > 3 HzRGs evolve into much more massive systems than the radio-quiet galaxies and that they are qualitatively consistent with models in which massive galaxies form in hierarchical fashion through the merging of smaller star-forming systems. The presence of relatively luminous subcomponents along the radio axes of the z > 3 galaxies suggests a causal connection with the AGN. We compare the radio and near-IR sizes as a function of redshift and suggest that this parameter may be a measure of the degree to which the radio sources have induced star formation in the parent objects. We also discuss the Hubble diagram of radio galaxies, the possibility of a radio power dependence in the K-z relation, and its implications for radio galaxy formation. Finally, we present for the first time in published format basic radio and

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of a louvered fin and elliptical tube compact heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooranachandran Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of a louvered fin and elliptical tube compact heat exchanger used as a radiator in an internal combustion engine. Experiments are conducted by positioning the radiator in an open-loop wind tunnel. A total of 24 sets of air, water flow rate combinations are tested, and the temperature drops of air and water were acquired. A numerical analysis has been carried out using Fluent software (a general purpose computational fluid dynamics simulation tool for three chosen data from the experiments. The numerical air-side temperature drop is compared with those of the experimental values. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results validates the present computational methodology.

  19. A strong-lensing elliptical galaxy in the MaNGA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    I report discovery of a new galaxy-scale gravitational lens system, identified using public data from the Mapping Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, as part of a systematic search for lensed background line emitters. The lens is SDSS J170124.01+372258.0, a giant elliptical galaxy with velocity dispersion σ = 256 km s-1, at a redshift of zl = 0.122. After modelling and subtracting the target galaxy light, the integral-field data cube reveals [O II], [O III] and Hβ emission lines corresponding to a source at zs = 0.791, forming an identifiable ring around the galaxy centre. If the ring is formed by a single lensed source, then the Einstein radius is REin ≈ 2.3 arcsec, projecting to ˜5 kpc at the distance of the lens. The total projected lensing mass is MEin = (3.6 ± 0.6) × 1011 M⊙, and the total J-band mass-to-light ratio is 3.0 ± 0.7 solar units. Plausible estimates of the likely dark matter content could reconcile this with a Milky Way-like initial mass function (IMF), for which M/L ≈ 1.5 is expected, but heavier IMFs are by no means excluded with the present data. An alternative interpretation of the system, with a more complex source plane, is also discussed. The discovery of this system bodes well for future lens searches based on MaNGA and other integral-field spectroscopic surveys.

  20. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  1. The Halo Dynamics of NGC 3379: A Normal Elliptical Galaxy with No Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, R.; Jacoby, G. H.

    1993-05-01

    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of planetary nebulae in the normal, non-interacting, elliptical galaxy NGC 3379. In two half-nights with the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope and the NESSIE multifiber spectrograph, we measured the velocities of 29 PNe with projected galactocentric distances between 0.4 and 3.8 effective radii (1 kpc < R < 10 kpc). These data, which have an observational uncertainty of ~ 7 km s(-1) , extend 3 times further into the halo than any previous absorption line study, and allow us for the first time, to examine the kinematics of halo stars in a normal E0 galaxy. The observed velocity dispersion and photometric profile of NGC 3379 agrees extremely well with that expected from a constant mass-to-light, isotropic orbit Jaffe model with a mass-to-light ratio M/L_B ~ 7. A simple c = 2.33 King model with M/L_B ~ 7 also fits the data reasonably well, but models with purely radial or circular orbits are ruled out. The data strongly suggest that NGC 3379 is a galaxy with little or no dark matter within 3.5 effective radii of its nucleus.

  2. An Active Black Hole in a Compact Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new type of galaxy has just been added to the galaxy zoo: a small, compact, and old elliptical galaxy that shows signs of a monster black hole actively accreting material in its center. What can this unusual discovery tell us about how compact elliptical galaxies form?A New Galactic BeastCompact elliptical galaxies are an extremely rare early-type dwarf galaxy. Consistent with their name, compact ellipticals are small, very compact collections of ancient stars; these galaxies exhibit a high surface brightness and arent actively forming stars.Optical view of the ancient compact elliptical galaxy SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 (center of image) in an SDSS color composite image. [Adapted from Paudel et al. 2016]Most compact ellipticals are found in dense environments, particularly around massive galaxies. This has led astronomers to believe that compact ellipticals might form via the tidal stripping of a once-large galaxy in interactions with another, massive galaxy. In this model, once the original galaxys outer layers are stripped away, the compact inner bulge component would be left behind as a compact elliptical galaxy. Recent discoveries of a few isolated compact ellipticals, however, have strained this model.Now a new galaxy has been found to confuse our classification schemes: the first-ever compact elliptical to also display signs of an active galactic nucleus. Led by Sanjaya Paudel (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists discovered SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 serendipitously in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. The team used SDSS images and spectroscopy in combination with data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to learn more about this unique galaxy.Puzzling CharacteristicsSDSS J085431.18+173730.5 presents an interesting conundrum. Ancient compact ellipticals are supposed to be devoid of gas, with no fuel left to trigger nuclear activity. Yet SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 clearly shows the emission lines that indicate active accretion onto

  3. Stellar Population Properties of Ultracompact Dwarfs in M87: A Mass–Metallicity Correlation Connecting Low-metallicity Globular Clusters and Compact Ellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Puzia, Thomas H.; Peng, Eric W.; Liu, Chengze; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Eigenthaler, Paul; Lim, Sungsoon; Lançon, Ariane; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Ruben; Taylor, Matthew A.; Yu, Jincheng

    2018-05-01

    We derive stellar population parameters for a representative sample of ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs) and a large sample of massive globular clusters (GCs) with stellar masses ≳ 106 M ⊙ in the central galaxy M87 of the Virgo galaxy cluster, based on model fitting to the Lick-index measurements from both the literature and new observations. After necessary spectral stacking of the relatively faint objects in our initial sample of 40 UCDs and 118 GCs, we obtain 30 sets of Lick-index measurements for UCDs and 80 for GCs. The M87 UCDs have ages ≳ 8 Gyr and [α/Fe] ≃ 0.4 dex, in agreement with previous studies based on smaller samples. The literature UCDs, located in lower-density environments than M87, extend to younger ages and smaller [α/Fe] (at given metallicities) than M87 UCDs, resembling the environmental dependence of the stellar nuclei of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. The UCDs exhibit a positive mass–metallicity relation (MZR), which flattens and connects compact ellipticals at stellar masses ≳ 108 M ⊙. The Virgo dE nuclei largely follow the average MZR of UCDs, whereas most of the M87 GCs are offset toward higher metallicities for given stellar masses. The difference between the mass–metallicity distributions of UCDs and GCs may be qualitatively understood as a result of their different physical sizes at birth in a self-enrichment scenario or of galactic nuclear cluster star formation efficiency being relatively low in a tidal stripping scenario for UCD formation. The existing observations provide the necessary but not sufficient evidence for tidally stripped dE nuclei being the dominant contributors to the M87 UCDs.

  4. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 147 estimated from the Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method applying to the color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions in the near-infrared JHK bands. Apparent magnitudes of TRGBs in each band are obtained by applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the luminosity functions, and the theoretical absolute magnitudes are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 147 are (m-M=23.69±0.12, 23.78±0.17, and 23.85±0.22 for J, H, and K bands, respectively. Distance modulus in bolometric magnitude is also derived as (m-M=23.87±0.11. We compare the derived values of the TRGB distance modulus to NGC 147 in the near-infrared bands with the previous results in other bands.

  5. Luminosity distribution in galaxies. I. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 as a luminosity distribution standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; Capaccioli, M.

    1979-01-01

    A standard mean luminosity profile in the B band of the El galaxy NGC 3379 along its east-west x-axis is derived from four sets of medium- and low-resolution photographic and photoelectric McDonald data. The 154 mean points cover a range in excess of 11 mag down to μ/sub B/=27.8 mag arcsec -2 (x=7'.3), with possible detection out to x=16'.3 (μ/sub B/approx. =30.9).The profile is presented within +- 0.08 mag at all x>10'' by μ 1 =14.076+3.0083 x/sup 1/4/ (x in arcsec). Near the center the galaxy is brighter than μ 1 by up to 0.35 mag; the excess can be represented by a Gaussian core μ/sub II/=18.565+0.03965 r 2 (r in arcsec) contributing 19.8% of the integrated magnitude B=11.97 within r* =12'' and 4.0% of the total magnitude B/sub T/=10.225 of the galaxy.This two-component model convolved by the appropriate point spread function represents the data within a standard deviation of 0.04 mag over the whole range. Other analytical formulae give generally poorer fits. There is no evidence for a tidal cutoff or a tidal extension.The integrated magnitudes derived from the model agree with aperture photometry (47 values) within 0.05 mag

  6. HST/ACS DIRECT AGES OF THE DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Weisz, D. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Grocholski, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dolphin, A. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, P., E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color–magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ∼1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ∼4–5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  7. On the Evolution of Helium in Blue Compact Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, B.D.; Olive, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the chemical evolution of dwarf irregular and blue compact galaxies in light of recent data, new stellar yields, and chemical evolution models. We examine the abundance data for evidence of H ii region self-enrichment effects, which would lead to correlations in the scatter of helium, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances around their mean trends. The observed helium abundance trends show no such correlations, although the nitrogen-oxygen trend does show strong evidence for real scatter beyond observational error. We construct simple models for the chemical evolution of these galaxies, using the most recent yields of 4 He, C, N, and O in intermediate- and high-mass stars. The effects of galactic outflows, which can arise both from bulk heating and evaporation of the interstellar medium and from the partial escape of enriched supernova ejecta are included. In agreement with other studies, we find that supernova-enriched outflows can roughly reproduce the observed He, C, N, and O trends; however, in models that fit N versus O, the slopes ΔY/ΔO and ΔY/ΔN consistently fall more than 2 σ below the fit to observations. We discuss the role of the models and their uncertainties in the extrapolation of primordial helium from the data. We also explore the model dependence arising from nucleosynthesis uncertainties associated with nitrogen yields in intermediate-mass stars, the fate of 8 endash 11 M circle-dot stars, and massive star winds. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  8. EVIDENCE FOR (AND AGAINST) PROGENITOR BIAS IN THE SIZE GROWTH OF COMPACT RED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Stephanie K.; Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Schiavon, Ricardo [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Graves, Genevieve [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Damjanov, Ivana [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Simard, Luc [National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Most massive, passive galaxies are compact at high redshifts, but similarly compact massive galaxies are rare in the local universe. The most common interpretation of this phenomenon is that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five since redshift z = 2. An alternative explanation is that recently quenched massive galaxies are larger (a {sup p}rogenitor bias{sup )}. In this paper, we explore the importance of progenitor bias by looking for systematic differences in the stellar populations of compact early-type galaxies in the DEEP2 survey as a function of size. Our analysis is based on applying the statistical technique of bootstrap resampling to constrain differences in the median ages of our samples and to begin to characterize the distribution of stellar populations in our co-added spectra. The light-weighted ages of compact early-type galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 1.4 are compared to those of a control sample of larger galaxies at similar redshifts. We find that massive compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of red color and high bulge-to-total ratio are younger than similarly selected larger galaxies, suggesting that size growth in these objects is not driven mainly by progenitor bias, and that individual galaxies grow as their stellar populations age. However, compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of image smoothness and high bulge-to-total ratio are older than a control sample of larger galaxies. Progenitor bias will play a significant role in defining the apparent size changes of early-type galaxies if they are selected on the basis of the smoothness of their light distributions.

  9. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5conflict raised in a previous work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  10. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  11. MID-INFRARED EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED EVOLUTION IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hibbard, John E.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Compact galaxy groups are at the extremes of the group environment, with high number densities and low velocity dispersions that likely affect member galaxy evolution. To explore the impact of this environment in detail, we examine the distribution in the mid-infrared (MIR) 3.6-8.0 μm color space of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) in comparison with several control samples, including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are strongly bimodal, with statistically significant evidence for a gap in their distribution. In contrast, none of the other samples show such a marked gap, and only galaxies in the Coma infall region have a distribution that is statistically consistent with the HCGs in this parameter space. To further investigate the cause of the HCG gap, we compare the galaxy morphologies of the HCG and LVL+SINGS galaxies, and also probe the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the HCG galaxies. While galaxy morphology in HCG galaxies is strongly linked to position with MIR color space, the more fundamental property appears to be the SSFR, or star formation rate normalized by stellar mass. We conclude that the unusual MIR color distribution of HCG galaxies is a direct product of their environment, which is most similar to that of the Coma infall region. In both cases, galaxy densities are high, but gas has not been fully processed or stripped. We speculate that the compact group environment fosters accelerated evolution of galaxies from star-forming and neutral gas-rich to quiescent and neutral gas-poor, leaving few members in the MIR gap at any time.

  12. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE MASS RATIO OF MINOR MERGERS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: APPLICATION TO NGC 4889, THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN COMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Meng; Huang Song; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2013-01-01

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (M I ≈ –18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of ∼90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies

  13. On optical spectra of the NGC 6677 galaxy and the adjacent bright compact object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvaev, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral observations of NGC 6677 galaxy and the adjacent object carried out during six nights on the spectrograph with the image tube of 2.6-m Shain telescope showed, that the bright compact object is a star belonging to our galaxy but not an active galaxy. The NGC 6677 galaxy has sufficiently rich emission spectrum. On the basis of measured values of red shift Z, the inclination and the extent of emission lines, the mass of the galaxy has been estimated (M=7x10 9 M Sun )

  14. The diverse evolutionary paths of simulated high-z massive, compact galaxies to z = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Sarah; Torrey, Paul; Ma, Chung-Pei; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies have much smaller physical sizes at high redshift than today. The strong evolution of galaxy size may be caused by progenitor bias, major and minor mergers, adiabatic expansion, and/or renewed star formation, but it is difficult to test these theories observationally. Herein, we select a sample of 35 massive, compact galaxies (M* = 1-3 × 1011 M⊙, M*/R1.5 > 1010.5 M⊙/kpc1.5) at z = 2 in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Illustris and trace them forwards to z = 0 to uncover their evolution and identify their descendants. By z = 0, the original factor of 3 difference in stellar mass spreads to a factor of 20. The dark matter halo masses similarly spread from a factor of 5 to 40. The galaxies' evolutionary paths are diverse: about half acquire an ex situ envelope and are the core of a more massive descendant, a third survive undisturbed and gain very little mass, 15 per cent are consumed in a merger with a more massive galaxy, and a small remainder are thoroughly mixed by major mergers. The galaxies grow in size as well as mass, and only ˜10 per cent remain compact by z = 0. The majority of the size growth is driven by the acquisition of ex situ mass. The most massive galaxies at z = 0 are the most likely to have compact progenitors, but this trend possesses significant dispersion which precludes a direct linkage to compact galaxies at z = 2. The compact galaxies' merger rates are influenced by their z = 2 environments, so that isolated or satellite compact galaxies (which are protected from mergers) are the most likely to survive to the present day.

  15. Interstellar matter in Shapley-Ames elliptical galaxies. IV. A diffusely distributed component of dust and its effect on colour gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudfrooij, P.; de Jong, T.

    1995-06-01

    We have investigated IRAS far-infrared observations of a complete, blue magnitude limited sample of 56 elliptical galaxies selected from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. Data from a homogeneous optical CCD imaging survey as well as published X-ray data from the EINSTEIN satellite are used to constrain the infrared data. Dust masses as determined from the IRAS flux densities are found to be roughly an order of magnitude higher than those determined from optical extinction values of dust lanes and patches, in strong contrast with the situation in spiral galaxies. This "mass discrepancy" is found to be independent of the (apparent) inclination of the dust lanes. To resolve this dilemma we postulate that the majority of the dust in elliptical galaxies exists as a diffusely distributed component of dust which is undetectable at optical wavelengths. Using observed radial optical surface brightness profiles, we have systematically investigated possible heating mechanisms for the dust within elliptical galaxies. We find that heating of the dust in elliptical galaxies by the interstellar radiation field is generally sufficient to account for the dust temperatures as indicated by the IRAS flux densities. Collisions of dust grains with hot electrons in elliptical galaxies which are embedded in a hot, X-ray-emitting gas is found to be another effective heating mechanism for the dust. Employing model calculations which involve the transfer of stellar radiation in a spherical distribution of stars mixed with a diffuse distribution of dust, we show that the observed infrared luminosities imply total dust optical depths of the postulated diffusely distributed dust component in the range 0.1<~τ_V_<~0.7 and radial colour gradients 0.03<~{DELTA}(B-I)/{DELTA}log r<~0.25. The observed IRAS flux densities can be reproduced within the 1σ uncertainties in virtually all ellipticals in this sample by this newly postulated dust component, diffusely distributed over the inner few kpc of

  16. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z ≳ 2: high velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dekel, Avishai; Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Pacifici, Camilla; Simons, Raymond; Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc; Ceverino, Daniel; Finkelstein, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M ☉ yr –1 and masses of log(M/M ☉ ) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ int =230 −30 +40 km s –1 , as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M * -σ int relation and M * -M dyn all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M * /M dyn ) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13 −13 +17 %), and present larger σ int than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.

  17. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z ≳ 2: high velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J. [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de Sneca, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University 50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Simons, Raymond [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2683 (United States); Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc [W. M. Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in Astronomy, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Ceverino, Daniel [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein, Steven L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and masses of log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ{sub int} =230{sub −30}{sup +40} km s{sup –1}, as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M {sub *}-σ{sub int} relation and M {sub *}-M {sub dyn} all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M {sub *}/M {sub dyn}) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13{sub −13}{sup +17}%), and present larger σ{sub int} than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.

  18. GREEN PEA GALAXIES AND COHORTS: LUMINOUS COMPACT EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a large sample of 803 star-forming luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) in the redshift range z = 0.02-0.63, selected from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The global properties of these galaxies are similar to those of the so-called green pea star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.112-0.360 and selected from the SDSS on the basis of their green color and compact structure. In contrast to green pea galaxies, our LCGs are selected on the basis of both their spectroscopic and photometric properties, resulting in a ∼10 times larger sample, with galaxies spanning a redshift range ∼>2 times larger. We find that the oxygen abundances and the heavy element abundance ratios in LCGs do not differ from those of nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies. The median stellar mass of LCGs is ∼10 9 M sun . However, for galaxies with high EW(Hβ), ≥ 100 A, it is only ∼7 x 10 8 M sun . The star formation rate in LCGs varies in the large range of 0.7-60 M sun yr -1 , with a median value of ∼4 M sun yr -1 , a factor of ∼3 lower than in high-redshift star-forming galaxies at z ∼> 3. The specific star formation rates in LCGs are extremely high and vary in the range ∼10 -9 -10 -7 yr -1 , comparable to those derived in high-redshift galaxies.

  19. An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Remco C E; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; van de Ven, Glenn; van der Wel, Arjen; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2012-11-29

    Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC 4486B. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC 1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2 × 10(11) solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7 × 10(10) solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC 1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations.

  20. ON THE DEARTH OF COMPACT, MASSIVE, RED SEQUENCE GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Franx, Marijn; Brinchmann, Jarle; Glazebrook, Karl; Van der Wel, Arjen; Van Dokkum, Pieter G

    2010-01-01

    We set out to test the claim that the recently identified population of compact, massive, and quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2.3 must undergo significant size evolution to match the properties of galaxies found in the local universe. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; Data Release 7), we have conducted a search for local red sequence galaxies with sizes and masses comparable to those found at z ∼ 2.3. The SDSS spectroscopic target selection algorithm excludes high surface brightness objects; we show that this makes incompleteness a concern for such massive, compact galaxies, particularly for low redshifts (z ∼ * >10 10.7 M sun (∼5 x 10 10 M sun ) red sequence galaxies at 0.066 spec 5000. This result cannot be explained by incompleteness: in the 0.066 75% complete for galaxies with the sizes and masses seen at high redshift, although for the very smallest galaxies it may be as low as ∼20%. In order to confirm that the absence of such compact massive galaxies in SDSS is not produced by spectroscopic selection effects, we have also looked for such galaxies in the basic SDSS photometric catalog, using photometric redshifts. While we do find signs of a slight bias against massive, compact galaxies, this analysis suggests that the SDSS spectroscopic sample is missing at most a few objects in the regime we consider. Accepting the high-redshift results, it is clear that massive galaxies must undergo significant structural evolution over z ∼< 2 in order to match the population seen in the local universe. Our results suggest that a highly stochastic mechanism (e.g., major mergers) cannot be the primary driver of this strong size evolution.

  1. Mass-invariance of the iron enrichment in the hot haloes of massive ellipticals, groups, and clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Werner, N.; Kaastra, J. S.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Gu, L.; Mao, J.; Urdampilleta, I.; Truong, N.; Simionescu, A.

    2018-05-01

    X-ray measurements find systematically lower Fe abundances in the X-ray emitting haloes pervading groups (kT ≲ 1.7 keV) than in clusters of galaxies. These results have been difficult to reconcile with theoretical predictions. However, models using incomplete atomic data or the assumption of isothermal plasmas may have biased the best fit Fe abundance in groups and giant elliptical galaxies low. In this work, we take advantage of a major update of the atomic code in the spectral fitting package SPEX to re-evaluate the Fe abundance in 43 clusters, groups, and elliptical galaxies (the CHEERS sample) in a self-consistent analysis and within a common radius of 0.1r500. For the first time, we report a remarkably similar average Fe enrichment in all these systems. Unlike previous results, this strongly suggests that metals are synthesised and transported in these haloes with the same average efficiency across two orders of magnitude in total mass. We show that the previous metallicity measurements in low temperature systems were biased low due to incomplete atomic data in the spectral fitting codes. The reasons for such a code-related Fe bias, also implying previously unconsidered biases in the emission measure and temperature structure, are discussed.

  2. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE MASS RATIO OF MINOR MERGERS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: APPLICATION TO NGC 4889, THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN COMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Meng; Huang Song [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Organization, 251 South Lake Avenue, Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (M{sub I} Almost-Equal-To -18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of {approx}90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies.

  3. A Novel Approach to Constrain the Mass Ratio of Minor Mergers in Elliptical Galaxies: Application to NGC 4889, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy in Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Huang, Song

    2013-08-01

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (MI ≈ -18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of ~90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. The unique structural parameters of the underlying host galaxies in blue compact dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of possible evolutionary pathways between various types of dwarf galaxies is still not fully understood. Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) provide a unique window into dwarf galaxy formation and evolution and are often thought of as an evolutionary stage between different classes of dwarf galaxies. In this study we use deep optical and near-infrared observations of the underlying hosts of BCDs in order to study the structural differences between different types of dwarf galaxies. When compared with dwarf irregular galaxies of similar luminosities, we find that the underlying hosts of BCDs have significantly more concentrated light distributions, with smaller scale lengths and brighter central surface brightnesses. We demonstrate here that the underlying hosts of BCDs are distinct from the broad continuum of typical dwarf irregular galaxies, and that it is unlikely that most dwarf irregular galaxies can transform into a BCD or vice versa. Furthermore, we find that the starburst in a BCD only brightens it on average by ∼0.8 mag (factor of two), in agreement with other studies. It appears that a BCD is a long-lived and distinct type of dwarf galaxy that exhibits an exceptionally concentrated matter distribution. We suggest that it is this compact mass distribution that enables the strong star formation events that characterize this class of dwarf galaxy, that the compactness of the underlying host can be used as a distinguishing parameter between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies, and that it can also be used to identify BCDs which are not currently experiencing an intense starburst event.

  5. CONFIRMATION OF ENHANCED DWARF-SENSITIVE ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE SPECTRA OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR A NON-UNIVERSAL INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    We recently found that massive cluster elliptical galaxies have strong Na I λ8183, 8195 and FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band absorption, indicating the presence of a very large population of stars with masses ∼ sun . Here we test this result by comparing the elliptical galaxy spectra to those of luminous globular clusters associated with M31. These globular clusters have similar metallicities, abundance ratios, and ages as massive elliptical galaxies but their low dynamical mass-to-light ratios rule out steep stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). From high-quality Keck spectra we find that the dwarf-sensitive absorption lines in globular clusters are significantly weaker than in elliptical galaxies and consistent with normal IMFs. The differences in the Na I and Wing-Ford indices are 0.027 ± 0.007 mag and 0.017 ± 0.006 mag, respectively. We directly compare the two classes of objects by subtracting the averaged globular cluster spectrum from the averaged elliptical galaxy spectrum. The difference spectrum is well fit by the difference between a stellar population synthesis model with a bottom-heavy IMF and one with a bottom-light IMF. We speculate that the slope of the IMF may vary with velocity dispersion, although it is not yet clear what physical mechanism would be responsible for such a relation.

  6. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  7. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  8. A COMPACT GROUP OF GALAXIES AT Z = 2.48 HOSTING AN AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi [Gemini Observatory, 670 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: jshih@gemini.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⊙} and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass–metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow.

  9. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  10. The progenitors of the compact early-type galaxies at high redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Cassata, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Conselice, Christopher J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C.; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Hathi, Nimish; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale

    2014-01-01

    We use GOODS and CANDELS images to identify progenitors of massive (M > 10 10 M ☉ ) compact early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z ∼ 1.6. Because merging and accretion increase the size of the stellar component of galaxies, if the progenitors are among known star-forming galaxies, these must be compact themselves. We select candidate progenitors among compact Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 3 on the basis of their mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and central stellar density, and we find that these account for a large fraction of, and possibly all, compact ETGs at z ∼ 1.6. We find that the average far-UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the candidates is redder than that of the non-candidates, but the optical and mid-IR SED are the same, implying that the redder UV of the candidates is inconsistent with larger dust obscuration and consistent with more evolved (aging) star formation. This is in line with other evidence suggesting that compactness is a sensitive predictor of passivity among high-redshift massive galaxies. We also find that the light distribution of both the compact ETGs and their candidate progenitors does not show any extended 'halos' surrounding the compact 'core,' both in individual images and in stacks. We argue that this is generally inconsistent with the morphology of merger remnants, even if gas rich, as predicted by N-body simulations. This suggests that the compact ETGs formed via highly dissipative, mostly gaseous accretion of units whose stellar components are very small and undetected in the Hubble Space Telescope images, with their stellar mass assembling in situ, and that they have not experienced any major merging until the epoch of observations at z ∼ 1.6.

  11. The progenitors of the compact early-type galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cassata, Paolo [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Tundo, Elena; Conselice, Christopher J. [The School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Wiklind, Tommy [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale, E-mail: ccwillia@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    We use GOODS and CANDELS images to identify progenitors of massive (M > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) compact early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z ∼ 1.6. Because merging and accretion increase the size of the stellar component of galaxies, if the progenitors are among known star-forming galaxies, these must be compact themselves. We select candidate progenitors among compact Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 3 on the basis of their mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and central stellar density, and we find that these account for a large fraction of, and possibly all, compact ETGs at z ∼ 1.6. We find that the average far-UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the candidates is redder than that of the non-candidates, but the optical and mid-IR SED are the same, implying that the redder UV of the candidates is inconsistent with larger dust obscuration and consistent with more evolved (aging) star formation. This is in line with other evidence suggesting that compactness is a sensitive predictor of passivity among high-redshift massive galaxies. We also find that the light distribution of both the compact ETGs and their candidate progenitors does not show any extended 'halos' surrounding the compact 'core,' both in individual images and in stacks. We argue that this is generally inconsistent with the morphology of merger remnants, even if gas rich, as predicted by N-body simulations. This suggests that the compact ETGs formed via highly dissipative, mostly gaseous accretion of units whose stellar components are very small and undetected in the Hubble Space Telescope images, with their stellar mass assembling in situ, and that they have not experienced any major merging until the epoch of observations at z ∼ 1.6.

  12. A short gamma-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N; Sarazin, C L; O'Brien, P T; Zhang, B; Barbier, L; Barthelmy, S D; Blustin, A; Burrows, D N; Cannizzo, J; Cummings, J R; Goad, M; Holland, S T; Hurkett, C P; Kennea, J A; Levan, A; Markwardt, C B; Mason, K O; Meszaros, P; Page, M; Palmer, D M; Rol, E; Sakamoto, T; Willingale, R; Angelini, L; Beardmore, A; Boyd, P T; Breeveld, A; Campana, S; Chester, M M; Chincarini, G; Cominsky, L R; Cusumano, G; de Pasquale, M; Fenimore, E E; Giommi, P; Gronwall, C; Grupe, D; Hill, J E; Hinshaw, D; Hjorth, J; Hullinger, D; Hurley, K C; Klose, S; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Krimm, H A; Mangano, V; Marshall, F E; McGowan, K; Moretti, A; Mushotzky, R F; Nakazawa, K; Norris, J P; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Page, K; Parsons, A M; Patel, S; Perri, M; Poole, T; Romano, P; Roming, P W A; Rosen, S; Sato, G; Schady, P; Smale, A P; Sollerman, J; Starling, R; Still, M; Suzuki, M; Tagliaferri, G; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Tueller, J; Wells, A A; White, N E; Wijers, R A M J

    2005-10-06

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) come in two classes: long (> 2 s), soft-spectrum bursts and short, hard events. Most progress has been made on understanding the long GRBs, which are typically observed at high redshift (z approximately 1) and found in subluminous star-forming host galaxies. They are likely to be produced in core-collapse explosions of massive stars. In contrast, no short GRB had been accurately (burst GRB 050509B. Its position on the sky is near a luminous, non-star-forming elliptical galaxy at a redshift of 0.225, which is the location one would expect if the origin of this GRB is through the merger of neutron-star or black-hole binaries. The X-ray afterglow was weak and faded below the detection limit within a few hours; no optical afterglow was detected to stringent limits, explaining the past difficulty in localizing short GRBs.

  13. POX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F.; Magain, P.

    2000-01-01

    High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 105 Msun) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Hα contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time.

  14. THE WHIQII SURVEY: METALLICITIES AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS COMPACT BLUE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff; Van Zee, Liese

    2010-01-01

    As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana-Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of faint emission-line galaxies, selected to focus on intermediate redshift (0.4 ∼ 23 -O 32 plane that differs from luminous local galaxies and is more consistent with dwarf irregulars at the present epoch, suggesting that cosmic 'downsizing' is observable in even the most fundamental parameters that describe star formation. These properties for our sample are also generally consistent with lying between local galaxies and those at high redshift, as expected by this scenario. Surprisingly, our sample exhibits no detectable correlation between compactness and metallicity, strongly suggesting that at these epochs of rapid star formation, the morphology of compact star-forming galaxies is largely transient.

  15. ACCRETION-INHIBITED STAR FORMATION IN THE WARM MOLECULAR DISK OF THE GREEN-VALLEY ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 3226?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Bitsakis, T.; Alatalo, K.; Mundell, C.; Lacy, M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Duc, P.-A.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy and Herschel photometry of the peculiar ''Green Valley'' elliptical galaxy NGC 3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), forms a pair with NGC 3227 and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and H I filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16 μm reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc long H I tail. In situ star formation associated with the infrared (IR) plume is identified from narrowband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. The end of the IR plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring containing 0.7-1.1 × 10 7 M ☉ detected within the central kiloparsec. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H 2 is in a warm state. Photometry derived from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-IR shows evidence for a low star-formation rate of ∼0.04 M ☉ yr –1 averaged over the last 100 Myr. A mid-IR component to the spectral energy distribution (SED) contributes ∼20% of the IR luminosity of the galaxy, and is consistent with emission associated with the AGN. The current measured star formation rate is insufficient to explain NGC 3226's global UV-optical ''green'' colors via the resurgence of star formation in a ''red and dead'' galaxy. This form of ''cold accretion'' from a tidal stream would appear to be an inefficient way to rejuvenate early-type galaxies and may actually inhibit star formation

  16. Imaging Compact Supermassive Binary Black Holes with Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, G. B; Rodriguez, C; Zavala, R. T; Peck, A. B; Pollack, L. K; Romani, R. W

    2007-01-01

    .... These results are based upon multi-frequency imaging using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) which reveal two compact, variable, at-spectrum, active nuclei within the elliptical host galaxy of 0402...

  17. Constraining the Stellar Populations and Star Formation Histories of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies with SED Fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janowiecki, Steven [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Salzer, John J.; Zee, Liese van [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Skillman, Evan, E-mail: steven.janowiecki@uwa.edu.au [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We discuss and test possible evolutionary connections between blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and other types of dwarf galaxies. BCDs provide ideal laboratories to study intense star formation episodes in low-mass dwarf galaxies, and have sometimes been considered a short-lived evolutionary stage between types of dwarf galaxies. To test these connections, we consider a sample of BCDs as well as a comparison sample of nearby galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey for context. We fit the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SED, far-ultra-violet to far-infrared) of each galaxy with a grid of theoretical models to determine their stellar masses and star formation properties. We compare our results for BCDs with the LVL galaxies to put BCDs in the context of normal galaxy evolution. The SED fits demonstrate that the star formation events currently underway in BCDs are at the extreme of the continuum of normal dwarf galaxies, both in terms of the relative mass involved and in the relative increase over previous star formation rates. Today’s BCDs are distinctive objects in a state of extreme star formation that is rapidly transforming them. This study also suggests ways to identify former BCDs whose star formation episodes have since faded.

  18. The Merger History, AGN and Dwarf Galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hill, A. R.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Charlton, J. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  19. MOND prediction of a new giant shell in the elliptical galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Bartošková, Kateřina; Ebrová, Ivana; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 566, June (2014), A151/1-A151/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; UK(CZ) SVV-26089 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * galaxies: kinematics and dynamics * galaxies: formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  20. The properties of radio ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Disney, M.J.; Rodgers, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and additional radio data are presented for the bright galaxies of the Disney and Wall survey (1977 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 235). These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas. (author)

  1. A 5-GHz survey of bright southern elliptical and SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Wall, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Parkes 64-m telescope has been used in a 5.0 GHz survey of 181 Southern E and SO galaxies from the Reference catalogue of bright galaxies. Of the 39 detections above the nominal limit of 12 mJy, 15 are new, several have radio spectra indicating membership in the active class, and two have shown intensity variations at centimetre wavelengths. The results of this survey combined with results from earlier surveys of lower sensitivity suggest that only about 40 per cent of the E/SO galaxies in the Reference catalogue have Ssub(5GHz)>1 mJy. (author)

  2. The evolution of high-metallicity horizontal-branch stars and the origin of the ultraviolet light in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, E.; Demarque, P.; Pinsonneault, M.

    1992-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations of high-metallicity horizontal-branch stars show that for the relevant masses and helium abundances, post-HB evolution in the HR diagram does not proceed toward and along the AGB, but rather toward a 'slow blue phase' in the vicinity of the helium-burning main sequence, following the extinction of the hydrogen shell energy source. For solar and twice solar metallicity, the blue phase begins during the helium shell-burning phase (in agreement with the work of Brocato and Castellani and Tornambe); for 3 times solar metallicity, it begins earlier, during the helium core-burning phase. This behavior differs from what takes place at lower metallicities. The implications for high-metallicity old stellar populations in the Galactic bulge and for the integrated colors of elliptical galaxies are discussed.

  3. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  4. The Metallicity Evolution of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies from the Intermediate Redshift to the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Fang, Guanwen; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range of [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD samples, we investigated the cosmic evolution of the metallicity, star formation rate (SFR), and Dn(4000) index. Compared with local BCDs, the intermediate-z BCDs had a systematically higher R23 ratio but a similar O32 ratio. Interestingly, no significant deviation in the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation was found between the intermediate-z and local BCDs. Besides the metallicity, the intermediate-z BCDs also exhibited an SFR distribution that was consistent with local BCDs, suggesting a weak dependence on redshift. The intermediate-z BCDs seemed to be younger than the local BCDs with lower Dn(4000) index values. The insignificant deviation in the mass-metallicity and mass-SFR relations between intermediate-z and local BCDs indicates that the relations between the global parameters of low-mass compact galaxies may be universal. These results from low-mass compact galaxies could be used to place important observational constraints on galaxy formation and evolution models.

  5. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES FROM THE INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT TO THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu; Fang, Guanwen

    2016-01-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range of [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD samples, we investigated the cosmic evolution of the metallicity, star formation rate (SFR), and D n (4000) index. Compared with local BCDs, the intermediate-z BCDs had a systematically higher R23 ratio but a similar O32 ratio. Interestingly, no significant deviation in the mass–metallicity (MZ) relation was found between the intermediate-z and local BCDs. Besides the metallicity, the intermediate-z BCDs also exhibited an SFR distribution that was consistent with local BCDs, suggesting a weak dependence on redshift. The intermediate-z BCDs seemed to be younger than the local BCDs with lower D n (4000) index values. The insignificant deviation in the mass–metallicity and mass–SFR relations between intermediate-z and local BCDs indicates that the relations between the global parameters of low-mass compact galaxies may be universal. These results from low-mass compact galaxies could be used to place important observational constraints on galaxy formation and evolution models

  6. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES FROM THE INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT TO THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fang, Guanwen, E-mail: ljhhw@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Institute for Astronomy and History of Science and Technology, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China)

    2016-03-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range of [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD samples, we investigated the cosmic evolution of the metallicity, star formation rate (SFR), and D{sub n}(4000) index. Compared with local BCDs, the intermediate-z BCDs had a systematically higher R23 ratio but a similar O32 ratio. Interestingly, no significant deviation in the mass–metallicity (MZ) relation was found between the intermediate-z and local BCDs. Besides the metallicity, the intermediate-z BCDs also exhibited an SFR distribution that was consistent with local BCDs, suggesting a weak dependence on redshift. The intermediate-z BCDs seemed to be younger than the local BCDs with lower D{sub n}(4000) index values. The insignificant deviation in the mass–metallicity and mass–SFR relations between intermediate-z and local BCDs indicates that the relations between the global parameters of low-mass compact galaxies may be universal. These results from low-mass compact galaxies could be used to place important observational constraints on galaxy formation and evolution models.

  7. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  8. Figures of equilibrium inside a gravitating ring and the limiting oblateness of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, B. P.; Trubitsyna, N. G.; Kireeva, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    A new class of figures of equilibrium for a rotating gravitating fluid located inside a gravitating ring or torus is studied. These figures form a family of sequences of generalized oblate spheroids, in which there is for any value of the tidal parameter α in the interval 0 ≤ 0 ≤slant α /{π Gρ } ≤slant 0.1867 ≤ 0.1867 a sequence of spheroids with oblatenesses emin ( α) ≤ e ≤ e max ( α). A series of classicalMaclaurin spheroids from a sphere to a flat disk is obtained for α = 0. At intermediate values 0 isolated non-rotating galaxy is unstable, and it cannot be supported purely by anisotropy of the stellar velocity dispersion. A ring of dark matter can stabilize a weakly rotating galaxy, supplementing standard dynamical models for such stellar systems. In order for a galaxy to acquire appreciable oblateness, the mass of the ring must be an order of magnitude higher than the mass of the galaxy itself, consistent with the ratios of the masses of dark and baryonic matter in the Universe. The influence of massive external rings could shed light on the existence of galaxies with the critical oblateness E7.

  9. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in an Elliptical Galaxy with the Most Updated AGN Physics. I. Low Angular Momentum Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Yoon, DooSoo; Li, Ya-Ping; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Ho, Luis C.; Guo, Fulai

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the cosmological evolution of an isolated elliptical galaxy by performing two-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations. The inner boundary of the simulation is chosen so that the Bondi radius is resolved. Compared to previous works, the two accretion modes—namely, hot and cold, which correspond to different accretion rates and have different radiation and wind outputs—are carefully discriminated, and the feedback effects by radiation and wind in each mode are taken into account. The most updated AGN physics, including the descriptions of radiation and wind from the hot accretion flows and wind from cold accretion disks, are adopted. Physical processes like star formation and SNe Ia and II are taken into account. We study the AGN light curve, typical AGN lifetime, growth of the black hole mass, AGN duty cycle, star formation, and X-ray surface brightness of the galaxy. We compare our simulation results with observations and find general consistency. Comparisons with previous simulation works find significant differences, indicating the importance of AGN physics. The respective roles of radiation and wind feedback are examined, and it is found that they are different for different problems of interest, such as AGN luminosity and star formation. We find that it is hard to neglect any of them, so we suggest using the names “cold feedback mode” and “hot feedback mode” to replace the currently used ones.

  10. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  11. Two micron spectroscopy of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy Haro 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T.J.; Maillard, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of 2-micron spectroscopic observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy (BCDG) Haro 2, obtained with the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The spectrum contains emission lines of H I, He I, Fe II, and H2 and strong absorption originating from Delta-v = 2 transitions of CO. The strengths of the various features are discussed and the extinction in the 2-micron region is estimated. The spectrum of Haro 2 is compared with those of other BCDGs and the starburst galaxies NGC 253 and M82. It is found that, in many respects, Haro 2 is a typical starburst galaxy and that its blue near-IR colors are not necessarily a sign of youth. 35 refs

  12. ENHANCED NITROGEN IN MORPHOLOGICALLY DISTURBED BLUE COMPACT GALAXIES AT 0.20 < z < 0.35: PROBING GALAXY MERGING FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jiwon; Rey, Soo-Chang; Yeom, Bum-Suk; Yi, Wonhyeong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Eon-Chang; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Humphrey, Andrew, E-mail: jiwon@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: screy@cnu.ac.kr [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-04-10

    We present a study of correlations between the elemental abundances and galaxy morphologies of 91 blue compact galaxies (BCGs) at z = 0.20-0.35 with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 data. We classify the morphologies of the galaxies as either ''disturbed'' or ''undisturbed'' by visual inspection of the SDSS images, and using the Gini coefficient and M{sub 20}. We derive oxygen and nitrogen abundances using the T{sub e} method. We find that a substantial fraction of BCGs with disturbed morphologies, indicative of merger remnants, show relatively high N/O and low O/H abundance ratios. The majority of the disturbed BCGs exhibit higher N/O values at a given O/H value compared to the morphologically undisturbed galaxies, implying more efficient nitrogen enrichment in disturbed BCGs. We detect Wolf-Rayet (WR) features in only a handful of the disturbed BCGs, which appears to contradict the idea that WR stars are responsible for high nitrogen abundance. Combining these results with Galaxy Evolution Explorer GR6 ultraviolet (UV) data, we find that the majority of the disturbed BCGs show systematically lower values of the H{alpha} to near-UV star formation rate ratio. The equivalent width of the H{beta} emission line is also systematically lower in the disturbed BCGs. Based on these results, we infer that disturbed BCGs have undergone star formation over relatively longer timescales, resulting in a more continuous enrichment of nitrogen. We suggest that this correlation between morphology and chemical abundances in BCGs is due to a difference in their recent star formation histories.

  13. Stripping of gas and dust from the elliptical galaxy M86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.A.; Fabian, A.C.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Stern, C.

    1990-01-01

    Past observations of the x ray morphology of M86 have revealed that the galaxy is experiencing ram-pressure stripping due to its large velocity (1500 km s(-1)) relative to the intracluster medium of Virgo (Forman et al. 1979, Fabian, Schwartz, and Forman 1980). Observations indicate that the x ray emitting gas in the plume of M86 is still being produced from the continual heating of gas and dust stripped from nearer the galaxy's center. Researchers obtained two-dimensional Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) images of M86 which have revealed that there are two spatially separated regions of emission, one at 60 microns and the other at 100 microns of the IRAS wavebands. The 100 microns emission, presumably from cool dust (at approximately 20 K), appears to be located near the center of the galaxy together with HI (detected by Bregman, Roberts and Giovanelli 1988), while the 60 microns emission appears to lie more than 3 arcminutes away from the optical center in a direction slightly south of the center of the plume. Optical images produced by scanning U.K. Schmidt plates, reveal asymmetric isophotal contours along the major axis of the galaxy (first reported by Nulsen and Carter in 1987, which they propose as excess emission due to star formation). This excess optical emission is co-incident with the direction of the 60 micron infra-red emission

  14. GALAXY INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT GROUPS. I. THE GALACTIC WINDS OF HCG16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frederic P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J., E-mail: fvogt@mso.anu.edu.au [Mount Stromlo Observatory, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-05-10

    Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we have undertaken a series of observations of star-forming galaxies in compact groups. In this first paper dedicated to the project, we present the analysis of the spiral galaxy NGC 838, a member of the Hickson Compact Group 16, and of its galactic wind. Our observations reveal that the wind forms an asymmetric, bipolar, rotating structure, powered by a nuclear starburst. Emission line ratio diagnostics indicate that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism at the base of the wind. Mixing from slow shocks (up to 20%) increases further out along the outflow axis. The asymmetry of the wind is most likely caused by one of the two lobes of the wind bubble bursting out of its H I envelope, as indicated by line ratios and radial velocity maps. The characteristics of this galactic wind suggest that it is caught early (a few Myr) in the wind evolution sequence. The wind is also quite different from the galactic wind in the partner galaxy NGC 839 which contains a symmetric, shock-excited wind. Assuming that both galaxies have similar interaction histories, the two different winds must be a consequence of the intrinsic properties of NGC 838 and NGC 839 and their starbursts.

  15. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. ON THE DISCREPANCY IN METALLICITY BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AND THEIR PARENT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook; Blakeslee, John P.; Peng, Eric W.; Sohn, Sangmo T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies—globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magnitude in the host galaxy mass, suggesting a universal process of chemical enrichment among various GC systems. Given that GCs are bluer than field stars within the same galaxy, it is plausible that the chemical enrichment processes of GCs ceased somewhat earlier than that of the field stellar population, and if so, GCs preferentially trace the major, vigorous mode of star formation events in galactic formation. We further suggest a possible systematic age difference among GC systems, in that the GC systems in more luminous galaxies are older. This is consistent with the downsizing paradigm whereby stars of brighter galaxies, on average, formed earlier than those of dimmer galaxies; this additionally supports the similar nature shared by GCs and field stars. Although the sample used in this study (the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, WFPC2, and WFC3 photometry for the GC systems in the Virgo galaxy cluster) confines our

  16. Ultra-compact high velocity clouds in the ALFALFA HI survey: Candidate Local Group galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth Ann Kovenz

    The increased sensitivity and spatial resolution of the ALFALFA HI survey has resulted in the detection of ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). These objects are good candidates to represent low mass gas-rich galaxies in the Local Group and Local Volume with stellar populations that are too faint to be detected in extant optical surveys. This idea is referred to as the "minihalo hypothesis". We identify the UCHVCs within the ALFALFA dataset via the use of a 3D matched filtering signal identification algorithm. UCHVCs are selected based on a compact size ( 120 km s-1) and isolation. Within the 40% complete ALFALFA survey (alpha.40), 59 UCHVCs are identified; 19 are in a most-isolated subset and are the best galaxy candidates. Due to the presence of large HVC complexes in the fall sky, most notably the Magellanic Stream, the association of UCHVCs with existing structure cannot be ruled out. In the spring sky, the spatial and kinematic distribution of the UCHVCs is consistent with simulations of dark matter halos within the Local Group. In addition, the HI properties of the UCHVCs (if placed at 1 Mpc) are consistent with both theoretical and observational predictions for low mass gas-rich galaxies. Importantly, the HI properties of the UCHVCs are consistent with those of two recently discovered low mass gas-rich galaxies in the Local Group and Local Volume, Leo T and Leo P. Detailed follow-up observations are key for addressing the minihalo hypothesis. High resolution HI observations can constrain the environment of a UCHVC and offer evidence for a hosting dark matter halo through evidence of rotation support and comparison to theoretical models. Observations of one UCHVC at high resolution (15'') reveal the presence of a clumpy HI distribution, similar to both low mass galaxies and circumgalactic compact HVCs. An extended envelope containing ˜50% of the HI flux is resolved out by the array configuration; observations at lower spatial resolution can recover

  17. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  18. Tidal interaction, star formation and chemical evolution in blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.; Jaiswal, S.

    2018-02-01

    The optical spectroscopic and radio interferometric H I 21 cm-line observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22 are presented. The Wolf-Rayet (WR) emission-line features corresponding to high ionization lines of He II λ4686 and C IV λ5808 from young massive stars are detected. The ages of two prominent star-forming regions in the galaxy are estimated as ∼10 and ∼ 4 Myr. The galaxy has non-thermal radio deficiency, which also indicates a young starburst and lack of supernovae events from the current star formation activities, consistent with the detection of WR emission-line features. A significant N/O enrichment is seen in the fainter star-forming region. The gas-phase metallicities [12 + log(O/H)] for the bright and faint regions are estimated as 7.98±0.07 and 7.46±0.09, respectively. The galaxy has a large diffuse H I envelop. The H I images reveal disturbed gas kinematics and H I clouds outside the optical extent of the galaxy, indicating recent tidal interaction or merger in the system. The results strongly indicate that Mrk 22 is undergoing a chemical and morphological evolution due to ongoing star formation, most likely triggered by a merger.

  19. Modelling the gas kinematics of an atypical Ly α emitting compact dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gronke, Max; Remolina-Gutiérrez, Maria Camila; Garavito-Camargo, Nicolás; Dijkstra, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Star-forming compact dwarf galaxies (CDGs) resemble the expected pristine conditions of the first galaxies in the Universe and are the best systems to test models on primordial galaxy formation and evolution. Here, we report on one of such CDGs, Tololo 1214-277, which presents a broad, single peaked, highly symmetric Ly α emission line that had evaded theoretical interpretation so far. In this paper, we reproduce for the first time these line features with two different physically motivated kinematic models: an interstellar medium composed by outflowing clumps with random motions and an homogeneous gaseous sphere undergoing solid body rotation. The multiphase model requires a clump velocity dispersion of 54.3 ± 0.6 km s-1 with outflows of 54.3 ± 5.1 km s-1 , while the bulk rotation velocity is constrained to be 348^{+75}_{-48} km s-1. We argue that the results from the multiphase model provide a correct interpretation of the data. In that case, the clump velocity dispersion implies a dynamical mass of 2 × 109 M⊙, 10 times its baryonic mass. If future kinematic maps of Tololo 1214-277 confirm the velocities suggested by the multiphase model, it would provide additional support to expect such kinematic state in primordial galaxies, opening the opportunity to use the models and methods presented in this paper to constrain the physics of star formation and feedback in the early generation of Ly α -emitting galaxies.

  20. FORMATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: COLD STREAMS, CLUMPY DISKS, AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Sari, Re'em; Ceverino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical framework for massive galaxies at high redshift, where the main assembly and star formation occurred, and report on the first cosmological simulations that reveal clumpy disks consistent with our analysis. The evolution is governed by the interplay between smooth and clumpy cold streams, disk instability, and bulge formation. Intense, relatively smooth streams maintain an unstable dense gas-rich disk. Instability with high turbulence and giant clumps, each a few percent of the disk mass, is self-regulated by gravitational interactions within the disk. The clumps migrate into a bulge in ∼ sun yr -1 , and each clump converts into stars in ∼0.5 Gyr. While the clumps coalesce dissipatively to a compact bulge, the star-forming disk is extended because the incoming streams keep the outer disk dense and susceptible to instability and because of angular momentum transport. Passive spheroid-dominated galaxies form when the streams are more clumpy: the external clumps merge into a massive bulge and stir up disk turbulence that stabilize the disk and suppress in situ clump and star formation. We predict a bimodality in galaxy type by z ∼ 3, involving giant-clump star-forming disks and spheroid-dominated galaxies of suppressed star formation. After z ∼ 1, the disks tend to be stabilized by the dominant stellar disks and bulges. Most of the high-z massive disks are likely to end up as today's early-type galaxies.

  1. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, UT Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  2. COMPLEX GAS KINEMATICS IN COMPACT, RAPIDLY ASSEMBLING STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorin, R.; Vilchez, J. M.; Perez-Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Haegele, G. F.; Firpo, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad de la Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Papaderos, P., E-mail: amorin@iaa.es [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-08-01

    Deep, high-resolution spectroscopic observations have been obtained for six compact, strongly star-forming galaxies at redshift z {approx} 0.1-0.3, most of them also known as green peas. Remarkably, these galaxies show complex emission-line profiles in the spectral region including H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6584, and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717, 6731, consisting of the superposition of different kinematical components on a spatial extent of few kiloparsecs: a very broad line emission underlying more than one narrower component. For at least two of the observed galaxies some of these multiple components are resolved spatially in their two-dimensional spectra, whereas for another one a faint detached H{alpha} blob lacking stellar continuum is detected at the same recessional velocity {approx}7 kpc away from the galaxy. The individual narrower H{alpha} components show high intrinsic velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx} 30-80 km s{sup -1}), suggesting together with unsharped masking Hubble Space Telescope images that star formation proceeds in an ensemble of several compact and turbulent clumps, with relative velocities of up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1}. The broad underlying H{alpha} components indicate in all cases large expansion velocities (full width zero intensity {>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) and very high luminosities (up to {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}), probably showing the imprint of energetic outflows from supernovae. These intriguing results underline the importance of green peas for studying the assembly of low-mass galaxies near and far.

  3. CANDELS: THE PROGENITORS OF COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, Guillermo; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Mozena, Mark; McGrath, Elizabeth; Cheung, Edmond; Fang, Jerome; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Williams, Christina C.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Croton, Darren J.; Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ashby, M. L. N.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fontana, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    We combine high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 images with multi-wavelength photometry to track the evolution of structure and activity of massive (M * > 10 10 M ☉ ) galaxies at redshifts z = 1.4-3 in two fields of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. We detect compact, star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) whose number densities, masses, sizes, and star formation rates (SFRs) qualify them as likely progenitors of compact, quiescent, massive galaxies (cQGs) at z = 1.5-3. At z ∼> 2, cSFGs present SFR = 100-200 M ☉ yr –1 , yet their specific star formation rates (sSFR ∼ 10 –9 yr –1 ) are typically half that of other massive SFGs at the same epoch, and host X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) 30 times (∼30%) more frequently. These properties suggest that cSFGs are formed by gas-rich processes (mergers or disk-instabilities) that induce a compact starburst and feed an AGN, which, in turn, quench the star formation on dynamical timescales (few 10 8 yr). The cSFGs are continuously being formed at z = 2-3 and fade to cQGs down to z ∼ 1.5. After this epoch, cSFGs are rare, thereby truncating the formation of new cQGs. Meanwhile, down to z = 1, existing cQGs continue to enlarge to match local QGs in size, while less-gas-rich mergers and other secular mechanisms shepherd (larger) SFGs as later arrivals to the red sequence. In summary, we propose two evolutionary tracks of QG formation: an early (z ∼> 2), formation path of rapidly quenched cSFGs fading into cQGs that later enlarge within the quiescent phase, and a late-arrival (z ∼< 2) path in which larger SFGs form extended QGs without passing through a compact state.

  4. A VERY CLOSE BINARY BLACK HOLE IN A GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY 3C 66B AND ITS BLACK HOLE MERGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Okuda, Takeshi; Sudou, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Recent observational results provide possible evidence that binary black holes (BBHs) exist in the center of giant galaxies and may merge to form a supermassive black hole in the process of their evolution. We first detected a periodic flux variation on a cycle of 93 ± 1 days from the 3 mm monitor observations of a giant elliptical galaxy 3C 66B for which an orbital motion with a period of 1.05 ± 0.03 yr had been already observed. The detected signal period being shorter than the orbital period can be explained by taking into consideration the Doppler-shifted modulation due to the orbital motion of a BBH. Assuming that the BBH has a circular orbit and that the jet axis is parallel to the binary angular momentum, our observational results demonstrate the presence of a very close BBH that has a binary orbit with an orbital period of 1.05 ± 0.03 yr, an orbital radius of (3.9 ± 1.0) x 10 -3 pc, an orbital separation of (6.1 +1.0 -0.9 ) x 10 -3 pc, a larger black hole mass of (1.2 +0.5 -0.2 ) x 10 9 M sun , and a smaller black hole mass of (7.0 +4.7 -6.4 ) x 10 8 M sun . The BBH decay time of (5.1 +60.5 -2.5 ) x 10 2 yr provides evidence for the occurrence of black hole mergers. This Letter will demonstrate the interesting possibility of black hole collisions to form a supermassive black hole in the process of evolution, one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in the universe.

  5. CANDELS+3D-HST: Compact SFGs at z ∼ 2-3, the progenitors of the first quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Guo, Y. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Pérez-González, P. G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, F. CC. Físicas, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, C. [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Trump, J. R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wuyts, S.; Hsu, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porter, L.; Primack, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caputi, K. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Ceverino, D. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Giavalisco, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/M{sub ☉}) >10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2 < z < 3 to explore whether they are progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are heavily obscured. Nearly half (47%) host an X-ray-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN). In contrast, only about 10% of other massive galaxies at that time host AGNs. Compact SFGs have centrally concentrated light profiles and spheroidal morphologies similar to quiescent galaxies and are thus strikingly different from other SFGs, which typically are disk-like and sometimes clumpy or irregular. Most compact SFGs lie either within the star formation rate (SFR)-mass main sequence (65%) or below it (30%), on the expected evolutionary path toward quiescent galaxies. These results show conclusively that galaxies become more compact before they lose their gas and dust, quenching star formation. Using extensive HST photometry from CANDELS and grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey, we model their stellar populations with either exponentially declining (τ) star formation histories (SFHs) or physically motivated SFHs drawn from semianalytic models (SAMs). SAMs predict longer formation timescales and older ages ∼2 Gyr, which are nearly twice as old as the estimates of the τ models. Both models yield good spectral energy distribution fits, indicating that the systematic uncertainty in the age due to degeneracies in the SFH is of that order of magnitude. However, SAM SFHs better match the observed slope and zero point of the SFR-mass main sequence. Contrary to expectations, some low-mass compact SFGs (log(M/M{sub ☉}) =10-10.6) have younger ages but lower specific SFRs than that of more massive galaxies, suggesting that the low-mass galaxies reach the red sequence faster. If the progenitors of compact SFGs are extended SFGs, state-of-the-art SAMs show that mergers

  6. CANDELS+3D-HST: Compact SFGs at z ∼ 2-3, the progenitors of the first quiescent galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Guo, Y.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pacifici, C.; Trump, J. R.; Wuyts, S.; Hsu, L.; Bell, E.; Dekel, A.; Porter, L.; Primack, J.; Ferguson, H.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Caputi, K.; Ceverino, D.; Croton, D.; Giavalisco, M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/M ☉ ) >10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2 < z < 3 to explore whether they are progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are heavily obscured. Nearly half (47%) host an X-ray-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN). In contrast, only about 10% of other massive galaxies at that time host AGNs. Compact SFGs have centrally concentrated light profiles and spheroidal morphologies similar to quiescent galaxies and are thus strikingly different from other SFGs, which typically are disk-like and sometimes clumpy or irregular. Most compact SFGs lie either within the star formation rate (SFR)-mass main sequence (65%) or below it (30%), on the expected evolutionary path toward quiescent galaxies. These results show conclusively that galaxies become more compact before they lose their gas and dust, quenching star formation. Using extensive HST photometry from CANDELS and grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey, we model their stellar populations with either exponentially declining (τ) star formation histories (SFHs) or physically motivated SFHs drawn from semianalytic models (SAMs). SAMs predict longer formation timescales and older ages ∼2 Gyr, which are nearly twice as old as the estimates of the τ models. Both models yield good spectral energy distribution fits, indicating that the systematic uncertainty in the age due to degeneracies in the SFH is of that order of magnitude. However, SAM SFHs better match the observed slope and zero point of the SFR-mass main sequence. Contrary to expectations, some low-mass compact SFGs (log(M/M ☉ ) =10-10.6) have younger ages but lower specific SFRs than that of more massive galaxies, suggesting that the low-mass galaxies reach the red sequence faster. If the progenitors of compact SFGs are extended SFGs, state-of-the-art SAMs show that mergers and disk

  7. The metallicity evolution of blue compact dwarf galaxies from the intermediate redshift to the local Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Fang, Guanwen; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range in [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT). More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD sampl...

  8. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati

    1989-01-01

    In principle, a good model of galactic chemical evolution should fulfil the majority of well established observational constraints. The goal of this paper is to review the observational data together with the existing chemical evolution models for the Milky Way (the disk), Blue Compact and Elliptical galaxies and to show how well the models can account for the observations. Some open problems and future prospects are also discussed. (author)

  9. Geometrical evidence for dark matter: X-ray constraints on the mass of the elliptical galaxy NGC 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1994-01-01

    We describe (1) a new test for dark matter and alternate theories of gravitation based on the relative geometries of the X-ray and optical surface brightness distributions and an assumed form for the potential, of the optical light, (2) a technique to measure the shapes of the total gravitating matter and dark matter of an ellipsoidal system which is insensitive to the precise value of the temperature of the gas and to modest temperature gradients, and (3) a new method to determine the ratio of dark mass to stellar mass that is dependent on the functional forms for the visible star, gas and dark matter distributions, but independent of the distance to the galaxy or the gas temperature. We apply these techniques to X-ray data from the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of the optically flattened elliptical galaxy NGC 720; the optical isophotes have ellipticity epsilon approximately 0.40 extending out to approximately 120 sec. The X-ray isophotes are significantly elongated, epsilon = 0.20-0.30 for semimajor axis a approximately 100 sec. The major axes of the optical and X-ray isophotes are misaligned by approximately 30 deg +/- 15 deg. Spectral analysis of the X-ray data reveals no evidence of temperature gradients or anisotropies and demonstrates that a single-temperature plasma (T approximately 0.6 keV) having subsolar heavy element abundances and a two-temperature model having solar abundances describe the spectrum equally well. Considering only the relative geometries of the X-ray and optical surface brightness distributions and an assumed functional form for the potential of the optical light, we conclude that matter distributed like the optical light cannot produce the observed ellipticities of the X-ray isophotes, independent of the gas pressure, the gas temperature, and the value of the stellar mass; this comparison assumes a state of quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium so that the three-dimensional surfaces of the gas emissivity trace the three

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING OF A GROWING COMPACT GALAXY AT z = 1.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/WFC3 grism near-IR spectroscopy of the brightest galaxy at z > 1.5 in the GOODS-South WFC3 ERS grism pointing. The spectrum is of remarkable quality and shows the redshifted Balmer lines Hβ, Hγ, and Hδ in absorption at z = 1.902 ± 0.002. The absorption lines can be produced by a post-starburst stellar population with a luminosity-weighted age of ∼0.5 Gyr. The mass-to-light ratio inferred from the spectrum implies a stellar mass of (4 ± 1) x 10 11 M sun . We determine the morphology of the galaxy from a deep WFC3 H 160 image. Similar to other massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 the galaxy is compact, with an effective radius of 2.1 ± 0.3 kpc. Although most of the light is in a compact core, the galaxy has two red, smooth spiral arms that appear to be tidally induced. The spatially resolved spectroscopy demonstrates that the center of the galaxy is quiescent whereas the surrounding disk is forming stars, as it shows Hβ in emission. The galaxy interacts with a companion at a projected distance of 18 kpc, which also shows prominent tidal features. The companion is a factor of ∼10 fainter than the primary galaxy and may have a lower metallicity. It is tempting to interpret these observations as evidence for the growth of compact, quiescent high-redshift galaxies through minor mergers, which has been proposed by several recent observational and theoretical studies. Interestingly both objects host luminous active galactic nuclei, which implies that these mergers can be accompanied by significant black hole growth.

  11. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Cuisinier, Francois; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with ∼750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' (∼375 and ∼250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' (∼500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of Hα emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using Hβ equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of ∼5 Myr with stellar masses of ∼10 4 M sun . We have also used [O III]/Hβ and [S II]/Hα ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The Hα emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of ∼10 km s -1 . The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of Δ(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 ± 0.06-8.05 ± 0.04) were found, considering all data points where the oxygen abundance was measured. The spatial distribution of oxygen abundance

  12. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z ⊙ ). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10 4 M ⊙ pc −3 ) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs

  13. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2015-10-10

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z{sub ⊙}). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −3}) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs.

  14. Probing star formation and feedback in dwarf galaxies. Integral field view of the blue compact galaxy Tololo 1937-423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, L. M.; González-Pérez, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are gas-rich, low-mass, small systems that form stars at unusually high rates. This makes them excellent laboratories for investigating the process of star-formation (SF) at galactic scales and the effects of massive stellar feedback on the interstellar (and intergalactic) medium. Aims: We analyzed the BCG Tololo 1937-423 using optical integral field spectroscopy to probe its morphology, stellar content, nebular excitation and ionization properties, and the kinematics of its warm ionized gas. Methods: Tololo 1937-423 was observed with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We took data in the wavelength range 4150-7400 Å, covering a field of view of 27″× 27″ on the sky with a spatial sampling of 0.̋67. From these data we built maps in the continuum and brighter emission lines, diagnostic line ratio maps, and velocity dispersion fields. We also generated the integrated spectrum of the main H II regions and young stellar clusters to determine reliable physical parameters and oxygen abundances. Results: We found that Tololo 1937-423 is currently undergoing an extended starburst. In the Hα maps we identified nine major clumps, aligned mostly northeast-southwest, and stretching to galactocentric distances ≥2 kpc. The galaxy presents a single continuum peak that is not cospatial with any knot in emission lines, indicating at least two relatively recent episodes of SF. The inhomogeneous dust distribution reachs its maximum (E(B-V) 0.97) roughly at the position of the continuum peak. We found shocked regions in the galaxy outer regions and at the edges of the SF knots. The oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) 8.20 ± 0.1, is similar in all the SF regions, suggesting a chemically homogeneous ionized interstellar medium over spatial scales of several kpc. The ionized gas kinematics displays an overall regular rotation around a northwest-southeast axis, with a maximum velocity of 70 ± 7 km s-1. Conclusions

  15. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-01-01

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H F160W imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H ∼ 28 mag arcsec -2 . We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r e = 0.42 ± 0.14 kpc in the observed H F160W band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor ∼10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  16. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  17. Enormous mass of the elliptical galaxy M87: A model for the extended X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the X-ray data from the Virgo cluster indicates that the mass of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 exceeds 10 13 M/sub sun/ or greater. This large mass is required in order to confine the extended thermal X-ray source to its observed projected size - provided that the gas which radiates X-rays is essentially isothermal (T=3 x 10 7 K) and in hydrostatic equilibrium. Isothermality follows from the efficiency of heat conduction and the suggested origin of the gas. If these assumptions are correct, the bulk of the mass in M87 must be distributed in a low-density, low luminosity component quite unlike the distribution of luminous matter. The mass of this component could account for the ''missing mass'' in the Virgo cluster. Observations of polarized radio emission from the core source in M87 provide further indirect support for the existence of a massive, low-luminosity halo. The hot gas (Tapprox. =3 x 10 7 K), trapped in the potential well of the dark halo, and the magnetic field associated with the M87 radio halo account for the Faraday depolarization and rotation measure observed in the radio core source (jet and nucleus).The gas at Tapprox. =3 x 10 7 K which surrounds M87 cools at its center in less than a Hubble time, and produces the H II region which is observed there. Observations of the Balmer decrement could be useful in verifying the origin of the nuclear H II gas. This gas, which falls as clouds into the nucleus at a rate of approx.10 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , may be responsible for maintaining the nonthermal activity there. The total mass of hot gas in M87 is, very approximately, 5 x 10 12 M/sub sun/. A likely source for the hot gas surrounding M87 would be the interaction of galactic winds among the cluster members, followed by infall into the potential well of M87

  18. Radio Galaxy Zoo: compact and extended radio source classification with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, V.; Brüggen, M.; Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Rudnick, L.; Norris, R. P.; Simmons, B.

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning techniques have been increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in the morphological classification of galaxies. Convolutional neural networks have proven to be highly effective in classifying objects in image data. In the context of radio-interferometric imaging in astronomy, we looked for ways to identify multiple components of individual sources. To this effect, we design a convolutional neural network to differentiate between different morphology classes using sources from the Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) citizen science project. In this first step, we focus on exploring the factors that affect the performance of such neural networks, such as the amount of training data, number and nature of layers, and the hyperparameters. We begin with a simple experiment in which we only differentiate between two extreme morphologies, using compact and multiple-component extended sources. We found that a three-convolutional layer architecture yielded very good results, achieving a classification accuracy of 97.4 per cent on a test data set. The same architecture was then tested on a four-class problem where we let the network classify sources into compact and three classes of extended sources, achieving a test accuracy of 93.5 per cent. The best-performing convolutional neural network set-up has been verified against RGZ Data Release 1 where a final test accuracy of 94.8 per cent was obtained, using both original and augmented images. The use of sigma clipping does not offer a significant benefit overall, except in cases with a small number of training images.

  19. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  20. Multi-spectral study of a new sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Doublier, V; Comte, G

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.124, no.3, p.405-24 (1997). We present the results of surface photometry on a new sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs), in continuation to a previous paper (Doublier et al. 1997). The 22 galaxies $9 (plus two companions) discussed in the present paper have been selected in the Southern Hemisphere, from several lists. An atlas containing isophotal maps, surface brightnesses and B-R color profiles of the sample is given, together $9 with the tables containing the photometric parameters. The results are consistent with those for objects selected from the Byurakan surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. Similarly, we find about one fourth of the BCDGs showing a $9 dominant r/sup 1/4/ brightness distribution component, one fourth of the BCDGs showing a dominant exponential surface brightness profile, and about half of them show composite brightness distributions. Integrated properties, colors, $9 mean surface brightnesses and luminosity-radius relations are investigated and discussed f...

  1. Relativistic jet feedback - II. Relationship to gigahertz peak spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We propose that Gigahertz Peak Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources are the signposts of relativistic jet feedback in evolving galaxies. Our simulations of relativistic jets interacting with a warm, inhomogeneous medium, utilizing cloud densities and velocity dispersions in the range derived from optical observations, show that free-free absorption can account for the ˜ GHz peak frequencies and low-frequency power laws inferred from the radio observations. These new computational models replace a power-law model for the free-free optical depth a more fundamental model involving disrupted log-normal distributions of warm gas. One feature of our new models is that at early stages, the low-frequency spectrum is steep but progressively flattens as a result of a broader distribution of optical depths, suggesting that the steep low-frequency spectra discovered by Callingham et al. may possibly be attributed to young sources. We also investigate the inverse correlation between peak frequency and size and find that the initial location on this correlation is determined by the average density of the warm ISM. The simulated sources track this correlation initially but eventually fall below it, indicating the need for a more extended ISM than presently modelled. GPS and CSS sources can potentially provide new insights into the phenomenon of AGN feedback since their peak frequencies and spectra are indicative of the density, turbulent structure, and distribution of gas in the host galaxy.

  2. THE GRAVITATIONAL SHEAR-INTRINSIC ELLIPTICITY CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES IN OBSERVATION AND IN THE ΛCDM MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Teppei; Jing, Y. P.

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI) correlation function of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) can be modeled with the distribution function of a misalignment angle advocated recently by Okumura et al. For this purpose, we have accurately measured the GI correlation for the LRGs in the Data Release 6 (DR6) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which confirms the results of Hirata et al. who used the DR4 data. By comparing the GI correlation functions in the simulation and in the observation, we find that the GI correlation can be modeled in the current ΛCDM model if the misalignment follows a Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and a typical misalignment angle σ θ = 34.9 +1.9 -2.1 degrees. We also find a correlation between the axis ratios and intrinsic alignments of LRGs. This effect should be taken into account in theoretical modeling of the GI and intrinsic ellipticity-ellipticity correlations for weak lensing surveys.

  3. AN ULTRA-DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z = 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that about half of the massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 are in a quiescent phase. Moreover, these galaxies are commonly found to be ultra-compact with half-light radii of ∼1 kpc. We have obtained a ∼29 hr spectrum of a typical quiescent, ultra-dense galaxy at z = 2.1865 with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The spectrum exhibits a strong optical break and several absorption features, which have not previously been detected in z > 2 quiescent galaxies. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution with stellar population synthesis models implies a low star formation rate (SFR) of 1-3 M sun yr -1 , an age of 1.3-2.2 Gyr, and a stellar mass of ∼2 x 10 11 M sun . We detect several faint emission lines, with emission-line ratios of [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [O II]/[O III] typical of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions. Thus, neither the stellar continuum nor the nebular emission implies active star formation. The current SFR is <1% of the past average SFR. If this galaxy is representative of compact quiescent galaxies beyond z = 2, it implies that quenching of star formation is extremely efficient and also indicates that low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) could be common in these objects. Nuclear emission is a potential concern for the size measurement. However, we show that the AGN contributes ∼<8% to the rest-frame optical emission. A possible post-starburst population may affect size measurements more strongly; although a 0.5 Gyr old stellar population can make up ∼<10% of the total stellar mass, it could account for up to ∼40% of the optical light. Nevertheless, this spectrum shows that this compact galaxy is dominated by an evolved stellar population.

  4. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  5. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, NF; Nidever, DL; Besla, G; Olsen, K; Walker, AR; Vivas, AK; Gruendl, RA; Kaleida, CC; Muñoz, RR; Blum, RD; Saha, A; Conn, BC; Bell, EF; Chu, YH; Cioni, MRL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (rh = 68 ± 11 pc) and faint (MV = -4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a m...

  6. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  7. ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS AS MINIHALOS AND DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faerman, Yakov; Sternberg, Amiel [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: yakovfae@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present dark matter minihalo models for the Ultra-Compact, High-Velocity H I Clouds (UCHVCs) recently discovered in the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We assume gravitational confinement of 10{sup 4} K H I gas by flat-cored dark-matter subhalos within the Local Group. We show that for flat cores, typical (median) tidally stripped cosmological subhalos at redshift z = 0 have dark-matter masses of ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} within the central 300 pc (independent of total halo mass), consistent with the 'Strigari mass scale' observed in low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. Flat-cored subhalos also resolve the mass discrepancy between simulated and observed satellites around the Milky Way. For the UCHVCs, we calculate the photoionization-limited hydrostatic gas profiles for any distance-dependent total observed H I mass and predict the associated (projected) H I half-mass radii, assuming the clouds are embedded in distant (d ∼> 300 kpc) and unstripped subhalos. For a typical UCHVC (0.9 Jy km s{sup –1}), we predict physical H I half-mass radii of 0.18 to 0.35 kpc (or angular sizes of 0.'6 to 2.'1) for distances ranging from 300 kpc to 2 Mpc. As a consistency check, we model the gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo T, for which there is a well-resolved H I column density profile and a known distance (420 kpc). For Leo T, we find that a subhalo with M{sub 300} = 8 (± 0.2) × 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉} best fits the observed H I profile. We derive an upper limit of P{sub HIM} ∼< 150 cm{sup –3} K for the pressure of any enveloping hot intergalactic medium gas at the distance of Leo T. Our analysis suggests that some of the UCHVCs may in fact constitute a population of 21 cm-selected but optically faint dwarf galaxies in the Local Group.

  8. Stellar kinematics and populations out to 1.5 effective radii in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Shibi; Han Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    We present high quality long slit spectra along the major and minor axes out to 1.5 effective radii of the massive galaxy NGC 4636 taken by the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Using the Fourier Correlation Quotient method, we measured the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution along the axes. Furthermore, six Lick/IDS indices (Hβ, Mgb, Fe 5015 , Fe 5270 , Fe 5335 , Fe 5406 ) are derived from the clean spectrum. By comparing the measured absorption line strengths with the predictions of Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models, we derived ages, total metallicity and α abundance profiles of the galaxy. This galaxy presents old and [α/Fe] overabundant stellar populations. Indeed, using the SSP model, we obtained the broadband color profiles. The theoretical colors match well with the measured colors and present red sharp peaks at the galaxy center. The sharp peaks of the colors are mainly shaped by the high metallicity in the galaxy's center. Interestingly, the galaxy has steep negative metallicity gradients, but the trend flattens outwards. This result likely suggests that the center and outer regions of the galaxy formed through different formation processes.

  9. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND FEEDBACK IN THE PROGENITORS OF THE COMPACT PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tundo, Elena [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Guo, Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L., E-mail: ccwilliams@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ∼ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ∼ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high Σ{sub SFR}. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ∼ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.

  10. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND FEEDBACK IN THE PROGENITORS OF THE COMPACT PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; Trump, Jonathan R.; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Bell, Eric F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ∼ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ∼ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high Σ SFR . We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ∼ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs

  11. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  12. Compact galaxies in the region with the center coordinates 07sup(h)59sup(m)+54 deg 44'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerngen, F.; Kalloglyan, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    A list of 70 compact galaxies is presented, galaxies being found in the metagalactic field in the region with center coordinates αsub(1950)=07sup(h)59sup(m), deltasub(1950)54 deg 44'. The selection of objects have been carried out on negatives obtained in the Schmidt focus of the two-meter universal telescope of Tautenburg observatory in the colour B and V system. Galaxies of the highest surface brightness and of spherical configuration have been included. Only in some cases slightly elongated objects have been included due to their very high surface brightness. The coordinates, B and V stellar values of all objects have been measured. The maps of their identification are presented

  13. `Zwicky's Nonet': a compact merging ensemble of nine galaxies and 4C 35.06, a peculiar radio galaxy with dancing radio jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, K. G.; Bagchi, Joydeep; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Jacob, Joe; Patil, M. K.; Kumar, P. Sunil; Pandge, Mahadev; Dabhade, Pratik; Gaikwad, Madhuri; Dhurde, Samir; Abraham, Sheelu; Vivek, M.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    We report the results of our radio, optical and infrared studies of a peculiar radio source 4C 35.06, an extended radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the centre of galaxy cluster Abell 407 (z = 0.047). The central region of this cluster hosts a remarkably tight ensemble of nine galaxies, the spectra of which resemble those of passive red ellipticals, embedded within a diffuse stellar halo of ˜1 arcmin size. This system (named 'Zwicky's Nonet') provides unique and compelling evidence for a multiple-nucleus cD galaxy precursor. Multifrequency radio observations of 4C 35.06 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610, 235 and 150 MHz reveal a system of 400-kpc scale helically twisted and kinked radio jets and outer diffuse lobes. The outer extremities of jets contain extremely steep-spectrum (spectral index -1.7 to -2.5) relic/fossil radio plasma with a spectral age of a few ×(107-108) yr. Such ultra-steep spectrum relic radio lobes without definitive hotspots are rare and they provide an opportunity to understand the life cycle of relativistic jets and physics of black hole mergers in dense environments. We interpret our observations of this radio source in the context of growth of its central black hole, triggering of its AGN activity and jet precession, all possibly caused by galaxy mergers in this dense galactic system. A slow conical precession of the jet axis due to gravitational perturbation between interacting black holes is invoked to explain the unusual jet morphology.

  14. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  15. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Fedotov, K.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  16. Next Generation Virgo Survey Photometry and Keck/DEIMOS Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Satellites of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Chen, Stephanie; Yagati, Samyukta; Muller, Meredith; Next Generation Virgo Survey Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing study of globular cluster (GC) satellites of low-luminosity dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Our 21 dE targets and candidate GC satellites around them in the apparent magnitude range g ~ 20-24 were selected from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) and followed up with medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy (resolving power: R ~ 2000; wavelength coverage: 4800-9500 Angstrom). In addition, the remaining space available on the nine DEIMOS multi-slit masks were populated with "filler" targets in the form of distant Milky Way halo star candidates in a comparable apparent magnitude range. A combination of radial velocity information (measured from the Keck/DEIMOS spectra), color-color information (from four-band NGVS photometry), and sky position information was used to sort the sample into the following categories: (1) GC satellites of dEs, (2) other non-satellite GCs in the Virgo cluster (we dub them "orphan" GCs), (3) foreground Milky Way stars that are members of the Sagittarius stream, the Virgo overdensity, or the field halo population, and (4) distant background galaxies. We stack the GC satellite population across all 21 host dEs and carry out dynamical modeling of the stacked sample in order to constrain the average mass of dark matter halos that these dEs are embedded in. We study rotation in the system of GC satellites of dEs in the handful of more populated systems in our sample - i.e., those that contain 10 or more GC satellites per dE. A companion AAS poster presented at this meeting (Chu, J. et al. 2015) presents chemical composition and age constraints for these GC satellites relative to the nuclei of the host dEs based on absorption line strengths in co-added spectra. The orphan GCs are likely to be intergalactic GCs within the Virgo cluster (or, equivalently, GCs in the remote outer envelope of the cluster's central galaxy, the giant elliptical M87).This project is funded in part by the

  17. The KMOS3D Survey: Rotating Compact Star-forming Galaxies and the Decomposition of Integrated Line Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnioski, E.; Mendel, J. T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Belli, S.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.; Davies, R. L.; Fabricius, M.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    Using integral field spectroscopy, we investigate the kinematic properties of 35 massive centrally dense and compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs; {log}{\\overline{M}}* [{M}ȯ ]=11.1, {log}({{{Σ }}}1{kpc}[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-2])> 9.5, {log}({M}* /{r}e1.5[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-1.5])> 10.3) at z ∼ 0.7–3.7 within the KMOS3D survey. We spatially resolve 23 compact SFGs and find that the majority are dominated by rotational motions with velocities ranging from 95 to 500 km s‑1. The range of rotation velocities is reflected in a similar range of integrated Hα line widths, 75–400 km s‑1, consistent with the kinematic properties of mass-matched extended galaxies from the full KMOS3D sample. The fraction of compact SFGs that are classified as “rotation-dominated” or “disklike” also mirrors the fractions of the full KMOS3D sample. We show that integrated line-of-sight gas velocity dispersions from KMOS3D are best approximated by a linear combination of their rotation and turbulent velocities with a lesser but still significant contribution from galactic-scale winds. The Hα exponential disk sizes of compact SFGs are, on average, 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc, 1–2× the continuum sizes, in agreement with previous work. The compact SFGs have a 1.4× higher active galactic nucleus (AGN) incidence than the full KMOS3D sample at fixed stellar mass with an average AGN fraction of 76%. Given their high and centrally concentrated stellar masses, as well as stellar-to-dynamical mass ratios close to unity, the compact SFGs are likely to have low molecular gas fractions and to quench on a short timescale unless replenished with inflowing gas. The rotation in these compact systems suggests that their direct descendants are rotating passive galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 092A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, and 098.A-0045).

  18. The spiral-compact galaxy pair AM 2208-251: Computer simulations versus observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaric, M.; Byrd, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The system AM2208-251 is a roughly edge-on spiral extending east-west with a smaller round compact E system about 60 arcsec east of the spiral nucleus along the major axis of the spiral. Spectroscopic observations may indicate a tidal interaction in the system. In order to learn more about such pairs, the authors simulated the interaction using the computer model developed by Miller (1976 a,b, 1978) and modified by the authors (Byrd 1986, 1987, 1988). To do the simulation they need an idea of the mutual orbits of the two galaxies. Their computer model is a two-dimensional polar N-body program. It consists of a self-gravitating disk of particles, within an inert axially symmetric stabilizing halo potential. The particles are distributed in a 24(radial) by 36(azimuthal) polar grid. Self consistent calculations can be done only within the grid area. The disk is modeled with a finite Mestel disk, where all the particles initially move in circular orbits with constant tangential velocities (Mestel 1963), resulting in a flat rotation curve. The gas particles in the spiral's disk, which make up 30 percent of its mass, collide in the following manner. The number of particles in each bin of the polar grid is counted every time step. If it is greater than a given critical density, all the particles in the bin collide, obtaining in the result the same velocities, equal to the average for the bin. This process produces clumps of gas particles-the star formation sites. The authors suppress the collision in the inner part of the disk (within the circle r = 6) to represent the hole seen in the gas in the nuclear bulge of spirals. They thus avoid spurious effects due to collisions in that region

  19. Radio emission in the Virgo cluster and in SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotanyi, C.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the radio continuum emission from the galaxies in the Virgo Cluster is presented. The sample of 274 galaxies in total contains a subsample of 188 galaxies complete down to magntiude msub(p) = 14. The observations consisted mostly of short (10 minutes) observations providing one-dimensional (East-West) strip distributions of the radio brightness at 1.4 GHz, with an East-West resolution of 23'' allowing separation of central sources from extended emission, and an r.m.s. noise level of 2 mJy. The radio emission of SO galaxies is examined. A sample of 145 SO galaxies is obtained by combining the Virgo cluster SO's with the nearby non-cluster SO's. The radio data, mainly from short observations, are used to derive the RLF. The radio emission in SO galaxies is at least three times weaker than that in ellipticals and spirals. Flat-spectrum compact nuclear sources are found in SO galaxies but they are at least 10 times weaker than in elliptical galaxies, which is attributed to the small mass of the bulges in SO's as compared to the mass of elliptical galaxies. The absence of steep-spectrum, extended central sources and of disk radio emission in SO's is attributed to their low neutral hydrogen content. (Auth.)

  20. The SAURON project : XVI. On the sources of ionization for the gas in elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Shields, Joseph C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Shapiro, Kristen; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glen; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    Following our study on the incidence, morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in early-type galaxies, we now address the question of what is powering the observed nebular emission. To constrain the likely sources of gas excitation, we resort to a variety of ancillary data we draw from

  1. The SAURON project - XVI. On the sources of ionization for the gas in elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Shields, Joseph C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Shapiro, Kristen; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glen; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    Following our study on the incidence, morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in early-type galaxies, we now address the question of what is powering the observed nebular emission. To constrain the likely sources of gas excitation, we resort to a variety of ancillary data we draw from

  2. NGC 1277: A MASSIVE COMPACT RELIC GALAXY IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Balcells, Marc [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia, E-mail: trujillo@iac.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-10

    As early as 10 Gyr ago, galaxies with more than 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} of stars already existed. While most of these massive galaxies must have subsequently transformed through on-going star formation and mergers with other galaxies, a small fraction (≲0.1%) may have survived untouched until today. Searches for such relic galaxies, useful windows to explore the early universe, have been inconclusive to date: galaxies with masses and sizes like those observed at high redshift (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}; R{sub e} ≲ 1.5 kpc) have been found in the local universe, but their stars are far too young for the galaxy to be a relic galaxy. This paper explores the first case of a nearby galaxy, NGC 1277 (at a distance of 73 Mpc in the Perseus galaxy cluster), which fulfills many criteria to be considered a relic galaxy. Using deep optical spectroscopy, we derive the star formation history along the structure of the galaxy: the stellar populations are uniformly old (>10 Gyr) with no evidence for more recent star formation episodes. The metallicity of their stars is super-solar ([Fe/H] = 0.20 ± 0.04 with a smooth decline toward the outer regions) and α-enriched ([α/Fe] = 0.4 ± 0.1). This suggests a very short formation time scale for the bulk of the stars in this galaxy. This object also rotates very fast (V {sub rot} ∼ 300 km s{sup –1}) and has a large central velocity dispersion (σ > 300 km s{sup –1}). NGC 1277 allows the exploration in full detail of properties such as the structure, internal dynamics, metallicity, and initial mass function as they were at ∼10-12 Gyr ago when the first massive galaxies were built.

  3. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G

    2016-01-14

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

  4. A single population of red globular clusters around the massive compact galaxy NGC 1277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Leaman, Ryan; Montes, Mireia

    2018-03-01

    Massive galaxies are thought to form in two phases: an initial collapse of gas and giant burst of central star formation, followed by the later accretion of material that builds up their stellar and dark-matter haloes. The systems of globular clusters within such galaxies are believed to form in a similar manner. The initial central burst forms metal-rich (spectrally red) clusters, whereas more metal-poor (spectrally blue) clusters are brought in by the later accretion of less-massive satellites. This formation process is thought to result in the multimodal optical colour distributions that are seen in the globular cluster systems of massive galaxies. Here we report optical observations of the massive relic-galaxy candidate NGC 1277—a nearby, un-evolved example of a high-redshift ‘red nugget’ galaxy. We find that the optical colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 is unimodal and entirely red. This finding is in strong contrast to other galaxies of similar and larger stellar mass, the cluster systems of which always exhibit (and are generally dominated by) blue clusters. We argue that the colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 indicates that the galaxy has undergone little (if any) mass accretion after its initial collapse, and use simulations of possible merger histories to show that the stellar mass due to accretion is probably at most ten per cent of the total stellar mass of the galaxy. These results confirm that NGC 1277 is a genuine relic galaxy and demonstrate that blue clusters constitute an accreted population in present-day massive galaxies.

  5. HYDRODYNAMICS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY COLLISIONS: FROM GAS-RICH DISKS TO DISPERSION-DOMINATED MERGERS AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournaud, Frederic; Chapon, Damien; Teyssier, Romain; Powell, Leila C.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoit; Shapiro, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Disk galaxies at high redshift (z ∼ 2) are characterized by high fractions of cold gas, strong turbulence, and giant star-forming clumps. Major mergers of disk galaxies at high redshift should then generally involve such turbulent clumpy disks. Merger simulations, however, model the interstellar medium as a stable, homogeneous, and thermally pressurized medium. We present the first merger simulations with high fractions of cold, turbulent, and clumpy gas. We discuss the major new features of these models compared to models where the gas is artificially stabilized and warmed. Gas turbulence, which is already strong in high-redshift disks, is further enhanced in mergers. Some phases are dispersion dominated, with most of the gas kinetic energy in the form of velocity dispersion and very chaotic velocity fields, unlike merger models using a thermally stabilized gas. These mergers can reach very high star formation rates, and have multi-component gas spectra consistent with SubMillimeter Galaxies. Major mergers with high fractions of cold turbulent gas are also characterized by highly dissipative gas collapse to the center of mass, with the stellar component following in a global contraction. The final galaxies are early type with relatively small radii and high Sersic indices, like high-redshift compact spheroids. The mass fraction in a disk component that survives or re-forms after a merger is severely reduced compared to models with stabilized gas, and the formation of a massive disk component would require significant accretion of external baryons afterwards. Mergers thus appear to destroy extended disks even when the gas fraction is high, and this lends further support to smooth infall as the main formation mechanism for massive disk galaxies.

  6. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yuri N.; Moiseev, Alexei V.

    2016-01-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended HI halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (~300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the H-alpha emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster ...

  7. Morphological and photometric studies of galaxies by electronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youll, D.P.

    1978-10-01

    Astronomical sources of low surface brightness, or sources with high luminosity gradients can be difficult to observe with photographic techniques. However, developments in electronographic techniques over recent years have made them suitable for precise observations of such objects. The use of these techniques for morphological and photometric studies of galaxies is discussed. Where appropriate, improvements in the methods for recovering information from electronographs, and analysing the data with computers are suggested. These techniques were used to study eight galaxy systems which have compact parts where the luminosity gradients are relatively high. Morphological studies of these systems are presented, together with measurements of some of their photometric parameters. The galaxy NGC 4881 was also studied so that the photometric calibration could be checked against previous studies, and so that the parameters of compact galaxies could be compared against this elliptical galaxy. (author)

  8. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  9. Intrinsic shapes of discy and boxy ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    Statistical tests for intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies have given so far inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. These failures have been often charged to the fact that classical tests consider only the two axisymmetric shapes (oblate versus prolate), while ellipticals are truly triaxial bodies. On the other hand, recent analyses indicate that the class of elliptical galaxies could be a mixture of (at least) two families having different morphology and dynamical behaviour: (i) a family of fast-rotating, disc-like ellipticals (discy); (ii) a family of slow-rotating, box-shaped ellipticals (boxy). In this paper we review the tests for instrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies using data of better quality (CCD) with respect to previous applications. (author)

  10. A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Sune; Zabl, Johannes; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano; Prescott, Moire; Grillo, Claudio; Man, Allison W S; Lee, Nicholas Y; Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Stockmann, Mikkel; Magdis, Georgios; Steinhardt, Charles L

    2017-06-21

    At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies. Here we report an analysis of the stellar populations and kinematics of a lensed z = 2.1478 compact galaxy, which-surprisingly-turns out to be a fast-spinning, rotationally supported disk galaxy. Its stars must have formed in a disk, rather than in a merger-driven nuclear starburst. The galaxy was probably fed by streams of cold gas, which were able to penetrate the hot halo gas until they were cut off by shock heating from the dark matter halo. This result confirms previous indirect indications that the first galaxies to cease star formation must have gone through major changes not just in their structure, but also in their kinematics, to evolve into present-day elliptical galaxies.

  11. SEARCH FOR BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES DURING QUIESCENCE. II. METALLICITIES OF GAS AND STARS, AGES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Munoz-Tunon, C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the metallicity and age of a large set of Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Data Release 6 galaxies that may be blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies during quiescence (QBCDs). The individual spectra are first classified and then averaged to reduce noise. The metallicity inferred from emission lines (tracing ionized gas) exceeds by ∼0.35 dex the metallicity inferred from absorption lines (tracing stars). Such a small difference is significant according to our error budget estimate. The same procedure was applied to a reference sample of BCDs, and in this case the two metallicities agree, being also consistent with the stellar metallicity in QBCDs. Chemical evolution models indicate that the gas metallicity of QBCDs is too high to be representative of the galaxy as a whole, but it can represent a small fraction of the galactic gas, self-enriched by previous starbursts. The luminosity-weighted stellar age of QBCDs spans the whole range between 1 and 10 Gyr, whereas it is always smaller than 1 Gyr for BCDs. Our stellar ages and metallicities rely on a single stellar population spectrum fitting procedure, which we have specifically developed for this work using the stellar library MILES.

  12. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McDonald, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37-582C, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: jingzhema@ufl.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1}) and SFR surface density Σ{sub SFR} (∼2000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉} originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ{sub SFR} of any known galaxy. This high Σ{sub SFR}, which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  13. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brandt, W. N.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Hezaveh, Y.; Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Malkan, M.; McDonald, M.; Murphy, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M ☉ yr −1 ) and SFR surface density Σ SFR (∼2000 M ☉ yr −1 kpc −2 ) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10 13 L ☉ originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ SFR of any known galaxy. This high Σ SFR , which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  14. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  15. COMPACT STARBURSTS IN z similar to 3-6 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES REVEALED BY ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar

  16. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izotov, Y.I.; Orlitová, Ivana; Schaerer, D.; Thuan, T.X.; Verhamme, A.; Guseva, N.G.; Worseck, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 529, č. 7585 (2016), s. 178-180 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20666P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : digital sky survey * emission-line galaxies * small-magellanic- cloud Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  17. Spectroscopy of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Distant Clusters. I. Spectroscopic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Hon, Kimo

    2011-11-01

    We used the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II Telescope to obtain spectra of galaxies in the fields of five distant, rich galaxy clusters over the redshift range 0.5 reported in the literature, except for 11 targets which we believe were previously in error. Within our sample, we confirm the presence of 53 LCBGs in the five galaxy clusters. The clusters all stand out as distinct peaks in the redshift distribution of LCBGs with the average number density of LCBGs ranging from 1.65 ± 0.25 Mpc-3 at z = 0.55 to 3.13 ± 0.65 Mpc-3 at z = 0.8. The number density of LCBGs in clusters exceeds the field density by a factor of 749 ± 116 at z = 0.55; at z = 0.8, the corresponding ratio is E = 416 ± 95. At z = 0.55, this enhancement is well above that seen for blue galaxies or the overall cluster population, indicating that LCBGs are preferentially triggered in high-density environments at intermediate redshifts. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. The Nature of Accreting Black Holes in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1999-05-01

    We have found compact X-ray sources in the center of 21 (54%) of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 - 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are ~ 10(37) -10(40) erg s(-1) (with a mean of 3 x 10(39) erg s(-1) ). The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray source and the optical photometric center of the galaxy is ~ 390 pc. The fact that compact nuclear sources were found in nearly all (five of six) galaxies with previous evidence for a black hole or an AGN indicates that at least some of the X-ray sources are accreting supermassive black holes. ASCA spectra of six of the 21 galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep (Gamma ~ 2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody model fits the data from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray object in these galaxies may be similar to a Black Hole Candidate in its soft (high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot (kT ~ 0.7 keV) gas dominates the emission. The fact that (for both spiral and elliptical galaxies) the spectral slope is steeper than in normal type 1 AGNs and that relatively low absorbing columns (N_H ~ 10(21) cm(-2) ) were found to the power-law component indicates that these objects are somehow geometrically and/or physically different from AGNs in normal active galaxies. The X-ray sources in the spiral and elliptical galaxies may be black hole X-ray binaries, low-luminosity AGNs, or possibly young X-ray luminous supernovae. Assuming the sources in the spiral galaxies are accreting black holes in their soft state, we estimate black hole masses ~ 10(2) -10(4) M_sun.

  19. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s –1 , median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s –1 . We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ∼1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of ∼10 5 -10 6 M ☉ , H I diameters of ∼2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of ∼10 7 -10 8 M ☉ , similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  20. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  1. Upper Limits on the Presence of Central Massive Black Holes in Two Ultra-compact Dwarf Galaxies in Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggel, Karina T.; Seth, Anil C.; Neumayer, Nadine; Mieske, Steffen; Chilingarian, Igor; Ahn, Christopher; Baumgardt, Holger; Hilker, Michael; Nguyen, Dieu D.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay

    2018-05-01

    The recent discovery of massive black holes (BHs) in the centers of high-mass ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) suggests that at least some are the stripped nuclear star clusters of dwarf galaxies. We present the first study that investigates whether such massive BHs, and therefore stripped nuclei, also exist in low-mass (M < 107 M ⊙) UCDs. We constrain the BH masses of two UCDs located in Centaurus A (UCD 320 and UCD 330) using Jeans modeling of the resolved stellar kinematics from adaptive optics data obtained with the SINFONI integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT/SINFONI). No massive BHs are found in either UCD. We find a 3σ upper limit on the central BH mass in UCD 330 of M • < 1.0 × 105 M ⊙, which corresponds to 1.7% of the total mass. This excludes a high-mass fraction BH and would only allow low-mass BHs similar to those claimed to be detected in Local Group globular clusters. For UCD 320, poorer data quality results in a less constraining 3σ upper limit of M • < 1 × 106 M ⊙, which is equal to 37.7% of the total mass. The dynamical mass-to-light ratios of UCD 320 and UCD 330 are not inflated compared to predictions from stellar population models. The non-detection of BHs in these low-mass UCDs is consistent with the idea that elevated dynamical mass-to-light ratios do indicate the presence of a substantial BH. Although no massive BHs are detected, these systems could still be stripped nuclei. The strong rotation (v/σ of 0.3–0.4) in both UCDs and the two-component light profile in UCD 330 support the idea that these UCDs may be stripped nuclei of low-mass galaxies whose BH occupation fraction is not yet known.

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND MORPHOLOGY OF A NEWLY IDENTIFIED COMPACT z = 4.04 LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY IN ABELL 2218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Petitpas, Glen; Egami, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    We present the identification of a bright submillimeter (submm) source, SMM J163555.5+661300, detected in the lensing cluster Abell 2218, for which we have accurately determined the position using observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The identified optical counterpart has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.044 ± 0.001 if we attribute the single emission line detected at λ = 6140 A to Lyα. This redshift identification is in good agreement with the optical/near-infrared photometric redshift as well as the submm flux ratio S 450 /S 850 ∼ 1.6, the radio-submm flux ratio S 1.4 /S 850 24 /S 850 12 L sun , which implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 230 M sun yr -1 . This makes it the lowest-luminosity submillimeter galaxy (SMG) known at z>4 to date. Previous CO(4-3) emission line observations yielded a non-detection, for which we derived an upper limit of the CO line luminosity of L CO ' = 0.3x10 10 K km s -1 pc -2 , which is not inconsistent with the L ' CO -L FIR relation for starburst galaxies. The best-fit model to the optical and near-infrared photometry give a stellar population with an age of 1.4 Gyr and a stellar mass of 1.6 x 10 10 M sun . The optical morphology is compact and in the source plane the galaxy has an extent of ∼6 x 3 kpc with individual star-forming knots of sun yr -1 kpc 2 . The redshift of J163556 extends the redshift distribution of faint, lensed SMGs, and we find no evidence that these have a different redshift distribution than bright SMGs.

  3. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  4. The Taxonomy of Blue Amorphous Galaxies. I. Hα and UBVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Schommer, Robert

    1997-10-01

    Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. We have embarked on a systematic study of 12 nearby dwarf galaxies (most of which have been classified as amorphous) selected preferentially by their blue colors. The properties of the galaxies in the sample suggest that they are in a burst or postburst state. It seems likely that these amorphous galaxies are closely related to other ``starburst'' dwarfs such as blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and H II galaxies but are considerably closer and therefore easier to study. If so, these galaxies may offer important insights into dwarf galaxy evolution. In an effort to clarify the role of starbursts in evolutionary scenarios for dwarf galaxies, we present Hα and UBVI data for our sample. Blue amorphous galaxies, like BCDs and H II galaxies, have surface brightness profiles that are exponential in the outer regions (r >~ 1.5re) but have a predominantly blue central excess, which suggests a young burst in an older, redder galaxy. Seven of the galaxies have the bubble or filamentary Hα morphology and double-peaked emission lines that are the signature of superbubbles or superwind activity. These galaxies are typically the ones with the strongest central excesses. The underlying exponential galaxies are very similar to those found in BCDs and H II galaxies. How amorphous galaxies fit into the dwarf irregular-``starburst dwarf''-dwarf elliptical evolutionary debate is less clear. In this paper, we present our data and make some preliminary comparisons between amorphous galaxies and other classes of dwarf galaxies. In a future companion paper, we will compare this sample more quantitatively with other dwarf galaxy samples in an effort to determine if amorphous galaxies are a physically different class of object from other starburst dwarfs such as BCDs and H II galaxies and also investigate their place in dwarf galaxy evolution scenarios.

  5. H I IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERTHIN GALAXIES. II. IC 2233 AND THE BLUE COMPACT DWARF NGC 2537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Uson, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and Hα imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate (∼ sun yr -1 ), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to ∼ 2.4d 10 kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of ∼7d 10 kpc and an amplitude of ∼150d 10 pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to ∼3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D 25 ). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as σ V.HI ∼25 km s -1 near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC

  6. A MINUET OF GALAXIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This troupe of four galaxies, known as Hickson Compact Group 87 (HCG 87), is performing an intricate dance orchestrated by the mutual gravitational forces acting between them. The dance is a slow, graceful minuet, occurring over a time span of hundreds of millions of years. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provides a striking improvement in resolution over previous ground-based imaging. In particular, this image reveals complex details in the dust lanes of the group's largest galaxy member (HCG 87a), which is actually disk-shaped, but tilted so that we see it nearly edge-on. Both 87a and its elliptically shaped nearest neighbor (87b) have active galactic nuclei which are believed to harbor black holes that are consuming gas. A third group member, the nearby spiral galaxy 87c, may be undergoing a burst of active star formation. Gas flows within galaxies can be intensified by the gravitational tidal forces between interacting galaxies. So interactions can provide fresh fuel for both active nuclei and starburst phenomena. These three galaxies are so close to each other that gravitational forces disrupt their structure and alter their evolution. From the analysis of its spectra, the small spiral near the center of the group could either be a fourth member or perhaps an unrelated background object. The HST image was made by combining images taken in four different color filters in order to create a three-color picture. Regions of active star formation are blue (hot stars) and also pinkish if hot hydrogen gas is present. The complex dark bands across the large edge-on disk galaxy are due to interstellar dust silhouetted against the galaxy's background starlight. A faint tidal bridge of stars can be seen between the edge-on and elliptical galaxies. HCG 87 was selected for Hubble imaging by members of the public who visited the Hubble Heritage website (http://heritage.stsci.edu) during the month of May and registered their votes

  7. RAVEN AND THE CENTER OF MAFFEI 1: MULTI-OBJECT ADAPTIVE OPTICS OBSERVATIONS OF THE CENTER OF A NEARBY ELLIPTICAL GALAXY AND THE DETECTION OF AN INTERMEDIATE AGE POPULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, T. J.; Andersen, D. R. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lardière, O.; Bradley, C.; Blain, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P2 (Canada); Oya, S. [Subaru Telescope, National Optical Observatory of Japan Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Akiyama, M.; Ono, Y. H., E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca, E-mail: david.andersen@nrc.ca, E-mail: lardiere@uvic.ca, E-mail: cbr@uvic.ca, E-mail: celia.blain@gmail.com, E-mail: oya@subaru.naoj.org, E-mail: akiyama@astr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: yo-2007@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University 6–3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sedai, 980-8578 Japan (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra that have an angular resolution of ∼0.15 arcsec are used to examine the stellar content of the central regions of the nearby elliptical galaxy Maffei 1. The spectra were recorded at the Subaru Telescope, with wavefront distortions corrected by the RAVEN Multi-object Adaptive Optics science demonstrator. The Ballick–Ramsey C{sub 2} absorption bandhead near 1.76 μm is detected, and models in which ∼10%–20% of the light near 1.8 μm originates from stars of spectral type C5 reproduce the depth of this feature. Archival NIR and mid-infrared images are also used to probe the structural and photometric properties of the galaxy. Comparisons with models suggest that an intermediate age population dominates the spectral energy distribution between 1 and 5 μm near the galaxy center. This is consistent not only with the presence of C stars, but also with the large Hβ index that has been measured previously for Maffei 1. The J − K color is more or less constant within 15 arcsec of the galaxy center, suggesting that the brightest red stars are well-mixed in this area.

  8. THE DENSEST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} but a half-light radius of only ∼24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r{sub h} = 14 pc; n ∼ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r{sub h} = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (∼> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ∼ 70 km s{sup –1}) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L{sub V} = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L{sub V} . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M{sub B} ∼ –18 to –19.

  9. Ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bappu, M.K.V.; Parthasarathy, M.

    1977-01-01

    Application of ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy 10,000 A mm - 1 , is described to study the nuclei of elliptical galaxies, the quasi-stellar objects and for the discovery of faint OB stars, reddened stars and red stars. The instrument used is an f/2 slitless spectrograph with a three degree quartz prism at the Cassegrain focus of the 102-cm Ritchey-Chratien reflector at Kavalur. The spectra cover a field of 40 minutes of arc and the dispersion is 10,000 A mm - 1 . Ultra-low dispersion spectra (microspectra) were obtained for fifteen elliptical and three SO galaxies from the list of Ekers and Ekers (1973) who classified them as compact and extended sources from the observations of radio emission at 6 cms. From an analysis of micro-spectra and from direct photographs with graded exposure times, it is found that all compact radio galaxies in the Ekers list also have optically compact nuclei. Some of these elliptical galaxies with compact nuclei show enhancement of intensity in the blue violet region. From an examination of microspectra of forty-three of the known quasi-stellar objects of different redshifts it is found that the most striking characteristic of the spectra is their flat appearance. This characteristic flatness is also noticed in the microspectrum of the large redshift quasi-stellar objects like OH 471 and OQ 172 which do not have UV excess. Because of this characteristic difference in the appearance of the microspectra of the quasi-stellar objects and stellar objects, it is possible to detect new OSO's with this technique. An application of this technique to detect red stars in our galaxy and in the Large Magellanic cloud is discussed. (author)

  10. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of luminous compact blue galaxies (Crawford+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S. M.; Wirth, G. D.; Bershady, M. A.; Randriamampandry, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    Deep imaging data in UBRIz and two narrow bands were obtained with the Mini-Mosaic camera from the WIYN 3.5 m telescope for all five clusters between 1999 October and 2004 June. We obtained spectroscopic observations for a sample of cluster star-forming galaxies with the DEIMOS, Faber et al. 2003 on the Keck II Telescope during 2005 October and 2007 April. The narrow-band filters were specifically designed to detect [OII] λ3727 at the redshift of each cluster. All of the clusters have been the target of extensive observations with the HST, primarily using either WFPC2 or the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). For all measurements, we have attempted to select data taken in a filter closest to the rest-frame B band. We have employed ACS imaging data whenever possible and substituted WFPC2 images only when required. For clusters observed in the far-infrared regime by the Spitzer Space Telescope, we extracted MIPS 24μm flux densities, S24, from images obtained through the Enhanced Imaging Products archive. (2 data files).

  12. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 Security Suite with a Compact Implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Touhafi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4–12 MHz range. Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7 have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES. Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM.

  13. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite with a compact implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 elliptic curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Antonio; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2013-07-29

    Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4-12 MHz range). Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7) have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM) can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH) and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES). Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM).

  14. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  15. High spatial resolution imaging of some of the distant 3CR galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fevre, O.; Hammer, F.; Jones, J.

    1988-01-01

    Deep, high spatial resolution imaging of several sources from the high-redshift 3CR galaxy sample is presented. Very complex and unexpected morphologies are found. All the galaxies observed so far are resolved, and most of them show multimodal sources. Significant color differences for the components of each galaxy are measured. An interpretation in terms of gravitational amplification/lensing by foreground galaxies or galactic clusters is proposed for 3C 238, 3C 241, and 3C 305.1, 3C 238 being the strongest candidate. The complexity of the 3CR galaxies like 3C 356, which includes a compact object, and 3C 326.1 shows that they are not normal ellipticals and their use as standard candles to test for galaxy evolution is therefore questionable. 29 references

  16. Galaxy angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the theories which purport to explain the origin of galaxy angular momentum, this study presents new data for about 1000 individual galaxies in eight rich clusters. The clusters which are studied include Virgo, A 119, A 400, A 1656 (Coma), A 2147, A 2151 (Hercules), A 2197, and A 2199. Selected samples of these data are used to investigate systematic alignment effects in clusters of galaxies and to investigate the intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies. The following new results are reported: Galaxies in the cluster A 2197 show a significant alignment effect (chi 2 probability less than 0.0002), and the preferential direction of alignment corresponds approximately to the major axis of the overall cluster elongation. None of the other seven clusters show any significant alignment trends. The spiral galaxy samples in four clusters (Virgo, A 1656, A 2151, and A 2197) were large enough to analyze the number distributions of forward and reverse winding spirals. Large and small spiral galaxies have identical ellipticity distributions. Large E and SO galaxies tend to be more spherical, and small E and SO galaxies more flattened. The intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies are the same for galaxies in the ''field'' and for galaxies in rich clusters. Six models of galaxy formation are reviewed, and the major []mphasis is placed on how each model explains the origin of galaxy angular momentum. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  17. Metal enrichment of the neutral gas of blue compact dwarf galaxies: the compelling case of Pox 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Kunth, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Désert, J. M.

    2009-02-01

    Context: Evidence has grown over the past few years that the neutral phase of blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies may be metal-deficient as compared to the ionized gas of their H ii regions. These results have strong implications for our understanding of the chemical evolution of galaxies, and it is essential to strengthen the method, as well as to find possible explanations. Aims: We present the analysis of the interstellar spectrum of Pox 36 with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Pox 36 was selected because of the relatively low foreground gas content that makes it possible to detect absorption-lines weak enough that unseen components should not be saturated. Methods: Interstellar lines of H i, N i, O i, Si ii, P ii, Ar i, and Fe ii are detected. Column densities are derived directly from the observed line profiles except for H i, whose lines are contaminated by stellar absorption, thus needing the stellar continuum to be removed. We used the TLUSTY models to remove the stellar continuum and isolate the interstellar component. The best fit indicates that the dominant stellar population is B0. The observed far-UV flux agrees with an equivalent number of ~300 B0 stars. The fit of the interstellar H i line gives a column density of 1020.3±0.4 cm-2. Chemical abundances were then computed from the column densities using the dominant ionization stage in the neutral gas. Our abundances are compared to those measured from emission-line spectra in the optical, probing the ionized gas of the H ii regions. Results: Our results suggest that the neutral gas of Pox 36 is metal-deficient by a factor ~7 as compared to the ionized gas, and they agree with a metallicity of ≈1/35 Z_⊙. Elemental depletion is not problematic because of the low dust content along the selected lines of sight. In contrast, the ionized gas shows a clear depletion pattern, with iron being strongly depleted. Conclusions: The abundance discontinuity between the neutral and ionized phases

  18. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. IV. KEPLER-32 AS A PROTOTYPE FOR THE FORMATION OF COMPACT PLANETARY SYSTEMS THROUGHOUT THE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Jonathan J.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has opened new vistas in exoplanet discovery space by revealing populations of Earth-sized planets that provide a new context for understanding planet formation. Approximately 70% of all stars in the Galaxy belong to the diminutive M dwarf class, several thousand of which lie within Kepler's field of view, and a large number of these targets show planet transit signals. The Kepler M dwarf sample has a characteristic mass of 0.5 M ☉ representing a stellar population twice as common as Sun-like stars. Kepler-32 is a typical star in this sample that presents us with a rare opportunity: five planets transit this star, giving us an expansive view of its architecture. All five planets of this compact system orbit their host star within a distance one-third the size of Mercury's orbit, with the innermost planet positioned a mere 4.3 stellar radii from the stellar photosphere. New observations limit possible false positive scenarios, allowing us to validate the entire Kepler-32 system making it the richest known system of transiting planets around an M dwarf. Based on considerations of the stellar dust sublimation radius, a minimum mass protoplanetary nebula, and the near period commensurability of three adjacent planets, we propose that the Kepler-32 planets formed at larger orbital radii and migrated inward to their present locations. The volatile content inferred for the Kepler-32 planets and order of magnitude estimates for the disk migration rates suggest that these planets may have formed beyond the snow line and migrated in the presence of a gaseous disk. If true, then this would place an upper limit on their formation time of ∼10 Myr. The Kepler-32 planets are representative of the full ensemble of planet candidates orbiting the Kepler M dwarfs for which we calculate an occurrence rate of 1.0 ± 0.1 planet per star. The formation of the Kepler-32 planets therefore offers a plausible blueprint for the formation of one of the largest

  19. Some Like it Hot: Linking Diffuse X-Ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mulchaey, John S.; Walker, Lisa May; Brandt, Willian N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L(x-T) and (L(x-sigma), even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and Hi masses are great than or equal to 10(sup (11.3) solar mass are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 micron star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due togas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  20. The Taxonomy of Blue Amorphous Galaxies. II. Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, and starbursts are believed to affect the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies strongly. We have therefore embarked on a systematic study of 12 of the nearest dwarf galaxies thought to be undergoing bursts of star formation. These were selected primarily by their morphological type (blue ``amorphous'' galaxies). We show that these blue amorphous galaxies are not physically distinguishable from dwarfs selected as starbursting by other methods, such as blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and H II galaxies. All these classes exhibit surface brightness profiles that are exponential in the outer regions (r>~1.5re) but often have a predominantly central blue excess, suggesting a young burst in an older, redder galaxy. Typically, the starbursting ``cores'' are young (~107-108 yr) events compared to the older (~109-1010 yr) underlying galaxy (the ``envelope''). The ratio of the core to envelope in blue light ranges from essentially zero to about 2. These starbursts are therefore modest events involving only a few percent of the stellar mass. The envelopes have surface brightnesses that are much higher than typical dwarf irregular (dI) galaxies, so it is unlikely that there is a straightforward evolutionary relation between typical dIs and dwarf starburst galaxies. Instead we suggest that amorphous galaxies may repeatedly cycle through starburst and quiescent phases, corresponding to the galaxies with strong and weak/absent cores, respectively. Once amorphous galaxies use up the available gas (either through star formation or galactic winds) so that star formation is shut off, the faded remnants would strongly resemble dwarf elliptical galaxies. However, in the current cosmological epoch, this is evidently a slow process that is the aftermath of a series of many weak, recurring bursts. Present-day dE's must have experienced more rapid and intense evolution than this in the distant past.

  1. Recent star formation in interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, R.D.; Wright, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The subset of galaxy-galaxy interactions which have resulted in a merger are, as a class, ultraluminous IR galaxies. Their IR luminosities span a narrow range which overlaps with the most luminous Seyfert galaxies. However, in contrast with Seyfert galaxies, the available optical, IR, and radio properties of mergers show no evidence for a compact non-thermal central source, and are easily understood in terms of a burst of star formation of extraordinary intensity and spatial extent; they are 'super starbursts'. We argue that super starbursts occur in the evolution of most mergers, and discuss the implications of super starbursts for the suggestion that mergers evolve into elliptical galaxies. Finally, we note that merger-induced shocks are likely to leave the gas from both galaxies in dense molecular form which will rapidly cool, collapse, and fragment. Thus a merger might in fact be expected to result in a burst of star formation of exceptional intensity and spatial extent, i.e. a super starburst. (author)

  2. Elliptic genus of singular algebraic varieties and quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the basic properties of various versions of the two-variable elliptic genus with special attention to the equivariant elliptic genus. The main applications are to the elliptic genera attached to non-compact GITs, including the theories regarding the elliptic genera of phases on N  =  2 introduced in Witten (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 403 159-222).

  3. First detection in gamma-rays of a young radio galaxy: Fermi -LAT observations of the compact symmetric object PKS 1718−649

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, G.; Loh, A.; Corbel, S. [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/IRFU—CNRS/INSU—Université Paris Diderot), CEA DSM/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Siemiginowska, A.; Sobolewska, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ostorero, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Stawarz, Ł., E-mail: giulia.migliori@cea.fr [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-04-20

    We report the γ -ray detection of a young radio galaxy, PKS 1718−649, belonging to the class of compact symmetric objects (CSOs), with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The third Fermi Gamma-ray LAT catalog (3FGL) includes an unassociated γ -ray source, 3FGL J1728.0−6446, located close to PKS 1718−649. Using the latest Pass 8 calibration, we confirm that the best-fit 1 σ position of the γ -ray source is compatible with the radio location of PKS 1718−649. Cross-matching of the γ -ray source position with the positions of blazar sources from several catalogs yields negative results. Thus, we conclude that PKS 1718−649 is the most likely counterpart to the unassociated LAT source. We obtain a detection test statistics TS ∼ 36 (>5 σ ) with a best-fit photon spectral index Γ = 2.9 ± 0.3 and a 0.1–100 GeV photon flux density F {sub 0.1−100} {sub GeV} = (11.5 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −9} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. We argue that the linear size (∼2 pc), the kinematic age (∼100 years), and the source distance ( z = 0.014) make PKS 1718−649 an ideal candidate for γ -ray detection in the framework of the model proposing that the most compact and the youngest CSOs can efficiently produce GeV radiation via inverse-Compton scattering of the ambient photon fields by the radio lobe non-thermal electrons. Thus, our detection of the source in γ -rays establishes young radio galaxies as a distinct class of extragalactic high-energy emitters and yields a unique insight on the physical conditions in compact radio lobes interacting with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  4. Multicolor surface photometry of 17 ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.; Heckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    Multicolor two-dimensional surface photometry was used to obtain radial profiles for surface brightness, color, ellipticity, position angle, and the residuals from the fitted ellipses described by the cos(n phi) and sin(n phi) terms (where n = 3 and 4) for 17 elliptical galaxies. It is found that at radii as large as five times the seeing FWHM, seeing can affect the ellipticity at the 10 percent level and introduce uncertainty in the position angles of several degrees, particularly for very round ellipticals. The present profiles are found to agree well with previous data, with rms differences of 0.02 in ellipticity and 2 deg in position angle. The observed color gradients are consistent with a decrease in the metallicity by a factor of about 2 per decade in radius. 61 refs

  5. J1154+2443: a low-redshift compact star-forming galaxy with a 46 per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Schaerer, D.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N. G.; Thuan, T. X.; Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, I.; Fricke, K. J.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of the Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of the compact star-forming galaxy (SFG) J1154+2443 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This galaxy, at a redshift of z = 0.3690, is characterized by a high emission-line flux ratio O32 = [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 = 11.5. The escape fraction of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in this galaxy is 46 per cent, the highest value found so far in low-redshift SFGs and one of the highest values found in galaxies at any redshift. The narrow double-peaked Ly α emission line is detected in the spectrum of J1154+2443 with a separation between the peaks Vsep of 199 km s-1, one of the lowest known for Ly α-emitting galaxies, implying a high fesc(Ly α). Comparing the extinction-corrected Ly α/H β flux ratio with the case B value, we find fesc(Ly α) = 98 per cent. Our observations, combined with previous detections in the literature, reveal an increase of O32 with increasing fesc(LyC). We also find a tight anticorrelation between fesc(LyC) and Vsep. The surface brightness profile derived from the COS acquisition image reveals a bright star-forming region in the centre and an exponential disc in the outskirts with a disc scale length α = 1.09 kpc. J1154+2443, compared to other known low-redshift LyC leakers, is characterized by the lowest metallicity, 12+log O/H = 7.65 ± 0.01, the lowest stellar mass M⋆ = 108.20 M⊙, a similar star formation rate SFR = 18.9 M⊙ yr-1, and a high specific SFR of 1.2 × 10-7 yr-1.

  6. SUPERDENSE GALAXIES AND THE MASS-SIZE RELATION AT LOW REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Calvi, R.; Fasano, G.; Vulcani, B.; Bettoni, D.; Gullieuszik, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Bindoni, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; Moretti, A.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.; De Lucia, G.

    2013-01-01

    We search for massive and compact galaxies (superdense galaxies, hereafter SDGs) at z = 0.03-0.11 in the Padova-Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue, a spectroscopically complete sample representative of the general field population of the local universe. We find that compact galaxies with radii and mass densities comparable to high-z massive and passive galaxies represent 4.4% of all galaxies with stellar masses above 3 × 10 10 M ☉ , yielding a number density of 4.3 × 10 –4 h 3 Mpc –3 . Most of them are S0s (70%) or ellipticals (23%), are red, and have intermediate-to-old stellar populations, with a median luminosity-weighted age of 5.4 Gyr and a median mass-weighted age of 9.2 Gyr. Their velocity dispersions and dynamical masses are consistent with the small radii and high stellar mass estimates. Comparing with the WINGS sample of cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, the fraction of SDGs is three times smaller in the field than in clusters, and cluster SDGs are on average 4 Gyr older than field SDGs. We confirm the existence of a universal trend of smaller radii for older luminosity-weighted ages at fixed galaxy mass. As a consequence, the median mass-size relation shifts toward smaller radii for galaxies with older stars, but the effect is much more pronounced in clusters than in the field. Our results show that, on top of the well-known dependence of stellar age on galaxy mass, the luminosity-weighted age of galaxies depends on galaxy compactness at fixed mass and, for a fixed mass and radius, on environment. This effect needs to be taken into account in order not to overestimate the evolution of galaxy sizes from high to low z. Our results and hierarchical simulations suggest that a significant fraction of the massive compact galaxies at high z have evolved into compact galaxies in galaxy clusters today. When stellar age and environmental effects are taken into account, the average amount of size evolution of individual galaxies between high and low

  7. Stripped Elliptical Galaxies as Probes of ICM Physics. III. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 4552: Measuring the Viscosity of the Intracluster Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, R. P.; Roediger, E.; Machacek, M.; Forman, W. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; Randall, S.; Su, Y. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching D-85741 (Germany); Sheardown, A., E-mail: rkraft@cfa.harvard.edu [E. A. Milne Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    We present results from a deep (200 ks) Chandra observation of the early-type galaxy NGC 4552 (M89), which is falling into the Virgo cluster. Previous shallower X-ray observations of this galaxy showed a remnant gas core, a tail to the South of the galaxy, and twin “horns” attached to the northern edge of the gas core. In our deeper data, we detect a diffuse, low surface brightness extension to the previously known tail, and measure the temperature structure within the tail. We combine the deep Chandra data with archival XMM-Newton observations to put a strong upper limit on the diffuse emission of the tail out to a large distance (10× the radius of the remnant core) from the galaxy center. In our two previous papers, we presented the results of hydrodynamical simulations of ram pressure stripping specifically for M89 falling into the Virgo cluster and investigated the effect of intracluster medium (ICM) viscosity. In this paper, we compare our deep data with our specifically tailored simulations and conclude that the observed morphology of the stripped tail in NGC 4552 is most similar to the inviscid models. We conclude that, to the extent the transport processes can be simply modeled as a hydrodynamic viscosity, the ICM viscosity is negligible. More generally, any micro-scale description of the transport processes in the high- β plasma of the cluster ICM must be consistent with the efficient mixing observed in the stripped tail on macroscopic scales.

  8. Looking for Galaxies in All the Right Places: A Search for Stellar Populations in ALFALFA’s Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxies are excellent laboratories for investigating the baryonic feedback processes that govern star formation and galaxy evolution in galaxies at the extreme end of the mass function. Detecting and studying such objects may help resolve the well-known tension between cosmological model predictions for low-mass dark matter halos and observations. The ALFALFA neutral hydrogen (Hi) survey has detected a sample of isolated ultra-compact high-velocity Hi clouds (UCHVCs) with kinematic properties that make them likely members of the Local Volume, but that have no optical counterparts in existing optical surveys. This UCHVC sample possesses Hi properties (at 1 Mpc, Hi masses of ~105-106 M⊙, Hi diameters of ~2-3 kpc, and dynamical masses of ~107-108 M⊙) similar to other known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies like Leo T. Following the discovery of Leo P, an extremely metal-poor, gas-rich star-forming dwarf galaxy associated with an ALFALFA UCHVC, we have initiated a campaign to obtain deep optical imaging of 56 UCHVCs using the wide field-of-view, high-resolution ODI camera on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope. Here we present a brief overview of our campaign to search for resolved stellar populations associated with the UCHVCs in our optical images, and initial results from our survey.After creating a stellar catalog from the pipeline-reduced and stacked ODI g- and i-band images, we apply a color-magnitude filter tuned for old, metal-poor stellar populations to select red giant branch stars at distances between 250 kpc and 2 Mpc. The spatial distribution of the stars selected by the filter is then smoothed, and overdensities in the fields are identified. Of the 22 targets analyzed to date, seven have associated stellar populations detected at a high confidence (92% to 99.9% significance). The detected objects have a range of distances (from 350 kpc to 1.6 Mpc) and have optical properties similar to those of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. These objects have

  9. Rebuilding Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    of distant galaxies at various redshifts taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. The central panel displays the star formation rate as a function of time. The numbers coincide with the numbers shown on the images. The story revealed by these observations is in agreement with the so-called "hierarchical merging of galaxies" scenario, present in the literature since about 20 years. According to this model, small galaxies merge to build larger ones. As François Hammer however points out: "In the current scenario, it was usually assumed that galaxy merging almost ceased 8,000 million years ago. Our complete set of observations show that this is far from being the case. In the following 4,000 million years, galaxies still merged to form the large spirals we observe in the local Universe." To account for all these properties, the astronomers thus devised a new galaxy formation scenario, comprising three major phases: a merger event, a compact galaxy phase and a "growth of the disc" phase (see PR Photo 02b/05). Because of the unique aspects of this scenario, where big galaxies get first disrupted by a major collision to be born again later as a present-day spiral galaxy, the astronomers rather logically dubbed their evolutionary sequence, the "spiral galaxy rebuilding". Although being at odds with standard views which assert that galaxy mergers produce elliptical galaxies instead of spiral ones, the astronomers stress that their scenario is consistent with the observed fractions of the different types of galaxies and can account for all the observations. The new scenario can indeed account for the formation of about three quarters of the present-day spiral galaxies, those with massive central bulge. It would apply for example to the Andromeda Galaxy but not to our own Milky way. It seems that our Galaxy somehow escaped major collisions in the last thousands of million years. Further observations, in particular with the FLAMES instrument on the VLT, will show if spiral

  10. Paired and interacting galaxies: Conference summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a summary of the conference proceedings. The conference began with the presentation of the basic data sets on pairs, groups, and interacting galaxies with the latter being further discussed with respect to both global properties and properties of the galactic nuclei. Then followed the theory, modelling and interpretation using analytic techniques, simulations and general modelling for spirals and ellipticals, starbursts and active galactic nuclei. Before the conference the author wrote down the three questions concerning pairs, groups and interacting galaxies that he hoped would be answered at the meeting: (1) How do they form, including the role of initial conditions, the importance of subclustering, the evolution of groups to compact groups, and the fate of compact groups; (2) How do they evolve, including issues such as relevant timescales, the role of halos and the problem of overmerging, the triggering and enhancement of star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei, and the relative importance of dwarf versus giant encounters; and (3) Are they important, including the frequency of pairs and interactions, whether merging and interactions are very important aspects of the life of a normal galaxy at formation, during its evolution, in forming bars, shells, rings, bulges, etc., and in the formation and evolution of active galaxies? Where possible he focuses on these three central issues in the summary

  11. A GMOS-N IFU study of the central H II region in the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 4449: kinematics, nebular metallicity and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimisha; James, Bethan L.; Irwin, Mike J.

    2017-10-01

    We use integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph North (GMOS-N) to study the central H II region in a nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 4449. The IFS data enable us to explore the variation of physical and chemical conditions of the star-forming region and the surrounding gas on spatial scales as small as 5.5 pc. Our kinematical analysis shows possible signatures of shock ionization and shell structures in the surroundings of the star-forming region. The metallicity maps of the region, created using direct Te and indirect strong line methods (R23, O3N2 and N2), do not show any chemical variation. From the integrated spectrum of the central H II region, we find a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.88 ± 0.14 ({˜ }0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.04} Z⊙) using the direct method. Comparing the central H II region metallicity derived here with those of H II regions throughout this galaxy from previous studies, we find evidence of increasing metallicity with distance from the central nucleus. Such chemical inhomogeneities can be due to several mechanisms, including gas loss via supernova blowout, galactic winds or metal-poor gas accretion. However, we find that the localized area of decreased metallicity aligns spatially with the peak of star-forming activity in the galaxy, suggesting that gas accretion may be at play here. Spatially resolved IFS data for the entire galaxy are required to confirm the metallicity inhomogeneity found in this study and determine its possible cause.

  12. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ R . An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ R ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects

  13. The X-ray properties of normal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray observations with the Einstein satellite have shown that normal galaxies of all morphological types are spatially extended sources of X-ray emission with luminosities in the range of L(x) of about 10 to the 39th to 10 to the 41st erg/s. Although this is only a small fraction of the total energy output of a normal galaxy, X-ray observations are uniquely suited to study phenomena that are otherwise elusive. In X-rays one can study directly the end products of stellar evolution (SNRs and compact remnants). X-ray observations have led to the discovery of gaseous outflows linked to starburst nuclear activity in spiral galaxies and to the detection of a hot interstellar medium in early-type galaxies. Through X-ray observations it is possible to set constraints on structural galaxy parameters, such as the mass of elliptical galaxies, and perhaps get new insight on the origin of cosmic rays and the properties of the magnetic fields of spiral galaxies.

  14. Holomorphic bundles over elliptic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture we shall examine holomorphic bundles over compact elliptically fibered manifolds. We shall examine constructions of such bundles as well as (duality) relations between such bundles and other geometric objects, namely K3-surfaces and del Pezzo surfaces. We shall be dealing throughout with holomorphic principal bundles with structure group GC where G is a compact, simple (usually simply connected) Lie group and GC is the associated complex simple algebraic group. Of course, in the special case G = SU(n) and hence GC = SLn(C), we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant. In the other cases of classical groups, G SO(n) or G = Sympl(2n) we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant equipped with a non-degenerate symmetric, or skew symmetric pairing. In addition to these classical cases there are the finite number of exceptional groups. Amazingly enough, motivated by questions in physics, much interest centres around the group E8 and its subgroups. For these applications it does not suffice to consider only the classical groups. Thus, while often first doing the case of SU(n) or more generally of the classical groups, we shall extend our discussions to the general semi-simple group. Also, we shall spend a good deal of time considering elliptically fibered manifolds of the simplest type, namely, elliptic curves

  15. RBF Multiscale Collocation for Second Order Elliptic Boundary Value Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Farrell, Patricio; Wendland, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss multiscale radial basis function collocation methods for solving elliptic partial differential equations on bounded domains. The approximate solution is constructed in a multilevel fashion, each level using compactly

  16. UGC galaxies stronger than 25 mJy at 4.85 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Frayer, D.T.; Broderick, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 to +75 deg were identified by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmed or rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps and new 4.86 GHz VLA maps having 15 or 18 arcsec resolution, resulting in a sample of 347 nearby radio galaxies plus five new quasar-galaxy pairs. The radio energy sources in UGC galaxies were classified as starbursts or monsters on the basis of their infrared-radio flux ratios, infrared spectral indices, and radio morphologies. The rms scatter in the logarithmic infrared-radio ratio q is not more than 0.16 for starburst galaxies selected at 4.85 GHz. Radio spectral indices were obtained for nearly all of the UGC galaxies, and S0 galaxies account for a disproportionate share of the compact flat-spectrum (alpha less than 0.5) radio sources. The extended radio jets and lobes produced by monsters are preferentially, but not exclusively, aligned within about 30 deg of the optical minor axes of their host galaxies. The tendency toward minor-axis ejection appears to be independent of radio-source size and is strongest for elliptical galaxies. 230 refs

  17. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  18. Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649

  19. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  20. ULTRAVIOLET+INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATES: HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS WITH SWIFT AND SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Immler, S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Reines, A. E.; Gronwall, C.; Hoversten, E.; Charlton, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present Swift UVOT ultraviolet (UV; 1600-3000 A) data with complete three-band UV photometry for a sample of 41 galaxies in 11 nearby ( -1 ) Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) of galaxies. We use UVOT uvw2-band (2000 A) photometry to estimate the dust-unobscured component, SFR UV , of the total star formation rate, SFR TOTAL . We use Spitzer MIPS 24 μm photometry to estimate SFR IR , the component of SFR TOTAL that suffers dust extinction in the UV and is re-emitted in the IR. By combining the two components, we obtain SFR TOTAL estimates for all HCG galaxies. We obtain total stellar mass, M * , estimates by means of Two Micron All Sky Survey K s -band luminosities, and use them to calculate specific star formation rates, SSFR ≡ SFR TOTAL /M * . SSFR values show a clear and significant bimodality, with a gap between low (∼ -11 yr -1 ) and high-SSFR (∼>1.2 x 10 -10 yr -1 ) systems. We compare this bimodality to the previously discovered bimodality in α IRAC , the MIR activity index from a power-law fit to the Spitzer IRAC 4.5-8 μm data for these galaxies. We find that all galaxies with α IRAC ≤ 0 ( >0) are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, as expected if high levels of star-forming activity power MIR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and a hot dust continuum. Consistent with this finding, all elliptical/S0 galaxies are in the low-SSFR locus, while 22 out of 24 spirals/irregulars are in the high-SSFR locus, with two borderline cases. We further divide our sample into three subsamples (I, II, and III) according to decreasing H I richness of the parent galaxy group to which a galaxy belongs. Consistent with the SSFR and α IRAC bimodality, 12 out of 15 type I (11 out of 12 type III) galaxies are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, while type II galaxies span almost the full range of SSFR values. We use the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS) to construct a comparison subsample of galaxies that (1) match HCG galaxies in J-band total

  1. Globular clusters and galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1984-01-01

    Using semipartial correlation coefficients and bootstrap techniques, a study is made of the important features of globular clusters with respect to the total number of galaxy clusters and dependence of specific galaxy cluster on parent galaxy type, cluster radii, luminosity functions and cluster ellipticity. It is shown that the ellipticity of LMC clusters correlates significantly with cluster luminosity functions, but not with cluster age. The cluter luminosity value above which globulars are noticeably flattened may differ by a factor of about 100 from galaxy to galaxy. Both in the Galaxy and in M31 globulars with small core radii have a Gaussian distribution over luminosity, whereas clusters with large core radii do not. In the cluster systems surrounding the Galaxy, M31 and NGC 5128 the mean radii of globular clusters was found to increase with the distance from the nucleus. Central galaxies in rich clusters have much higher values for specific globular cluster frequency than do other cluster ellipticals, suggesting that such central galaxies must already have been different from normal ellipticals at the time they were formed

  2. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  3. The present-day galaxy population in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier; Antonelli, LA; Limongi, M; Menci, N; Tornambe, A; Brocato, E; Raimondo, G

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many more stellar population studies of elliptical and lenticular galaxies, studies of spiral galaxies are catching up, due to higher signal to noise data on one hand, and better analysis methods on the other. Here I start by discussing some modern methods of analyzing integrated

  4. Formation and early evolution of galaxies: Constraints on the properties of hot protogalaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, V.G.; Suchkov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the framework of the hot model of galaxy formation, the following results are obtained: (1) to explain the mass and chemical composition of the intergalactic medium, the mass of the stellar component, and the mass of the x-ray coronas of giant elliptical and spiral galaxies (M s ∼ 10 11 Mass Sun ) the protogalaxies must have been heated to temperatures approximately five times greater than the virial temperature; (2) the x-ray luminosities of the coronas of models of spiral galaxies are less than for the analogous models of elliptical galaxies. Moreover, for unit potential of hidden mass the stellar mass of spiral galaxies is an order of magnitude greater; (3) if a hot protogalaxy is initially compact (R ∼ 20 kpc), then the stellar component is formed rapidly, during a time t ∼ 1 x 10 9 yr; but if the protogalaxy is diffuse (R ∼ 100 kpc), then t ∼ (5-7) x 10 9 yr; (4) coronas are not formed in models of heat-conducting protogalaxies; (5) hidden mass cannot be formed by low-mass stars formed in cooling flows - such flows do not arise if hidden mass is not present from the beginning. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Spherical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  6. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  7. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  8. Formation of Triaxial Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hyeon Park

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of N-body simulation of dissipationless cold collapse of spherical gravitating system are presented. We compared the results with properties of elliptical galaxies. The system gradually evolved to triaxial system. The projected density profile is in good agreement with observations. In addition to triaxial instability, it seems that there is another instability.

  9. Visual Infrared Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.; de Zeeuw, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements for visual and visual-infrared colors provide the means to determine both the average temperature of the giant branch and the turnoff-temperature of the main sequence. This allows to model fractional contributions of different populations, including age- and

  10. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  11. Planar elliptic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  12. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A59Appendices are available in

  13. BVRI SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF ISOLATED GALAXY TRIPLETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Aceves, H.; OlguIn, L.

    2011-01-01

    Optical broadband BVRI observations of 54 galaxies selected from the Catalog of Isolated Triplets of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere have been carried out at San Pedro Martir National Observatory to evaluate their photometric and morphological properties. We complement our analysis with Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and look for signatures likely related to interactions/mergers. We report apparent/absolute BVRI magnitudes and colors for the 54 galaxies. The membership of these galaxies is re-evaluated by imposing a reasonable condition of concordant redshifts upon the original selection criteria, rendering a final sample of 34 galaxies in 13 triplets, 12 galaxies in close pairs, and 8 galaxy outliers. The triplets are spiral-dominated systems in different dynamical stages from loosely interacting to almost merged objects. The incidence fraction of features likely associated with interactions is ∼56%, similar to those found in northern and southern compact groups. The average fraction of bars is 35% with a mean value of maximum bar ellipticity ε max ∼ 0.4. Bars are hosted in the late-type triplet spirals, almost twice more than in early-type spirals. The global fraction of rings is 20%, all in the late-type components. The overdensity of triplets with respect to the background and their current dynamical status, as devised from our estimate of their dynamical parameters, namely the harmonic radius R H , velocity dispersion σ, dimensionless crossing time H 0 τ c , and virial mass M V , appear to be sufficient to favor galaxy transformations similar to those seen in dense groups and clusters. By contrast, the lower fraction of bonafide ellipticals and the relatively higher fraction of late-type spirals make these triplets essentially different from the Hickson Compact Groups and more representative of the field. A modest 1.6 enhancement factor in the optical luminosity of the late-type triplet components

  14. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James M., E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  15. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  16. Orientations of galaxies in the Local Supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGillivray, H.T.; Dodd, R.J.; McNally, B.V.; Corwin, H.G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of position angles and ellipticities for a sample of 727 spiral and irregular galaxies, selected on the basis of brightness and radial velocity from the Second Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, is analysed for non-random effects. A marginally significant tendency is found for galaxies to be aligned along the plane of the Local Supercluster. This preferential alignment effect is found to exist mainly for galaxies at high supergalactic latitude and for galaxies which are seen nearly edge-on. The results are interpreted as supporting the view that superclusters formed prior to the formation of the constituent galaxies and clusters. (author)

  17. Elliptic Determinantal Processes and Elliptic Dyson Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    We introduce seven families of stochastic systems of interacting particles in one-dimension corresponding to the seven families of irreducible reduced affine root systems. We prove that they are determinantal in the sense that all spatio-temporal correlation functions are given by determinants controlled by a single function called the spatio-temporal correlation kernel. For the four families {A}_{N-1}, {B}_N, {C}_N and {D}_N, we identify the systems of stochastic differential equations solved by these determinantal processes, which will be regarded as the elliptic extensions of the Dyson model. Here we use the notion of martingales in probability theory and the elliptic determinant evaluations of the Macdonald denominators of irreducible reduced affine root systems given by Rosengren and Schlosser.

  18. On the dynamics of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verner, D.A.; Chernin, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of close noncontact binary galaxies is investigated. It is demonsrated that the tidal interaction is ineffective for circularization of galaxy orbits. Nonsphericity of galaxies develops a torque in a binary system. For a pair of elliptical galaxies this torque leads to swinging of the galaxies with respect to the orbital plane (which can be observed as a rotation about the minor axis) and to the excitation of internal degrees of freedom. Besides, this pendulum effect may be effective for elliptical galaxies in clusters due to the presence of the torque produced by a cluster as a whole. In the case of spiral galaxies the torque leads to the precession of their rotational axes. However this effect seems to be too weak to be observable

  19. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  20. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  1. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  2. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Castelli, Analia V.; Faifer, Favio R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (CCT-La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Nelida M. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, B1900FWA (Argentina); Forte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: asmith@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: ngonzalez@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: favio@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: forte@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-Planetario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Av. Sarmiento y B. Roldan, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-20

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution.

  3. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  4. Imprint of galaxy formation and evolution on globular cluster properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bekki, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the origin of physical properties of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in galaxies in terms of galaxy formation and evolution processes. Based on numerical simulations of dynamical evolution of GCSs in galaxies, we particularly discuss (1) the origin of radial density profiles of GCSs, (2) kinematics of GCSs in elliptical galaxies, (3) transformation from nucleated dwarf galaxies into GCs (e.g., omega Centauri), and (4) the origin of GCSs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).

  5. cD galaxy formation and dissipationless collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, G.; Roos, N.

    1990-01-01

    There is strong new evidence that first-ranked galaxies are aligned with their parent cluster and with the direction of the nearest neighbour cluster (scale 15 h -1 Mpc) and that the average ellipticity of first-ranked ellipticals is a strongly increasing function of radius. The alignment effect is limited to first-ranked galaxies and is stronger for cD and gE galaxies than for first-ranked galaxies of later type. In hierarchical clustering scenarios like the cold dark matter theory, clusters of galaxies are expected to have moderate asphericity. We present numerical results of a study of the dissipationless collapse of moderately aspherical systems. (author)

  6. Halos around ellipticals and the environment dependence of Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.; Quinn, P.J.; Salmon, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is not surprising that the baryonic material inside the more compact halos will tend to form a more compact, luminous elliptical. What needs to be explained is the difference in the value of the spin parameter (lambda). It might be tempting to speculate that more compact, dense halos have systematically smaller values of lambda. Such an effect is predicted by linear calculations. Our simulations show that it may exist but it appears to be too small compared to the random scatter of the values of lambda and rho to be decisive. It is more likely that the baryonic material has initially similar lambda both in the future spirals and elliptical but compact halos damp out the lambda of the dissipative, baryonic material more readily

  7. Surface Brightness Profiles of Composite Images of Compact Galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hathi, N. P; Jansen, R. A; Windhorst, R. A; Cohen, S. H; Keel, W. C; Corbin, M. R; Ryan, Jr, R. E

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) contains a significant number of B-, V-, and iota'-band dropout objects, many of which were recently confirmed to be young star-forming galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6...

  8. Existence of solutions for some superlinear or sublinear elliptic systems on IRN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanheng; Li Shujie.

    1993-10-01

    The existence of solutions for some superlinear or sublinear elliptic systems on R N is demonstrated using a compact embedding lemma which enables the application of standard critical theory for such problems. 7 refs

  9. THE DYNAMICAL STATE OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AND THE FORMATION OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coziol, R.; Andernach, H.; Caretta, C. A.; Alamo-MartInez, K. A.; Tago, E.

    2009-01-01

    A large sample of Abell clusters of galaxies, selected for the likely presence of a dominant galaxy, is used to study the dynamical properties of the brightest cluster members (BCMs). From visual inspection of Digitized Sky Survey images combined with redshift information we identify 1426 candidate BCMs located in 1221 different redshift components associated with 1169 different Abell clusters. This is the largest sample published so far of such galaxies. From our own morphological classification we find that ∼92% of the BCMs in our sample are early-type galaxies and 48% are of cD type. We confirm what was previously observed based on much smaller samples, namely, that a large fraction of BCMs have significant peculiar velocities. From a subsample of 452 clusters having at least 10 measured radial velocities, we estimate a median BCM peculiar velocity of 32% of their host clusters' radial velocity dispersion. This suggests that most BCMs are not at rest in the potential well of their clusters. This phenomenon is common to galaxy clusters in our sample, and not a special trait of clusters hosting cD galaxies. We show that the peculiar velocity of the BCM is independent of cluster richness and only slightly dependent on the Bautz-Morgan type. We also find a weak trend for the peculiar velocity to rise with the cluster velocity dispersion. The strongest dependence is with the morphological type of the BCM: cD galaxies tend to have lower relative peculiar velocities than elliptical galaxies. This result points to a connection between the formation of the BCMs and that of their clusters. Our data are qualitatively consistent with the merging-groups scenario, where BCMs in clusters formed first in smaller subsystems comparable to compact groups of galaxies. In this scenario, clusters would have formed recently from the mergers of many such groups and would still be in a dynamically unrelaxed state.

  10. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, Ronald O.; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hammer, Derek; Carter, David; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  11. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Grimley, P.L.; Disney, M.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  12. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  13. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  14. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  15. Existence of positive solutions to semilinear elliptic problems with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    In mathematical modeling, elliptic partial differential equations are used together with boundary conditions specifying the .... Note that the trace map X ↩→ Lq(∂Ω) is compact for q ∈ [1, 2∗) (see, e.g., [4, ..... [2] Ambrosetti A and Rabinowitz P H, Dual variational methods in critical point theory and applications, J. Functional ...

  16. Further simulations of merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Galaxy collisions and the structure of the resulting merger remnants are studied using a large number of numerical simulations. These experiments extend earlier calculations of mergers between pairs of similar 'galaxies'. The tidal coupling in collisions is found to depend strongly on the rotational properties of the 'galaxies' involved. It is greatly enhanced if their spin vectors are aligned with that of their orbit, and it is suppressed if this alignment is reversed. The structure of a merger product depends only weakly on that of its progenitors. Such remnants are typically axisymmetric oblate systems with radially decreasing velocity dispersions and density profiles which have near power-law form over two decades in radius. This density structure is reasonably well described by de Vaucouleurs' empirical formula for the surface brightness distribution of elliptical galaxies. The flattening of merger remnants may be partly supported by an anisotropic pressure distribution, but the systems studied here nevertheless rotate considerably more rapidly than most observed elliptical galaxies, and a natural preference for nearly head-on collisions must be invoked if all ellipticals are to be identified as merger remnants. Mass and energy losses are found to be very small for mergers between bound or marginally unbound 'galaxies'. Escapers can, however, carry away a significant amount of angular momentum. (author)

  17. THE STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION OF A COMPACT MASSIVE GALAXY AT z = 1.80 USING X-SHOOTER: CONFIRMATION OF THE EVOLUTION IN THE MASS-SIZE AND MASS-DISPERSION RELATIONS ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Bezanson, Rachel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Groot, Paul J.; Kaper, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Recent photometric studies have shown that early-type galaxies at fixed stellar mass were smaller and denser at earlier times. In this Letter, we assess that finding by deriving the dynamical mass of such a compact quiescent galaxy at z = 1.8. We have obtained a high-quality spectrum with full UV-NIR wavelength coverage of galaxy NMBS-C7447 using X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope. We determined a velocity dispersion of 294 ± 51 km s -1 . Given this velocity dispersion and the effective radius of 1.64 ± 0.15 kpc (as determined from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 F160W observations) we derive a dynamical mass of (1.7 ± 0.5) x 10 11 M sun . Comparison of the full spectrum with stellar population synthesis models indicates that NMBS-C774 has a relatively young stellar population (0.40 Gyr) with little or no star formation and a stellar mass of M * ∼ 1.5 x 10 11 M sun . The dynamical and photometric stellar masses are in good agreement. Thus, our study supports the conclusion that the mass densities of quiescent galaxies were indeed higher at earlier times, and this earlier result is not caused by systematic measurement errors. By combining available spectroscopic measurements at different redshifts, we find that the velocity dispersion at fixed dynamical mass was a factor of ∼1.8 higher at z = 1.8 compared with z = 0. Finally, we show that the apparent discrepancies between the few available velocity dispersion measurements at z > 1.5 are consistent with the intrinsic scatter of the mass-size relation.

  18. Major and minor axis kinematics of 22 ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.; Heckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    Rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles have been determined for the major and the minor axes of 22 elliptical galaxies. Rotation was detected in all but one galaxy, even though the sample was biased toward round ellipticals. Minor axis rotation larger than major axis rotation was measured in two galaxies, NGC 4406 and NGC 7507. Roughly 10 percent of ellipticals may show large minor axis velocities relative to those on the major axis. A simple model is used to derive a rotational axis from the observed minor and major axis velocities to a typical accuracy of 6 deg. The rotational and photometric minor axes aligned to better than 10 deg for 60 percent of the sample, implying that the direction of the angular momentum is related to the orientation of the figure of the galaxy. IC 1459 has a kinematically distinct core with its angular momentum opposite to the angular momentum of the outer parts, and NGC 4406 has a core with its angular momentum perpendicular to that of the outer parts. 46 refs

  19. Central Structural Parameters of Early-Type Galaxies as Viewed with Nicmos on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Swara; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2001-08-01

    We present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 33 early-type (E, S0, and S0/a) galaxies observed at 1.6 μm (H band) using the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust absorption has less of an impact on the galaxy morphologies in the near-infrared than found in previous work based on observations at optical wavelengths. When present, dust seems to be most commonly associated with optical line emission. We employ a new technique of two-dimensional fitting to extract quantitative parameters for the bulge light distribution and nuclear point sources, taking into consideration the effects of the point-spread function. By parameterizing the bulge profile with a Nuker law, we confirm that the central surface brightness distributions largely fall into two categories, each of which correlates with the global properties of the galaxies. ``Core'' galaxies tend to be luminous elliptical galaxies with boxy or pure elliptical isophotes, whereas ``power-law'' galaxies are preferentially lower luminosity systems with disky isophotes. The infrared surface brightness profiles are very similar to those in the optical, with notable exceptions being very dusty objects. Similar to the study of Faber et al., based on optical data, we find that galaxy cores obey a set of fundamental plane relations wherein more luminous galaxies with higher central stellar velocity dispersions generally possess larger cores with lower surface brightnesses. Unlike most previous studies, however, we do not find a clear gap in the distribution of inner cusp slopes; several objects have inner cusp slopes (0.3law galaxies. The nature of these intermediate objects is unclear. We draw attention to two objects in the sample that appear to be promising cases of galaxies with isothermal cores that are not the brightest members of a cluster. Unresolved nuclear point sources are found in ~50% of the sample galaxies, roughly independent of profile type, with magnitudes in the range mnucH=12.8 to 17.4 mag

  20. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  1. Gravitational instability, evolution of galaxies and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1979-01-01

    The gravitational collapse is the key to the theories of galaxy and star formation. The observations, showing intrinsic differences between elliptical and spiral galaxies, guide our fundamental conceptions on the formation and evolution of systems in question. Stars in elliptical galaxies and in spherical components of spiral galaxies were formed in a short period of time during early phases of protogalactic collapse, at a time of violent star formation. The disc-like components of spiral galaxies, however, were built gradually in the course of galactic evolution. Star formation in elliptical galaxies is described by the collision model of interstellar clouds, while star formation in discs is characterised by several processes: the expansion of HII regions, the expansion of supernovae remnants and the shock wave related to the presence of the spiral structure. (author)

  2. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  3. The ionizing photon production efficiency of compact z similar to 0.3 Lyman continuum leakers and comparison with high-redshift galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schaerer, D.; Izotov, Y.I.; Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, Ivana; Thuan, T.X.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N.G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 591, July (2016), L8/1-L8/4 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * starburst * high-redshift Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  4. Cosmic rings from colliding galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitton, S

    1976-11-18

    Research on two ring galaxies has led to the proposal of an interaction model to account for the rings. It is envisaged that this class of galaxy is created when a compact galaxy crashes through the disc of a spiral galaxy. The results of a spectroscopic investigation of the galaxy known as the Cartwheel and of another ring galaxy 11 NZ 4 are discussed. The general picture of ring galaxies which emerges from these studies of a massive starry nucleus with a necklace of emitting gas and some spokes and along the spin axis of the wheel a small companion galaxy that is devoid of interstellar gas. An explanation of these properties is considered.

  5. Enriched gas in clusters and the dynamics of galaxies and clusters: implications for theories of galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, J.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in relation to the origin of galaxies are cited: the discovery that the intergalactic medium which seems to pervade rich clusters of galaxies has an iron abundance that lies within an order of magnitude of the solar value; the discovery that elliptical galaxies rotate much more slowly than the models of these galaxies had predicted; and the results of studies of cosmological infall in the context of the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters, which have shown that the resulting density profile is fairly insensitive to initial conditions. After discussing the implications of these recent observations of X-ray clusters and of the rotation of elliptical galaxies, an attempt is made to construct a picture of the formation of elliptical and spiral galaxies in which galaxies form continuously from redshift z approximately 100 onwards. It is suggested that at a redshift z of roughly 5, a fundamental change occurred in the manner in which the cosmic material fragmented into stellar objects. It seems possible that explanations of a variety of puzzling aspects of galactic evolution, including the formation of Population I disks, the origin of the hot intracluster gas, the mass-to-light ratio stratification of galaxies, and the nature of the galaxy luminosity function, should all be sought in the context of this change of regime. Some remarks are made about gas in poor groups of galaxies and the interaction of disk galaxies with their environments. (U.K.)

  6. Motions of galaxies in the neighborhood of the local group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, S.M.; Burstein, D.

    1988-01-01

    Two samples of spiral galaxies, as well as elliptical galaxies, are presently used to investigate the velocity field of galaxies relative to the cosmic microwave background to a distance of 3000 km/sec. The velocity-field models optimized include motions due to a spherically-symmetric Great Attractor, a Virgocentric flow, and a Local Anomally of which the Local Group is a part. While the spiral samples are in good agreement with the Great-Attractor-Virgo model for the motion of elliptical galaxies, new observations indicate that the Great Attractor is not spherically symmetric in its inner regions and may require modification of the model. 27 refs

  7. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  8. Deep Galaxy: Classification of Galaxies based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Nour Eldeen M.; Taha, Mohamed Hamed N.; Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Selim, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a deep convolutional neural network architecture for galaxies classification is presented. The galaxy can be classified based on its features into main three categories Elliptical, Spiral, and Irregular. The proposed deep galaxies architecture consists of 8 layers, one main convolutional layer for features extraction with 96 filters, followed by two principles fully connected layers for classification. It is trained over 1356 images and achieved 97.272% in testing accuracy. A c...

  9. Secular evolution of galaxies and galaxy clusters in decaying dark matter cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Francesc; Nipoti, Carlo; Ettori, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    If the dark matter sector in the Universe is composed by metastable particles, galaxies and galaxy clusters are expected to undergo significant secular evolution from high to low redshift. We show that the decay of dark matter, with a lifetime compatible with cosmological constraints, can be at the origin of the observed evolution of the Tully-Fisher relation of disk galaxies and alleviate the problem of the size evolution of elliptical galaxies, while being consistent with the current observational constraints on the gas fraction of clusters of galaxies.

  10. Groups and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijleveld, W.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, a correlative study is performed with respect to the radio and X-ray parameters of galaxy clusters and groups of galaxies (Msub(v)-Psub(1.4); Msub(v)-Lsub(x); Lsub(x)-Psub(1.4); R-Msub(v) correlations). Special attention is paid to correlations with cD and elliptical galaxies. It is concluded that in rich clusters massive cD galaxies form; massive galaxies are able to bind a large X-ray halo; strong X-ray emitters fuel their central radio sources at a high rate; the total gas content of groups is low, which implies that the contribution of groups to the total matter density in the universe is small. (Auth.)

  11. DISCOVERY OF A PSEUDOBULGE GALAXY LAUNCHING POWERFUL RELATIVISTIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: jarkot@utu.fi [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  12. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  13. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  14. Dark matter halo properties from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimioulle, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The scientific results over the past years have shown that the Universe is by far not only composed of baryonic matter. In fact the major energy content of 72% of the Universe appears to be represented by so-called dark energy, while even from the remaining components only about one fifth is of baryonic origin, whereas 80% have to be attributed to dark matter. Originally appearing in observations of spiral galaxy rotation curves, the need for dark matter has also been verified investigating elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. In fact, it appears that dark matter played a major role during structure formation in the early Universe. Shortly after the Big Bang, when the matter distribution was almost homogeneous, initially very small inhomogeneities in the matter distribution formed the seeds for the gravitational collapse of the matter structures. Numerical n-body simulations, for instance, clearly indicate that the presently observable evolutionary state and complexity of the matter structure in the Universe would not have been possible without dark matter, which significantly accelerated the structure collapse due to its gravitational interaction. As dark matter does not interact electromagnetically and therefore is non-luminous but only interacts gravitationally, the gravitational lens effect provides an excellent opportunity for its detection and estimation of its amount. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that makes use of the random orientation of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticities and thus their uniform distribution. Gravitational tidal forces introduce a coherent distortion of the background object shapes, leading to a deviation from the uniform distribution which depends on the lens galaxy properties and therefore can be used to study them. This thesis describes the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of 89deg 2 of optical data, observed within the CFHTLS-WIDE survey. In the framework of this thesis the data were used in order to create photometric

  15. Dark matter and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model of universe for galaxy formation, that is, an Einstein- de Sitter universe dominated by two-component dark matter: massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. In this hybrid model, the first luminous objects are dwarf galaxies. The neutrino density fluctuations produce large-scale high density and low density regions, which consequently evolve to superclusters of galaxies and voids, respectively. Dwarf galaxies are formed preferentially in supercluster regions. In voids, the formation of dwarf galaxies is fairly suppressed by diffuse UV flux from QSOs, and instead a number of expanding clouds are born, which produce Lyα forest as seen in QSO spectra. Ordinary galaxies are expected to form as aggregations of dwarf galaxies. In this model, some galaxies are born also in voids, and they tend to evolve to spiral galaxies. Additionally, if the same number of globular clusters are formed in a dwarf, the specific globular cluster frequencies are expected to be much larger in ellipticals than in spirals. (author)

  16. Optical and x-ray survey of s-type Markarian galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, D.J.; Mufson, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    We report here the results of a study of 23 compact, lineless Markarian galaxies using broadband optical photometry and x-ray satellite observations. Our photometry shows that the sample can be broken into four groups. In one group (Mrk 180, 421, and 501) are composite objects in which a BL Lacertae object is embedded in an elliptical galaxy. For this group, we present the results of multiepoch x-ray observations using the HEAO-1 and -2 satellites. In addition, we use our photometry to decompose the optical emission into nonthermal and galactic components. In the second group are objects showing a small ultraviolet excess relative to normal galaxies. The x-ray survey indicates that the x-ray luminosity of objects in group 2 is much lower than those in group 1. This suggests that there is an intrinsic difference between objects in groups 1 and 2. The third and fourth groups are objects whose colors are indistinguishable from those of normal field galaxies and those of galactic stars, respectively. No x-ray emission was detected from objects in either of these groups

  17. Stellar populations in distant radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, S.J.; Longair, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    A homogeneous data set of infrared observations of 83 3CR galaxies with redshifts 0< z<1.6, selected from a statistically complete sample of 90 radio sources, is used to study the colours and magnitudes of these galaxies as a function of their redshifts. New infrared observations are presented for 66 radio galaxies, in addition to new optical results obtained from a re-analysis of existing CCD images. It is shown that the infrared colours do not deviate from the predicted relations with redshift for a standard giant elliptical galaxy spectrum. The optical to infrared colours, however, show substantial deviations at high redshift. No galaxies have been found that are significantly redder than a passively evolving galaxy, and there is a significant scatter of colours bluewards from this model. The excess of ultraviolet light responsible for these colours is not concentrated at the nucleus, and is interpreted as resulting from bursts of star formation, throughout the galaxy. (author)

  18. Fast computation of complete elliptic integrals and Jacobian elliptic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2009-12-01

    As a preparation step to compute Jacobian elliptic functions efficiently, we created a fast method to calculate the complete elliptic integral of the first and second kinds, K( m) and E( m), for the standard domain of the elliptic parameter, 0 procedure to compute simultaneously three Jacobian elliptic functions, sn( u| m), cn( u| m), and dn( u| m), by repeated usage of the double argument formulae starting from the Maclaurin series expansions with respect to the elliptic argument, u, after its domain is reduced to the standard range, 0 ≤ u procedure is 25-70% faster than the methods based on the Gauss transformation such as Bulirsch’s algorithm, sncndn, quoted in the Numerical Recipes even if the acceleration of computation of K( m) is not taken into account.

  19. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  20. DEEP GALEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMA CLUSTER: SOURCE CATALOG AND GALAXY COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Miller, N.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Smith, R.; Arnouts, S.; Milliard, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a source catalog from a deep 26 ks Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observation of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 A) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 A) wavebands. The observed field is centered ∼0. 0 9 (1.6 Mpc) southwest of the Coma core in a well-studied region of the cluster known as 'Coma-3'. The entire field is located within the apparent virial radius of the Coma cluster, and has optical photometric coverage with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and deep spectroscopic coverage to r ∼ 21. We detect GALEX sources to NUV = 24.5 and FUV = 25.0, which corresponds to a star formation rate of ∼10 -3 M sun yr -1 for galaxies at the distance of Coma. We have assembled a catalog of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically confirmed Coma member galaxies that span a large range of galaxy types from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is ∼80% complete to NUV = 23 and FUV = 23.5. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g., object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence the source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here; we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are

  1. Ultraviolet Extinction in Backlit Galaxies - from Galaxy Zoo to GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, A.; Holwerda, B. W.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ultraviolet extinction of galaxies on large scales, combining optical and GALEX UV data on backlit galaxies (most found in the Galaxy Zoo citizen-science project). We analyze the images in matching ways, modelling both foreground and background galaxies by symmetry or elliptical isophote families as appropriate, and using the non-overlapping regions of the galaxies to estimate errors in the derived transmission T=e-κ. Spirals appear less symmetric in the UV, as star-forming regions become more dominant, so that our most reliable results are mean values across multiple regions and multiple galaxies. Our mean effective extinction curve is dominated by the contribution of luminous spirals,and shows a fairly flat gray" extinction law into the ultraviolet. For example, the median of κNUV/κB in spiral arms is only 1.3. Along with previous high-resolution HST studies of a few nearby backlit galaxies, this suggests that on kpc scales the effective extinction is dominated by the dust clumping rather than the intrinsic reddening law. This implies that extrapolation of local properties to short wavelengths, a step toward the history of dust in galaxies through comparison of local properties with a similar analysis in deep HST fields, can be done without introducing much additional error. This work was supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX10AD54G.

  2. Listening to Shells: Galaxy Masses from Disrupted Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle; Sanderson, R.

    Our ability to measure the dynamical mass of an individual galaxy is limited by the radial extent of the luminous tracers of its potential. For elliptical galaxies, it is difficult to go much beyond two effective radii using integrated light. Appealing to particle tracers like globular clusters has

  3. Shell galaxies as laboratories for testing MOND

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Ebrová, Ivana; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.; Bartošková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2015), s. 203-212 ISSN 0008-4204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ. 1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : modified newtonian dynamics * dwarf spheroidal galaxy * elliptic galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2015

  4. Photometric properties of galaxies in the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D. W.; Blanton, M.; SDSS Collaboration

    2001-12-01

    We analyze the number density distribution of galaxy properties in a sample of 8x 104 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, in the redshift range 0.02calculated for each galaxy. The photometry is of excellent quality; every galaxy has CCD imaging with signal-to-noise for the flux well above 100. The distribution of galaxies in the (six-dimensional) space spanned by four colors, central surface-brightness, and radial concentration is described and analyzed, with the following results: \\textsl{(1)} The galaxies occupy only a small part of the six-dimensional space. \\textsl{(2)} The distribution of galaxy number density in the space is a strong function of intrinsic galaxy luminosity. \\textsl{(3)} Elliptical (or early type) and spiral (or late type) galaxies are clearly separated in the space. The ratio of early-type to late-type galaxy contributions to the luminosity density of the Universe is computed, as a function of wavelength. At 1 {μm }, early-type galaxies dominate the luminosity density. \\textsl{(4)} Outliers in color tend to be lower surface-brightness galaxies. Funding for the SDSS has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the SDSS member institutions, NASA, NSF, DOE, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, and the Max Planck Society. This research has been supported by the NYU Faculty of Arts and Sciences.

  5. Partitioning the Outburst Energy of a Low Eddington Accretion Rate AGN at the Center of an Elliptical Galaxy: The Recent 12 Myr History of the Supermassive Black Hole in M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Kraft, R.; Vikhlinin, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Heinz, S., E-mail: wrf@cfa.harvard.edu [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2017-08-01

    M87, the active galaxy at the center of the Virgo cluster, is ideal for studying the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with a hot, gas-rich environment. A deep Chandra observation of M87 exhibits an approximately circular shock front (13 kpc radius, in projection) driven by the expansion of the central cavity (filled by the SMBH with relativistic radio-emitting plasma) with projected radius ∼1.9 kpc. We combine constraints from X-ray and radio observations of M87 with a shock model to derive the properties of the outburst that created the 13 kpc shock. Principal constraints for the model are (1) the measured Mach number ( M ∼ 1.2), (2) the radius of the 13 kpc shock, and (3) the observed size of the central cavity/bubble (the radio-bright cocoon) that serves as the piston to drive the shock. We find that an outburst of ∼5 × 10{sup 57} erg that began about 12 Myr ago and lasted ∼2 Myr matches all the constraints. In this model, ∼22% of the energy is carried by the shock as it expands. The remaining ∼80% of the outburst energy is available to heat the core gas. More than half the total outburst energy initially goes into the enthalpy of the central bubble, the radio cocoon. As the buoyant bubble rises, much of its energy is transferred to the ambient thermal gas. For an outburst repetition rate of about 12 Myr (the age of the outburst), 80% of the outburst energy is sufficient to balance the radiative cooling.

  6. Photometric observations of nine Shakhbazian compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, H.M.; Tiersch, H.; Tovmassian, G.H.; Neizvestny, S.

    2010-01-01

    By observations with the 1.5m telescope at San Pedro Martir (OAN, UNAM, Mexico) the BVR magnitudes are determined for 66 member galaxies in Shakhbazian Compact Galaxy Groups ShCG 40, ShCG 176, ShCG 270, ShCG 278, ShCG 310 and ShCG 342. Three other groups were observed in two or only in one band. Seven galaxies in ShCG 298 were observed in B and R, six galaxies in ShCG 95 were observed in V and 7 galaxies in ShCG 345 were observed in V and R. The distribution of brightness of observed galaxies is determined. Signs of interaction between galaxies are detected in some groups

  7. The rotation of galaxies: clues to their formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The rotation of galaxies of different morphological types is closely linked with their structural features and therefore with the processes by which they formed. In this context, the most important distinction is between galaxies that are dominated by a spheroid or bulge component - the ellipticals and some lenticulars - and galaxies that are dominated by a disk component - some lenticulars, the spirals and some irregulars. As the result of improvements in spectroscopic techniques, we now have reliable kinematic data for galaxies of most types in a wide range of masses and sizes. The author discusses the observational results and their implications for several views of the origin and evolution of galaxies. (Auth.)

  8. Quasar Host Galaxies/Neptune Rotation/Galaxy Building Blocks/Hubble Deep Field/Saturn Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized animations simulate a quasar erupting in the core of a normal spiral galaxy, the collision of two interacting galaxies, and the evolution of the universe. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images show six quasars' host galaxies (including spirals, ellipticals, and colliding galaxies) and six clumps of galaxies approximately 11 billion light years away. A false color time lapse movie of Neptune displays the planet's 16-hour rotation, and the evolution of a storm on Saturn is seen though a video of the planet's rotation. A zoom sequence starts with a ground-based image of the constellation Ursa major and ends with the Hubble Deep Field through progressively narrower and deeper views.

  9. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  10. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  11. Dependence between the colour of galaxies in pairs (Holmberg effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.V.; Zasov, A.V.; Dibaj, Eh.A.; Tomov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Proceeding from the data of photoelectric photometpy by Tomov, the colours of galaxies in double systems are studied For the most of the paips formed by elliptical (EE) or by spiral (SS) galaxies, the difference between the corrected colour indices (B-V)sub(T)sup(0) of components does not exceed 0.10 and does not depend on the difference ΔT of their morphological types The correlation between the colours of galaxies in EE-pairs can be explained by the similaritins of element abundances but not of the luminosities of galaxies. The elliptical and SO-galaxies in pairs with the spiral galaxies ape noticeably bluep on the avepage. The relation between the colours of galaxies in ES-pairs is possible. The colours of early-type spiral galaxies (T < 4) in most of the SS-systems are more blue as compared to the mean colours of galaxies of the same type T. A similarity of the colours of the galaxies in many of the SS-pairs can be a result of the periodically repeated bursts of star formation which take place in both galaxies simultaneously

  12. Deep Galex Observations of the Coma Cluster: Source Catalog and Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Smith, R.; Arnouts, S.; Milliard, B.; Jenkins, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a source catalog from deep 26 ks GALEX observations of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 Angstroms) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 Angstroms) wavebands. The observed field is centered 0.9 deg. (1.6 Mpc) south-west of the Coma core, and has full optical photometric coverage by SDSS and spectroscopic coverage to r-21. The catalog consists of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically-confirmed Coma member galaxies that range from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is 80% complete to NUV=23 and FUV=23.5, and has a limiting depth at NUV=24.5 and FUV=25.0 which corresponds to a star formation rate of 10(exp -3) solar mass yr(sup -1) at the distance of Coma. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as a position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g. object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is also free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here: conversely, we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion limited at NUV approximately 23 and FUV approximately 24. We have measured the total UV galaxy counts using our catalog and report a 50% excess of counts across FUV=22-23.5 and NUV=21.5-23 relative to previous GALEX

  13. And the Title for Densest Galaxy Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Two surprisingly small heavy-weights have been discovered around galaxies in the nearby Virgo cluster by a team led by undergrads Michael Sandoval and Richard Vo and their advisor Aaron Romanowsky of San Jose State University. Setting a new record, these two objects now hold the title of the densest galaxy and the densest free-floating stellar system ever observed. Classification Difficulties What is the difference between large star clusters and small galaxies? Once thought to be distinct categories, the decade-old discovery of a new class of object, ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs), blurred the line between them somewhat: UCDs sit awkwardly between the two categories in size, mass and luminosity. So what are UCDs? It's hard to say — in part because their full range of possible parameters has yet to be carefully explored. Sandoval and his team set out to address this problem by combing through archival data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, searching for objects that display properties between those of star clusters and galaxies. Their search yielded two especially interesting objects: one around the galaxy M59, and the other around M85 (see figure 2). Follow-up observations with Subaru Telescope and the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope provided additional imaging and spectroscopic information. Plot of stellar surface mass density vs. mass of known stellar systems. The data include the two new objects (M85-HCC1 and M59-UCD3) as well as globular clusters, UCDs, and compact elliptical galaxies. Credit: Sandoval et al. 2015 Record-Breakers What makes these two discoveries so unusual? Both are remarkably dense compared to similar objects! The first, M59-UCD3, was categorized as an ultracompact dwarf galaxy — but it's significantly more dense than any other galaxy discovered. The night sky in M59-UCD3 would appear to contain roughly a million stars, compared to the few thousand we see overhead here in the Solar neighborhood. M85-HCC1 is another ten times denser

  14. A model of the formation of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.; Gritzo, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    It has been verified that the analytical results in a previous article for elliptical galaxies may also be used to describe spiral galaxies. Exploration of the model for small values of the principal parameter THETA yields surface mass density distributions as functions of radius which, while always displaying the exponential disk, describe both of the subcategories of spiral galaxies. Within the constraints of the model, the two main questions concerning spirals posed some years ago by Freeman appear to be successfully addressed. An intrinsic model mechanism has been identified that could account for the extended state of elliptical galaxies, as opposed to the flat disks of spirals. In general, the model correctly describes the relative sizes of the various types of galaxies. (orig.)

  15. DISCOVERY OF A STRONG LENSING GALAXY EMBEDDED IN A CLUSTER AT z = 1.62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey J.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Rudnick, Gregory H.; Halkola, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    We identify a strong lensing galaxy in the cluster IRC 0218 (also known as XMM-LSS J02182–05102) that is spectroscopically confirmed to be at z = 1.62, making it the highest-redshift strong lens galaxy known. The lens is one of the two brightest cluster galaxies and lenses a background source galaxy into an arc and a counterimage. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) grism and Keck/LRIS spectroscopy, we measure the source redshift to be z S = 2.26. Using HST imaging in ACS/F475W, ACS/F814W, WFC3/F125W, and WFC3/F160W, we model the lens mass distribution with an elliptical power-law profile and account for the effects of the cluster halo and nearby galaxies. The Einstein radius is θ E =0.38 −0.01 +0.02 arcsec (3.2 −0.1 +0.2 kpc) and the total enclosed mass is M tot (<θ E )=1.8 −0.1 +0.2 ×10 11 M ⊙ . We estimate that the cluster environment contributes ∼10% of this total mass. Assuming a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), the dark matter fraction within θ E is f DM Chab =0.3 −0.3 +0.1 , while a Salpeter IMF is marginally inconsistent with the enclosed mass (f DM Salp =−0.3 −0.5 +0.2 ). The total magnification of the source is μ tot =2.1 −0.3 +0.4 . The source has at least one bright compact region offset from the source center. Emission from Lyα and [O III] are likely to probe different regions in the source

  16. Kinematics and stellar populations of 17 dwarf early-type galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D.; Bender, R.; Hopp, U.; Maraston, C.; Greggio, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present kinematics and stellar population properties of 17 dwarf early-type galaxies in the luminosity range -14> M_B> -19. Our sample fills the gap between the intensively studied giant elliptical and Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The dwarf ellipticals of the present sample have constant velocity dispersion profiles within their effective radii and do not show significant rotation, hence are clearly anisotropic. The dwarf lenticulars, instead, rotate faster and are, at least part...

  17. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  18. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  19. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-03-01

    In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.

  20. Hydrodynamic simulation of elliptic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, P F; Ruuskanen, P V; Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    We use a hydrodynamic model to study the space-time evolution transverse to the beam direction in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions with nonzero impact parameters. We focus on the influence of early pressure on the development of radial and elliptic flow. We show that at high energies elliptic flow is generated only during the initial stages of the expansion while radial flow continues to grow until freeze-out. Quantitative comparisons with SPS data from semiperipheral Pb+Pb collisions suggest the applicability of hydrodynamical concepts already $\\approx$ 1 fm/c after impact.

  1. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  2. The Masses and Stellar Content of Nuclei in Early-Type Galaxies from Multi-Band Photometry and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Chelsea; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel; Ferrarese, Laura; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Liu, Yiqing; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Zirm, Andrew; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Powalka, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    It is now established that most, if not all, massive galaxies host central supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and that these SMBHs are linked to the growth their host galaxies as shown by several scaling relations. Within the last couple of decades, it has become apparent that most lower-mass galaxies without obvious SMBHs nevertheless contain some sort of central massive object in the form of compact stellar nuclei that also follow identical (or similar) scaling relations. These nuclei are challenging to study given their small sizes and relatively faint magnitudes, but understanding their origins and relationship to their hosts is critical to gaining a more complete picture of galaxy evolution. To that end, we highlight selected results from an analysis of 39 nuclei and their early-type hosts in the Virgo Cluster using ten broadband filters: F300W, F475W, F850LP, F160W, u*griz, and Ks. We estimate masses, metallicities and ages using simple stellar population (SSP) models. For 19 nuclei, we compare to SSP parameters derived from Keck and Gemini spectra and find reasonable agreement between the photometric and spectroscopic metallicity: the RMS scatter is 0.3 dex. We reproduce the nucleus-galaxy mass fraction of 0.33 ± 0.08% for galaxy stellar masses 108.4-1010.3 M⊙ with a typical precision of ~35% for the nuclei masses. Based on available model predictions, there is no single preferred formation scenario for nuclei, suggesting that nuclei are formed stochastically through a mix of processes. Nuclei metallicities are statistically identical to those of their hosts, appearing 0.07 ± 0.3 dex more metal-rich on average — although, omitting galaxies with unusual origins (i.e., compact ellipticals), nuclei are 0.20 ± 0.28 dex more metal-rich. We find no clear age difference between nuclei and their galaxies, with nuclei displaying a broad range of ages. Interestingly, we find that the most massive nuclei may be flatter and more closely aligned with the semi

  3. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  4. Coercive properties of elliptic-parabolic operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Min Duc.

    1987-06-01

    Using a generalized Poincare inequality, we study the coercive properties of a class of elliptic-parabolic partial differential equations, which contains many degenerate elliptic equations considered by the other authors. (author). 16 refs

  5. On the UV compactness and morphologies of typical Lyman α emitters from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Sobral, David; Ribeiro, Bruno; Matthee, Jorryt; Santos, Sérgio; Calhau, João; Forshaw, Alex; Johnson, Andrea; Merrick, Joanna; Pérez, Sara; Sheldon, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the rest-frame UV morphologies of a large sample of Lyman α emitters (LAEs) from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6, selected in a uniform way with 16 different narrow and medium bands over the full COSMOS field. We use 3045 LAEs with Hubble Space Telescope coverage in a stacking analysis and find that they have MUV ˜ -20, below M_UV^\\ast at these redshifts. We also focus our analysis on a subsample of 780 individual galaxies with iAB < 25 for which GALFIT converges for 429 of them. The individual median size (re ˜ 1 kpc), ellipticities [slightly elongated with (b/a) ˜ 0.45], Sérsic index (disc-like with n ≲ 2), and light concentration (comparable to that of disc or irregular galaxies, with C ˜ 2.7) of LAEs show mild evolution from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6. LAEs with the highest rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) are the smallest/most compact (re ˜ 0.8 kpc, compared to re ˜ 1.5 kpc for the lower EW LAEs). When stacking our samples in bins of fixed Lyα luminosity and Lyα EW, we find evidence for redshift evolution in n and C, but not in galaxy sizes. The evolution seems to be stronger for LAEs with 25 < EW < 100 Å. When compared to other star-forming galaxies (SFGs), LAEs are found to be smaller at all redshifts. The difference between the two populations changes with redshift, from a factor of ˜1 at z ≳ 5 to SFGs being a factor of ˜2-4 larger than LAEs for z ≲ 2. This means that at the highest redshifts, where typical sizes approach those of LAEs, the fraction of galaxies showing Lyα in emission (and with a high Lyα escape fraction) should be much higher, consistent with observations.

  6. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  7. Observations of ultraviolet spectra of H II regions and galaxies with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1982-08-01

    The ultraviolet spectra, obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer, of a sample of H II regions and the nuclear regions of spiral and elliptical galaxies are described. The star formation rates in the nuclei of spiral galaxies are similar to the star formation rate in the solar neighbourhood. The data indicate that the current thinking on the synthesis of carbon and nitrogen in galaxies has to be revised and the K-corrections determined from the ultraviolet spectra of galaxies when compared with the photometry of distant galaxies suggests colour evolution of galaxies at z > 0.3. (author)

  8. Newton flows for elliptic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Twilt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Newton flows are dynamical systems generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for mappings from a Euclidean space to itself. We focus on the special case of meromorphic functions on the complex plane. Inspired by the analogy between the rational (complex) and the elliptic (i.e., doubly

  9. Diffeomorphisms of elliptic 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungbok; McCullough, Darryl; Rubinstein, J Hyam

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns the diffeomorphism groups of 3-manifolds, in particular of elliptic 3-manifolds. These are the closed 3-manifolds that admit a Riemannian metric of constant positive curvature, now known to be exactly the closed 3-manifolds that have a finite fundamental group. The (Generalized) Smale Conjecture asserts that for any elliptic 3-manifold M, the inclusion from the isometry group of M to its diffeomorphism group is a homotopy equivalence. The original Smale Conjecture, for the 3-sphere, was proven by J. Cerf and A. Hatcher, and N. Ivanov proved the generalized conjecture for many of the elliptic 3-manifolds that contain a geometrically incompressible Klein bottle. The main results establish the Smale Conjecture for all elliptic 3-manifolds containing geometrically incompressible Klein bottles, and for all lens spaces L(m,q) with m at least 3. Additional results imply that for a Haken Seifert-fibered 3 manifold V, the space of Seifert fiberings has contractible components, and apart from a small...

  10. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  11. Second order degenerate elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1988-08-01

    Using an improved Sobolev inequality we study a class of elliptic operators which is degenerate inside the domain and strongly degenerate near the boundary of the domain. Our results are applicable to the L 2 -boundary value problem and the mixed boundary problem. (author). 18 refs

  12. Elliptical shape of the coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, L.; King, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    The elliptical shape of the Coma cluster is examined quantitatively. The degree of ellipticity is high and depends to some extent on the radial distance of the sample from the Coma center as well as on the brightness of the sample. The elliptical shape does not appear to be caused by rotation; other possible causes are briefly discussed

  13. A class of strongly degenerate elliptic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1988-04-01

    Using a weighted Poincare inequality, we study (ω 1 ,...,ω n )-elliptic operators. This method is applicable to solve singular elliptic equations with conditions in W 1,2 on the boundary. We also get a result about the regularity of solutions of singular elliptic equations. An application to (ω 1 ,...ω n )-parabolic equations is given. (author). 33 refs

  14. Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf

  15. Where are compact groups in the local Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Giménez, Eugenia; Zandivarez, Ariel

    2015-06-01

    Aims: The purpose of this work is to perform a statistical analysis of the location of compact groups in the Universe from observational and semi-analytical points of view. Methods: We used the velocity-filtered compact group sample extracted from the Two Micron All Sky Survey for our analysis. We also used a new sample of galaxy groups identified in the 2M++ galaxy redshift catalogue as tracers of the large-scale structure. We defined a procedure to search in redshift space for compact groups that can be considered embedded in other overdense systems and applied this criterion to several possible combinations of different compact and galaxy group subsamples. We also performed similar analyses for simulated compact and galaxy groups identified in a 2M++ mock galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Run Simulation I plus a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. Results: We observed that only ~27% of the compact groups can be considered to be embedded in larger overdense systems, that is, most of the compact groups are more likely to be isolated systems. The embedded compact groups show statistically smaller sizes and brighter surface brightnesses than non-embedded systems. No evidence was found that embedded compact groups are more likely to inhabit galaxy groups with a given virial mass or with a particular dynamical state. We found very similar results when the analysis was performed using mock compact and galaxy groups. Based on the semi-analytical studies, we predict that 70% of the embedded compact groups probably are 3D physically dense systems. Finally, real space information allowed us to reveal the bimodal behaviour of the distribution of 3D minimum distances between compact and galaxy groups. Conclusions: The location of compact groups should be carefully taken into account when comparing properties of galaxies in environments that are a priori different. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables B.1 and B.2

  16. X-ray Emission Line Spectroscopy of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daniel

    What are the origins of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from non-AGN galaxies? Preliminary analysis of XMM-Newton RGS spectra shows that a substantial fraction of the emission cannot arise from optically-thin thermal plasma, as commonly assumed, and may originate in charge exchange at the interface with neutral gas. We request the support for a comprehensive observing, data analysis, and modeling program to spectroscopically determine the origins of the emission. First, we will use our scheduled XMM-Newton AO-10 368 ks observations of the nearest compact elliptical galaxy M32 to obtain the first spectroscopic calibration of the cumulative soft X-ray emission from the old stellar population and will develop a spectral model for the charge exchange, as well as analysis tools to measure the spatial and kinematic properties of the X-ray line- emitting plasma. Second, we will characterize the truly diffuse emission from the hot plasma and/or its interplay with the neutral gas in a sample of galactic spheroids and active star forming/starburst regions in nearby galaxies observed by XMM-Newton. In particular, we will map out the spatial distributions of key emission lines and measure (or tightly constrain) the kinematics of hot plasma outflows for a few X-ray-emitting regions with high-quality RGS data. For galaxies with insufficient counting statistics in individual emission lines, we will conduct a spectral stacking analysis to constrain the average properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. We will use the results of these X-ray spectroscopic analyses, together with complementary X-ray CCD imaging/spectral data and observations in other wavelength bands, to test the models of the emission. In addition to the charge exchange, alternative scenarios such as resonance scattering and relic AGN photo-ionization will also be examined for suitable regions. These studies are important to the understanding of the relationship between the diffuse soft X-ray emission and various

  17. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  18. Velocity dispersions in the bulges of spiral and SO galaxies. II. Further observations and a simple three-component model for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, B.C.; Kirshner, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    We have obtained velocity dispersions for 24 galaxies in the Virgo cluster to supplement our earlier results. A 2000 channel intensified Reticon scanner has again been used on the 1.3 m telescope of McGraw-Hill Observatory, and a Fourier quotient technique has been employed to yield dispersions. We have confirmed our earlier result that spiral bulges exhibit a relation between total luminosity and velocity dispersion with the form L proportional sigma 4 , but with velocity dispersions that are 17 +- 8% smaller than elliptical galaxies at the same absolute magnitude. However, possible systematic errors may still affect the reality of this gap. The scatter in the L proportional sigma 4 relationship is substantially larger for the spiral bulges than for the elliptical galaxies. This larger scatter probably indicates that spiral bulges comprise a more heterogeneous sample than do elliptical galaxies. we also find that the bulge components of SO galaxies follow a L proportional sigma 4 relation with no gap with the ellipticals. The similarity in this relation for the spheroidal components of spiral, SO, and elliptical galaxies indicates that the systems are dynamically similar

  19. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L 1.4GHz > 10 23 W Hz –1 ) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  20. Elliptic Diophantine equations a concrete approach via the elliptic logarithm

    CERN Document Server

    Tzanakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    This book presents in a unified way the beautiful and deep mathematics, both theoretical and computational, on which the explicit solution of an elliptic Diophantine equation is based. It collects numerous results and methods that are scattered in literature. Some results are even hidden behind a number of routines in software packages, like Magma. This book is suitable for students in mathematics, as well as professional mathematicians.

  1. Classifying the Optical Morphology of Shocked POststarburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tess; SPOGs Team

    2018-01-01

    The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) is a sample of galaxies in transition from blue, star forming spirals to red, inactive ellipticals. These galaxies are earlier in the transition than classical poststarburst samples. We have classified the physical characteristics of the full sample of 1067 SPOGs in 7 categories, covering (1) their shape; (2) the relative prominence of their nuclei; (3) the uniformity of their optical color; (4) whether the outskirts of the galaxy were indicative of on-going star formation; (5) whether they are engaged in interactions with other galaxies, and if so, (6) the kinds of galaxies with which they are interacting; and (7) the presence of asymmetrical features, possibly indicative of recent interactions. We determined that a plurality of SPOGs are in elliptical galaxies, indicating morphological transformations may tend to conclude before other indicators of transitions have faded. Further, early-type SPOGs also tend to have the brightest optical nuclei. Most galaxies do not show signs of current or recent interactions. We used these classifications to search for correlations between qualitative and quantitative characteristics of SPOGs using Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer magnitudes. We find that relative optical nuclear brightness is not a good indicator of the presence of an active galactic nuclei and that galaxies with visible indications of active star formation also cluster in optical color and diagnostic line ratios.

  2. Simulations of galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villumsen, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    This work is a theoretical investigation of the mechanisms and results of mergers of elliptical galaxies. An N-body code is developed to simulate the dynamics of centrally concentrated collisionless systems. It is used for N-body simulations of the mergers of galaxies with mass ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 with a total of 1200 or 2400 particles. The initial galaxies are spherical and non-rotating with Hubble type profiles and isotropic velocity distributions. The remnants are flattened (up to E4) and are oblate, triaxial or prolate depending on the impact parameter. Equal mass mergers are more flattened than unequal mass mergers and have significant velocity anisotropies. The remnants have Hubble type profiles with decreased central surface brightness and increased core radii and tidal radii. In some unequal mass mergers ''isothermal'' haloes tend to form. The density profiles are inconsistent with De Vaucouleurs profiles even though the initial profiles were not. The central velocity dispersion increases in 1:1 and 2:1 mass mergers but decreases in 3:1 mass mergers. Near head-on mergers lead to prolate systems with little rotation while high angular momentum mergers lead to oblate systems with strong rotation. The rotation curves show solid body rotation out to the half mass radius followed by a slow decline. Radial mixing is strong in equal mass mergers where it will weaken radial gradients. In unequal mass mergers there is little radial mixing but matter from the smaller galaxy ends up in the outer parts of the system where it can give rise to colour gradient

  3. RBF Multiscale Collocation for Second Order Elliptic Boundary Value Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Farrell, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss multiscale radial basis function collocation methods for solving elliptic partial differential equations on bounded domains. The approximate solution is constructed in a multilevel fashion, each level using compactly supported radial basis functions of smaller scale on an increasingly fine mesh. On each level, standard symmetric collocation is employed. A convergence theory is given, which builds on recent theoretical advances for multiscale approximation using compactly supported radial basis functions. We are able to show that the convergence is linear in the number of levels. We also discuss the condition numbers of the arising systems and the effect of simple, diagonal preconditioners, now proving rigorously previous numerical observations. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  4. Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsberger, M.; Genel, S.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Sijacki, D.; Xu, D.; Snyder, G.; Bird, S.; Nelson, D.; Hernquist, L.

    2014-05-01

    Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the `cosmic web' of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, because of numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, they were unable to track the small-scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a cube of 106.5 megaparsecs a side. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the `metal' and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

  5. Iterative solution of high order compact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotz, W.F.; Carey, G.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We have recently developed a class of finite difference methods which provide higher accuracy and greater stability than standard central or upwind difference methods, but still reside on a compact patch of grid cells. In the present study we investigate the performance of several gradient-type iterative methods for solving the associated sparse systems. Both serial and parallel performance studies have been made. Representative examples are taken from elliptic PDE`s for diffusion, convection-diffusion, and viscous flow applications.

  6. Formation and evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster I. Internal kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Cenarro, A. J.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster, obtained with the WHT and INT telescopes at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). These data are used to study the origin of the dwarf elliptical galaxy

  7. The ellipticities of a sample of globular clusters in M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Images for a sample of 18 globular clusters in M31 have been obtained. The mean ellipticity on the sky in the range 7-14 pc (2-4 arcsec) is 0.08 + or - 0.02 and 0.12 + or - 0.01 in the range 14-21 pc (4-6 arcsec), with corresponding true ellipticities of 0.12 and 0.18. The difference between the inner and outer parts is significant at a 99 percent level. The flattening of the inner parts is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Galactic globular clusters, while the outer parts are flatter than the Galactic clusters at a 99.8 percent confidence level. There is a significant anticorrelation of ellipticity with line strength; such a correlation may in retrospect also be seen in the Galactic globular cluster system. For the M31 data, this anticorrelation is stronger in the inner parts of the galaxy. 30 refs

  8. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  9. Colors of galaxies with continuing star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.; Demin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A position of non-elliptical galaxies on a two-colour diagram (B-V)-(U-B) is considered from the data on the RC2 catalogue. Correction was made for internal reddening of light in galaxies. A sequence of colour indices on a two-colour diagram is compared with theoretical sequences for the Salpeter's initial mass function of stars (IMF). To reach the best agreement between calculated and observed colours of galaxies it is demanded that IMF change systematically along a morphological Hubble's sequence of galaxies and IMF in most of spiral galaxies of early types must have a deficiency of massive stars with respect to the Salpeter's IMF. A difference between colour indices of inner and outer parts of spiral galaxies shows that internal light absorption is possibly stronger in the inner regions of galaxies. A relation between dust content of galaxies and their IMF is in qualitative agreement with the Kahn's theory which gives an upper limit of mass of young stars

  10. Diffractive axicons in oblique illumination: analysis and experiments and comparison with elliptical axicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaning, Anna; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Friberg, Ari T

    2003-01-01

    Axicons in oblique illumination produce broadened focal lines, a problem, e.g., in scanning applications. A compact mathematical description of the focal segment is presented, for the first time, to our knowledge, and the results are compared with elliptical axicons in normal illumination. In both cases, analytical expressions in the form of asteroid curves are obtained from asymptotic wave theory and caustic surfaces. The results are confirmed by direct diffraction simulations and by experiments. In addition we show that at a fixed angle an elliptical axicon can be used to compensate for the adverse effects of oblique illumination.

  11. Elliptically fibered Calabi–Yau manifolds and the ring of Jacobi forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-xin Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We give evidence that the all genus amplitudes of topological string theory on compact elliptically fibered Calabi–Yau manifolds can be written in terms of meromorphic Jacobi forms whose weight grows linearly and whose index grows quadratically with the base degree. The denominators of these forms have a simple universal form with the property that the poles of the meromorphic form lie only at torsion points. The modular parameter corresponds to the fibre class while the role of the string coupling is played by the elliptic parameter. This leads to very strong all genus results on these geometries, which are checked against results from curve counting.

  12. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF YOUNG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the combined X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in Chandra observations of young, post-merger elliptical galaxies with that of typical old elliptical galaxies. We find that the XLF of the 'young' sample does not present the prominent high-luminosity break at L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 found in the old elliptical galaxy XLF. The 'young' and 'old' XLFs differ with a 3σ statistical significance (with a probability less than 0.2% that they derive from the same underlying parent distribution). Young elliptical galaxies host a larger fraction of luminous LMXBs (L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 ) than old elliptical galaxies and the XLF of the young galaxy sample is intermediate between that of typical old elliptical galaxies and that of star-forming galaxies. This observational evidence may be related to the last major/minor mergers and the associated star formation.

  13. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C., E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu, E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu, E-mail: gcp8y@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    destroyed as the merger advances. In contrast, the fraction of nuclear PSFs increases toward later merger stages and is highest in late-stage systems with a single nucleus. Thus, light from an active galactic nucleus or compact nuclear star cluster is more visible at I band as ULIRGs enter their latter stages of evolution. Finally, both GOALS elliptical hosts and nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ellipticals occupy the same part of the surface brightness versus half-light radius plot (i.e., the {sup K}ormendy Relation{sup )} and have similar slopes, consistent with the possibility that the GOALS galaxies belong to the same parent population as the SDSS ellipticals.

  14. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael J; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant 'island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  15. Galaxy Formation from the Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Supermassive black hole (SMBH) of size MBH = 106-10M⊙ is common in the Universe and it defines the center of the galaxy. A galaxy and the SMBH are generally thought to have co-evolved. However, the SMBH cannot evolve so fast as commonly observed even at redshift z > 6. Therefore, we explore a natural hypothesis that the SMBH has been already formed mature at z ⪆ 10 before stars and galaxies. The SMBH forms energetic jets and out-flows which trigger massive star formation in the ambient gas. They eventually construct globular clusters and classical bulge as well as the body of elliptical galaxies. We propose simple models which implement these processes. We point out that the globular clusters and classical bulges have a common origin but are in different phases. The same is true for the elliptical and spiral galaxies. Physics behind these phase division is the runaway star formation process with strong feedback to SMBH. This is similar to the forest-fire model that displays self-organized criticality.

  16. Galaxy Formation from the Primordial Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morikawa Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supermassive black hole (SMBH of size MBH = 106-10M⊙ is common in the Universe and it defines the center of the galaxy. A galaxy and the SMBH are generally thought to have co-evolved. However, the SMBH cannot evolve so fast as commonly observed even at redshift z > 6. Therefore, we explore a natural hypothesis that the SMBH has been already formed mature at z ⪆ 10 before stars and galaxies. The SMBH forms energetic jets and out-flows which trigger massive star formation in the ambient gas. They eventually construct globular clusters and classical bulge as well as the body of elliptical galaxies. We propose simple models which implement these processes. We point out that the globular clusters and classical bulges have a common origin but are in different phases. The same is true for the elliptical and spiral galaxies. Physics behind these phase division is the runaway star formation process with strong feedback to SMBH. This is similar to the forest-fire model that displays self-organized criticality.

  17. Very Luminous X-ray Point Sources in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Weaver, K. A.; Strickland, D.

    Extranuclear X-ray point sources in external galaxies with luminosities above 1039.0 erg/s are quite common in elliptical, disk and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~ 0.5 and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~0.5 sources per galaxy. These objects may be a new class of object, perhaps accreting intermediate-mass black holes, or beamed stellar mass black hole binaries. Starburst galaxies tend to have a larger number of these intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (IXOs), as well as a large number of lower-luminosity (1037 - 1039 erg/s) point sources. These point sources dominate the total hard X-ray emission in starburst galaxies. We present a review of both types of objects and discuss possible schemes for their formation.

  18. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  19. Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakos, Karl D.; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schombert, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents new and synthetic narrow band photometry of ellipticals, spirals, Seyferts and interacting galaxies in an attempt to identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue cluster galaxies in distant clusters (the Butcher-Oemler Effect). The properties and distribution of the low redshift sample specifically points to starbursts as the origin of the blue narrow band colors in interacting Arp galaxies.

  20. Abundances in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Standard (or mildly inhomogeneous) Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory is well confirmed by abundance measurements of light elements up to 7 Li and the resulting upper limit to the number of neutrino families confirmed in accelerator experiments. Extreme inhomogeneous models with a closure density in form of baryons seem to be ruled out and there is no evidence for a cosmic 'floor' to 9 Be or heavier elements predicted in some versions of those models. Galaxies show a correlation between luminous mass and abundance of carbon and heavier elements, usually attributed to escape of hot gas from shallow potential wells. Uncertainties include the role of dark matter and biparametric behaviour of ellipticals. Spirals have radial gradients which may arise from a variety of causes. In our own Galaxy one can distinguish three stellar populations - disk, halo and bulge - characterised by differing metallicity distribution functions. Differential abundance effects are found among different elements in stars as a function of metallicity and presumably age, notably in the ratio of oxygen and α-particle elements to iron. These may eventually be exploitable to set a time scale for the formation of the halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  1. Overdetermined elliptic problems in topological disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Pablo

    2018-06-01

    We introduce a method, based on the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem, to classify solutions to overdetermined problems for fully nonlinear elliptic equations in domains diffeomorphic to a closed disk. Applications to some well-known nonlinear elliptic PDEs are provided. Our result can be seen as the analogue of Hopf's uniqueness theorem for constant mean curvature spheres, but for the general analytic context of overdetermined elliptic problems.

  2. Elliptic hypergeometric functions associated with root systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Hjalmar; Warnaar, S. Ole

    2017-01-01

    We give a survey of elliptic hypergeometric functions associated with root systems, comprised of three main parts. The first two form in essence an annotated table of the main evaluation and transformation formulas for elliptic hypergeometric integeral and series on root systems. The third and final part gives an introduction to Rains' elliptic Macdonald-Koornwinder theory (in part also developed by Coskun and Gustafson).

  3. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  4. A computational and observational study of peculiar galaxies in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Jugaku, Jun.

    1977-01-01

    Expected numbers of elliptical galaxies distorted tidally in the Coma cluster are formulated in terms of the various parameters of the cluster, and of cross section of galaxy-galaxy encounters and duration of associated tidal distributions. For the latter two quantities, numerical computations are carried out by simulating elliptical galaxies with hundreds of test particles. Comparisons are made with the number of peculiar galaxies observed in the Coma cluster. The hypothesis that the ''missing mass'' of the Coma cluster is hidden in the form of invisible galaxies or huge black holes of ordinary galaxy masses is also tested. It is concluded that tidal interaction between the visible galaxies plays only a minor role in the origin of the peculiar galaxies in the Coma cluster. Most of them would be due to their individual non-tidal mechanisms. If invisible galaxies or massive black holes are assumed as cluster members, their encounters with the luminous members increase the frequency of observable tidal distortion, and approximately half of the number of the peculiar galaxies could be explained in terms of tidal interaction. This result is discussed in relation to some special types of the peculiar galaxies in the Coma cluster. (auth.)

  5. Discovery of Molecular Gas Shells around the Unusual Galaxy Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    photometric and spectrographic studies of their light, it has been known since the early 1980's that such shells are made up of stars. It appears that they are quite common - about half of the nearby large elliptical galaxies have been found to be surrounded by stellar shells. More recently, in 1994, atomic hydrogen gas was discovered to be associated with some of the stellar shells. This discovery was a bit of a surprise, because the current theory predicts that when two galaxies merge, their gas and stars will behave very differently. While the individual stars hardly ever hit each other, the interstellar gas clouds collide violently. They will lose all their energy and the gas will fall towards the common centre where it is soon consumed in vigorous bursts of star formation. Why would there then be hydrogen gas in the outer shells of some elliptical galaxies? A possible origin of gaseous shells The astronomer team, headed by Vassilis Charmandaris [1] decided to look into this serious discrepancy between theory and observations. They believed that a possible explanation might be that this diffuse atomic gas is located, not in vast, very dilute clouds, but rather in smaller, much denser molecular clouds , such as these are known in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Due to their relative compactness (more than 1000 molecules/cm 3 , i.e,. at least 100 times more than that of larger diffuse clouds), molecular clouds would behave more like the stars during the galaxy collision event. Indeed, realistic calculations showed that the dynamical behavior of such dense clouds would be intermediate between the stars and the diffuse hydrogen gas. Thus, while most of the gas would still end up in the centre of the remaining galaxy after a merger, a larger fraction of it would be able to survive at large distances from the nucleus. This would then be the origin of the observed hydrogen shells. During the merger, gas that originates from regions in the outskirts of the "cannibalized" galaxy

  6. Arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical invisible cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun; Yu Guanxia; Lin Xianqi; Cheng Qiang; Chin, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea of coordinate transformation (Pendry, Schurig and Smith 2006 Science 312 1780), arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed. The elliptical cloak, which is composed of inhomogeneous anisotropic metamaterials in an elliptical-shell region, will deflect incoming electromagnetic (EM) waves and guide them to propagate around the inner elliptical region. Such EM waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the elliptical cloak. General formulations of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for arbitrarily elliptical axis ratio k, which can also be used for the circular cloak when k = 1. Hence the elliptical cloaks can make a large range of objects invisible, from round objects (when k approaches 1) to long and thin objects (when k is either very large or very small). We also show that the material parameters in elliptical cloaking are singular at only two points, instead of on the whole inner circle for circular cloaking, which are much easier to be realized in actual applications. Full-wave simulations are given to validate the arbitrarily elliptical cloaking

  7. Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-11

    We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.

  8. Doppler Velocity Signatures of Idealized Elliptical Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chau Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler radar observations have revealed a class of atmospheric vortices (tropical cyclones, tornadoes, dust devils that possess elliptical radar reflectivity signatures. One famous example is Typhoon Herb (1996 that maintained its elliptical reflectivity structure over a 40-hour period. Theoretical work and dual-Doppler analyses of observed tropical cyclones have suggested two physical mechanisms that can explain the formation of two types of elliptical vortices observed in nature, namely, the combination of a circular vortex with either a wavenumber two vortex Rossby wave or a deformation field. The characteristics of these two types of elliptical vortices and their corresponding Doppler velocity signatures have not been previously examined.

  9. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina; Křížek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 559, November (2013), A110/1-A110/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * elliptical and lenticular galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  10. The Host Galaxy and the Extended Emission-Line Region of the Radio Galaxy 3C 79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2008-04-01

    We present extensive ground-based spectroscopy and HST imaging of 3C 79, an FR II radio galaxy associated with a luminous extended emission-line region (EELR). Surface brightness modeling of an emission-line-free HST R-band image reveals that the host galaxy is a massive elliptical with a compact companion 0.8'' away and 4 mag fainter. The host galaxy spectrum is best described by an intermediate-age (1.3 Gyr) stellar population (4% by mass), superimposed on a 10 Gyr old population and a power law (αλ = - 1.8); the stellar populations are consistent with supersolar metallicities, with the best fit given by the 2.5 Z⊙ models. We derive a dynamical mass of 4 × 1011 M⊙ within the effective radius from the velocity dispersion. The EELR spectra clearly indicate that the EELR is photoionized by the hidden central engine. Photoionization modeling shows evidence that the gas metallicity in both the EELR and the nuclear narrow-line region is mildly subsolar (0.3-0.7 Z⊙), significantly lower than the supersolar metallicities deduced from typical active galactic nuclei in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The more luminous filaments in the EELR exhibit a velocity field consistent with a common disk rotation. Fainter clouds, however, show high approaching velocities that are uncoupled from this apparent disk rotation. The striking similarities between this EELR and the EELRs around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars provide further evidence for the orientation-dependent unification schemes. The metal-poor gas is almost certainly not native to the massive host galaxy. We suggest that the close companion galaxy could be the tidally stripped bulge of a late-type galaxy that is merging with the host galaxy. The interstellar medium of such a galaxy is probably the source for the low-metallicity gas in 3C 79. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  11. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  12. Some problems of the origin of galaxy nests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of galaxy nests have been studied. The nests of galaxies consist of a few (more than two) galaxies in contact with each other and strongly distorted by mutual interaction. Their colour, geometrical and morphological characteristics are compared with ones of ordinary galaxies and groups of galaxies. Conclusions are drawn that 5% to 15% of the total number of nests may be the evolutionary products of tight groups of galaxies (with diameter 11 Msub(Sun)). About half of such objects consist of elliptical galaxies. Galaxies in sufficiently tight groups may merge in consequence of dynamical friction. The remaining (85-95%) nests origin may be possibly explained by different kinds of instabilities in certain flat galaxies, with transformation of one galaxy to the nest, or by interaction of two galaxies containing large amounts of gas and consequent intensive star formation in very large regions, or by other causes. To establish relative contribution of each possible phenomenon in nests origin, it is required to carry out further detailed investigations of these objects

  13. Gas flows in S-E binary systems of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, N. YA.

    1990-01-01

    Tidal interaction between the galaxies in binary systems leads to important consequences. Some peculiarities in galactic morphology as well as the transfer of matter from one galaxy to another may be due to this factor. In particular, gas flows in intergalactic space may be formed. Such flows enriching one component with gas from the other may play a substantial role in the evolution of mixed (S-E) pairs. One can mention several facts corroborating the possibility of the gas transfer from the spiral to the elliptical galaxy. High HI content (10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) solar mass) is detected in nearly 40 E galaxies (Bottinelli and Gougenheim, 1979; Knapp et al., 1985). Such galaxies are often members of pairs or of multiple systems including an S galaxy, which may be the source of gas (Smirnov and Komberg, 1980). Moreover, the gas kinematics and its distribution also indicate an external origin for this gas (Knapp et al., 1985). In many cases there is an outer gaseous disk. The directions of the disk and of stellar rotation don't always coincide (van Gorkom et al., 1985; Varnas et al., 1987). The galaxy colors in S-E pairs are correlated (the Holmberg effect): bluer ellipticals have spiral components that are usually bluer (Demin et al., 1984). The fraction of E galaxies with emission lines (N sub em) in S-E pairs showing traces of tidal interaction is twice as large (N sub em approx. equals 0.24) as in pairs without interaction (N sub em approx. equals 0.12) (Sotnikova, 1988b). Since the presence of emission lines in a galaxy spectrum strongly depends on gas content, this fact also leads to the conclusion that ellipticals in interacting S-E pairs are enriched with gas. These facts may be considered as a serious indication of the existence of gas transfer. Hence, investigation of this process is of interest.

  14. Compact NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  15. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  16. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  17. Differential population synthesis of early-type galaxies. III. Synthesis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis results are presented for 12 elliptical and five lenticular galaxies which cover nearly a 6 mag range of absolute magnitude in the Fornax cluster (V = 1430 km s -1 ). The results of age, metallicity, and mass-to-light ratio (M/L) determinations are presented differentially as functions of galactic luminosity and morphology. Bright elliptical galaxies are well represented by main-sequence turnoff colors of (V-R)/sub c/roughly-equal0.37 and B-Vroughly-equal0.70, in good agreement with O'Connell's results for bright Virgo ellipticals. The relatively young main-sequence turnoff ages, of 6-10 Gyr for ellipticals of all luminosities, indicate that substantial star formation activity occurred in these galaxies for a period of 6dagger10 Gyr after the epoch of globular cluster formation. There is strong evidence for small amounts of current star formation in at least the brightest ellipticals of all luminosities, indicate that substantial star formation in at least the brightest ellipticals, variation in the amount of which may account for significant dispersion in the cluster U-V versus V color-magnitude relation. A metallicity gradient in [Fe/H] of at least 0.16 dex per absolute magnitude is derived, with the brightest ellipticals being 2 to 3 times more metal-rich than solar. The mean metallicities and turnoff ages of the faintest ellipticals are probably dependent on environment. Distance-independent upper limits to galaxy M/L ratios derived from the syntheses conform well with M/L ratios derived from velocity dispersion measurements and give no evidence for unseen mass in the nuclei of early type galaxies of any luminosity

  18. Compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  19. Dynamics of galaxies and the 'missing mass' problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, J E [Hale Observatories, Pasadena, CA (USA)

    1980-03-06

    The observational situation concerning the existence of dark matter in the outer parts of galaxies is reviewed. Observation now leaves little doubt of its presence, and both observation and simple theory suggest that the dark matter is probably bound to galaxies, and furthermore is present around both spirals and ellipticals. New evidence concerning the rotation curve of the Galaxy shows that the distribution of the halo stuff in our own system is roughly spherical, as seems natural from existing dynamical data on the nature of the halo material.

  20. Convex bodies with many elliptic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Arelio, Isaac; Montejano, Luis

    2014-01-01

    {We show in this paper that two normal elliptic sections through every point of the boundary of a smooth convex body essentially characterize an ellipsoid and furthermore, that four different pairwise non-tangent elliptic sections through every point of the $C^2$-differentiable boundary of a convex body also essentially characterize an ellipsoid.

  1. Drinfeld currents of dynamical elliptic algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Boyu; Fan Heng; Yang Wenli; Cao Junpeng

    2000-01-01

    From the generalized Yang-Baxter relations RLL=LLR*, where R and R* are the dynamical R-matrix of A n-1 (1) type face model with the elliptic module shifted by the center of the algebra, using the Ding-Frenkel correspondence, the authors obtain the Drinfeld currents of dynamical elliptic algebra

  2. Structure and Formation of cD Galaxies: NGC 6166 in ABELL 2199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John; Cornell, Mark E.; Fisher, David B.

    2015-07-01

     Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) spectroscopy is used to measure the velocity dispersion profile of the nearest prototypical cD galaxy, NGC 6166 in the cluster Abell 2199. We also present composite surface photometry from many telescopes. We confirm the defining feature of a cD galaxy; i.e., (we suggest), a halo of stars that fills the cluster center and that is controlled dynamically by cluster gravity, not by the central galaxy. Our HET spectroscopy shows that the velocity dispersion of NGC 6166 rises from σ ≃ 300 km s-1 in the inner r˜ 10\\prime\\prime to σ =865+/- 58 km s-1 at r ˜ 100″ in the cD halo. This extends published observations of an outward σ increase and shows for the first time that σ rises all the way to the cluster velocity dispersion of 819 ± 32 km s-1. We also observe that the main body of NGC 6166 moves at +206 ± 39 km s-1 with respect to the cluster mean velocity, but the velocity of the inner cD halo is ˜70 km s-1 closer to the cluster velocity. These results support our picture that cD halos consist of stars that were stripped from individual cluster galaxies by fast tidal encounters.  However, our photometry does not confirm the widespread view that cD halos are identifiable as an extra, low-surface-brightness component that is photometrically distinct from the inner, steep-Sérsic-function main body of an otherwise-normal giant elliptical galaxy. Instead, all of the brightness profile of NGC 6166 outside its core is described to ±0.037 V mag arcsec-2 by a single Sérsic function with index n≃ 8.3. The cD halo is not recognizable from photometry alone. This blurs the distinction between cluster-dominated cD halos and the similarly-large-Sérsic-index halos of giant, core-boxy-nonrotating ellipticals. These halos are believed to be accreted onto compact, high-redshift progenitors (“red nuggets”) by large numbers of minor mergers. They belong dynamically to their central galaxies. Still, cDs and core-boxy-nonrotating Es

  3. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  4. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  5. Elliptical excisions: variations and the eccentric parallelogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Leonard H; Alam, Murad

    2004-02-01

    The elliptical (fusiform) excision is a basic tool of cutaneous surgery. To assess the design, functionality, ease of construction, and aesthetic outcomes of the ellipse. A systematic review of elliptical designs and their site-specific benefits and limitations. In particular, we consider the (1). context of prevailing relaxed skin tension lines and tissue laxity; and (2). removal of the smallest possible amount of tissue around the lesion and in the "dog-ears." Attention is focused on intuitive methods that can be reproducibly planned and executed. Elliptical variations are easily designed and can be adapted to many situations. The eccentric parallelogram excision is offered as a new technique that minimizes notching and focal tension in the center of an elliptical closure. Conclusion The elliptical (fusiform) excision is an efficient, elegant, and versatile technique that will remain a mainstay of the cutaneous surgical armamentarium.

  6. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  7. Genesis of dwarf galaxies in interacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of interacting and merging galaxies, and more particularly the associated stellar formation episodes. The author first reports an analysis of the central regions of these objects by studying a specific class among them, i.e. galaxies discovered by the IRAS satellite which are ultra-luminous in the far infrared. The author presents results obtained by optical and infrared imagery and spectroscopy of a complete sample of objects located in the southern hemisphere. In the second part, the author focusses on outside regions of interacting galaxies, discusses the observation of filaments formed under the influence of tidal forces acting during galactic collisions, and of condensations which are as luminous as dwarf galaxies. Then a multi-wavelength study of several neighbouring systems revealed the existence of a specific class of objects, the tidal dwarf galaxies, which are formed from stellar and gaseous material snatched from the disk of interacting galaxies. Gas-rich tidal dwarf galaxies contain, like dwarf irregular galaxies or blue compact galaxies, newly formed stars. But, in opposition with these ones, they are richer in heavy elements: this is one of the consequences of a specific mode of galactic formation based on a cosmic recycling [fr

  8. On the Nature and History of Blue Amorphous Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda True

    1998-07-01

    Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. We have embarked on a systematic study of 12 blue amorphous galaxies (BAGs) whose properties suggest that they are dwarf galaxies in a starburst or post-burst state. It seems likely that BAGs are related to other 'starburst' dwarfs such as blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and HII galaxies. The BAGs in our sample, however, are considerably closer than BCDs and HII galaxies in other samples, and therefore easier to study. These galaxies may offer important insights into dwarf galaxy evolution. In an effort to clarify the role of BAGs in evolutionary scenarios for dwarf galaxies, we present and analyze Hα and UBVI data for our sample. BAGs, like BCDs and HII galaxies, have surface brightness profiles that are exponential in the outer regions but have a predominantly blue central blue excess, suggesting a young burst in an older, redder galaxy. Seven of the galaxies have the bubble or filamentary Hα morphology and double peaked emission lines that are the signature of superbubbles or superwind activity. These galaxies are typically the ones with the strongest central excesses. The starbursting regions are young events compared to the older underlying galaxy, which follow an exponential surface brightness law. Not all of the galaxies develop superwinds: the appearance of superwinds is most sensitive to the concentration and rate of star formation in the starbursting core. The underlying exponential galaxies are very similar to those found in BCDs and HII galaxies, though the 'burst' colors are slightly redder than those found in HII galaxies. BAGs are structurally similar to BCDs and HII galaxies. How BAGs fit into the dwarf galaxy evolutionary debate is less clear. While some compact dIs have properties similar to those of the underlying exponential galaxy in our sample, issues such as mass loss from superwinds, the impact of the starbursting core on the underlying galaxy, and

  9. A STELLAR MASS THRESHOLD FOR QUENCHING OF FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geha, M.; Blanton, M. R.; Yan, R.; Tinker, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that dwarf galaxies (10 7 stellar 9 M ☉ , –12 > M r > –18) with no active star formation are extremely rare ( Hα stellar 9 M ☉ below which quenched galaxies do not exist in the field. Below this threshold, we find that none of the 2951 field dwarf galaxies are quenched; all field dwarf galaxies show evidence for recent star formation. Correcting for volume effects, this corresponds to a 1σ upper limit on the quenched fraction of 0.06%. In more dense environments, quenched galaxies account for 23% of the dwarf population over the same stellar mass range. The majority of quenched dwarf galaxies (often classified as dwarf elliptical galaxies) are within 2 virial radii of a massive galaxy, and only a few percent of quenched dwarf galaxies exist beyond 4 virial radii. Thus, for galaxies with stellar mass less than 1.0 × 10 9 M ☉ , ending star formation requires the presence of a more massive neighbor, providing a stringent constraint on models of star formation feedback.

  10. LEDA 074886: A REMARKABLE RECTANGULAR-LOOKING GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; Moore, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of an interesting and rare rectangular-shaped galaxy. At a distance of 21 Mpc, the dwarf galaxy LEDA 074886 has an absolute R-band magnitude of –17.3 mag. Adding to this galaxy's intrigue is the presence of an embedded, edge-on stellar disk (of extent 2 R e,disk = 12'' = 1.2 kpc) for which Forbes et al. reported v rot /σ ≈ 1.4. We speculate that this galaxy may be the remnant of two (nearly edge-on) merged disk galaxies in which the initial gas was driven inward and subsequently formed the inner disk, while the stars at larger radii effectively experienced a dissipationless merger event resulting in this 'emerald cut galaxy' having very boxy isophotes with a 4 /a = –0.05 to –0.08 from 3 to 5 kpc. This galaxy suggests that knowledge from simulations of both 'wet' and 'dry' galaxy mergers may need to be combined to properly understand the various paths that galaxy evolution can take, with a particular relevance to blue elliptical galaxies.

  11. Resolving the faint end of the satellite luminosity function for the nearest elliptical Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnojevic, Denija

    2014-10-01

    We request HST/ACS imaging to follow up 15 new faint candidate dwarfs around the nearest elliptical Centaurus A (3.8 Mpc). The dwarfs were found via a systematic ground-based (Magellan/Megacam) survey out to ~150 kpc, designed to directly confront the "missing satellites" problem in a wholly new environment. Current Cold Dark Matter models for structure formation fail to reproduce the shallow slope of the satellite luminosity function in spiral-dominated groups for which dwarfs fainter than M_V<-14 have been surveyed (the Local Group and the nearby, interacting M81 group). Clusters of galaxies show a better agreement with cosmological predictions, suggesting an environmental dependence of the (poorly-understood) physical processes acting on the evolution of low mass galaxies (e.g., reionization). However, the luminosity function completeness for these rich environments quickly drops due to the faintness of the satellites and to the difficult cluster membership determination. We target a yet unexplored "intermediate" environment, a nearby group dominated by an elliptical galaxy, ideal due to its proximity: accurate (10%) distance determinations for its members can be derived from resolved stellar populations. The proposed observations of the candidate dwarfs will confirm their nature, group membership, and constrain their luminosities, metallicities, and star formation histories. We will obtain the first complete census of dwarf satellites of an elliptical down to an unprecedented M_V<-9. Our results will crucially constrain cosmological predictions for the faint end of the satellite luminosity function to achieve a more complete picture of the galaxy formation process.

  12. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  13. THE SLOAN GREAT WALL. MORPHOLOGY AND GALAXY CONTENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, M.; Liivamaegi, L. J.; Tempel, E.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Einasto, P.; Enkvist, I.; Einasto, J.; MartInez, V. J.; Heinaemaeki, P.; Nurmi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the morphology and galaxy content of the Sloan Great Wall (SGW), the richest galaxy system in the nearby universe. We use the luminosity density field to determine superclusters in the SGW, and the fourth Minkowski functional V 3 and the morphological signature (the K 1 -K 2 shapefinder curve) to show the different morphologies of the SGW, from a single filament to a multibranching, clumpy planar system. We show that the richest supercluster in the SGW, SCl 126, and especially its core, resembles a very rich filament, while another rich supercluster in the SGW, SCl 111, resembles a 'multispider'-an assembly of high-density regions connected by chains of galaxies. We study the substructure of individual galaxy populations determined by their color in these superclusters using Minkowski functionals and find that in the high-density core of the SGW the clumpiness of red and blue galaxies is similar, but in the outskirts of superclusters the distribution of red galaxies is clumpier than that of blue galaxies. At intermediate densities, the systems of blue galaxies have tunnels through them. We assess the statistical significance of our results using the halo model and smoothed bootstrap. We study the galaxy content and the properties of groups of galaxies in the two richest superclusters of the SGW, paying special attention to bright red galaxies (BRGs) and the first ranked (the most luminous) galaxies in SGW groups. The BRGs are the nearby luminous red galaxies; they are mostly bright and red and typically reside in groups (several groups host five or more BRGs). About one-third of the BRGs are spirals. The scatter of colors of elliptical BRGs is smaller than that of spiral BRGs. About half of the BRGs and of first ranked galaxies in groups have large peculiar velocities. Groups with elliptical BRGs as their first ranked galaxies populate superclusters more uniformly than the groups that have a spiral BRG as their first ranked

  14. Modeling groundwater flow to elliptical lakes and through multi-aquifer elliptical inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Two new analytic element solutions are presented for steady flow problems with elliptical boundaries. The first solution concerns groundwater flow to shallow elliptical lakes with leaky lake beds in a single-aquifer. The second solution concerns groundwater flow through elliptical cylinder inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Both the transmissivity of each aquifer and the resistance of each leaky layer may differ between the inside and the outside of an inhomogeneity. The elliptical inhomogeneity may be bounded on top by a shallow elliptical lake with a leaky lake bed. Analytic element solutions are obtained for both problems through separation of variables of the Laplace and modified-Helmholtz differential equations in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the discharge potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials, trigonometric functions, and modified-Mathieu functions. The series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately, but up to machine accuracy provided enough terms are used. The head and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the aquifer. Examples are given of uniform flow through an elliptical lake, a well pumping near two elliptical lakes, and uniform flow through three elliptical inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Mathieu functions may be applied in a similar fashion to solve other groundwater flow problems in semi-confined aquifers and leaky aquifer systems with elliptical internal or external boundaries.

  15. Excursion Processes Associated with Elliptic Combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hiroya; Katori, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Researching elliptic analogues for equalities and formulas is a new trend in enumerative combinatorics which has followed the previous trend of studying q-analogues. Recently Schlosser proposed a lattice path model in the square lattice with a family of totally elliptic weight-functions including several complex parameters and discussed an elliptic extension of the binomial theorem. In the present paper, we introduce a family of discrete-time excursion processes on Z starting from the origin and returning to the origin in a given time duration 2 T associated with Schlosser's elliptic combinatorics. The processes are inhomogeneous both in space and time and hence expected to provide new models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. By numerical calculation we show that the maximum likelihood trajectories on the spatio-temporal plane of the elliptic excursion processes and of their reduced trigonometric versions are not straight lines in general but are nontrivially curved depending on parameters. We analyze asymptotic probability laws in the long-term limit T → ∞ for a simplified trigonometric version of excursion process. Emergence of nontrivial curves of trajectories in a large scale of space and time from the elementary elliptic weight-functions exhibits a new aspect of elliptic combinatorics.

  16. Only marginal alignment of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud

    2011-12-01

    Testing theories of angular-momentum acquisition of rotationally supported disc galaxies is the key to understanding the formation of this type of galaxies. The tidal-torque theory aims to explain this acquisition process in a cosmological framework and predicts positive autocorrelations of angular-momentum orientation and spiral-arm handedness, i.e. alignment of disc galaxies, on short distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1. This disc alignment can also cause systematic effects in weak-lensing measurements. Previous observations claimed discovering these correlations but are overly optimistic in the reported level of statistical significance of the detections. Errors in redshift, ellipticity and morphological classifications were not taken into account, although they have a significant impact. We explain how to rigorously propagate all the important errors through the estimation process. Analysing disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base, we find that positive autocorrelations of spiral-arm handedness and angular-momentum orientations on distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1 are plausible but not statistically significant. Current data appear not good enough to constrain parameters of theory. This result agrees with a simple hypothesis test in the Local Group, where we also find no evidence for disc alignment. Moreover, we demonstrate that ellipticity estimates based on second moments are strongly biased by galactic bulges even for Scd galaxies, thereby corrupting correlation estimates and overestimating the impact of disc alignment on weak-lensing studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of future sky surveys. We argue that photometric redshifts have too large errors, i.e. PanSTARRS and LSST cannot be used. Conversely, the EUCLID project will not cover the relevant redshift regime. We also discuss the potentials and problems of front-edge classifications of galaxy discs in order to improve the autocorrelation estimates of angular-momentum orientation.

  17. The Properties of Faint Field Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon. P.

    1994-12-01

    One of the current drawbacks of Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) is their restrictive fields of view. The Hitchhiker CCD camera overcomes this limitation by operating in parallel with existing instrumentation and is able to cover a large area as well as large volumes. Hitchhiker is mounted on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope and has been operating for two years. The first use of the Hitchhiker data set has been to study the general properties of faint galaxies. The observed trend of how the differential numbers of galaxies vary with magnitude agrees extremely well with those of other groups and covers, for the first time, all four major optical bandpasses. This multi-band capability has also allowed the study of how the colors of galaxies change with magnitude and how the correlation of galaxies on the sky varies between the optical bandpasses. A dwarf dominated model has been developed to explain these observations and challenges our knowledge of the space-density of dwarf galaxies. The model demonstrates that a simple upward turn in the luminosity distribution of galaxies, similar to that observed in clusters, would remain undetected by the field surveys yet can explain many of the observations without recourse to non-passive galaxy evolution. The conclusion is that the field luminosity distribution is not constrained at faint absolute magnitudes. A combination of a high density of dwarf galaxies and mild evolution could explain all the observations. Continuing work with HST and the Medium Deep Survey Team now reveals the morphological mix of galaxies down to mI ~ 24.0. The results confirm that ellipticals and early-type spirals are well fitted by standard no-evolution models whilst the late-type spirals can only be fitted by strong evolution and/or a significant turn-up in the local field LF.

  18. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  19. Estimating the tumble rates of galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonson, G.F.; Tohline, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that cold gas in a static spheroidal galaxy will damp to a preferred plane, in which the angular momentum vector of the gas is aligned with the symmetry axis of the potential, through dissipative processes. We show now that, if the same galaxy rigidly tumbles about a nonsymmetry axis, the preferred orientation of the gas can become a permanently and smoothly warped sheet, in which rings of gas at large radii may be fully orthogonal to those near the galaxy's core. Detailed numerical orbit calculations closely match an analytic prediction made previously for the structure of the warp. This structure depends primarily on the eccentricity, density profile, and tumble rate of the spheroid. We show that the tumble rate can now be determined for a galaxy containing a significantly warped disk. Ordinary observations used in conjunction with graphs such as those we present, yield at least firm lower limits to the tumble periods of these objects. We have applied this method to the two peculiar systems NGC 5128 and NGC 2685 and found that, if they are prolate systems supporting permanently warped gaseous disks, they must tumble with periods near 5 x 10 9 yr and 2 x 10 9 yr respectively. In a preliminary investigation, we also find that the massive, unseen halos surrounding spiral galaxies must tumble with periods longer than or on the same order as those of the elliptical galaxies

  20. The baryonic mass function of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J I; Trentham, Neil

    2005-12-15

    In the Big Bang about 5% of the mass that was created was in the form of normal baryonic matter (neutrons and protons). Of this about 10% ended up in galaxies in the form of stars or of gas (that can be in molecules, can be atomic, or can be ionized). In this work, we measure the baryonic mass function of galaxies, which describes how the baryonic mass is distributed within galaxies of different types (e.g. spiral or elliptical) and of different sizes. This can provide useful constraints on our current cosmology, convolved with our understanding of how galaxies form. This work relies on various large astronomical surveys, e.g. the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (to observe stars) and the HIPASS radio survey (to observe atomic gas). We then perform an integral over our mass function to determine the cosmological density of baryons in galaxies: Omega(b,gal)=0.0035. Most of these baryons are in stars: Omega(*)=0.0028. Only about 20% are in gas. The error on the quantities, as determined from the range obtained between different methods, is ca 10%; systematic errors may be much larger. Most (ca 90%) of the baryons in the Universe are not in galaxies. They probably exist in a warm/hot intergalactic medium. Searching for direct observational evidence and deeper theoretical understanding for this will form one of the major challenges for astronomy in the next decade.

  1. A heterogeneous stochastic FEM framework for elliptic PDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Thomas Y.; Liu, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of sparsity for the stochastic elliptic operator −div(a(x,ω)∇(⋅)), which reflects the compactness of its inverse operator in the stochastic direction and allows for spatially heterogeneous stochastic structure. This new concept of sparsity motivates a heterogeneous stochastic finite element method (HSFEM) framework for linear elliptic equations, which discretizes the equations using the heterogeneous coupling of spatial basis with local stochastic basis to exploit the local stochastic structure of the solution space. We also provide a sampling method to construct the local stochastic basis for this framework using the randomized range finding techniques. The resulting HSFEM involves two stages and suits the multi-query setting: in the offline stage, the local stochastic structure of the solution space is identified; in the online stage, the equation can be efficiently solved for multiple forcing functions. An online error estimation and correction procedure through Monte Carlo sampling is given. Numerical results for several problems with high dimensional stochastic input are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the HSFEM in the online stage

  2. Elliptic hypergeometric functions and the representation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: (author)Elliptic hypergeometric functions were discovered around ten years ago. They represent the top level known generalization of the Euler beta integral and Euler-Gauss 2 F 1 hypergeometric function. In general form they are defined by contour integrals involving elliptic gamma functions. We outline the structure of the simplest examples of such functions and discuss their relations to the representation theory of the classical Lie groups and their various deformations. In one of the constructions elliptic hypergeometric integrals describe purely group-theoretical objects having the physical meaning of superconformal indices of four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge field theories

  3. International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.

  4. GLOBAL PROPERTIES OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN COMPACT GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lisa May [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Johnson, Kelsey E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Privon, George C. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Kepley, Amanda A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Whelan, David G. [Physics Department, Austin College, Sherman, TX 75090 (United States); Desjardins, Tyler D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann I. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Compact groups of galaxies provide a unique environment to study the evolution of galaxies amid frequent gravitational encounters. These nearby groups have conditions similar to those in the earlier universe when galaxies were assembled and give us the opportunity to witness hierarchical formation in progress. To understand how the compact group environment affects galaxy evolution, we examine the gas and dust in these groups. We present new single-dish GBT neutral hydrogen (H i) observations of 30 compact groups and define a new way to quantify the group H i content as the H i-to-stellar mass ratio of the group as a whole. We compare the H i content with mid-IR indicators of star formation and optical [g − r] color to search for correlations between group gas content and star formation activity of individual group members. Quiescent galaxies tend to live in H i-poor groups, and galaxies with active star formation are more commonly found in H i-rich groups. Intriguingly, we also find “rogue” galaxies whose star formation does not correlate with group H i content. In particular, we identify three galaxies (NGC 2968 in RSCG 34, KUG 1131+202A in RSCG 42, and NGC 4613 in RSCG 64) whose mid-IR activity is discrepant with the H i. We speculate that this mismatch between mid-IR activity and H i content is a consequence of strong interactions in this environment that can strip H i from galaxies and abruptly affect star formation. Ultimately, characterizing how and on what timescales the gas is processed in compact groups will help us understand the interstellar medium in complex, dense environments similar to the earlier universe.

  5. GLOBAL PROPERTIES OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN COMPACT GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Privon, George C.; Kepley, Amanda A.; Whelan, David G.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide a unique environment to study the evolution of galaxies amid frequent gravitational encounters. These nearby groups have conditions similar to those in the earlier universe when galaxies were assembled and give us the opportunity to witness hierarchical formation in progress. To understand how the compact group environment affects galaxy evolution, we examine the gas and dust in these groups. We present new single-dish GBT neutral hydrogen (H i) observations of 30 compact groups and define a new way to quantify the group H i content as the H i-to-stellar mass ratio of the group as a whole. We compare the H i content with mid-IR indicators of star formation and optical [g − r] color to search for correlations between group gas content and star formation activity of individual group members. Quiescent galaxies tend to live in H i-poor groups, and galaxies with active star formation are more commonly found in H i-rich groups. Intriguingly, we also find “rogue” galaxies whose star formation does not correlate with group H i content. In particular, we identify three galaxies (NGC 2968 in RSCG 34, KUG 1131+202A in RSCG 42, and NGC 4613 in RSCG 64) whose mid-IR activity is discrepant with the H i. We speculate that this mismatch between mid-IR activity and H i content is a consequence of strong interactions in this environment that can strip H i from galaxies and abruptly affect star formation. Ultimately, characterizing how and on what timescales the gas is processed in compact groups will help us understand the interstellar medium in complex, dense environments similar to the earlier universe

  6. A REVISED PARALLEL-SEQUENCE MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF GALAXIES: STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF S0 AND SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We update van den Bergh's parallel-sequence galaxy classification in which S0 galaxies form a sequence S0a-S0b-S0c that parallels the sequence Sa-Sb-Sc of spiral galaxies. The ratio B/T of bulge-to-total light defines the position of a galaxy in this tuning-fork diagram. Our classification makes one major improvement. We extend the S0a-S0b-S0c sequence to spheroidal ('Sph') galaxies that are positioned in parallel to irregular galaxies in a similarly extended Sa-Sb-Sc-Im sequence. This provides a natural 'home' for spheroidals, which previously were omitted from galaxy classification schemes or inappropriately combined with ellipticals. To motivate our juxtaposition of Sph and Im galaxies, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of four rare, late-type S0s that bridge the gap between the more common S0b and Sph galaxies. NGC 4762 is an edge-on SB0bc galaxy with a very small classical-bulge-to-total ratio of B/T = 0.13 ± 0.02. NGC 4452 is an edge-on SB0 galaxy with an even tinier pseudobulge-to-total ratio of PB/T = 0.017 ± 0.004. It is therefore an SB0c. VCC 2048, whose published classification is S0, contains an edge-on disk, but its 'bulge' plots in the structural parameter sequence of spheroidals. It is therefore a disky Sph. And NGC 4638 is similarly a 'missing link' between S0s and Sphs—it has a tiny bulge and an edge-on disk embedded in an Sph halo. In the Appendix, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of all Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey S0s that do not have published decompositions. We use these data to update the structural parameter correlations of Sph, S+Im, and E galaxies. We show that Sph galaxies of increasing luminosity form a continuous sequence with the disks (but not bulges) of S0c-S0b-S0a galaxies. Remarkably, the Sph-S0-disk sequence is almost identical to that of Im galaxies and spiral galaxy disks. We review published observations for galaxy transformation processes

  7. A Revised Parallel-sequence Morphological Classification of Galaxies: Structure and Formation of S0 and Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We update van den Bergh's parallel-sequence galaxy classification in which S0 galaxies form a sequence S0a-S0b-S0c that parallels the sequence Sa-Sb-Sc of spiral galaxies. The ratio B/T of bulge-to-total light defines the position of a galaxy in this tuning-fork diagram. Our classification makes one major improvement. We extend the S0a-S0b-S0c sequence to spheroidal ("Sph") galaxies that are positioned in parallel to irregular galaxies in a similarly extended Sa-Sb-Sc-Im sequence. This provides a natural "home" for spheroidals, which previously were omitted from galaxy classification schemes or inappropriately combined with ellipticals. To motivate our juxtaposition of Sph and Im galaxies, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of four rare, late-type S0s that bridge the gap between the more common S0b and Sph galaxies. NGC 4762 is an edge-on SB0bc galaxy with a very small classical-bulge-to-total ratio of B/T = 0.13 ± 0.02. NGC 4452 is an edge-on SB0 galaxy with an even tinier pseudobulge-to-total ratio of PB/T = 0.017 ± 0.004. It is therefore an SB0c. VCC 2048, whose published classification is S0, contains an edge-on disk, but its "bulge" plots in the structural parameter sequence of spheroidals. It is therefore a disky Sph. And NGC 4638 is similarly a "missing link" between S0s and Sphs—it has a tiny bulge and an edge-on disk embedded in an Sph halo. In the Appendix, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of all Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey S0s that do not have published decompositions. We use these data to update the structural parameter correlations of Sph, S+Im, and E galaxies. We show that Sph galaxies of increasing luminosity form a continuous sequence with the disks (but not bulges) of S0c-S0b-S0a galaxies. Remarkably, the Sph-S0-disk sequence is almost identical to that of Im galaxies and spiral galaxy disks. We review published observations for galaxy transformation processes

  8. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  9. Evidence for a Multiphase ISM in Early Type Galaxies and Elliptical Galaxies with Strong Radio Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Woo

    1997-01-01

    We have observed NGC 1316 (Fornax A) with the ROSAT HRI. In this paper, we present the results of these observations and we complement them with the spectral analysis of the archival PSPC data. The spectral properties suggest the presence of a significant component of thermal X-ray emission (greater than 60%), amounting to approx. 10(exp 9) solar mass of hot ISM. Within 3 feet from the nucleus of NGC 1316, the HRI X-ray surface brightness falls as r(exp -2) following the stellar light. In the inner approx. 30 inch., however, the X-ray surface brightness is significantly elongated, contrary to the distribution of stellar light, which is significantly rounder within 10 inch. This again argues for a non-stellar origin of the X-ray emission. This flattened X-ray feature is suggestive of either the disk-like geometry of a rotating cooling flow and/or the presence of extended, elongated dark matter. By comparing the morphology of the X-ray emission with the distribution of optical dust patches, we find that the X-ray emission is significantly reduced at the locations where the dust patches are more pronounced, indicating that at least some of the X-ray photons are absorbed by the cold ISM. We also compare the distribution of the hot and cold ISM with that of the ionized gas, using recently obtained H(sub alpha) CCD data. We find that the ionized gas is distributed roughly along the dust patches and follows the large scale X-ray distribution at r greater than 1 foot from the nucleus. However, there is no one-to-one correspondence between ionized gas and hot gas. Both morphological relations and kinematics suggest different origins for hot and cold ISM. The radio jets in projection appear to pass perpendicularly through the central X-ray ellipsoid. Comparison of thermal and radio pressures suggests that the radio jets are confined by the surrounding hot gaseous medium.

  10. Explaining compact groups as change alignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamon, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The physical nature of the apparently densest groups of galaxies, known as compact groups is a topic of some recent controversy, despite the detailed observations of a well-defined catalog of 100 isolated compact groups compiled by Hickson (1982). Whereas many authors have espoused the view that compact groups are bound systems, typically as dense as they appear in projection on the sky (e.g., Williams ampersand Rood 1987; Sulentic 1987; Hickson ampersand Rood 1988), others see them as the result of chance configurations within larger systems, either in 1D (chance alignments: Mamon 1986; Walke ampersand Mamon 1989), or in 3D (transient cores: Rose 1979). As outlined in the companion review to this contribution (Mamon, in these proceedings), the implication of Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) being dense bound systems is that they would then constitute the densest isolated systems of galaxies in the Universe and the privileged site for galaxy interactions. In a previous paper (Mamon 1986), the author reviewed the arguments given for the different theories of compact groups. Since then, a dozen papers have been published on the subject, including a thorough and perceptive review by White (1990), thus more than doubling the amount written on the subject. Here, the author first enumerates the arguments that he brought up in 1986 substantiating the chance alignment hypothesis, then he reviews the current status of the numerous recent arguments arguing against chance alignments and/or for the bound dense group hypothesis (both for the majority of HCGs but not all of them), and finally he reconsiders each one of these anti-chance alignment arguments and shows that, rather than being discredited, the chance alignment hypothesis remains a fully consistent explanation for the nature of compact groups

  11. Partial differential operators of elliptic type

    CERN Document Server

    Shimakura, Norio

    1992-01-01

    This book, which originally appeared in Japanese, was written for use in an undergraduate course or first year graduate course in partial differential equations and is likely to be of interest to researchers as well. This book presents a comprehensive study of the theory of elliptic partial differential operators. Beginning with the definitions of ellipticity for higher order operators, Shimakura discusses the Laplacian in Euclidean spaces, elementary solutions, smoothness of solutions, Vishik-Sobolev problems, the Schauder theory, and degenerate elliptic operators. The appendix covers such preliminaries as ordinary differential equations, Sobolev spaces, and maximum principles. Because elliptic operators arise in many areas, readers will appreciate this book for the way it brings together a variety of techniques that have arisen in different branches of mathematics.

  12. On mod 2 and higher elliptic genera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kefeng

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we construct mod 2 elliptic genera on manifolds of dimensions 8k+1, 8k+2 by mod 2 index formulas of Dirac operators. They are given by mod 2 modular forms or mod 2 automorphic functions. We also obtain an integral formula for the mod 2 index of the Dirac operator. As a by-product we find topological obstructions to group actions. In the second part, we construct higher elliptic genera and prove some of their rigidity properties under group actions. In the third part we write down characteristic series for all Witten genera by Jacobi theta-functions. The modular property and transformation formulas of elliptic genera then follow easily. We shall also prove that Krichever's genera, which come from integrable systems, can be written as indices of twisted Dirac operators for SU-manifolds. Some general discussions about elliptic genera are given. (orig.)

  13. Constructing elliptic curves from Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Andrew; Tsimerman, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Given a non-isotrivial elliptic curve over an arithmetic surface, one obtains a lisse $\\ell$-adic sheaf of rank two over the surface. This lisse sheaf has a number of straightforward properties: cyclotomic determinant, finite ramification, rational traces of Frobenius, and somewhere not potentially good reduction. We prove that any lisse sheaf of rank two possessing these properties comes from an elliptic curve.

  14. Elliptic and parabolic equations for measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachev, Vladimir I [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krylov, Nikolai V [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Roeckner, Michael [Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2009-12-31

    This article gives a detailed account of recent investigations of weak elliptic and parabolic equations for measures with unbounded and possibly singular coefficients. The existence and differentiability of densities are studied, and lower and upper bounds for them are discussed. Semigroups associated with second-order elliptic operators acting in L{sup p}-spaces with respect to infinitesimally invariant measures are investigated. Bibliography: 181 titles.

  15. DISCOVERY OF A STRONG LENSING GALAXY EMBEDDED IN A CLUSTER AT z = 1.62

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey J. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kansas, Malott Room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Halkola, Aleksi

    2014-07-10

    We identify a strong lensing galaxy in the cluster IRC 0218 (also known as XMM-LSS J02182–05102) that is spectroscopically confirmed to be at z = 1.62, making it the highest-redshift strong lens galaxy known. The lens is one of the two brightest cluster galaxies and lenses a background source galaxy into an arc and a counterimage. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) grism and Keck/LRIS spectroscopy, we measure the source redshift to be z {sub S} = 2.26. Using HST imaging in ACS/F475W, ACS/F814W, WFC3/F125W, and WFC3/F160W, we model the lens mass distribution with an elliptical power-law profile and account for the effects of the cluster halo and nearby galaxies. The Einstein radius is θ{sub E}=0.38{sub −0.01}{sup +0.02} arcsec (3.2{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2} kpc) and the total enclosed mass is M {sub tot}(<θ{sub E})=1.8{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}. We estimate that the cluster environment contributes ∼10% of this total mass. Assuming a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), the dark matter fraction within θ{sub E} is f{sub DM}{sup Chab}=0.3{sub −0.3}{sup +0.1}, while a Salpeter IMF is marginally inconsistent with the enclosed mass (f{sub DM}{sup Salp}=−0.3{sub −0.5}{sup +0.2}). The total magnification of the source is μ{sub tot}=2.1{sub −0.3}{sup +0.4}. The source has at least one bright compact region offset from the source center. Emission from Lyα and [O III] are likely to probe different regions in the source.

  16. Infrared photometry of galaxies in the Butcher-Oemler cluster 0024+1654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, S.J.; Gunn, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared photometry is presented for 21 galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed members of the Butcher-Oemler cluster C10024+1654 at z=0.39. These data are combined with optical CCD photometry and transformed to produce rest-frame UBVK colours. The distribution of colours in the (U-V)/(V-K) plane is analysed. The 11 'red' galaxies have colours that are broadly similar to those of nearby elliptical galaxies. All but one of the 10 'blue' galaxies have the colours of nearby spiral galaxies, including one Im-type galaxy, and other interpretations, e.g. a young age, may be discounted. The (V-K) colour of the remaining 'blue' galaxy, however, suggests the presence of a substantial intermediate age (approx. 1 Gyr) stellar population. (author)

  17. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy Under Construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, M. R.; Vacca, W. D.

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained deep images of the ultracompact ( ~ 3'') blue compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 in the F336W, F555W, and F814W filters of the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have additionally obtained a low-resolution near ultraviolet spectrum of the object with STIS and combine this with a ground-based spectrum covering the visible continuum and emission lines. Our images confirm this object to be highly compact, with a maximum projected size of only ~ 240 pc, making it one of the smallest galaxies known. We also confirm that the outer regions of the galaxy consist of an evolved stellar population, ruling out earlier speculations that POX 186 is a protogalaxy. However, the PC images reveal the galaxy to have a highly irregular morphology, with a pronounced tidal arm on its western side. This morphology is strongly suggestive of a recent collision between two smaller components which has in turn triggered the central starburst. The F336W image also shows that the material in this tidal stream is actively star forming. Given the very small ( ~ 100 pc) sizes of the colliding components, POX 186 may be a dwarf galaxy in the early stages of formation, which would be consistent with current ``downsizing'' models of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form. This work is supported by NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  18. New water and remote galaxies complete ISO's observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    300 young stars have been identified to date, many of which were previously not recognized," Nordh and Olofsson say. "Most of the latter objects have luminosities 10-100 times lower than revealed by earlier observations. Our preliminary analysis indicates that at least ten per cent of the embedded young stars will become small brown dwarfs, or ownerless super-planets, less than one-tenth of the mass of the Sun." Colliding galaxies Some galaxies are unusually bright in the infrared because of cosmic traffic accidents that bring them into collision with other galaxies. The result is a frenzy of star formation called a starburst. The explosion of short-lived stars then creates a pall of warm dust which ISO observes in the infrared. The relative intensities of different wavelengths enable astronomers to distinguish starburst events from other sources of strong infrared rays, such as the environment of a black hole in the nucleus of a galaxy. Collisions and starbursts play an important part in the evolution of galaxies. A famous pair of colliding galaxies called the Antennae was one of the first objects to be examined by ISO. Continuing study of the Antennae over the past two years has revealed a clear picture of a starburst occurring exactly where the dense disks of the galaxies intersect. The nuclei of the two galaxies are plainly distinguished too. Centaurus A is a galaxy that first attracted the attention of astronomers by its strong of radio emissions. In its visible appearance, a large, round (elliptical) galaxy has a dark band across its face. This too turns out to be the result of a galactic collision. The dark band is a flat, disk-shaped galaxy seen almost edge-on. Centaurus A is the nearest case of a phenomenon seen elsewhere by ISO, in which a flat galaxy has merged with an elliptical galaxy while preserving its flat configuration. ISOCAM gives an image of Centaurus A in which the disk galaxy is the more conspicuous object. The orientation of the disk becomes

  19. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  20. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  1. A relation between the characteristic stellar ages of galaxies and their intrinsic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Jesse; Scott, Nicholas; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; d'Eugenio, Francesco; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; McDermid, Richard M.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Rob

    2018-04-01

    Stellar population and stellar kinematic studies provide unique but complementary insights into how galaxies build-up their stellar mass and angular momentum1-3. A galaxy's mean stellar age reveals when stars were formed, but provides little constraint on how the galaxy's mass was assembled. Resolved stellar dynamics4 trace the change in angular momentum due to mergers, but major mergers tend to obscure the effect of earlier interactions5. With the rise of large multi-object integral field spectroscopic surveys, such as SAMI6 and MaNGA7, and single-object integral field spectroscopic surveys (for example, ATLAS3D (ref. 8), CALIFA9, MASSIVE10), it is now feasible to connect a galaxy's star formation and merger history on the same resolved physical scales, over a large range in galaxy mass, morphology and environment4,11,12. Using the SAMI Galaxy Survey, here we present a combined study of spatially resolved stellar kinematics and global stellar populations. We find a strong correlation of stellar population age with location in the (V/σ, ɛe) diagram that links the ratio of ordered rotation to random motions in a galaxy to its observed ellipticity. For the large majority of galaxies that are oblate rotating spheroids, we find that characteristic stellar age follows the intrinsic ellipticity of galaxies remarkably well.

  2. A relation between the characteristic stellar ages of galaxies and their intrinsic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Jesse; Scott, Nicholas; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; d'Eugenio, Francesco; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; McDermid, Richard M.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Rob

    2018-06-01

    Stellar population and stellar kinematic studies provide unique but complementary insights into how galaxies build-up their stellar mass and angular momentum1-3. A galaxy's mean stellar age reveals when stars were formed, but provides little constraint on how the galaxy's mass was assembled. Resolved stellar dynamics4 trace the change in angular momentum due to mergers, but major mergers tend to obscure the effect of earlier interactions5. With the rise of large multi-object integral field spectroscopic surveys, such as SAMI6 and MaNGA7, and single-object integral field spectroscopic surveys (for example, ATLAS3D (ref. 8), CALIFA9, MASSIVE10), it is now feasible to connect a galaxy's star formation and merger history on the same resolved physical scales, over a large range in galaxy mass, morphology and environment4,11,12. Using the SAMI Galaxy Survey, here we present a combined study of spatially resolved stellar kinematics and global stellar populations. We find a strong correlation of stellar population age with location in the (V/σ, ɛe) diagram that links the ratio of ordered rotation to random motions in a galaxy to its observed ellipticity. For the large majority of galaxies that are oblate rotating spheroids, we find that characteristic stellar age follows the intrinsic ellipticity of galaxies remarkably well.

  3. The evolution of galaxies at moderate redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Optical and infrared photometric data on 53 galaxies in five clusters at 0.38 < z < 0.58 are described and analysed to produce the rest-frame (U-V) and (V-H) colours. The 36 red galaxies form a homogeneous population in each cluster. The colours of the 17 blue galaxies clearly distinguish between the normal spirals and the peculiar 'A-type' galaxies found in these Butcher-Oemler clusters and suggest for the latter a substantial intermediate age 1-Gyr population as indicated by optical spectra. The average colours of the red elliptical galaxies at z ∼ 0.45 are systematically 0.12 mag bluer in the rest-frame (U-V), as expected from conventional evolutionary models, but are about 0.1 mag redder in (V-H), which is not predicted by the models. It is shown, however, that inclusion of the evolution of the upper Asymptotic Giant Branch, which is usually neglected, into a simple evolutionary model can explain the observed evolution vector in the (U-V)/(V-H) plane. (author)

  4. Statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of galaxies and clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    1993-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the distribution of galaxies and clusters, describing some observational problems and statistical results. First chapter gives a theoretical introduction, aiming to describe the framework of the formation of structures, tracing the history of the Universe from the Planck time, t_p = 10"-"4"3 sec and temperature corresponding to 10"1"9 GeV, to the present epoch. The most usual statistical tools and models of the galaxy distribution, with their advantages and limitations, are described in chapter two. A study of the main observed properties of galaxy clustering, together with a detailed statistical analysis of the effects of selecting galaxies according to apparent magnitude or diameter, is reported in chapter three. Chapter four delineates some properties of groups of galaxies, explaining the reasons of discrepant results on group distributions. Chapter five is a study of the distribution of galaxy clusters, with different statistical tools, like correlations, percolation, void probability function and counts in cells; it is found the same scaling-invariant behaviour of galaxies. Chapter six describes our finding that rich galaxy clusters too belong to the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies, and gives a discussion of its possible implications. Finally chapter seven reviews the possibilities offered by multi-slit and multi-fibre spectrographs, and I present some observational work on nearby and distant galaxy clusters. In particular, I show the opportunities offered by ongoing surveys of galaxies coupled with multi-object fibre spectrographs, focusing on the ESO Key Programme A galaxy redshift survey in the south galactic pole region to which I collaborate and on MEFOS, a multi-fibre instrument with automatic positioning. Published papers related to the work described in this thesis are reported in the last appendix. (author) [fr

  5. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined

  6. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  7. HST/WFC3 CONFIRMATION OF THE INSIDE-OUT GROWTH OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2 AND IDENTIFICATION OF THEIR STAR-FORMING PROGENITORS AT z ∼ 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Muzzin, Adam; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Williams, Rik J.; Marchesini, Danilo; Holden, Bradford P.; Stefanon, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We study the structural evolution of massive galaxies by linking progenitors and descendants at a constant cumulative number density of n c = 1.4 × 10 –4 Mpc –3 to z ∼ 3. Structural parameters were measured by fitting Sérsic profiles to high-resolution CANDELS HST WFC3 J 125 and H 160 imaging in the UKIDSS-UDS at 1 814 imaging in COSMOS at 0.25 c , galaxies grow in stellar mass by a factor of ∼3 from z ∼ 3 to z ∼ 0. The size evolution is complex: galaxies appear roughly constant in size from z ∼ 3 to z ∼ 2 and then grow rapidly to lower redshifts. The evolution in the surface mass density profiles indicates that most of the mass at r e ∝M 2.0 , consistent with scenarios that find dissipationless minor mergers to be a key driver of size evolution. The progenitors at z ∼ 3 were likely star-forming disks with r e ∼ 2 kpc, based on their low Sérsic index of n ∼ 1, low median axis ratio of b/a ∼ 0.52, and typical location in the star-forming region of the U – V versus V – J diagram. By z ∼ 1.5, many of these star-forming disks disappeared, giving rise to compact quiescent galaxies. Toward lower redshifts, these galaxies continued to assemble mass at larger radii and became the local ellipticals that dominate the high-mass end of the mass function at the present epoch.

  8. IC 3475: A stripped dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.; Thuan, T.X.; Vader, J.P.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained B and R CCD and H I observations of the Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3475. The galaxy is remarkable for its very large diameter (approx.10 kpc for a Virgo distance modulus of 31) and is comparable in size to the large dwarfs discussed by Sandage and Binggeli. Its light profile is best fitted by an exponential law, characteristic of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy. It possesses a central bar with many knots and inclusions concentrated toward the center of the galaxy. These knots and inclusions have the same color (B-Rapprox.1.5) as the rest of the galaxy and are best explained as intermediate-age (1--7 x 10 9 yr) star clusters such as those found in the Magellanic Clouds. Despite possessing the photometric structure of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy, IC 3475 contains less than 5.3 x 10 6 M/sub sun/ of neutral hydrogen. Its hydrogen mass to blue light ratio is less than 0.01, approx.60 times less than the mean value observed for dwarf Magellanic irregulars. It is most likely that IC 3475, which is located near the core of the Virgo cluster, is a stripped dwarf galaxy. The very large size of the galaxy (its diameter is approx.1.8 times larger than that of ''normal'' dwarfs) appears to rule out evolution of IC 3475 from a normal dwarf irregular or to a normal dwarf elliptical

  9. The Eating Habits of Giants and Dwarfs: Chemo-dynamics of Halo Assembly in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; SAGES Team

    2012-01-01

    I will present novel results on the halo assembly of nearby galaxies, from dwarfs to the most massive ellipticals, using Subaru imaging and Keck spectroscopy. Field stars, globular clusters, and planetary nebulae are used as wide-field chemo-dynamical tracers, mapping out halo substructures that were previously known and unknown. Comparisons are made with simulations of galaxy formation. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grants AST-0808099, AST-0909237, and AST-1109878.

  10. Structure of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Armandroff, Taft E.; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2002-01-01

    This article studies the structure of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy with an emphasis on the question of whether the spatial distribution of its stars has been affected by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way, using R- and V-band CCD photometry for eleven fields. The article reports coordinates for the center, a position angle of the major axis, and the ellipticity. It also reports the results of searches for asymmetries in the structure of Draco. These results, and searches for a ``br...

  11. E+A Galaxy Properties and Post-Starburst Galaxy Evolution Data through SDSS-IV MaNGA and Illustris: A Co-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Johnson, Amalya; Kerrison, Nicole; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Melchert, Nancy; Liu, Charles; Sloan Collaboration, SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    E+A galaxies (Elliptical + A-type stars) are post-starburst galaxies that have experienced a sudden quenching phase. Using previous research methods, 39 candidates out of 2,812 galaxies observed, or 1.4%, were selected from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We then identified morphological characteristics of the 39 galaxies including stellar kinematics, Gini coefficient, gas density and distribution and stellar ages. To study the origin of how E+A galaxies evolved to their present state, galaxy simulation data from the Illustris simulation was utilized to identify similar quenched post-starburst candidates. Seven post-starburst candidates were identified through star formation rate histories of Illustris simulated galaxies. The evolution of these galaxies is studied from 0 to 13.8 billion years ago to identify what caused the starburst and quenching of the Illustris candidates. Similar morphological characteristics of Illustris post-starburst candidates are pulled from before, during, and post-starburst and compared to the same morphological characteristics of the E+A galaxies from SDSS-IV MaNGA. The characteristics and properties of the Illustris galaxies are used to identify the possible evolutionary histories of the observed E+A galaxies. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  12. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Stellar angular momentum of about 2300 galaxies: unveiling the bimodality of massive galaxy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark T.; Cappellari, Michele; Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Law, David R.; Pan, Kaike; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Yan, Renbin

    2018-03-01

    We measure λ _{R_e}, a proxy for galaxy specific stellar angular momentum within one effective radius, and the ellipticity, ɛ, for about 2300 galaxies of all morphological types observed with integral field spectroscopy as part of the MaNGA survey, the largest such sample to date. We use the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram to separate early-type galaxies into fast and slow rotators. We also visually classify each galaxy according to its optical morphology and two-dimensional stellar velocity field. Comparing these classifications to quantitative λ _{R_e} measurements reveals tight relationships between angular momentum and galaxy structure. In order to account for atmospheric seeing, we use realistic models of galaxy kinematics to derive a general approximate analytic correction for λ _{R_e}. Thanks to the size of the sample and the large number of massive galaxies, we unambiguously detect a clear bimodality in the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram which may result from fundamental differences in galaxy assembly history. There is a sharp secondary density peak inside the region of the diagram with low λ _{R_e} and ɛ their distribution of the misalignments between the photometric and kinematic position angles. We confirm that genuine slow rotators start appearing above M ≥ 2 × 1011M⊙ where a significant number of high-mass fast rotators also exist.

  13. Buffering capability and limitations in low dispersion photonic crystal waveguides with elliptical airholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fang; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng

    2010-09-01

    A low dispersion photonic crystal waveguide with triangular lattice elliptical airholes is proposed for compact, high-performance optical buffering applications. In the proposed structure, we obtain a negligible-dispersion bandwidth with constant group velocity ranging from c/41 to c/256, by optimizing the major and minor axes of bulk elliptical holes and adjusting the position and the hole size of the first row adjacent to the defect. In addition, the limitations of buffer performance in a dispersion engineering waveguide are well studied. The maximum buffer capacity and the maximum data rate can reach as high as 262bits and 515 Gbits/s, respectively. The corresponding delay time is about 255.4ps.

  14. The initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in semi-elliptical surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    A criterion to predict under what conditions EAC would Initiate In cracks In a high-sulfur steel in contact with low-oxygen water was recently proposed by Wire and U. This EAC Initiation Criterion was developed using transient analyses for the diffusion of sulfides plus experimental test results. The experiments were conducted mainly on compact tension-type specimens with initial crack depths of about 2.54 mm. The present paper expands upon the work of Wire and U by presenting results for significantly deeper initial semi-elliptical surface cracks. In addition, in one specimen, the surface crack penetrated weld-deposited cladding into the high-sulfur steel. The results for the semi-elliptical surface cracks agreed quite well with the EAC Initiation Criterion, and provide confirmation of the applicability of the criterion to crack configurations with more restricted access to water

  15. Nonlinear elliptic equations of the second order

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear elliptic differential equations are a diverse subject with important applications to the physical and social sciences and engineering. They also arise naturally in geometry. In particular, much of the progress in the area in the twentieth century was driven by geometric applications, from the Bernstein problem to the existence of Kähler-Einstein metrics. This book, designed as a textbook, provides a detailed discussion of the Dirichlet problems for quasilinear and fully nonlinear elliptic differential equations of the second order with an emphasis on mean curvature equations and on Monge-Ampère equations. It gives a user-friendly introduction to the theory of nonlinear elliptic equations with special attention given to basic results and the most important techniques. Rather than presenting the topics in their full generality, the book aims at providing self-contained, clear, and "elementary" proofs for results in important special cases. This book will serve as a valuable resource for graduate stu...

  16. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Identification and spectrophotometry of faint southern radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, H.; Kron, R.G.; Hunstead, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    We have observed a mixed sample of southern radio sources, identified on the Palomar sky survey or on previous direct plates taken with medium-aperture reflectors. At CIO we obtained a few deep 4m photographs and SIT spectrophotometry for redshift and continuum-color measurement. Almost all our sources were faint galaxies; the largest redshift measured was for 3C 275, with z=0.480. The ultraviolet continuum of PKS 0400--643, a ''thermal'' galaxy with z=0.476, closely resembles that of 3C 295 and shows some color evolution in U--B compared to nearby giant ellipticals

  18. Scale-free, axisymmetry galaxy models with little angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstone, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    Two scale-free models of elliptical galaxies are constructed using a self-consistent field approach developed by Schwarschild. Both models have concentric, oblate spheroidal, equipotential surfaces, with a logarithmic potential dependence on central distance. The axial ratio of the equipotential surfaces is 4:3, and the extent ratio of density level surfaces id 2.5:1 (corresponding to an E6 galaxy). Each model satisfies the Poisson and steady state Boltzmann equaion for time scales of order 100 galactic years

  19. Cannibal Stars Cause Giant Explosions in Fornax Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The VLT Observes Most Remote Novae Ever Seen About 70 million years ago, when dinosaurs were still walking on the Earth, a series of violent thermo-nuclear explosions took place in a distant galaxy. After a very long travel across vast reaches of virtually empty space (70 million light-years, or ~ 7 x 10 20 km), dim light carrying the message about these events has finally reached us. It was recorded by the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile) during an observing programme by a group of Italian astronomers [1]. The subsequent analysis has shown that the observers witnessed the most distant nova outbursts ever seen . They were caused by "stellar cannibalism" in binary systems in which one relatively cool star loses matter to its smaller and hotter companion. An instability results that leads to the ignition of a "hydrogen bomb" on the surface of the receiving star. The "Stella Nova" Phenomenon A stellar outburst of the type now observed with the VLT is referred to as a "Stella Nova" ("new star" in Latin), or just "Nova" . Novae caused by explosions in binary stars in our home galaxy, the Milky Way system, are relatively frequent and about every second or third year one of them is bright enough to be easily visible with the naked eye. For our ancestors, who had no means to see the faint binary star before the explosion, it looked as if a new star had been born in the sky, hence the name. The most common nova explosion occurs in a binary stellar system in which a white dwarf (a very dense and hot, compact star with a mass comparable to that of the Sun and a size like the Earth) accretes hydrogen from a cooler and larger red dwarf star [2]. As the hydrogen collects on the surface of the white dwarf star, it becomes progressively hotter until a thermonuclear explosion is ignited at the bottom of the collected gas. A huge amount of energy is released and causes a million-fold increase in the brightness of the binary system within a few hours

  20. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility