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Sample records for community-based intervention promoting

  1. Community-based population-level interventions for promoting child oral health.

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, AM; Hegde, S; Akudo Nwagbara, B; Calache, H; Gussy, MG; Nasser, M; Morrice, HR; Riggs, E; Leong, PM; Meyenn, LK; Yousefi-Nooraie, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental caries and gingival and periodontal disease are commonly occurring, preventable chronic conditions. Even though much is known about how to treat oral disease, currently we do not know which community-based population-level interventions are most effective and equitable in preventing poor oral health. OBJECTIVES: Primary • To determine the effectiveness of community-based population-level oral health promotion interventions in preventing dental caries and gingival and period...

  2. Community-based restaurant interventions to promote healthy eating: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Espino, Jennifer N; Guerrero, Natalie; Rhoads, Natalie; Simon, Norma-Jean; Escaron, Anne L; Meinen, Amy; Nieto, F Javier; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2015-05-21

    Eating in restaurants is associated with high caloric intake. This review summarizes and evaluates the evidence supporting community-based restaurant interventions. We searched all years of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through January 2014 for original articles describing or evaluating community-based restaurant interventions to promote healthy eating. We extracted summary information and classified the interventions into 9 categories according to the strategies implemented. A scoring system was adapted to evaluate the evidence, assigning 0 to 3 points to each intervention for study design, public awareness, and effectiveness. The average values were summed and then multiplied by 1 to 3 points, according to the volume of research available for each category. These summary scores were used to determine the level of evidence (insufficient, sufficient, or strong) supporting the effectiveness of each category. This review included 27 interventions described in 25 studies published since 1979. Most interventions took place in exclusively urban areas of the United States, either in the West or the South. The most common intervention categories were the use of point-of-purchase information with promotion and communication (n = 6), and point-of-purchase information with increased availability of healthy choices (n = 6). Only the latter category had sufficient evidence. The remaining 8 categories had insufficient evidence because of interventions showing no, minimal, or mixed findings; limited reporting of awareness and effectiveness; low volume of research; or weak study designs. No intervention reported an average negative impact on outcomes. Evidence about effective community-based strategies to promote healthy eating in restaurants is limited, especially for interventions in rural areas. To expand the evidence base, more studies should be conducted using robust study designs, standardized evaluation methods, and measures of sales, behavior, and health outcomes.

  3. Assessing Health Promotion Interventions: Limitations of Traditional Research Methods in Community-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Anne; Schneider, Robert; DeNomie, Melissa; Kusch, Jennifer; Welch, Whitney; Sosa, Mirtha; Yeldell, Sally; Maida, Tatiana; Wineberg, Jessica; Holt, Keith; Bernstein, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    Most low-income Americans fail to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactivity and poor diet contribute to obesity, a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Health promotion activities have the potential to improve health outcomes for low-income populations. Measuring the effectiveness of these activities, however, can be challenging in community settings. A "Biking for Health" study tested the impact of a bicycling intervention on overweight or obese low-income Latino and African American adults to reduce barriers to cycling and increase physical activity and fitness. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in summer 2015. A 12-week bicycling intervention was implemented at two sites with low-income, overweight, or obese Latino and African American adults. We found that randomized controlled trial methodology was suboptimal for use in this small pilot study and that it negatively affected participation. More discussion is needed about the effectiveness of using traditional research methods in community settings to assess the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. Modifications or alternative methods may yield better results. The aim of this article is to discuss the effectiveness and feasibility of using traditional research methods to assess health promotion interventions in community-based settings.

  4. Effectiveness of Community-based Intervention to Promote Iran′s Food-based Dietary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Shariatjafari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The intervention designed based on the Health Belief Model was effective in improving the adherence to FBDGs and could serve as a basic model for the promotion of healthy nutrition behavior among women in the primary health care setting.

  5. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  6. Translation of an Action Learning Collaborative Model Into a Community-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Butcher, Rebecca L; O'Connor, Sharon; Li, Zhigang; Bazos, Dorothy A

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs), whereby teams apply quality improvement (QI) tools and methods, have successfully improved patient care delivery and outcomes. We adapted and tested the ALC model as a community-based obesity prevention intervention focused on physical activity and healthy eating. The intervention used QI tools (e.g., progress monitoring) and team-based activities and was implemented in three communities through nine monthly meetings. To assess process and outcomes, we used a longitudinal repeated-measures and mixed-methods triangulation approach with a quasi-experimental design including objective measures at three time points. Most of the 97 participants were female (85.4%), White (93.8%), and non-Hispanic/Latino (95.9%). Average age was 52 years; 28.0% had annual household income of $20,000 or less; and mean body mass index was 35. Through mixed-effects models, we found some physical activity outcomes improved. Other outcomes did not significantly change. Although participants favorably viewed the QI tools, components of the QI process such as sharing goals and data on progress in teams and during meetings were limited. Participants' requests for more education or activities around physical activity and healthy eating, rather than progress monitoring and data sharing required for QI activities, challenged ALC model implementation. An ALC model for community-based obesity prevention may be more effective when applied to preexisting teams in community-based organizations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Development and evaluation of two web-based interventions for the promotion of physical activity in older adults: study protocol for a community-based controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Bragina, Inna; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Rost, Eric; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Schnauber, Jochen; Wasmann, Merlin; Toborg, Merle; Koppelin, Frauke; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-05-25

    Germany concerning the role of community-based interventions for the promotion of PA and healthy ageing in older adults. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00010052 (Date of registration 07-11-2016).

  8. Application of Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based health promotion pre-pregnancy intervention for adolescent girls in rural South Africa: Project Ntshembo (Hope).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals' health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA.

  9. Impact evaluation of "Have Fun - Be Healthy" program: A community based health promotion intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Thanya; Stoneman, Rebecca; Lamont, Amanda; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is rising in prevalence in Australia. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the "Have Fun-Be Healthy" (HFBH) intervention, delivered in the Playgroup setting, to generate short term changes in dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours of children under 5 years and self-efficacy of parents and primary carers. This intervention consisted of eight structured cooking and physical play sessions delivered over a period of 8 weeks by trained facilitators. Pre- and post-intervention data collection was performed using survey questionnaires administered to parents and carers of children under 5 years from low socioeconomic backgrounds recruited through convenience sampling. A total of 640 pre-intervention surveys and 312 post-intervention surveys were returned. The matched response rate was 45.5%. There was an improvement in mean intake of healthy foods and mean physical activity with a decrease in mean intake of unhealthy food and mean screen time in children (P > .05). Following the intervention, parental/carer self-efficacy in promoting healthy eating and limiting screen time of children improved significantly (P < .05). Children's physical activity levels and consumption of healthy foods were positively correlated with parental/carer self-efficacy (P < .01) while screen time and consumption of unhealthy foods were negatively correlated (P < .01). HFBH intervention was successful in improving the dietary, physical activity and screen time in children and parental self-efficacy. SO WHAT?: Being amongst the first of its' kind in Australia, the findings of this study can have implications for developing and implementing similar future health promotion interventions in comparable settings. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  10. The outcomes of health-promoting communities: being active eating well initiative-a community-based obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, K A; Kremer, P; Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Swinburn, B; de Silva, A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Health-Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative, which comprised community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. A mixed method and multilevel quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data. The evaluation involved both cross-sectional (children and adolescents) and longitudinal designs (adults) with data collected pre- and post-intervention in intervention (n=2408 children and adolescents from 18 schools, n=501 adults from 22 workplaces) and comparison groups (n=3163 children and adolescents from 33 schools, n=318 adults from seven workplaces). Anthropometry, obesity-related behavioural and environmental data, information regarding community context and implementation factors were collected. The primary outcomes were differences in anthropometry (weight, waist, body mass index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI z-score)) over time compared with comparison communities. Baseline data was collected 2008/2009 and post-intervention collected in 2010 with an average intervention time frame of approximately 12 months. The strategies most commonly implemented were related to social marketing, stakeholder engagement, network and partnership development, community-directed needs assessment and capacity building. Analysis of post-intervention data showed gains in community capacity, but few impacts on environments, policy or individual knowledge, skills, beliefs and perceptions. Relative to the comparison group, one community achieved a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity, lower weight, waist circumference and BMI (Pinitiative, which attempted to expand a previously successful community-based intervention in Victoria into five new contexts and communities. Overall

  11. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention promoting multiple maternal and neonatal care practices in rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwal Ram C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of delivering multiple, complex messages to promote maternal and newborn health in the terai region of Nepal was addressed through training Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs to counsel pregnant women and their families using a flipchart and a pictorial booklet that was distributed to clients. The booklet consists of illustrated messages presented on postcard-sized laminated cards that are joined by a ring. Pregnant women were encouraged to discuss booklet content with their families. Methods We examined use of the booklet and factors affecting adoption of practices through semi-structured interviews with district and community-level government health personnel, staff from the Nepal Family Health Program, FCHVs, recently delivered women and their husbands and mothers-in-law. Results The booklet is shared among household members, promotes discussion, and is referred to when questions arise or during emergencies. Booklet cards on danger signs and nutritious foods are particularly well-received. Cards on family planning and certain aspects of birth preparedness generate less interest. Husbands and mothers-in-law control decision-making for maternal and newborn care-seeking and related household-level behaviors. Conclusions Interpersonal peer communication through trusted community-level volunteers is an acceptable primary strategy in Nepal for promotion of household-level behaviors. The content and number of messages should be simplified or streamlined before being scaled-up to minimize intervention complexity and redundant communication.

  12. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

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    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  13. Promoting physical activity in a low-income neighborhood of the Paris suburb of Saint-Denis: effects of a community-based intervention to increase physical activity

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    Camille Buscail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is a key factor for facing the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight, and should be part of every public health programs. In this context, a community-based public health program promoting PA was developed in a low-income neighborhood of the city of Saint-Denis (France. Methods This work aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 2-year PA promotion program. A quasi-experimental study was carried out using a pre/post design, with an assessment before (2013 and after (2015 the program. The interviewees were selected using a stratified random cluster sampling. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants practicing sufficient PA (WHO guidelines, and was measured using the RPAQ questionnaire. External interventions (on both neighborhood environment and inhabitants were listed. Results We collected 199 questionnaires at baseline and 217 in 2015. There was a majority of women in both samples: 64.3 % in 2013 and 58.2 % in 2015. The average age of participants was 38.1 years (+/−1.1 and 40.6 (+/−1.1 respectively. The proportion of people practicing sufficient PA was modified from 48.1 % in 2013 to 63.5 % in 2015 (p = 0.001. This was mainly driven by women whose level of PA, increased from 40.3 % to 60.3 % (p = 0.002, reaching the average national French estimation of PA level among adults (63.5 %. Conclusions This work showed a significant increase of the proportion of people practicing PA in a disadvantaged neighborhood where a community-based program promoting PA was developed. Simultaneous external interventions contributed to the results, showing the necessity of synergic interventions to reach efficiency.

  14. Ecological theory in practice: illustrations from a community-based intervention to promote the health of recent mothers.

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    Hawe, Penelope; Riley, Therese

    2005-09-01

    We present a qualitative case study where we used four principles of ecological theory from community psychology as a template to assess the dynamics about how a preventive community intervention was transacted in eight communities in Victoria, Australia. The principles were cycling of resources, interdependence, adaptation, and succession. Ecological thinking focuses on key resources in communities. That is, the people, events, and settings that are the foundations of thinking about communities as systems. The data set consists of field diaries kept by and serial interviews with nine community development workers over a 2-year period. We found that the analysis highlighted a process-oriented way of representing the intervention, one that sees beyond the intervention's technical components (or packaged elements) to the complexities of the cultural and political change processes occurring beneath. The value of this is the attention focussed on likely project sustainability.

  15. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

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    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  16. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

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    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old and seniors (>60-years-old in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. Methods The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1 a children study and 2 a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. Discussion The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  17. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  18. HOME Plus: Program design and implementation of a family-focused, community-based intervention to promote the frequency and healthfulness of family meals, reduce children's sedentary behavior, and prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Horning, Melissa; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Kubik, Martha Y; Story, Mary

    2015-04-29

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with one's family are associated with better dietary quality and healthy body weight for youth. Given the poor dietary quality of many youth, potential benefits of family meals for better nutritional intake and great variation in family meals, development and evaluation of interventions aimed at improving and increasing family meals are needed. This paper presents the design of key intervention components and process evaluation of a community-based program (Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus) to prevent obesity. The HOME Plus intervention was part of a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) randomized-controlled trial. Ten monthly, two-hour sessions and five motivational/goal-setting telephone calls to promote healthy eating and increasing family meals were delivered in community-based settings in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. The present study included 81 families (8-12 year old children and their parents) in the intervention condition. Process surveys were administered at the end of each intervention session and at a home visit after the intervention period. Chi-squares and t-tests were used for process survey analysis. The HOME Plus program was successfully implemented and families were highly satisfied. Parents and children reported that the most enjoyable component was cooking with their families, learning how to eat more healthfully, and trying new recipes/foods and cooking tips. Average session attendance across the ten months was high for families (68%) and more than half completed their home activities. Findings support the value of a community-based, family-focused intervention program to promote family meals, limit screen time, and prevent obesity. NCT01538615.

  19. Facing unemployment: study protocol for the implementation and evaluation of a community-based intervention for psychological well-being promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgolino, Ana; Heitor, Maria João; Carreiras, Joana; Lopes, Elisa; Øverland, Simon; Torp, Steffen; Guðmundsdóttir, Dora; Miguel, José Pereira; Fátima Reis, M; Santos, Osvaldo

    2017-07-19

    Economic crises and unemployment have profound impact on mental health and well-being. Main goal of the Healthy Employment (HE) project is to enhance intersectoral actions promoting mental health among unemployed, namely through the implementation and effectiveness-evaluation of short-term and sustainable group interventions. The project follows a RE-AIM-based (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) framework for assessing a cognitive-behavioural and psychoeducational intervention that has been developed for promoting mental health among unemployed people. It is a short-term group intervention (five sessions, four hours each, 20 unemployed persons per group) focused on mental health literacy, interpersonal communication and of emotional regulation. Implementation of the intervention will be carried out by clinical psychologists, following a standardized procedure manual. Effectiveness will be assessed through a randomized field study with two arms (intervention and control). Participants are unemployed people (18-65 years old, both genders, having at least nine years of formal education) registered at public employment centres from different geographical regions for less than 12 months (including first-job seekers). Allocation to arms of the study will follow a random match-to-case process, considering gender, age groups and educational level. Three moments of evaluation will occur: before intervention (baseline), immediately after its ending and three months later. Main outcomes are mental health literacy, mental health related personal and perceived stigma, psychological well-being, satisfaction with life and resilience. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be conducted. Cohen's d coefficient and odds ratio will be used for assessing the size of the intervention effect, when significant. Scientific and clinical knowledge will be applied to promote/protect psychological well-being of unemployed people. While the first phases

  20. Evaluation of complex community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions.

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    Karacabeyli, D; Allender, S; Pinkney, S; Amed, S

    2018-05-16

    Multi-setting, multi-component community-based interventions have shown promise in preventing childhood obesity; however, evaluation of these complex interventions remains a challenge. The objective of the study is to systematically review published methodological approaches to outcome evaluation for multi-setting community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions and synthesize a set of pragmatic recommendations. MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 6 July 2017. Papers were included if the intervention targeted children ≤18 years, engaged at least two community sectors and described their outcome evaluation methodology. A single reviewer conducted title and abstract scans, full article review and data abstraction. Directed content analysis was performed by three reviewers to identify prevailing themes. Thirty-three studies were included, and of these, 26 employed a quasi-experimental design; the remaining were randomized control trials. Body mass index was the most commonly measured outcome, followed by health behaviour change and psychosocial outcomes. Six themes emerged, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of active vs. passive consent, quasi-experimental vs. randomized control trials, longitudinal vs. repeat cross-sectional designs and the roles of process evaluation and methodological flexibility in evaluating complex interventions. Selection of study designs and outcome measures compatible with community infrastructure, accompanied by process evaluation, may facilitate successful outcome evaluation. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  1. A rural, community-based suicide awareness and intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon; Walker, Coralanne; Miles, Alison C J; De Silva, Eve; Zimitat, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a prominent public health issue in rural Australia and specifically in Tasmania, which has one of the highest suicide rates in the country. The Community Response to Eliminating Suicide (CORES) program was developed in rural Tasmania in response to a significant number of suicides over a short period of time. CORES is unique in that it is both a community-based and gatekeeper education model. CORES aims to build and empower communities to take ownership of suicide prevention strategies. It also aims to increase the individual community member's interpersonal skills and awareness of suicide risks, while building peer support and awareness of suicide prevention support services within the community itself. Pre- and post-test surveys after the CORES 1-day suicide awareness and intervention program (SAIP) showed significant increases in levels of comfort and confidence in discussing suicide with those who may be contemplating that action. CORES builds community capital through establishing new connections within communities. Establishment of local executive groups, funding and SAIP are key activities of successful CORES programs in communities around Australia. Over half of the initial leaders are still actively involved after a decade, which reflects positively on the quality and outcomes of the program. This study supports CORES as a beneficial and feasible community-based suicide intervention program for rural communities.

  2. Defining sustainable practice in community-based health promotion: a Delphi study of practitioner perspectives.

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    Harris, Neil; Sandor, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of practice must be a central imperative in the practice of community-based health promotion to achieve population health and attract a greater share of public health spending. Although there has been some consideration of sustainability at the project or program levels, often understood as intervention longevity, very limited attention has been given to understanding sustainable practice. The present study develops a definition and features of sustainable practice in community-based health promotion through a Delphi method with health promotion practitioners in Queensland, Australia. The study presents a consensus definition and features of sustainable practice. The definition highlights the importance of collaboration, health determinants and aspirations, processes and outcomes. The four features of sustainable practice identified in the study are: (1) effective relationships and partnerships; (2) evidence-based decision making and practice; (3) emphasis on building community capacity; and (4) supportive context for practice. The definition and features are, to a large extent, consistent with the limited literature around sustainability at the project and program levels of health promotion. Together, they provide insight into a form of community-based health promotion that will be both viable and productive. So what? This consensus understanding of sustainable practice articulates the foundations of working effectively with local communities in achieving improved population health within global limits.

  3. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

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    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  4. Composing hope through collage: A community-based intervention for cancer survivors living with lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roanne Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary lymphedema after cancer may result in distress, yet few interventions exist to support coping skills in this population. As part of a community-based intervention, we piloted the use of creative practices to promote active orientations to hope. A total of 19 participants completed the workshops; 11 collaged. The main themes address the collage processes as well as their content. The former addresses sub-themes such as selecting/composing. The latter includes sub-themes related to movement depicted in the collages. Collages and their associated discussions concretized hoping as an active and accessible process for participants living with two chronic illnesses.

  5. Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented.

  6. Facilitating Low-Carbon Living? A Comparison of Intervention Measures in Different Community-Based Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schäfer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of facilitating a shift towards sustainable housing, food and mobility has been taken up by diverse community-based initiatives ranging from “top-down” approaches in low-carbon municipalities to “bottom-up” approaches in intentional communities. This paper compares intervention measures in four case study areas belonging to these two types, focusing on their potential of re-configuring daily housing, food, and mobility practices. Taking up critics on dominant intervention framings of diffusing low-carbon technical innovations and changing individual behavior, we draw on social practice theory for the empirical analysis of four case studies. Framing interventions in relation to re-configuring daily practices, the paper reveals differences and weaknesses of current low-carbon measures of community-based initiatives in Germany and Austria. Low-carbon municipalities mainly focus on introducing technologies and offering additional infrastructure and information to promote low-carbon practices. They avoid interfering into residents’ daily lives and do not restrict carbon-intensive practices. In contrast, intentional communities base their interventions on the collective creation of shared visions, decisions, and rules and thus provide social and material structures, which foster everyday low-carbon practices and discourage carbon-intensive ones. The paper discusses the relevance of organizational and governance structures for implementing different types of low-carbon measures and points to opportunities for broadening current policy strategies.

  7. Knowledge and Use of Intervention Practices by Community-Based Early Intervention Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…

  8. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  9. Promoting physical activity among youth through community-based prevention marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-05-01

    Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.

  10. Project SoL—A community-based, multi-component health promotion intervention to improve eating habits and physical activity among Danish families with young children. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Bloch, Paul; Reinbach, Helene C.

    2018-01-01

    Project SoL was implemented over a period of four years from 2012–2015 with the aim to promote healthy eating and physical activity among families with children aged 3–8 years, living in selected communities in two Danish municipalities. This was done by applying the supersetting approach...... to implement complex multi-component interventions in a participatory, coordinated, and integrated manner in childcare centres, schools, and supermarkets in three local communities, as well as in local media during a 19-month period in the Regional Municipality of Bornholm, which served as the intervention...

  11. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Khan, Omar Farooq; Asghar, Jamshaid; Munroe, Erik; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Wajahat; Ali, Sajid; Ahmed, Aftab; Ali, Moazzam; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-03-17

    Family planning (FP) interventions aimed at reducing population growth have negligible during the last two decades in Pakistan. Innovative FP interventions that help reduce the growing population burden are the need of the hour. Marie Stopes Society--Pakistan implemented an operational research project--'Evidence for Innovating to Save Lives', to explore effective and viable intervention models that can promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy in rural and under-served communities of Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. We conducted a quasi-experimental (pre- and post-intervention with control arm) study to assess the effectiveness of each of the two intervention models, (1) Suraj model (meaning 'Sun' in English), which uses social franchises (SF) along with a demand-side financing (DSF) approach using free vouchers, and (2) Community Midwife (CMW) model, in promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods compared to respective controls. Baseline and endline cross-sectional household surveys were conducted, 24 months apart, by recruiting 5566 and 6316 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) respectively. We used Stata version 8 to report the net effect of interventions on outcome indicators using difference-in-differences analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess the net effect of the intervention on current contraceptive use, keeping time constant and adjusting for other variables in the model. The Suraj model was effective in significantly increasing awareness about FP methods among MWRA by 14% percentage points, current contraceptive use by 5% percentage points and long term modern method--intrauterine device (IUD) use by 6% percentage points. The CMW model significantly increased contraceptive awareness by 28% percentage points, ever use of contraceptives by 7% percentage points and, IUD use by 3% percentage points. Additionally the Suraj intervention led to a 35% greater prevalence

  12. Development and evaluation of a training workshop for lay health promoters to implement a community-based intervention program in a public low rent housing estate: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y; Stewart, Sunita M; Wan, Alice; Fok, Helen; Lai, Hebe Y W; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of the train-the-trainer (TTT) workshop for lay resident leaders to be lay health promoters. The TTT workshop aimed to prepare the trainees to implement and/or assist in conducting a series of community-based family well-being activities for the residents in a public low rent housing estate, entitled "Learning Families Project", under the FAMILY project. The four-hour TTT workshop was conducted for 32 trainees (72% women, 43% aged ≥ 60, 41% ≤ elementary school education). The workshop aimed to promote trainees' knowledge, self-efficacy, attitude and practice of incorporating the positive psychology themes into their community activities and engaging the residents to join these activities and learn with their family members. Post-training support was provided. The effectiveness of the TTT was examined by self-administered questionnaires about trainees' reactions to training content, changes in learning and practice at three time points (baseline, and immediately and one year after training), and the difference in residents' survey results before and after participating in the community activities delivered by the trainees. The trainees' learning about the general concepts of family well-being, learning family, leadership skills and planning skills increased significantly with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d: 0.5-1.4) immediately after the training. The effects of perceived knowledge and attitude towards practice were sustained to one year (Cohen's d: 0.4-0.6). The application of planning skills to implement community activities was higher at one year (Cohen's d: 0.4), compared with baseline. At one year, the residents' survey results showed significant increases in the practice of positive communication behaviours and better neighbour cohesions after joining the family well-being activities of LFP. Qualitative feedback supported the quantitative results. Our TTT workshop could serve as a practical

  13. The Girlfriends Project: Evaluating a Promising Community-Based Intervention from a Bottom-Up Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in research but may not fully explain or predict outcome variations in community-based interventions. Demonstrating efficacy of externally driven programs in well-controlled environments may not translate to community-based implementation where resources and priorities vary. A bottom-up evaluation…

  14. The community-based participatory intervention effect of "HIV-RAAP".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Elleen M; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H; Yuan, Keming

    2012-07-01

    To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission.

  15. A community-based lifestyle and weight loss intervention promoting a Mediterranean-style diet pattern evaluated in the stroke belt of North Carolina: the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, Thomas C; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Pitts, Stephanie Jilcott; Garcia, Beverly A; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Miller, Cassandra L; Braxton, Danielle F; Evenson, Kelly R; Smith, Janice C; Davis, Gwen B; Quenum, Emmanuelle L; Elliott, Nadya T Majette; Gross, Myron D; Donahue, Katrina E; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2016-08-05

    Because residents of the southeastern United States experience disproportionally high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is important to develop effective lifestyle interventions for this population. The primary objective was to develop and evaluate a dietary, physical activity (PA) and weight loss intervention for residents of the southeastern US. The intervention, given in eastern North Carolina, was evaluated in a 2 year prospective cohort study with an embedded randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included: Phase I (months 1-6), individually-tailored intervention promoting a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and increased walking; Phase II (months 7-12), option of a 16-week weight loss intervention for those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) offered in 2 formats (16 weekly group sessions or 5 group sessions and 10 phone calls) or a lifestyle maintenance intervention; and Phase III (months 13-24), weight loss maintenance RCT for those losing ≥ 8 lb with all other participants receiving a lifestyle maintenance intervention. Change in diet and PA behaviors, CVD risk factors, and weight were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 month follow-up. Baseline characteristics (N = 339) were: 260 (77 %) females, 219 (65 %) African Americans, mean age 56 years, and mean body mass index 36 kg/m(2). In Phase I, among 251 (74 %) that returned for 6 month follow-up, there were substantial improvements in diet score (4.3 units [95 % CI 3.7 to 5.0]), walking (64 min/week [19 to 109]), and systolic blood pressure (-6.4 mmHg [-8.7 to -4.1]) that were generally maintained through 24 month follow-up. In Phase II, 138 (57 group only, 81 group/phone) chose the weight loss intervention and at 12 months, weight change was: -3.1 kg (-4.9 to -1.3) for group (N = 50) and -2.1 kg (-3.2 to -1.0) for group/phone combination (N = 75). In Phase III, 27 participants took part in the RCT. At 24 months, weight loss

  16. A Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…

  17. The intervention effects ofa community-based hypertension control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population was screened for hypertension, non- ... a large effect in the subgroup above the cut-off point for hypertension .... were addressed by means of posters, billboards and mailings in ... intensity intervention (UI) that focused on the use of.

  18. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Using community-based interventions to improve disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management, improved health systems support, and improved family and community practices, also known as Community-. IMCI (C-IMCI). Since families have the major responsibility of caring for their children, success in reducing childhood mortality and in promoting optimal growth and development of children requires a ...

  20. An ethnography of clinic "noise" in a community-based, promotora-centered mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getrich, Christina; Heying, Shirley; Willging, Cathleen; Waitzkin, Howard

    2007-07-01

    Community-based health interventions have emerged as a growing focus for anthropological research. The application of ethnographic approaches in clinical practice settings reveals that community-based interventions must grapple with "noise," or unanticipated factors such as patients' own perceptions of illness and treatment, primary care providers' non-adherence to guidelines-based treatment, the social dynamics of the clinic site itself, and incomplete understanding and acceptance of an intervention by a clinic's staff members. Such noise can influence the implementation and quality of treatment. Thus, identifying clinic-based noise is critical in assessments of fidelity to intervention protocols as well as outcomes of community-based interventions. This paper highlights findings from an evaluation of a mental health intervention focusing on the role of promotoras (briefly trained, non-professional community health workers) as mental health practitioners in two urban New Mexico, USA, community health centers. Our research identified three areas of clinic-based noise: the clinics' physical ability to "absorb" the intervention, the challenges of co-worker instability and interpersonal relationships, and balancing extra workplace demands. The findings demonstrate the value of ethnographic approaches in community-based intervention research.

  1. The assessment of ongoing community-based interventions to prevent obesity: lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Mathisen, F.K.S.; Samdal, O.; Lobstein, T.; Kohl, L.F.M.; Leversen, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Assema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The assessment of real-life, community-based interventions to tackle obesity is an important step in the development of effective policies. Especially multi-level interventions have a high likely effectiveness and potential reach in counteracting the obesity epidemic. Although much can

  2. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  3. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The

  4. Pre-pregnancy community-based intervention for couples in Malaysia: application of intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Shane A; Ho, Julius Cheah Chee; Rashed, Aswir Abd; Vinding, Vibeke; Skau, Jutta K H; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Hanson, Mark; Matzen, Priya

    2016-11-17

    Malaysia is experiencing a nutrition transition with burgeoning obesity, particularly in women, and a growing prevalence of non-communicable disease. These health burdens have severe implications not only for adult health but also across generations. Pre-conception health promotion could address the intergenerational risk of metabolic disease. This paper describes the development of the "Jom Mama" intervention using Intervention Mapping (IM). The Jom Mama intervention aims to improve the health of young adult couples in Malaysia prior to conception. IM comprises of five steps prior to the last one, which involves the evaluation of the intervention. We used the five steps to develop the Jom Mama intervention. Both the process and evidence is documented providing the rationale to the selection of the key objectives of the intervention: (i) increasing healthy dietary practice; (ii) increasing physical activity levels, (iii) reducing sedentary activity; and (iv) improving social support to offset stressful lifestyles. From the IM process, Jom Mama will be health-system centred approach that uniquely combines both community health promoters and an electronic-health platform to deliver the complex intervention. IM is an iterative process that systematically gathers "best" evidence, selects appropriate theories of behaviour change, and facilitates formative research so as to develop a complex intervention. Though the IM process is time consuming, complex, and costly, it has enriched the Jom Mama intervention with a number of notable advantages: (i) intervention fashioned on formative work with stakeholders and in the target group; (ii) intervention combines research evidence with theory; (iii) intervention acknowledges multiple dynamics of influence; and (iv) intervention is embedded within health service priorities in Malaysia for greater scale-up possibility.

  5. Pre-pregnancy community-based intervention for couples in Malaysia: application of intervention mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A. Norris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia is experiencing a nutrition transition with burgeoning obesity, particularly in women, and a growing prevalence of non-communicable disease. These health burdens have severe implications not only for adult health but also across generations. Pre-conception health promotion could address the intergenerational risk of metabolic disease. This paper describes the development of the “Jom Mama” intervention using Intervention Mapping (IM. The Jom Mama intervention aims to improve the health of young adult couples in Malaysia prior to conception. Methods IM comprises of five steps prior to the last one, which involves the evaluation of the intervention. We used the five steps to develop the Jom Mama intervention. Results Both the process and evidence is documented providing the rationale to the selection of the key objectives of the intervention: (i increasing healthy dietary practice; (ii increasing physical activity levels, (iii reducing sedentary activity; and (iv improving social support to offset stressful lifestyles. From the IM process, Jom Mama will be health-system centred approach that uniquely combines both community health promoters and an electronic-health platform to deliver the complex intervention. Conclusion IM is an iterative process that systematically gathers “best” evidence, selects appropriate theories of behaviour change, and facilitates formative research so as to develop a complex intervention. Though the IM process is time consuming, complex, and costly, it has enriched the Jom Mama intervention with a number of notable advantages: (i intervention fashioned on formative work with stakeholders and in the target group; (ii intervention combines research evidence with theory; (iii intervention acknowledges multiple dynamics of influence; and (iv intervention is embedded within health service priorities in Malaysia for greater scale-up possibility.

  6. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  7. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, Karla A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled

  8. Promotion of a primary healthcare philosophy in a community-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promotion of a primary healthcare philosophy in a community-based nursing education programme from the students' perspective. ... Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of KwaZulu-Natal Ethics Review Committee. Participation was voluntary, informed consent was obtained, and other ethical principles were ...

  9. Community-based counselors' interventions for elementary school-age children coping with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Baker-Phibbs, Christina; Woodson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Child trauma is a mental health concern and more information is needed about treatment in community mental health settings. This article presents results of a focus group and member checking sessions held with counselors who provided therapy for children experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder in a community-based setting. Results indicated that play and art techniques were commonly used during individual child therapy sessions. Sessions were child-directed and allowed children to review trauma experiences in a "safe" setting with an "expert" guide. Several themes were commonly addressed in sessions including opportunities to re-experience, release, and reorganize the trauma, building resilience or self-esteem for the child, promoting safety, and helping the child to regulate emotional reactions and behavior problems. Counselors focused on discussing ways to interact with the child to promote healing and there was a belief that children would return to a positive developmental trajectory after coping with traumatic experiences. Future research needs to address what works for whom, in terms of what interventions are useful in child-directed counseling sessions for children who have experienced specific types of trauma, such as sexual and physical abuse or witnessing domestic violence. Integration of knowledge from evidence-based treatments will also further inform clinical practice with children who have experienced traumatic events.

  10. Development of project wings home visits, a mental health intervention for Latino families using community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Hermann, Denise; Bartels, Anna; Matamoros, Pablo; Dick-Olson, Linda; Guerra de Patino, Janeth

    2012-11-01

    As the Latino population in the United States experiences rapid growth, the well-being of Latino adolescents is a growing concern because of their high rates of mental health problems. Latino adolescents have higher rates of mental health problems than their peers, including depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, and violence. Sophisticated, realistic health promotion efforts are needed to reduce these risk behaviors and enhance protective factors. Parents and schools can be key protective factors, or assets, in adolescents' lives. This article details the steps undertaken to develop Project Wings Home Visits, a collaborative school-based, community-linked mental health promotion intervention for Latino adolescents and their families. Core to the intervention is the use of a community health worker model to provide home-based outreach and education to parents of Latino adolescents. The intervention was developed using a community-based participatory research approach that involved the cooperation of a community health care system, a public high school, and a university. Our process demonstrates the benefits, strengths, and challenges of using community-based participatory research in creating and implementing health promotion interventions.

  11. The Community-based Participatory Intervention Effect of “HIV-RAAP”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Elleen M.; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H.; Yuan, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. Methods A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. Results The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). Conclusions The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22488405

  12. Evaluation of a community-based participatory physical activity promotion project: effect on cardiovascular disease risk profiles of school employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Cee E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

  13. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

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    Balaji Madhumitha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and

  14. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram

    2012-02-16

    Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion) to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and expected them to have knowledge about the subject matter

  15. Community-based interventions for obesity prevention: lessons learned by Australian policy-makers

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    Haby Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.

  16. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve

  17. Towards Community-Based Communication Intervention for Severely Handicapped Children. Report ASS/BBS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Erna

    This report describes the development of a community-based service for the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication strategies with regard to children with severe disabilities in South Africa. The intervention process was developed by the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication of the University of Pretoria. The…

  18. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart of a cohort of residents (n = 909 in the intervention area (n = 520 (Fairfield and Liverpool and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389 (Bankstown. Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels.

  19. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  20. Community-based health and schools of nursing: supporting health promotion and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of community-based schools of nursing in the promotion of public health and research in poverty-stricken areas. This was a three-phase study (questionnaire and key-informants' interviews) that surveyed representatives of prelicensure associate and baccalaureate nursing schools (n=17), nursing-school key informants (n=6) and community leaders (n=10). A 13-question web-based survey and semi-structured interview of key informants elicited data on demographics, nursing program design, exposure of faculty and students to various research and health promotion methods, and beliefs about student involvement. Nursing schools participated minimally in community-based health promotion (CBHP) and community-based participatory research saw reduced need for student involvement in such activities, cited multiple barriers to active community collaboration, and reported restricted community partnerships. CBHP was recognized to be a valuable element of health care and student education, but is obstructed by many barriers. This study suggests that nursing schools are not taking full advantage of relationships with community leaders. Recommendations for action are given. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  2. A systematic review on community-based interventions for elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearing, Gwendolyn; Sheppard, Christine L; McDonald, Lynn; Beaulieu, Marie; Hitzig, Sander L

    2017-03-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a societal issue that requires prevention and intervention strategies at the practice and policy level. A systematic review on the efficacy of community-based elder abuse interventions was undertaken to advance the state of knowledge in the field. The peer-reviewed literature between 2009 and December 2015 were searched across four databases. Two raters independently reviewed all articles, assessed their methodological quality, and used a modified Sackett Scale to assign levels of evidence. Four thousand nine hundred and five articles were identified; nine were selected for inclusion. Although there was Level-1 evidence for psychological interventions (n = 2), only one study on strategies for relatives (START) led to a reported decrease in elder abuse. There was Level-4 evidence for conservatorship, an elder abuse intervention/prevention program (ECARE), and a multidisciplinary intervention (n = 4), in which one study yielded significant decreases in elder abuse and/or neglect. The remaining three were classified as Level-5 evidence (n = 3) for elder mediation and multidisciplinary interventions. There are limited studies with high levels of evidence for interventions that decrease elder abuse and neglect. The scarcity of community-based interventions for older adults and caregivers highlights the need for further work to elevate the quality of studies.

  3. A framework for evaluating community-based physical activity promotion programmes in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas L; Librett, John; Neiman, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Salmon, Art

    2006-01-01

    A growing interest in promoting physical activity through multi-sectoral community-based programmes has highlighted the need for effective programme evaluation. Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, an international workgroup of behavioural, medical, public health and other scientists and practitioners endorsed the principle of careful evaluation of all programmes and in a consensus process developed the Rio de Janeiro Recommendations for Evaluation of Physical Activity Interventions". Among these recommendations and principles were that when possible, evaluation should 'built into' the programme from the beginning. The workgroup also called for adequate funding for evaluation, setting a goal of about 10% of programme resources for evaluation. The group also determined that evaluations should be developed in conjunction with and the results shared with all appropriate stakeholders in the programme; evaluations should be guided by ethical standards such as those proposed by the American Evaluation Association and should assess programme processes as well as outcomes; evaluation outcomes should be used to revise and refine ongoing programmes and guide decisions about programme continuation or expansion. It was also recognised that additional training in programme evaluation is needed and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook could be easily adapted for use in culturally diverse communities, especially in Latin America. This paper describes a 6-step evaluation process and provides the full set of recommendations from the Rio de Janeiro Workgroup. The handbook has been translated and additional case studies from Colombia and Brazil have been added. Spanish and Portuguese language editions of the Evaluation Handbook are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Physical Activity and Health Branch.

  4. Community-Based Recreational Football: A Novel Approach to Promote Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte Marie Bruun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors.

  5. Community-Based Recreational Football: A Novel Approach to Promote Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Johansen, Christoffer; Rørth, Mikael; Midtgaard, Julie

    2014-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors. PMID:24865394

  6. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  8. Effectiveness of comprehensive social support interventions among elderly patients with tuberculosis in communities in China: a community-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuhui; Wang, Bin; Tan, Dixin; Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Dandan; Tang, Cong; Cai, Xiaonan; Yan, Yaqiong; Zhang, Sheng; Jin, Bo; Yu, Songlin; Liang, Xunchang; Chu, Qian; Xu, Yihua

    2018-05-01

    With the increasing of ageing population, tuberculosis in the elderly brings a challenge for the tuberculosis (TB) control in China. Enough social support can promote the treatment adherence and outcome of the elderly patients with TB. Exploring effective interventions to improve the social support of patients is of great significance for TB management and control. A community-based, repeated measurement trial was conducted. Patients with TB >65 years of age were allocated into the intervention or control group. Patients in the intervention group received comprehensive social support interventions, while those in the control group received health education alone. The social support level of patients was measured at baseline and at the first, third and sixth months during the intervention to assess the effectiveness of comprehensive social support interventions. A total of 201 patients were recruited into the study. Compared with the control group, social support for patients in the intervention group increased significantly over time (β group*time =0.61, Psupport (β group*time =0.15, Psupport (β group*time =0.32, Psupport utilisation (β group*time =0.16, Psupport interventions, can improve the social support for elderly patients with TB compared with single health education. ChiCTR-IOR-16009232. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sunita M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. Methods The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships. Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Results Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. Conclusions This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal

  10. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita M; Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-02-07

    This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships). Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal additional costs for delivery by community agencies, and high

  11. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  12. Brighter Smiles Africa--translation of a Canadian community-based health-promoting school program to Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Radziminski, N; Budden, H; Kasangaki, A; Zavuga, R; Gagnon, F A; Mbabali, M

    2010-08-01

    PROJECT GOAL: To adapt a successful Canadian health-promoting school initiative to a Ugandan context through international partnership. Rural children face many health challenges worldwide; health professionals in training understand these better through community-based learning. Aboriginal leaders in a Canadian First-Nations community identified poor oral health as a child health issue with major long-term societal impact and intervened successfully with university partners through a school-based program called "Brighter Smiles". Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (MUK) sought to implement this delivery model for both the benefit of communities and the dental students. MUK identified rural communities where hospitals could provide dental students with community-based learning and recruited four local schools. A joint Ugandan and Canadian team of both trainees and faculty planned the program, obtained ethics consent and baseline data, initiated the Brighter Smiles intervention model (daily at-school tooth-brushing; in-class education), and recruited a cohort to receive additional bi-annual topical fluoride. Hurdles included: challenging international communication and planning due to inconsistent internet connections; discrepancies between Canadian and developing world concepts of research ethics and informed consent; complex dynamics for community engagement and steep learning curve for accurate data collection; an itinerant population at one school; and difficulties coordinating Canadian and Ugandan university schedules. Four health-promoting schools were established; teachers, children, and families were engaged in the initiative; community-based learning was adopted for the university students; quarterly team education/evaluation/service delivery visits to schools were initiated; oral health improved, and new knowledge and practices were evident; an effective international partnership was formed providing global health education, research and health care

  13. Effect of local cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry A; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Thirgood, Simon J; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2010-08-01

    Conservation interventions require evaluation to understand what factors predict success or failure. To date, there has been little systematic investigation of the effect of social and cultural context on conservation success, although a large body of literature argues it is important. We investigated whether local cultural context, particularly local institutions and the efforts of interventions to engage with this culture significantly influence conservation outcomes. We also tested the effects of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration. We systematically reviewed the literature on community-based conservation and identified 68 interventions suitable for inclusion. We used a protocol to extract and code information and evaluated a range of measures of outcome success (attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic). We also examined the association of each predictor with each outcome measure and the structure of predictor covariance. Local institutional context influenced intervention outcomes, and interventions that engaged with local institutions were more likely to succeed. Nevertheless, there was limited support for the role of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration on intervention success. We recommend that conservation interventions seek to understand the societies they work with and tailor their activities accordingly. Systematic reviews are a valuable approach for assessing conservation evidence, although sensitive to the continuing lack of high-quality reporting on conservation interventions.

  14. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  15. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  16. Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  17. Effectiveness of community based Safe Motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, Declare; Mpembeni, Rose; Jahn, Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%), only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs). Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (rho utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  18. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences...

  19. Community-based intervention for blood pressure reduction in Nepal (COBIN trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Christensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    . The study will provide detailed information on the burden of blood pressure and also whether treatment targets are being met. Moreover, evidence will be provided on the future role of female community health volunteers for hypertension management in Nepal. The lessons learned from this study may also...... study is to determine the effect of family-based home health education and blood pressure monitoring by trained female community health volunteers. The primary outcome is change in mean systolic blood pressure. A community-based, open-masked, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted...... proportion size, 929 individuals for the intervention group and 709 individuals for the control group will participate in the study. Due to the nature of the study, study participants are not compensated or insured. As part of the blood pressure intervention, trained female community health volunteers...

  20. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2013-07-01

    Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion.

  1. An adaptive community-based participatory approach to formative assessment with high schools for obesity intervention*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L

    2012-03-01

    In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  2. Evaluation of a community-based participatory farmworker eye health intervention in the "black dirt" region of New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Wyckoff, Lynae; Carrasquillo, Marilyn; Scribani, Melissa; Jenkins, Paul; May, John

    2014-09-01

    Eye irritation is a constant hazard for migrant and seasonal farmworkers, but there are few studies of the problem or how to address it. Researchers evaluated the effect of a community-based participatory eye health intervention on farmworker eye symptoms in the Hudson Valley, NY. A randomized pre-post intervention with 2, 4-week follow-up periods was implemented with a sample of 97 farmworkers. Five eye symptoms were measured, along with utilization of protective eyewear and eye drops. Leading baseline eye symptoms were redness (49%), blurred vision (43%), itching (43%), and eye pain (29%). Significant reductions in eye pain (P = 0.009), and non-significant reductions in redness were observed for the intervention group while controls experienced increases in both. The intervention was effective in significantly reducing eye pain, and to a lesser extent, redness. Future eyewear promotion programs should offer a range of eye wear, tailor offerings to local climate and tasks, evaluate eyewear durability, and include eye drops. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Community-based physical activity intervention using principles of social marketing: a demonstration project in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  4. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  5. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  6. Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-12-05

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular social media channels, the types of content typically shared, and the extent to which the interactive aspects of social media tools are utilized. We assessed the social media presence and patterns of usage of CBOs engaged in health promotion in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts. We coded content on three popular channels: Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. We used content analysis techniques to quantitatively summarize posts, tweets, and videos on these channels, respectively. For each organization, we coded all content put forth by the CBO on the three channels in a 30-day window. Two coders were trained and conducted the coding. Data were collected between November 2011 and January 2012. A total of 166 organizations were included in our census. We found that 42% of organizations used at least one of the channels of interest. Across the three channels, organization promotion was the most common theme for content (66% of posts, 63% of tweets, and 93% of videos included this content). Most organizations updated Facebook and Twitter content at rates close to recommended frequencies. We found limited interaction/engagement with audience members. Much of the use of social media tools appeared to be uni-directional, a flow of information from the organization to the audience. By better leveraging opportunities for interaction and user engagement, these organizations can reap greater benefits from the non-trivial investment required to use social media well. Future research should

  7. [Community-based health promotion--a challenge for the evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Eichhorn, C; Gehlert, J; Donhauser, J; Wise, M; Nagel, E

    2007-02-01

    Community-based health promotion (CBHP) aims at mobilising citizens for health-related issues in their environment, and at implementing health-promoting projects on the community level. Whereas recent political decisions support this approach, scientific studies dealing with theories and consequences of CBHP are scarce in Germany. Evaluation of CBHP could help identify (in)effective factors and elements of community programmes and thus improve future planning. In Germany, however, there is a deficit in systematic concepts and recommendations for the evaluation of CBHP. This work outlines basic ideas and core principles of CBHP and deduces implications for the assessment of health-promoting community projects. Based on different international models and studies and on discussions with health promotion professionals, we developed a framework for the evaluation of CBHP. The proposed framework includes a guideline for CBHP programme planning. Its strategic and operational criteria can serve as a basis for a strategy evaluation. In terms of process evaluation, indicators for the dimensions (1) programme implementation and service delivery, (2) capacity building, and (3) reach of and acceptability in the target group were developed. In addition, we present different areas of OUTCOME EVALUATION; it is advisable to distinguish between measurement on the individual and on the community level. The framework further proposes strategies for the evaluation of the core principles empowerment and participation. The presented framework can serve as a basis for the development of flexible and individual instruments for the evaluation of CBHP, which should not ignore the perspective of the citizens, or complex aspects like changes on the community level. Some aspects, e.g., the potential evaluation of further targets of CBHP (improvement of quality of life, reduction of social and health inequalities), the responsibility of evaluation or the effects of financial constraints, are

  8. An Evaluation of a Train-the-Trainer Workshop for Social Service Workers to Develop Community-Based Family Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Y. Lai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEvaluation studies on train-the-trainer workshops (TTTs to develop family well-being interventions are limited in the literature. The Logic Model offers a framework to place some important concepts and tools of intervention science in the hands of frontline service providers. This paper reports on the evaluation of a TTT for a large community-based program to enhance family well-being in Hong Kong.MethodsThe 2-day TTT introduced positive psychology themes (relevant to the programs that the trainees would deliver and the Logic Model (which provides a framework to guide intervention development and evaluation for social service workers to guide their community-based family interventions. The effectiveness of the TTT was examined by self-administered questionnaires that assessed trainees’ changes in learning (perceived knowledge, self-efficacy, attitude, and intention, trainees’ reactions to training content, knowledge sharing, and benefits to their service organizations before and after the training and then 6 months and 1 year later. Missing data were replaced by baseline values in an intention-to-treat analysis. Focus group interviews were conducted approximately 6 months after training.ResultsFifty-six trainees (79% women joined the TTT. Forty-four and 31 trainees completed the 6-month and 1-year questionnaires, respectively. The trainees indicated that the workshop was informative and well organized. The TTT-enhanced trainees’ perceived knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes toward the application of the Logic Model and positive psychology constructs in program design. These changes were present with small to large effect size that persisted to the 1 year follow-up. The skills learned were used to develop 31 family interventions that were delivered to about 1,000 families. Qualitative feedback supported the quantitative results.ConclusionThis TTT offers a practical example of academic-community partnerships that

  9. Reducing Refugee Mental Health Disparities: A Community-Based Intervention to Address Post-Migration Stressors With African Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Hess, Julia M.; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P.

    2014-01-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of post-migration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multi-method, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address post-migration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants’ psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally-appropriate, and replicable model for doing so. PMID:24364594

  10. Reducing refugee mental health disparities: a community-based intervention to address postmigration stressors with African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia M; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P

    2014-08-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of postmigration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multimethod, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address postmigration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants' psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally appropriate, and replicable model for doing so.

  11. Effectiveness of community-based exercise intervention programme in obese adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hung; Chen, Miao-Chuan; Chien, Nai-Hui; Lin, Hsih-Fong

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to change the anthropometric, clinical, biochemical indicators and the rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adults in community. Obesity is an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity increases national health care expenditure in Taiwan. The high prevalence of obesity is not only a public health issue but also an economic problem. Changes in lifestyle can help to prevent metabolic syndrome for individuals with obesity. A randomised controlled trial was applied. In this randomised controlled trial by location, 136 metabolically abnormal obese individuals were included. The related indicators with metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and after six months. The experimental group participated in a six-month community-based programme including provided exercise environments, exercise skills and volunteers' reminding. The control group was only provided environment and skills. One hundred and thirty-one participants completed this trail. In comparison with the baseline, the intervention group showed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2·34 mg/dl), and decrease in body weight (1·09 kg), waist circumference (3·63 cm), systolic blood pressure (10·52 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (5·21 mmHg), fasting blood glucose (5·84 mg/dl) and body mass index (0·74 kg/m(2) ). In the control group, significant decrease in body mass index and waist circumference were discovered. Compared to the changes between the two groups, the results showed there were significant differences in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The community-based intervention could help to improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduce body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in metabolically abnormal obese. This community-based programme helped metabolically abnormal

  12. Outcomes and costs of implementing a community-based intervention for hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel Oji; van de Vijver, Steven; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Agyemang, Charles; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    To describe the processes, outcomes and costs of implementing a multi-component, community-based intervention for hypertension among adults aged > 35 years in a large slum in Nairobi, Kenya. The intervention in 2012-2013 was based on four components: awareness-raising; improved access to screening;

  13. Preparing facilitators from community-based organizations for evidence-based intervention training in Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Angel Felix; Aebersold, Michelle; Tschannen, Dana; Villarruel, Antonia Maria

    2014-09-30

    A major barrier to the use and scale-up of evidence-based interventions are challenges related to training and capacity building. A cost-effective and highly interactive multi-user virtual environment, Second Life (SL) is a promising alternative for comprehensive face-to-face facilitator training. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using SL to train facilitators from community-based organizations to use ¡Cuídate! (Take Care of Yourself), one of the few evidence-based interventions developed and tested with Latino youth to reduce sexual risk behaviors. We recruited 35 participants from community-based organizations throughout the United States to participate in the SL ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. Preparation to use SL consisted of four phases: (1) recruitment and computer capacity screening, (2) enrollment, (3) orientation to the SL program, and (4) technical support throughout the synchronous training sessions. Technical difficulties, the associated cause, and the mitigation strategy implemented were recorded during each session. Participants completed evaluations including perceptions of self-efficacy and confidence to complete the necessary skills to participate in SL training. Overall, participants reported high levels of self-efficacy for all skills necessary to participate in SL training. Based on an 11-point scale (0-10), self-efficacy to download and access the software was rated the highest: mean 8.29 (SD 2.19). Interacting with items in SL had the lowest mean score: mean 7.49 (SD 2.89). The majority of technical difficulties experienced by participants were related to inadequate Internet connections or computer malfunctions. Our findings support the feasibility of using SL for the ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. The process used in this study to prepare participants to use SL can be used as a basis for other evidence-based intervention training in SL. This study is an important contribution to developing cost

  14. Correlates of pedometer use: Results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels

  15. Impact of community-based interventions on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Rehana A; Haroon, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim H; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women's groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes.

  16. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits.

  17. A community-based intervention to build community harmony in an Indigenous Guatemalan Mining Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, Claudia Susana; Parroquia de San Miguel Ixtahuacan, Kolol Qnan Tx'otx'

    2018-01-24

    The presence of large-scale mining operations poses many threats to communities. In a rural community in Guatemala, community leaders were motivated to address divisiveness and local conflict that have been exacerbated since the arrival of a mining company in the region. Prior research by our team identified spiritual and cultural strengths as important sources of strength and resilience in the community. We piloted a community-based intervention centred on spiritual and cultural practices in the region, to address divisiveness and build community harmony. One hundred and seventeen participants from over 18 villages in the municipality participated in the workshops and follow-up focus groups. Community leaders facilitated the intervention and partnered with the academic researcher throughout the research process. Overall, community members and facilitators expressed satisfaction with the workshop. Further, our analysis revealed three important processes important to the development of community harmony in the region: (a) mutual recognition and collectivisation; (b) affirmation of ancestral roots and connections to Mother Earth and (c) inspiring action and momentum towards solutions. These mechanisms, and the socio-political contexts that undermine them, have important implications for how global health programmes are developed and how collective processes for well-being are understood within an inequitable, conflict-laden world.

  18. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  19. The effectiveness of a community-based health promotion program for rural elders: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeng; Chen, Chu-Yeh; Lai, Li-Ju; Chen, Min-Li; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2014-08-01

    A community-based health promotion program (CBHP) might be beneficial for the elderly, but evidence is limited. We therefore examined the effect of a CBHP on change of lifestyle, physiological indicators and depression score among seniors in 2 rural areas. A prospective quasi-experimental design involved a total of 520 senior participants living in 6 rural villages, who were clustered and conveniently assigned to 2 intervention groups. Senior nursing students were the interveners for group 1 and community peer supporters for group 2. The primary outcome measure was the change in health-related behavior measured on the geriatric health promotion scale (GHPS). The secondary outcome comprised changes in the short form of the Chinese geriatric depression scale (CGDS-15), fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, waist circumference and blood pressure. Paired-t test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical inspection. Most of the participants were retired farmers or fishermen >75years of age who had little education. The total scores and all subscales of GHPS, along with some physiological indicators, improved significantly between pretest and post-test in both groups. After adjustment for confounders, intervention in group 1 was more effective than that in group 2 regarding self-protection behaviors. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in group 2. CBHP programs are valuable for improving healthy lifestyle, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure and depression score among seniors. The low cost and effectiveness of incorporating multidisciplinary resources to help rural elders to maintain a healthy status and a healthier lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Community-Based Promotional Campaign to Improve Uptake of Intermittent Preventive Antimalarial Treatment in Pregnancy in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, Sabine; Coulibaly, Sheick O.; Ky, Clotilde; Ouattara, Florence T.; Brabin, Bernard J.; d'Alessandro, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy were assessed in a health center randomized trial comparing intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) with and without community based promotional activities in rural Burkina Faso. The study involved 2,240 secundigravidae

  1. Prevention of drowning by community-based intervention: implications for low- and middle- income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Reza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2012-01-01

    Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middle-income countries. To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were collected at pre- and post-intervention phases. Outcome evaluation was based on a four-year period (March 2005-March 2009) utilizing drowning registry data for the north of Iran. The implementation program increased the rate of membership in an organization responsible for promoting safety in high risk areas near the Caspian Sea. Compared to a WHO standardized population, drowning incidence in rural areas of the study demonstrated a continuous decrease in age-specific drowning rate among the oldest victims with a gradual decline during the implementation. In the study area, the epidemiological aspects of the study population were exposed and contributing factors were highlighted. This study showed that the promotion of passive interventions had a greater effect on drowning rate than that of active interventions.

  2. Community-Based Interventions for Newborns in Ethiopia (COMBINE): Cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewos, Bereket; Owen, Helen; Sitrin, Deborah; Cousens, Simon; Degefie, Tedbabe; Wall, Stephen; Bekele, Abeba; Lawn, Joy E; Daviaud, Emmanuelle

    2017-10-01

    About 87 000 neonates die annually in Ethiopia, with slower progress than for child deaths and 85% of births are at home. As part of a multi-country, standardized economic evaluation, we examine the incremental benefit and costs of providing management of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) for newborns at health posts in Ethiopia by Health Extension Workers (HEWs), linked to improved implementation of existing policy for community-based newborn care (Health Extension Programme). The government, with Save the Children/Saving Newborn Lives and John Snow, Inc., undertook a cluster randomized trial. Both trial arms involved improved implementation of the Health Extension Programme. The intervention arm received additional equipment, support and supervision for HEWs to identify and treat PSBI. In 2012, ∼95% of mothers in the study area received at least one pregnancy or postnatal visit in each arm, an average of 5.2 contacts per mother in the intervention arm (4.9 in control). Of all visits, 79% were conducted by volunteer community health workers. HEWs spent around 9% of their time on the programme. The financial cost per mother and newborn was $34 (in 2015 USD) in the intervention arm ($27 in control), economic costs of $37 and $30, respectively. Adding PSBI management at community level was estimated to reduce neonatal mortality after day 1 by 17%, translating to a cost per DALY averted of $223 or 47% of the GDP per capita, a highly cost-effective intervention by WHO thresholds. In a routine situation, the intervention programme cost would represent 0.3% of public health expenditure per capita and 0.5% with additional monthly supervision meetings. A platform wide approach to improved supervision including a dedicated transport budget may be more sustainable than a programme-specific approach. In this context, strengthening the existing HEW package is cost-effective and also avoids costly transfers to health centres/hospitals. © The Author 2017

  3. Effect of community based behavioural change communication intervention to improve neonatal mortality in developing countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Birhanu, Zewdie

    2011-01-01

    Background A great burden of infant and under-five childhood mortality occurs during the neonatal period, usually within a few days of birth. Community based behavioural change communication (such as interpersonal, group and mass media channels, including participatory methods at community level) intervention trials have been shown to be effective in reducing this mortality. However, to guide policy makers and programme planners, there is a need to systematically appraise and synthesise this evidence.Objective To systematically search, appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the effect of community based behavioural change communication intervention to improve neonatal mortality in developing countries.Inclusion Criteria This review considered randomised controlled community trials on the effectiveness of community based behavioural change communication interventions aimed at decreasing neonatal mortality that were conducted in developing countries.Search Strategy This review considered English language articles on studies published between December, 2006 to January, 2011 and indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Mednar, popline, Proquest, or Hinari.Methodological quality Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument by two independent reviewers. Data were analysed using a fixed effects model with RevMan5 software. Community based behavioural change communication interventions were found to be associated with a significant reduction in neonatal mortality of 19% (average OR 0.81; 95%CI 0. to 0.88), early neonatal mortality by 20% (average 0.80; 95%CI 0. to 0.91), late neonatal mortality by 21% (average 0.79; 95%CI 0. to 0.99). In addition, the intervention also resulted in significant improvement of newborn care practice; breast feeding initiation, clean cord cutting and delay in bathing were improved by 185%, 110% and 196

  4. Pilot of "Families for Health": community-based family intervention for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W; Friede, T; Blissett, J; Rudolf, M C J; Wallis, M; Stewart-Brown, S

    2008-11-01

    To develop and evaluate "Families for Health", a new community based family intervention for childhood obesity. Programme development, pilot study and evaluation using intention-to-treat analysis. Coventry, England. 27 overweight or obese children aged 7-13 years (18 girls, 9 boys) and their parents, from 21 families. Families for Health is a 12-week programme with parallel groups for parents and children, addressing parenting, lifestyle change and social and emotional development. Change in baseline BMI z score at the end of the programme (3 months) and 9-month follow-up. Attendance, drop-out, parents' perception of the programme, child's quality of life and self-esteem, parental mental health, parent-child relationships and lifestyle changes were also measured. Attendance rate was 62%, with 18 of the 27 (67%) children completing the programme. For the 22 children with follow-up data (including four who dropped out), BMI z score was reduced by -0.18 (95% CI -0.30 to -0.05) at 3 months and -0.21 (-0.35 to -0.07) at 9 months. Statistically significant improvements were observed in children's quality of life and lifestyle (reduced sedentary behaviour, increased steps and reduced exposure to unhealthy foods), child-parent relationships and parents' mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption, participation in moderate/vigorous exercise and children's self-esteem did not change significantly. Topics on parenting skills, activity and food were rated as helpful and used with confidence by most parents. Families for Health is a promising new childhood obesity intervention. Definitive evaluation of its clinical effectiveness by randomised controlled trial is now required.

  5. STRIVE, San Diego! Methodology of a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Enhance Healthy Dining at Asian and Pacific Islander Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, Sarah; Sadile, Mary Grace; Phung, Chantine Nguyen; Cabiles, Moana; Spackman, Sandy; Abuan, Myleen; Seligman, Fe; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2018-03-01

    Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) populations have elevated prevalence of dietary-related chronic conditions; however, culturally relevant dietary interventions are lacking. This article describes the methodology for a community-based participatory intervention. Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity, San Diego! aims to increase access to healthy food in AANHPI restaurants, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. Time series quasi-experimental study design. Dietitians, health promotion specialists, and community partners collaborated with restaurant owners and chefs to develop culturally tailored approaches without compromising traditional flavors. AANHPI restaurants in San Diego County, CA. Twenty restaurants and 600 diners are anticipated and will be sampled at 3 intervals for a total of 1,800 diners. We describe the community-based interventions within restaurants, including (1) analyzing and modifying selected recipes to create and promote healthier dishes; (2) providing nutrition labels on selected food items; (3) marketing healthy menu items through food tastings, signage, and social media promotion; and (4) offering low-sodium soy sauce and other condiments. Temporal changes in availability of healthful options, and the frequency of healthy dining choices. Program evaluation consists of assessment of the nutritional environment in 20 participating restaurants and surveys of customers' opinions and behaviors at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postintervention. Fifteen restaurants have been recruited to date. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A community based intervention program to enhance neighborhood cohesion: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wan, Alice; Kwok, Lit Tung; Pang, Sally; Wang, Xin; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood cohesion, which refers to the extent of the connectedness and solidarity among residents in a community or neighborhood, is an important determinant of human health. To enhance neighborhood cohesion, the "Learning Families Project" was developed with a series of intervention programs in Kwun Tong in Hong Kong, a district with low neighborhood cohesion. This project, based on the social ecological model, provided a platform for neighbors to learn, communicate and interact with each other. This quasi-experimental study included two nearby government subsidized low rent housing estates separated by busy main roads. One served as the intervention (Tsui Ping (South) Estate) and one as the control (Shun Tin Estate) estate. The intervention included promotion, resident training and learning programs, embodied by a series of community activities such as talks, day camp, thematic activities and horticulture class. Baseline (before the programs) and follow-up (one year after the programs) surveys were conducted both in the intervention and control estate to assess the impact of the programs on neighborhood cohesion. The number of residents who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys was 502 in the intervention estate and 476 in the control estate. Neighborhood cohesion significantly improved in the intervention group after the programs (Cohen effect size d: 0.15). Compared with the control group, the improvements in closeness of the neighborhood and trust in neighbors were significantly greater in the intervention group (Cohen effect size d: 0.13 and 0.14, respectively). This brief intervention program using a quasi-experimental study design increased neighborhood cohesion in a low rent housing estate. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02851667.

  7. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community...

  8. Community-based oral health promotion practices targeted at children and adolescents in Finland--developing an assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Pia; Ojala, Ellinoora; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita; Kasila, Kirsti

    2014-06-01

    To develop an assessment tool for evaluating oral health promotion practices and to evaluate community-based oral health promotion practices targeted at children and adolescents with this tool. A theoretical framework about health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation was made on the basis of a literature review. Then, information about Finnish community-based oral health promotion practices (n=12) targeted at children and adolescents was collected using semi-structured interviews. Also, related documents, for example action plans and reports, were collected when available. Next, an assessment tool based on the theoretical framework was developed, and the recorded and transcribed interview data and other documents were evaluated with this tool. The assessment tool proved to be practical: it pointed out the strengths and weaknesses of the practices. The tool revealed strengths in the implementation and deficiencies in the planning and evaluation of oral health promotion practices. One-quarter of the 12 practices assessed could be considered 'good practices'. There is a need to improve the planning and evaluation of oral health promotion practices. The assessment tool developed in this study might be useful for practitioners both in the field of oral health promotion and general health promotion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Community-based Healthy Living Promotion Program Improved Self-esteem Among Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Ortiz, Christina L; Stuff, Janice E; Mikhail, Carmen; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Alejandro, Mercedes E; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, Elliot O'Brian

    2016-07-01

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority children. The after-school program was implemented at community centers in low-income neighborhoods with close proximity to public schools. The program consisted of 3 6-week sessions. Each week, children attended 2 2-hour sessions. Each 2-hour session in the intervention included 90 minutes of structured physical activities and 30 minutes of nutrition and healthy habit lessons. The control group received typical enrichment programs. Outcomes were measured before the intervention and at the end of each 6-week session. We enrolled 877 children (age 10.2 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE); body mass index z score: 1.49 ± 0.1; 52.0% boys; 72.6% Hispanic) in the program with 524 children received the intervention at 14 community centers and 353 children served as control at 10 community centers. The intervention led to no improvements in BMI z score (P = 0.78) and dietary habits (P = 0.46). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.02) were detected in the amount of exercise that a child perceived to be required to offset a large meal and in several key self-esteem scores. No improvements were detected in physical activities (P ≥ 0.21). The improvement in some key self-esteem scores and nutrition knowledge may act as a mediator to motivate these children to adopt a healthier lifestyle in the future.

  10. Evolving hunting practices in Gabon: lessons for community-based conservation interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Walters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Addressing today's environmental challenges is intimately linked to understanding and improving natural resource governance institutions. As a result conservation initiatives are increasingly realizing the importance of integrating local perspectives of land tenure arrangements, natural resource rights, and local beliefs into conservation approaches. However, current work has not sufficiently considered the dynamic nature of natural resource governance institutions over time and the potential implications for current conservation interventions. We therefore explored how and why hunting governance has changed since the precolonial period in two ethnic hunting communities in Gabon, Central Africa, integrating various ethnographic methods with resource-use mapping, and a historic literature review. In both communities, hunting governance has undergone significant changes since the precolonial period. A closed-access, lineage-based system of resource use with strict penalties for trespassing, has evolved into a more open-access system, in which the influence of customary governance systems, including magico-political aspects, has declined. These changes have occurred mainly in response to policies and governance structures put in place by the colonial government and postindependence, early state laws. This included a policy of merging villages, the introduction of more modern hunting techniques such as guns and wire cables, and a shift from community to government ownership of the land. Current governance structures are thus the product of a complex mixture of customary, colonial and state influences. These findings suggest that a historical perspective of resource governance, gained through in-depth and long-term engagement with local communities, can provide important insights for community-based conservation approaches, such as helping to identify potential causes and perceptions of environmental change and to design more suitable conservation

  11. Using Photovoice and Asset Mapping to Inform a Community-Based Diabetes Intervention, Boston, Massachusetts, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Jana; Roy, Nicole M St Omer; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Truong, Ve; Feng, Yi; Bloch, Philippe P; Russinova, Zlatka L; Lasser, Karen E

    2016-08-11

    Diabetes self-management takes place within a complex social and environmental context.  This study's objective was to examine the perceived and actual presence of community assets that may aid in diabetes control. We conducted one 6-hour photovoice session with 11 adults with poorly controlled diabetes in Boston, Massachusetts.  Participants were recruited from census tracts with high numbers of people with poorly controlled diabetes (diabetes "hot spots").  We coded the discussions and identified relevant themes.  We further explored themes related to the built environment through community asset mapping.  Through walking surveys, we evaluated 5 diabetes hot spots related to physical activity resources, walking environment, and availability of food choices in restaurants and food stores. Community themes from the photovoice session were access to healthy food, restaurants, and prepared foods; food assistance programs; exercise facilities; and church.  Asset mapping identified 114 community assets including 22 food stores, 22 restaurants, and 5 exercise facilities.  Each diabetes hot spot contained at least 1 food store with 5 to 9 varieties of fruits and vegetables.  Only 1 of the exercise facilities had signage regarding hours or services.  Memberships ranged from free to $9.95 per month.  Overall, these findings were inconsistent with participants' reports in the photovoice group. We identified a mismatch between perceptions of community assets and built environment and the objective reality of that environment. Incorporating photovoice and community asset mapping into a community-based diabetes intervention may bring awareness to underused neighborhood resources that can help people control their diabetes.

  12. Community-based Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia (RISE): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Laura; De Silva, Mary; Hanlon, Charlotte; Weiss, Helen A; Birhane, Rahel; Ejigu, Dawit A; Medhin, Girmay; Patel, Vikram; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2016-06-24

    Care for most people with schizophrenia is best delivered in the community and evidence-based guidelines recommend combining both medication and a psychosocial intervention, such as community-based rehabilitation. There is emerging evidence that community-based rehabilitation for schizophrenia is effective at reducing disability in middle-income country settings, yet there is no published evidence on the effectiveness in settings with fewer mental health resources. This paper describes the protocol of a study that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation as an adjunct to health facility-based care in rural Ethiopia. This is a cluster randomised trial set in a rural district in Ethiopia, with sub-district as the unit of randomisation. Participants will be recruited from an existing cohort of people with schizophrenia receiving treatment in primary care. Fifty-four sub-districts will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to facility-based care plus community-based rehabilitation (intervention arm) or facility-based care alone (control arm). Facility-based care consists of treatment by a nurse or health officer in primary care (antipsychotic medication, basic psychoeducation and follow-up) with referral to a psychiatric nurse-led outpatient clinic or psychiatric hospital when required. Trained community-based rehabilitation workers will deliver a manualised community-based rehabilitation intervention, with regular individual and group supervision. We aim to recruit 182 people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. Potential participants will be screened for eligibility, including enduring or disabling illness. Participants will be recruited after providing informed consent or, for participants without decision-making capacity, after the primary caregiver gives permission on behalf of the participant. The primary outcome is disability measured with the 36-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) version 2.0 at 12 months. The sample

  13. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  14. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  15. Women's attitude toward smoking: effect of a community-based intervention on smoking-related social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Gharipour, Mojgan

    2014-12-01

    Smoking has long been discouraged in Iranian women. However, in recent years, more women have started smoking. This study aimed to investigate the role of women's attitude towards smoking on smoking prevalence in women in the context of a community-based intervention program. Participants were samples of the third and fifth evaluation stages of the 'Isfahan Healthy Heart Program', which is a comprehensive community-based intervention program for noncommunicable disease prevention and control. A total of 3112 and 4794 women were investigated in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Intervention and reference groups were assessed for smoking habits and attitude towards smoking. T test and chi-square test were used to compare the parameters between the intervention and the reference groups. Negative attitude towards smoking increased significantly in the intervention and the reference groups from 2004 to 2007 (P = 0.0001). Negative attitude towards smoking in women decreased significantly in the intervention group (P = 0.0001), whereas it increased significantly in the reference group (P = 0.0001). However, smoking prevalence showed a significant decrease in women in the intervention group, from 2.5 to 1% (P smoking for women can be overcome by effective strategies that discourage the population from smoking.

  16. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  17. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to id...

  18. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  19. Community Based Integrated Intervention, Lesions Learn from Rural Remote Areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, Shamim; Farhana, Dina; Shajedul Haque, Haque; Maruf, Kazi

    2014-01-01

    health and nutrition, special emphasis was given at the WVB project activities. However, projects had great impact on behavior change components and mothers’ knowledge on basic concepts of nutrition has increased vastly, doesn’t effect on reducing severe and moderate malnutrition. The proportions of mildly under nourished children were underweight (30.2%), stunted (29.3%) and wasted (22.8%). The proportions of children being moderately under nourished were underweight (29.6%), stunted (19.9%) and wasted (24.1%). Indeed progress of achieving severe malnutrition, wasting has decreased drastically to 8% which was 17% in the baseline, however, severe underweight and stunting increased compared to baseline and also slightly higher compare to national data. Access in taking services have increased and among the children suffering from Diarrhea, 92.9% treated by the nearest facilities. Among the children eligible for vaccination, around 63.3% has reported to be fully immunized. Conclusions: While such community based intervention has impact on changing knowledge and uptake of services, limited in reducing acute malnutrition indeed. So, nutrition intervention redesign is necessary and food supplementation as well as treatment of acute malnourished children should be prioritized. (author)

  20. Visual methodologies and participatory action research: Performing women's community-based health promotion in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M Brinton; Scheib, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from disaster and displacement involves multiple challenges including accompanying survivors, documenting effects, and rethreading community. This paper demonstrates how African-American and Latina community health promoters and white university-based researchers engaged visual methodologies and participatory action research (photoPAR) as resources in cross-community praxis in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the flooding of New Orleans. Visual techniques, including but not limited to photonarratives, facilitated the health promoters': (1) care for themselves and each other as survivors of and responders to the post-disaster context; (2) critical interrogation of New Orleans' entrenched pre- and post-Katrina structural racism as contributing to the racialised effects of and responses to Katrina; and (3) meaning-making and performances of women's community-based, cross-community health promotion within this post-disaster context. This feminist antiracist participatory action research project demonstrates how visual methodologies contributed to the co-researchers' cross-community self- and other caring, critical bifocality, and collaborative construction of a contextually and culturally responsive model for women's community-based health promotion post 'unnatural disaster'. Selected limitations as well as the potential for future cross-community antiracist feminist photoPAR in post-disaster contexts are discussed.

  1. Intervention for children exposed to interparental violence : A randomized controlled trial of effectiveness of specific factors, moderators and mediators in community-based intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate the added benefit of applying specific factors in community-based intervention for child witnesses of interparental violence (IPV) and their parents, by means of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The results of this RCT showed no additional benefits of

  2. Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.; Weyusya, J.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Bartholomew, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve

  3. Applying Intervention Mapping to Develop a Community-Based Intervention Aimed at Improved Psychological and Social Well-Being of Unmarried Teenage Mothers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…

  4. A Community-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention for Children Who Are Overweight or Obese and Their Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furong Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for efficacious interventions to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity, and a limited body of research suggests that collaborative community-based programs designed for children and their caregivers may be effective in reducing obesity rates. This paper reports the results of a community-based obesity intervention, South County Food, Fitness and Fun (SCFFF, designed for preadolescent children who are overweight or obese and their caregivers. SCFFF was developed in response to community concerns. Families were referred to the program by their physician and participated in the program at no cost. The 16-week intervention includes weekly group nutrition and physical activity sessions. Analyses determined that 65 out of the 97 children who completed SCFFF provided 2-year follow-up data and had reduced BMI z-scores over 2 years following the intervention. These participants decreased their energy, fat, carbohydrate, saturated fat, and sodium intake and increased core body strength and endurance from baseline to the end of the intervention. SCFFF was effective in reducing relative weight and improving diet and core muscle strength and endurance in children who are overweight or obese.

  5. Factors associated with the implementation of community-based peer-led health promotion programs: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthios-Guilledroit, Agathe; Richard, Lucie; Filiatrault, Johanne

    2018-06-01

    Peer education is growing in popularity as a useful health promotion strategy. However, optimal conditions for implementing peer-led health promotion programs (HPPs) remain unclear. This scoping review aimed to describe factors that can influence implementation of peer-led HPPs targeting adult populations. Five databases were searched using the keywords "health promotion/prevention", "implementation", "peers", and related terms. Studies were included if they reported at least one factor associated with the implementation of community-based peer-led HPPs. Fifty-five studies were selected for the analysis. The method known as "best fit framework synthesis" was used to analyze the factors identified in the selected papers. Many factors included in existing implementation conceptual frameworks were deemed applicable to peer-led HPPs. However, other factors related to individuals, programs, and implementation context also emerged from the analysis. Based on this synthesis, an adapted theoretical framework was elaborated, grounded in a complex adaptive system perspective and specifying potential mechanisms through which factors may influence implementation of community-based peer-led HPPs. Further research is needed to test the theoretical framework against empirical data. Findings from this scoping review increase our knowledge of the optimal conditions for implementing peer-led HPPs and thereby maximizing the benefits of such programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a community-based participatory colorectal cancer screening intervention to address disparities, Arkansas, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen; Flowers, Eric; Ford, Gemessia; Burroughs, Desiree; Burton, Jackie; Woods, Delores; Stewart, Chara; Mehta, Paulette; Greene, Paul; Henry-Tillman, Ronda

    2011-03-01

    The death rate from colorectal cancer is high and affects poor and medically underserved populations disproportionately. In the United States, health disparities are particularly acute in the Lower Mississippi River Delta region. Because many in the region have limited access to basic health care resources, they are not screened for cancer, even though screening is one of the most effective strategies to prevent colorectal cancer. Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in this population. The Empowering Communities for Life program was implemented in 2 underserved counties in the Arkansas Lower Mississippi River Delta. The program arose from a 9-year partnership between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and 9 cancer councils across Arkansas. Empowering Communities for Life is a community-based participatory intervention designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in rural, underserved communities through fecal occult blood testing. Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. Lessons learned in working collaboratively with diverse groups include the importance of meeting face to face and listening.

  7. Design and methods for a community-based intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth: H2GO! study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents. Methods Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent–child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9–12 years and their parents will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition with 54 parent–child pairs (N = 108 enrolled per site (N = 216 total. The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children’s anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With

  8. Target population's requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krops, Leonie A; Folkertsma, Nienke; Hols, Doortje H J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dekker, Rienk

    2018-05-31

    To explore ideas of the target population about a community-based intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 physically disabled people, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Findings were interpreted using the integrated Physical Activity for People with a Disability and Intervention Mapping model. The intervention should aim to stimulate intrinsic motivation and raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity. It should provide diverse activities, increase visibility of these activities, and improve image of physical activity for physically disabled people. Participants suggested to provide individual coaching sessions, increase marketing, present role models, and assign buddies. Potential users should be approached personally through intermediate organizations, or via social media and word of mouth promotion. Participants suggested that users, government, sponsors, and health insurers should finance the intervention. Self-responsibility for being physically active was strongly emphasized by participants. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people should be individualized, include personal support, and should include marketing to improve image of physical activity of physically disabled people. The intervention that fulfills these requirements should be developed and tested for effects in future research. Implications for rehabilitation An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity, stimulate intrinsic motivation, offer diverse activities, increase the visibility of the possible activities, and improve the image of physical activity for physically disabled people. An intervention should include both individual- and environmental-level intervention methods. Physically disabled people most emphasized

  9. "If it's issues to do with nutrition…I can decide…": gendered decision-making in joining community-based child nutrition interventions within rural coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Kelly W; Jones, Caroline; Berkley, James A; Molyneux, Sassy

    2017-12-01

    Gender roles and relations play an important role in child health and nutritional status. While there is increasing recognition of the need to incorporate gender analysis in health planning and programme development, there has been relatively little attention paid to the gendered nature of child nutrition interventions. This qualitative study undertaken in rural Coastal Kenya aimed to explore the interaction between household gender relations and a community-based child nutrition programme, with a focus on household decision-making dynamics related to joining the intervention. Fifteen households whose children were enrolled in the programme were followed up over a period of 12 months. Over a total of 60 household visits, group and individual in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of respondents, supplemented by non-participant observations. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Engagement with the intervention was highly gendered with women being the primary decision-makers and engagers. Women were responsible for managing child feeding and minor child illnesses in households. As such, involvement in community-based nutrition interventions and particularly one that targeted a condition perceived as non-serious, fell within women's domain. Despite this, the nutrition programme of interest could be categorized as gender-blind. Gender was not explicitly considered in the design and implementation of the intervention, and the gender roles and norms in the community with regards to child nutrition were not critically examined or challenged. In fact, the intervention might have inadvertently reinforced existing gender divisions and practices in relation to child nutrition, by (unintentionally) excluding men from the nutrition discussions and activities, and thereby supporting the notion of child feeding and nutrition as "women's business". To improve outcomes, community-based nutrition interventions need to understand and take into account

  10. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-04-01

    To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18-64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, psmoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, psmoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China.

  11. A Community-Based Positive Deviance/Hearth Infant and Young Child Nutrition Intervention in Ecuador Improved Diet and Reduced Underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marion L; Marquis, Grace S; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Blouin, Brittany; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-03-01

    Underweight and stunting are serious problems in Ecuador that require interventions in the first 2 years of life. The researchers assessed the effectiveness of a Positive Deviance (PD)/Hearth community-based intervention using local foods to improve infant and young children's nutrition. A quasi-experimental nonrandomized study was conducted between March and October, 2009. The intervention and study were implemented in the Ecuadorian highlands provinces of Chimborazo and Tungurahua. Eighty mother-child pairs in 6 intervention communities and 184 mother-child pairs in 9 comparison communities. Mothers met in participatory peer-led PD/Hearth cooking and nutrition education sessions for 12 days. Dietary intake and nutritional status were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used for growth outcomes, and ANCOVA for mean dietary intakes. Mothers in the intervention were 1.3-5.7 times more likely to feed their children the promoted foods (P Hearth interventions support mothers to improve infant and young children's nutrition practices and reduce underweight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A community-based approach to the promotion of breastfeeding in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, R; Aumack, K J; Ramos, A

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive education strategy is presented that links training, community education, research, and mass-media efforts to enhance breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding promotion models, an administrative system, and lessons learned during the project are described. The keys to effective breastfeeding promotion are shown to be accurate information; appropriate education, training, and follow-up; and a supportive administrative system.

  13. Impact of a community-based payment for environmental services intervention on forest use in Menabe, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Matthew; Milner-Gulland, E J; Rahajaharison, Michael; Jones, Julia P G

    2010-12-01

    Despite the growing interest in conservation approaches that include payments for environmental services (PES), few evaluations of the influence of such interventions on behaviors of individuals have been conducted. We used self-reported changes in six legal and illegal forest-use behaviors to investigate the way in which a PES for biodiversity conservation intervention in Menabe, Madagascar, influenced behavior. Individuals (n =864) from eight intervention communities and five control communities answered questions on their forest-use behaviors before and after the intervention began, as well as on their reasons for changing and their attitudes to various institutions. The payments had little impact on individuals' reported decisions to change behaviors, but it had a strong impact on individuals' attitudes. Payments appeared to legitimize monitoring of behaviors by the implementing nongovernmental organization (NGO), but did not act as a behavioral driver in their own right. Although there were no clear differences between changes in behaviors in the intervention and control communities, the intervention did influence motivations for change. Fear of local forest associations and the implementing NGO were strong motivators for changing behavior in communities with the PES intervention, whereas fear of the national government was the main reason given for change in control communities. Behavioral changes were most stable where fear of local organizations motivated the change. Our results highlight the interactions between different incentives people face when making behavioral decisions and the importance of considering the full range of incentives when designing community-based PES interventions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power

  15. The effectiveness of a community-based breast cancer education intervention in the New York State Capital Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinomar, Nur; Moslehi, Roxana

    2013-09-01

    We determined the effectiveness of a community-based breast cancer education intervention among understudied populations in the New York State (NYS) Capital Region by assessing and comparing baseline and post-education breast cancer knowledge. Participants included 417 students recruited from five colleges/universities and 67 women from four community group organizations. Baseline and post-education knowledge was assessed via self-administered mostly multiple-choice questionnaires. An open-ended question soliciting opinions about public health prevention strategies against breast cancer was included on college/university students' questionnaires. Effectiveness of education intervention was estimated through a paired t test. Stratified analysis was done using demographic and descriptive variables. Answers to the open-ended questions were analyzed qualitatively. The mean percentage of correct answers increased from 39.9% at baseline to 80.8% post-education (P raising awareness about modifiable risk factors and inspiring proactive thinking about public health prevention strategies. This community-based education intervention was effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge among demographically diverse groups with low levels of baseline knowledge in the NYS Capital Region. Our findings provide leads for future public health prevention strategies.

  16. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-05

    This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10-19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have not often included mental health measures (n=7). It is recommended that future interventions

  17. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  18. Increasing Melanoma Screening Among Hispanic/Latino Americans: A Community-Based Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Grace Y; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond

    2015-10-01

    Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information sessions on melanoma disease, risk factors, and skin self-examination techniques. Pearson chi-square analyses of participants' (N = 34) responses to pre- and postintervention evaluation surveys indicate significant increases in knowledge, risk awareness, and self-efficacy for self-screening. The results revealed that Hispanics/Latinos in a low socioeconomic stratum might be at moderate to high risk for developing melanoma. Their low annual income, low level of education, occupational sun-exposure, and lack of access to health care are likely factors that deter at-risk Hispanics/Latinos from seeking health care. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Effects of Community-Based Newborn Care Intervention on Neonate Health Status in a District of Tehran (Iran

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the effects of community-based interventions on the Neonatal Health Index in one district of Tehran-Iran.Materials and methods: A community and healthcare center-based study was carried out from January 2011 through September 2014. The population of the study included newborns from mothers residing in the 4th district of Tehran, Iran. Demographic data of mothers and infants were recorded in questionnaires before and after intervention. Interventions were implemented in hospitals, participants' homes, and health centers. The primary outcomes were comparison of mean birth weight, weight gain during the first 3-7 days, first week visit rate, hospitalization rate between the before and after intervention groups.Results: The populations in the before and after intervention groups were 274 and 250, respectively. A significant difference was seen between the gestational ages (P value = 0.007 of the two groups. Mean birth height in the first group was 50.35 ± 3.48 and in the second group was 55 ± 5.32 cm (P value = 0.04. Neonatal complications in the second group were 6.9% lower than in the first group (P value = 0.048. In the first group 41 neonates (15% were hospitalized in the NICU while in the second group 12 cases (4.8% were hospitalized (P value = 0.018. Seven cases (2.6% in the first group and one case (0.4% in the second group were resuscitated (P value = 0.0001.Conclusion: The results of implementing community-based newborn care strategies witnessed at the first week postnatal visit included improvements inneonatal gestational growth, management of neonates with potentially serious illnesses, diagnosis of warning signs and neonatal care practices.

  20. Effectiveness of a Novel Community-Based Early Intervention Model for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…

  1. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  2. Utilizing community-based participatory research to adapt a mental health intervention for African American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mance, Gishawn A; Mendelson, Tamar; Byrd, Benjamin; Jones, Jahon; Tandon, Darius

    2010-01-01

    Adapting mental health interventions to heighten their cultural and contextual appropriateness may be critical for engaging ethnic/racial groups that have been traditionally excluded or marginalized. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative research approach that highlights unique strengths and expertise of those involved. Although intervention adaptations have garnered much attention there is little previous work specifically describing the adaptation process of mental health interventions using CBPR. This article summarizes the use of a CBPR approach to adapt a mental health intervention for urban adolescents and young adults disconnected from school and work, a population at elevated risk for poor mental health owing to the presence of numerous chronic stressors. We describe the process undertaken to modify the content and delivery format of an evidence-based intervention. Unique challenges of working with urban African American adolescents and young adults in a job training program are highlighted. By incorporating principles of co-learning and shared responsibility, this partnership was able to achieve positive outcomes. Our experience suggests that a CBPR approach can be used effectively to adapt a mental health intervention in collaboration with African American adolescents and emerging adults in a job training program.

  3. Inuit women's stories of strength: informing Inuit community-based HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jenny R

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18-61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants' stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that highlight the urgent need for prevention programming.

  4. Community-based interventions for building social inclusion of refugees and asylum seekers in Australia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Mahoney

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As refugee and asylum seeker numbers increase in Australia, their effective integration into society is facilitated by inclusion in social, economic and community life. This systematic review of the literature explored community-based programs that contribute to inclusion and social participation of refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Four scholarly databases were searched for articles published between 2007 and 2017 resulting in five articles which met inclusion criteria. Although the studies identified were of variable quality, the findings suggest a number of factors that facilitate program effectiveness. These included where: (a English language and communications skills were considered; (b programs built on refugees’ own skills and experience prior to resettlement; (c volunteers and mentors were involved; and (d participants engaged in diverse projects that enabled new connections. The review highlights the paucity of well-researched interventions that build social inclusion of refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Emerging evidence suggests that community-based programs can positively increase social inclusion and connectedness amongst refugees and asylum seekers. Additional well-designed programs and evaluation of such programs are needed to better understand and identify effective interventions targeting social inclusion of refugees and asylum seekers.

  5. Evaluation of a community-based training to promote responsible self-medication in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, Adji P; Wibowo, Yosi; Setiawan, Eko; Presley, Bobby; Mulyono, Ika; Wardhani, Ari S; Sunderland, Bruce

    2018-05-24

    To explore pharmacist/pharmacy staff trainers' perspectives on conducting community-based training to promote responsible self-medication, and to evaluate knowledge gained among community representatives participating in the training. Training was conducted in four districts/cities in East Java, Indonesia in 2016. A pre-test/post-test study was used to evaluate the knowledge of 129 community representatives (participants) before/after the training; pre-test and post-test scores as well as absolute gain were determined. Four focus group discussions with 20 pharmacist/pharmacy staff (trainers) were conducted after the training, and the data were thematically analysed. Overall mean test scores for community representatives significantly improved from 14.11 to 15.70 after the training (P < 0.001). The average total absolute gain was 1.85 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.39). To reach local communities, trainers suggested improvements to the content and structure of the module, training aids, trainer competency, approach and time allocation. Community-based training provides a potential strategy to improve community knowledge of medications. Findings from this study should inform strategies for a broader uptake amongst local communities in Indonesia. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Evaluation of Community-Based Policy, Systems, and Environment Interventions Targeting the Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kristen M; Garney, Whitney R; Primm, Kristin M; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    The American Heart Association conducted policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) focused interventions to increase healthy vending in 8 communities. PSE interventions were assessed using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey Vending Assessment to see changes in the food environment. Baseline and follow-up assessments were conducted with 3 settings and a total of 19 machines. PSE changes resulted in increased availability of healthy options and decreased unhealthy options. Implementation of PSE interventions targeting the food environment can be an effective method of providing increased access to healthy foods and beverages with the goal of increasing consumption to decrease chronic diseases.

  7. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) to evaluate the impact and operational assessment of "safe motherhood and newborn health promotion package": study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Billah, Sk Masum; Bari, Sanwarul; Tahsina, Tazeen; Hasan, Mohammad Mehedi; Islam, Sajia; Islam, Tajul; Mori, Rintaro; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-05-03

    Despite considerable progress in reduction of both under-five and maternal mortality in recent decades, Bangladesh is still one of the low and middle income countries with high burden of maternal and neonatal mortality. The primary objective of the current study is to measure the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions on maternal and neonatal mortality. In addition, changes in coverage, quality and utilization of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, social capital, and cost effectiveness of the interventions will be measured. A community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial design will be adopted and implemented in 30 unions of three sub-districts of Chandpur district of Bangladesh. Every union, the lowest administrative unit of the local government with population of around 20,000-30,000, will be considered a cluster. Based on the baseline estimates, 15 clusters will be paired for random assignment as intervention and comparison clusters. The primary outcome measure is neonatal mortality, and secondary outcomes are coverage of key interventions like ANC, PNC, facility and skilled provider delivery. Baseline, midterm and endline household survey will be conducted to assess the key coverage of interventions. Health facility assessment surveys will be conducted periodically to assess facility readiness and utilization of MNH services in the participating health facilities. The current study is expected to provide essential strong evidences on the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions to the Bangladesh government, and other developmental partners. The study results may help in prioritizing, planning, and scaling-up of Safe Motherhood Promotional interventions in other geographical areas of Bangladesh as well as to inform other developing countries of similar settings. NCT03032276 .

  8. Prevention of Drowning by Community-Based Intervention: Implications for Low- and Middle- Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Reza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2012-01-01

    Background Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middle-income countries. Objectives To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. Patients and Methods This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were col...

  9. Effectiveness of a community-based multidomain cognitive intervention program in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, YoungSoon; Oh, Jeong-Gun; Oh, Seongil; Choi, Hojin; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multidomain program in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 53 patients with probable AD participated in the present study. The participants were classified to a cognitive programming group (n = 32) and control group (n = 21). Participants in the cognitive intervention program received multidomain cognitive stimulation including art, music, recollection and horticultural therapy, each period of intervention lasting 1 h. This program was repeated five times per week over a period of 6 months at the Seongdong-gu Center for Dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Korean version of Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, Clinical dementia rating scales, and the Korean version of the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease were used to evaluate cognitive ability at baseline and after intervention. After 6 months, cognitive abilities were compared between patients actively participating in cognitive intervention and the pharmacotherapy only group. Patients receiving cognitive intervention showed significant cognitive improvement in the word-list recognition and recall test scores versus the control. There was no change in the overall Clinical dementia rating score, but the domain of community affairs showed a significant improvement in the cognitive intervention group. Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease of caregivers was slightly improved in the cognitive intervention group after 6 months. Multidomain cognitive intervention by regional dementia centers has great potential in helping to maintain cognitive function in patients with dementia, increase their social activity and reduce depression, while enhancing the quality of life of caregivers. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Planning community-based assessments of HIV educational intervention programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Ben; Shen, Zuchao

    2017-08-01

    A key consideration in planning studies of community-based HIV education programs is identifying a sample size large enough to ensure a reasonable probability of detecting program effects if they exist. Sufficient sample sizes for community- or group-based designs are proportional to the correlation or similarity of individuals within communities. As a result, efficient and effective design requires reasonable a priori estimates of the correlational structure among individuals within communities. In this study, we investigate the degree of correlation among individuals within communities and regions using samples of sixth-grade adolescents from 609 local area district communities and 122 regions in 15 sub-Saharan African nations. We develop nation-specific and international summaries of these correlations using variance partitioning coefficients from multilevel models and subsequently assess the extent to which different types of background variables delineate key sources of these correlations. The results suggest persistent differences among communities and regions and that the degree of correlation among individuals within communities varied considerably by nation. The findings underscore the importance of empirically derived values of design parameters that are anchored in evidence specific to the outcome, nation and context of the planned study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women in the reproductive age in Northwestern Ethiopia: a protocol for quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Torpey, Kwasi; Manu, Abubakar; Assefa, Nega; Ankomah, Augustine

    2017-11-21

    Violence against women is a well understood devastating global pandemic, and human right violation. One in three women experienced intimate partner violence worldwide. In Ethiopia, the level of domestic violence against women is one of the highest in the world. However, Ethiopia is signatory for various conventions and incorporated in legal frameworks. Nevertheless, effective implementation of the existing policy documents, and engaging different stakeholders is very limited. Therefore, we aimed to pilot feasibility of implementing available research evidence and policy documents at community level to prevent domestic violence against women in Awi zone, northwestern Ethiopia. A community-based quasi-experimental study design will be employed using mixed method. Multistage stratified systematic sampling and purposive sampling will be used to recruit quantitative and qualitative study participants, respectively. A total of 1,269 women will be participated in the intervention, active comparator and control groups. Pre and post-test quantitative data will be collected using face-to-face interview. Qualitative data will be collected through in-depth, key informant interview and focus group discussions. advocacy meeting will be held to persuade local politicians and sustain the implementation of community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women. Community representatives will be trained to enhance peer education to promote community awareness and engage stakeholders to transform the traditional gender norm within local context. Awareness creation and husband involvement will be made through integrating the intervention with community health extension program. Only husband involvement will not be promoted in the active comparator to test the role of husband involvement on the domestic violence prevention activities. Intervention progress will be monitored regularly. Gathered data will be entered in Epidata and exported to SPSS (23.0) software for

  12. Exploring the influence of context in a community-based facilitation intervention focusing on neonatal health and survival in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Duc M; Bergström, Anna; Wallin, Lars; Bui, Ha T T; Eriksson, Leif; Eldh, Ann Catrine

    2015-08-22

    In the Neonatal health - Knowledge into Practice (NeoKIP) trial in Vietnam, local stakeholder groups, supported by trained laywomen acting as facilitators, promoted knowledge translation (KT) resulting in decreased neonatal mortality. In general, as well as in the community-based NeoKIP trial, there is a need to further understand how context influences KT interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the influence of context on the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention. A secondary content analysis was performed on 16 Focus Group Discussions with facilitators and participants of the stakeholder groups, applying an inductive approach to the content on context through naïve understanding and structured analysis. The three main-categories of context found to influence the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention were: (1) Support and collaboration of local authorities and other communal stakeholders; (2) Incentives to, and motivation of, participants; and (3) Low health care coverage and utilization. In particular, the role of local authorities in a KT intervention was recognized as important. Also, while project participants expected financial incentives, non-financial benefits such as individual learning were considered to balance the lack of reimbursement in the NeoKIP intervention. Further, project participants recognized the need to acknowledge the needs of disadvantaged groups. This study provides insight for further understanding of the influence of contextual aspects to improve effects of a KT intervention in Vietnam. We suggest that future KT interventions should apply strategies to improve local authorities' engagement, to identify and communicate non-financial incentives, and to make disadvantaged groups a priority. Further studies to evaluate the contextual aspects in KT interventions in LMICs are also needed.

  13. Reducing violence in poor urban areas of Honduras by building community resilience through community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Nord, Nete Sloth; Kjaerulf, Finn; Almendarez, Juan; Rodas, Victor Morales; Castro, Julio

    2016-11-01

    To examine the impact of a 3 year community-based violence prevention intervention on risk of violence and social capital in two poor urban communities in Honduras in 2011-2014. A quasi-experimental design pre and post implementation of the intervention was conducted based on data from two randomly selected samples using the same structured questionnaire in 2011 and in 2014. Community members had a 42 % lower risk of violence in 2014 compared to 2011. There was a positive relation between participation in the intervention and structural social capital, and participants had more than twice the likelihood of engaging in citizenship activities compared to the general population. The intervention contributed to decreasing violence and increasing community resilience in two urban areas in Honduras. Citizenship activities and active community participation in the violence prevention agenda rather than social trust and cohesion characteristics was affected by the intervention. This research introduces important lessons learned to future researchers aiming to retrieve very sensitive data in a similarly violent setting, and provides strong research opportunities within areas, which to this date remain undiscovered.

  14. Dental Caries in American Indian Toddlers after a Community-Based Beverage Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Karanja, Njeri; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lutz, Tam; Aickin, Mikel; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Setting The Toddler Overweight and Tooth decay prevention Study (TOTS) was an overweight and early childhood caries (ECC) project in the Pacific Northwest USA. It targeted American Indian (AI) toddlers from birth, to effect changes in breastfeeding and sweetened beverage consumption. Design/Intervention/Participants The intervention cohort was children born in three communities during 12 months; expectant mothers were identified through prenatal visits, and recruited by tribal coordinators. The local comparison cohorts were children in those communities who were 18–30 months at study start. A control longitudinal cohort consisted of annual samples of children aged 18–30 months in a fourth community, supplying secular trends. Outcome measures d1–2mfs was used to identify incident caries in intervention, comparison, and control cohorts after 18-to-30 months of follow-up in 2006. Results No missing or filled teeth were found. For d1t, all three intervention cohorts showed statistically significant downward intervention effects, decreases of between 0.300 and 0.631 in terms of the fraction of affected mouths. The results for d2t were similar but of smaller magnitudes, decreases of between 0.342 and 0.449; these results met the 0.05 level for significance in two of three cases. In light of an estimated secular increase in dental caries in the control site, all three intervention cohorts showed improvements in both d1t and d2t. Conclusions Simple interventions targeting sweetened beverage availability (in combination with related measures) reduced high tooth decay trends, and were both feasible and acceptable to the AI communities we studied. PMID:21305835

  15. Community-based interventions to optimize early childhood development in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-08-01

    Interventions targeting the early childhood period (0 to 3 years) help to improve neuro-cognitive functioning throughout life. Some of the more low cost, low resource-intensive community practices for this age-group are play, reading, music and tactile stimulation. This research was conducted to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of such strategies on child development, with particular focus on techniques that may be transferable to developing countries and to children at risk of developing secondary impairments. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for studies involving the above strategies for early intervention. Reference lists of these studies were scanned and other studies were incorporated based on snow-balling. Overall, 76 articles corresponding to 53 studies, 24 of which were randomized controlled trials, were identified. Sixteen of those studies were from low- and middle-income countries. Play and reading were the two commonest interventions and showed positive impact on intellectual development of the child. Music was evaluated primarily in intensive care settings. Kangaroo Mother Care, and to a lesser extent massage, also showed beneficial effects. Improvement in parent-child interaction was common to all the interventions. Play and reading were effective interventions for early childhood interventions in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to judge the effectiveness of music. Kangaroo Mother Care is effective for low birth weight babies in resource poor settings, but further research is needed in community settings. Massage is useful, but needs more rigorous research prior to being advocated for community-level interventions.

  16. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  17. Effect of 6-month community-based exercise interventions on gait and functional fitness of an older population: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Branco, Marco; Moniz-Pereira, Vera; André, Helô-Isa; Veloso, António P; Carnide, Filomena

    2018-01-01

    Gait ability in older adults has been associated with independent living, increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. There are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of a community-based periodized exercise intervention on the improvement of gait parameters and functional fitness in an older adult group compared with a non-periodized program. A quasi-experimental study with follow-up was performed in a periodized exercise group (N=15) and in a non-periodized exercise group (N=13). The primary outcomes were plantar pressure gait parameters, and the secondary outcomes were physical activity, aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, agility, and balance. These variables were recorded at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Both programs were tailored to older adults' functional fitness level and proved to be effective in reducing the age-related decline regarding functional fitness and gait parameters. Gait parameters were sensitive to both the exercise interventions. These exercise protocols can be used by exercise professionals in prescribing community exercise programs, as well as by health professionals in promoting active aging.

  18. Lessons learned from a community based intervention to improve injection safety in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Arshad; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Shaikh, Kulsoom; Constable, Fiona M; Khamassi, Selma

    2013-04-22

    A national study in 2007 revealed that in Pakistan the prevalence of hepatitis B is 2.5% and for hepatitis C it is 5%. Unsafe injections have been identified as one of the reasons for the spread of these infections. Trained and untrained providers routinely perform unsafe practices primarily for economic reasons i.e. they reuse injection equipment on several patients. The patients, do not question the provider about the need for an injection because of social barriers or whether the syringe is coming from a new sterile packet due to lack of knowledge. The present paper represents an intervention that was developed to empower the community to improve unsafe injection practices in rural Pakistan. In a rural district of Pakistan (Tando Allahyar, Sindh) with a population of approximately 630,000 a multipronged approach was used in 2010 (June to December) to improve injection safety. The focus of the intervention was the community, however providers were not precluded. The organization of interventions was also carefully planned. A baseline assessment (n=300) was conducted prior to the intervention. The interventions comprised large scale gatherings of the community (males and females) across the district. Smaller gatherings included teachers, imams of mosques and the training of trained and untrained healthcare providers. The Pakistan Television Network was used to broadcast messages recorded by prominent figures in the local language. The local FM channel and Sunday newspaper were also used to disseminate messages on injection safety. An end of project assessment was carried out in January 2012. The study was ethically reviewed and approved. The interventions resulted in improving misconceptions about transmission of hepatitis B and C. In the baseline assessment (only 9%) of the respondents associated hepatitis B and C with unsafe injections which increased to 78% at the end of project study. In the baseline study 15% of the study participants reported that a new

  19. Community-based mental health intervention for underprivileged women in rural India: an experiential report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran; Vanguri, Prameela; Premchander, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To share experiences from a project that integrates a mental health intervention within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women in rural India. Method. The mental health intervention had two components: group counseling and stress management. The former comprised of ventilation and reassurance and the latter strengthening of coping skills and a relaxation technique. Focus group discussions were used to understand women's perception of how microcredit economic activity and the mental health intervention had affected their lives. Results. Women in the mental health intervention group reported reduction in psychological distress and bodily aches and pains. Majority (86%) reported that the quality of their sleep had improved with regular practice of relaxation and that sharing their problems in the group had helped them to unburden. The social support extended by the members to each other, made them feel that they were not alone and could face any life situation. Conclusion. The study provided qualitative evidence that adding the mental health intervention to the ongoing economic activity had made a positive difference in the lives of the women. Addressing mental health concerns along with livelihood initiatives can help to enhance both economic and social capital in rural poor women.

  20. Community-based Men's Sheds: promoting male health, wellbeing and social inclusion in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-09-01

    Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effect of community-based reproductive health communication interventions on contraceptive use among young married couples in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Elkan E; Masilamani, Rekha; Rahman, Mizanur

    2008-12-01

    Contraceptive use among young couples in India is low, and early childbearing and short birth intervals are common. The PRACHAR Project, an ongoing intervention in Bihar, seeks to increase contraceptive use for delaying and spacing births through communication interventions. Random samples of married women younger than 25 with no more than one child were surveyed in 2002-2003, before PRACHAR was implemented (N=1,995), and in 2004, 21-27 months after implementation (N=2,080). Contraceptive demand and use, and related attitudes and knowledge, were assessed in the two surveys in both intervention areas and comparison areas. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the interventions on these indicators. Contraceptive use was very low (2-6%) at baseline in both comparison and intervention areas. Demand for contraception increased from 25% at baseline to 40% at follow-up in intervention areas, but remained virtually unchanged in comparison areas. At follow-up, contraceptive use had risen in both areas, but the adjusted odds of use in intervention areas were 3.8 times those in comparison areas. Women in intervention areas had elevated odds of knowing that fertility varies during the menstrual cycle, and of agreeing that early childbirth can be harmful and that contraceptive use is necessary and safe for delaying first births (odds ratios, 1.6-3.0). Culturally appropriate, community-based communication programs that target youth and those who influence their decisions can create demand for contraception among young couples and lead to increased contraceptive use.

  2. Stakeholders perspectives on the key components of community-based interventions coordinating care in dementia: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Richards, David A; McCabe, Rose; Watkins, Ross; Dickens, Chris

    2017-11-22

    Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to investigate the views of stakeholders on the key components of community-based interventions coordinating care in dementia. We searched four databases from inception to June 2015; Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO, this was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full text screen by two independent reviewers, and quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. We then conducted thematic synthesis on extracted data. A total of seven papers from five independent studies were included in the review, and encompassed the views of over 100 participants from three countries. Through thematic synthesis we identified 32 initial codes that were grouped into 5 second-order themes: (1) case manager had four associated codes and described preferences for the case manager personal and professional attributes, including a sound knowledge in dementia and availability of local services; (2) communication had five associated codes and emphasized the importance stakeholders placed on multichannel communication with service users, as well as between multidisciplinary teams and across organisations; (3) intervention had 11 associated codes which focused primarily on the practicalities of implementation such as the contact type and frequency between case managers and service users, and the importance of case manager training and service evaluation; (4) resources had five associated codes which outlined stakeholder views on the required resources for coordinating interventions and potential overlap with existing resources, as well as arising issues when available resources do not meet those required for successful implementation; and (5) support had seven associated codes that

  3. Stakeholders perspectives on the key components of community-based interventions coordinating care in dementia: a qualitative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Backhouse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to investigate the views of stakeholders on the key components of community-based interventions coordinating care in dementia. Methods We searched four databases from inception to June 2015; Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO, this was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full text screen by two independent reviewers, and quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. We then conducted thematic synthesis on extracted data. Results A total of seven papers from five independent studies were included in the review, and encompassed the views of over 100 participants from three countries. Through thematic synthesis we identified 32 initial codes that were grouped into 5 second-order themes: (1 case manager had four associated codes and described preferences for the case manager personal and professional attributes, including a sound knowledge in dementia and availability of local services; (2 communication had five associated codes and emphasized the importance stakeholders placed on multichannel communication with service users, as well as between multidisciplinary teams and across organisations; (3 intervention had 11 associated codes which focused primarily on the practicalities of implementation such as the contact type and frequency between case managers and service users, and the importance of case manager training and service evaluation; (4 resources had five associated codes which outlined stakeholder views on the required resources for coordinating interventions and potential overlap with existing resources, as well as arising issues when available resources do not meet those required for successful implementation

  4. A Community-Based Intervention Program to Enhance Family Communication and Family Well-being: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wan, Alice; Kwok, Lit Tung; Pang, Sally; Wang, Xin; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-01-01

    Family communication is important to maintain family relationships and family well-being. To enhance family communication and family well-being, a community-based "Learning Families Project," based on the social ecological model was developed in Kwun Tong in Hong Kong, a district with high prevalence of family problems. This quasi-experimental study included two nearby government subsidized low-rent housing estates separated by busy main roads, as the intervention [Tsui Ping (South) Estate] and control (Shun Tin Estate) estate. The main intervention was resident training programs, such as talks, day camps, and thematic activities. No program was implemented in the control estate. Participants in the intervention group received assessments before the intervention (T1), immediately after the intervention (T2), and 6 weeks after the intervention (T3). Control group participants were assessed at baseline (March to April 2011) and follow-up (December 2011 to March 2012). Assessments of family communication (time and perceived adequacy) and family well-being (harmony, happiness, and health) at T1 and T3 were obtained in the intervention group to examine within-group changes. In addition, these differences in outcomes in the intervention group were compared with those in the control group to examine the effectiveness of the intervention. Family communication time and perceived communication adequacy increased significantly in the intervention group ( n  = 515) with a small effect size (Cohen effect d : 0.10 and 0.24, respectively). Compared with the control group ( n  = 476), the improvements in family communication time and perceived communication adequacy (Cohen effect d : 0.13 and 0.14, respectively), and perceived family harmony and happiness (Cohen effect d : 0.12 and 0.12, respectively) were significantly greater in the intervention group, adjusting for age and education, suggesting the intervention was effective in improving family communication and

  5. [Promotion of community-based care in Africa: example of community general practice in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplain, Roland; Yacoubou, Ismaïl; Adedemy, Didier; Sani, Alidou; Takam, Sandrine; Desplats, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been made to provide rural African populations with basic health care, but the quality of this care remains unsatisfactory due to the absence of first-line GPs. This is a paradoxical situation in view of the large number of physicians trained in medical schools in French-speaking Africa and Madagascar. of the lack of GPs working in rural areas is a real concern, as many young doctors remain unemployed in cities. For more than 20 years, the NGO Santé Sud has proposed a Community General Medicine concept, which, combined with a support system, has allowed the installation of more than 200 community GPs in Mali and Madagascar. The advantage of this concept is that it provides family medicine and primary health care in the same practice. Since 2009, Santé Sud supports an installation project in rural areas of northern Benin, where community GPs work independently, as a complementary partner of the public sector. Since 2013, the installation process comprises a university degree created with the University of Parakou Faculty of Medicine. Based on this experience in Benin, the authors show that the presence of a first-line general practitioner is an original strategy that provides a major contribution to health promotion : reducing health inequalities between rural and urban populations, allowing women to receive medically assisted childbirth close to home, developing family planning activities, education and health care for chronic diseases, strengthening health coverage by participating in vaccination campaigns, etc. Due to their functions and proximity, community GPs represent an added value for health promotion.

  6. Engaging cultural resources to promote mental health in Dutch LSES neighborhoods: study of a community-based participatory media project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, Mare; de Vries, Marten; Horstman, Klasien

    2017-06-01

    Community-based participatory media projects form a promising new strategy for mental health promotion that can help address the mental health-gap identified by the World Health Organization. (2008b) mhGAP, Mental Health Gap Action Programme: Scaling Up Care for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva. In this article we present an ethnographic study about a participatory media project that was developed to promote mental health in selected Dutch low socio-economic status neighborhoods. Through narrowcastings (group film viewings), participant observation and interviews we mapped the ways in which the media project effected and facilitated the collective sense-making process of the audience with regard to sources of stress impacting mental health and opportunities for action. These determinants of mental health are shaped by cultural dimensions, since the cultural context shapes everyday experiences of stress as well as the resources and skills to manage them. Our analysis shows that the media project engaged cultural resources to challenge stressful social scripts. We conclude that more attention should be paid to cultural narratives in a community to understand how health promotion strategies can support social resilience. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Taking Steps Together: A Family- and Community-Based Obesity Intervention for Urban, Multiethnic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.; Newby, Rachel; Kehm, Rebecca; Barland, Patricia; Hearst, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Successful childhood obesity intervention models that build sustainable behavioral change are needed, particularly in low-income, ethnic minority communities disparately affected by this problem. Method: Families were referred to Taking Steps Together (TST) by their primary care provider if at least one child had a body mass index…

  8. Carletonville-Mothusimpilo project: limiting transmission of HIV through community-based interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, BG

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available at the start of the epidemic, contributed to the spread of HIV in Carletonville, the largest gold-mining complex in the world. We first consider the political and economic context within which earlier attempts to develop HIV intervention programmes were made...

  9. The effect of a community-based self-help multimodal behavioral intervention in Korean American seniors with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kim B; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang; Kim, Miyong T

    2014-09-01

    Great strides have been made in improving heart health in the United States during the last 2 decades, yet these strides have not encompassed many ethnic minority populations. There are significant health disparity gaps stemming from both a paucity of valid research and a lack of culturally sensitive interventions. In particular, many Korean Americans with chronic illnesses encounter difficulty navigating the healthcare system because of limited health literacy. The effect of a multimodal Self-Help Intervention Program on the Control of High Blood Pressure (HBP) was tested in a community-based clinical trial for Korean American seniors. Of 440 seniors enrolled, 369 completed the study (184 in the intervention group and 185 in the control group; mean age = 70.9±5.3 years). The intervention group received 6 weekly educational sessions on HBP management skill building, including health literacy training, followed by telephone counseling and home blood pressure (BP) monitoring for 12 months. Findings support that the Self-Help Intervention Program on the Control of HBP was effective in controlling BP in this ethnic/linguistic minority population. The BP control rates for the intervention and control groups were 49.5% vs. 43.2% at baseline, 58.5% vs. 42.4% at 6 months, 67.9% vs. 52.5% at 12 months, and 54.3% vs. 53.0% at 18 months. Significant changes were observed over time in some psychobehavioral outcomes, including self-efficacy for BP control, medication adherence behavior, HBP knowledge, and depression. The study findings suggest that the multimodal Self-Help Intervention Program on the Control of HBP is effective at promoting optimal HBP control for this ethnic/linguistic minority population. NCT00406614. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effectiveness of community based intervention on improvement of pregnancy and delivery process in district 4 of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamak Shariat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce cesarean section rate, we need complex interventions to modify related behavior. We aimed to identify the effectiveness of a community-based intervention on prenatal care status, delivery and decline of cesarean section rate. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out on mothers residing in Khak Sefid and Javadiyeh in Tehran from January 2011 to September 2014. Study population was 274 mothers; attending in health centers for first vaccination of their neonates. Mothers' demographic data were recorded in some questionnaires. One year interventions including; consultation, distribution of educational package and training courses (for mothers, fathers and their families, educational programs for midwives, obstetricians and gynecologist, residents, medical students, accomplishment of 10 steps baby-friendly principles and provision adequate personnel in labor-delivery room were implemented in community, hospitals and health centers. After intervention, 250 mothers who were attending in health centers for vaccination of 2 months aged neonates were assessed and their data were recorded in the same questionnaires. The effectiveness of intervention on cesarean section rate and cesarean tendency in before and after intervention groups were compared. P< 0.05 was considered as level of significance. Results: Of 274 mothers in "before intervention" group 193 (70.44% and of 250 mothers in "after intervention", 169 subjects (67.6% had cesarean section. Although a significant decline was seen in cesarean tendency in "after intervention" group (P= 0.034, no significant difference was seen between 2 groups' cesarean section rates (P= 0.48. In "after intervention" group episiotomy, induction of labor rate and maternal morbidity were significantly lower than "before intervention" group (P= 0.0001, 0.0001, 0.01. Although no significant difference was seen between two groups neonatal birth weight (P= 0.69, a significant difference was

  11. School- and Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Interventions: Hot Idea, Hot Air, or Sham?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah

    2017-06-01

    Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Awareness and intervention status of prediabetes among Chinese adults: implications from a community-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Qianling; Wu, Lirong; Lu, Yiqun; Du, Jiangang; Guo, Guifang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid changes in lifestyle of China, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes is increasing. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of prediabetes and study the disease awareness of prediabetes in a Southern China community. Furthermore, it also aimed to investigate the intervention status of lifestyle changes for pre-diabetes prevention. 881 adults without diabetes mellitus were recruited from the Suzhou community of China in 2012-2013. Self-report questionnaires including dem...

  13. A community based interventional approach to intranatal And neonatal health care’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Tripathi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess the contribution of the interventions through the local change agent (Bal Parivar Mitra towards achievement of health awareness among rural women regarding maternal child health through improvement and change in health practices.Study design: Stratified multistage random sampling technique.Study unit : Within the selected households lactating mothers were selected as study units.Study area : The study was conducted in Jasra and Saidabad blocks of Allahabad district wherein MCHN Project is going on since July 2000.Study variable : Maternal care. Intervention, Impact.Statistical analysis : Ztesl for testing significance of differences between two proportions (Z - test.Results: Deliveries assisted by trained persons increased from 22.4%to 36.7%. Follow-up of'5-cleans’ during pregnancy was among 43.3%. Birth registration increased from 19.2% in baseline to 35%. feeding of colostrum from 27,4% to 40.0%. Breastfeeding within half an hour after birth was among 23.3% followed by 16.7% within 1/2-12 hours. Proper warmth was given to 68.3% newborns and 58.3% babies were bathed after one day of birth.Conclusions : The suggested intervention package through BPM seems to be a sustainable effort and several parameters of intranatal and neonatal health care arc expected to be attained as long-term achievements.

  14. A community based interventional approach to intranatal And neonatal health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Tripathi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess the contribution of the interventions through the local change agent (Bal Parivar Mitra towards achievement of health awareness among rural women regarding maternal child health through improvement and change in health practices. Study design: Stratified multistage random sampling technique. Study unit : Within the selected households lactating mothers were selected as study units. Study area : The study was conducted in Jasra and Saidabad blocks of Allahabad district wherein MCHN Project is going on since July 2000. Study variable : Maternal care. Intervention, Impact. Statistical analysis : Ztesl for testing significance of differences between two proportions (Z - test. Results: Deliveries assisted by trained persons increased from 22.4%to 36.7%. Follow-up of'5-cleans’ during pregnancy was among 43.3%. Birth registration increased from 19.2% in baseline to 35%. feeding of colostrum from 27,4% to 40.0%. Breastfeeding within half an hour after birth was among 23.3% followed by 16.7% within 1/2-12 hours. Proper warmth was given to 68.3% newborns and 58.3% babies were bathed after one day of birth. Conclusions : The suggested intervention package through BPM seems to be a sustainable effort and several parameters of intranatal and neonatal health care arc expected to be attained as long-term achievements.

  15. Community-based InterVentions to prevent serIous Complications (CIVIC) following spinal cord injury in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad S; Harvey, Lisa A; Rahman, Md Akhlasur

    2016-01-01

    model of community-based care designed to prevent and manage complications in people with SCI in Bangladesh. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial will be undertaken. 410 wheelchair-dependent people with recent SCI will be randomised to Intervention and Control groups shortly...... the University of Sydney, Australia. The study will be conducted in compliance with all stipulations of its protocol, the conditions of ethics committee approval, the NHMRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007), the Note for Guidance on Good Clinical Practice (CPMP/ICH-135....../95) and the Bangladesh Guidance on Clinical Trial Inspection (2011). The results of the trial will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ACTRN12615000630516, U1111-1171-1876....

  16. Cook It Up! A community-based cooking program for at-risk youth: overview of a food literacy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heather MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6 completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society.

  17. Increasing physical activity for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program: A community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and

  18. A study of Community Based Nutritional Intervention and prevention of malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Anupama Toppo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: PEM is one of the major health and nutritional problem in India. It is not only an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity but also leads to permanent impairment of both physical and mental growth of those who survive. Malnutrition is implicated in >50% of deaths of <5 children (5 million/yr. Improving nutrition for children is crucial in meeting two of the Millennium Development Goals. According to national family health survey-3 there is considerable variation across states with Madhya Pradesh recording the highest rate for underweight children (60.3% and Kerala among the lowest (28.8%. The great majority of cases of PEM nearly 80% are intermediate that is mild and moderate cases which frequently go unrecognized. These are the fact that made us to pick this issue in order to benefit the children of locality to some extent. Objectives: To identify under 5 year children with malnutrition, To demonstrate the method of preparing high protein mix diet and to educate mothers about adequate recommended diet as per age of children, To find out whether high protein mix improves nutritional status of identified malnourished children. Methodology: It was cross sectional and interventional study carried out in two villages of Jabalpur districts during the period of three months among 100 under five children. We had screened them and calculated weight for age (% and categorized them according to Gomez Classification that is normal, mild, moderate and severe malnutrition. Intervention was done on malnourished children then 4 follow ups at the interval of 15 days. Intervention strategies: Nutrition education and provision of High Protein Mix Diet. Result: 12% children were identified as malnourished where 7% were having mild grade malnutrition and 5% with moderate grade of malnutrition. Among male there were 14.04% children were malnourished while among female 9.3% were malnourished. After intervention 50% children were showing

  19. A study of Community Based Nutritional Intervention and prevention of malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Anupama Toppo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: PEM is one of the major health and nutritional problem in India. It is not only an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity but also leads to permanent impairment of both physical and mental growth of those who survive. Malnutrition is implicated in >50% of deaths of <5 children (5 million/yr. Improving nutrition for children is crucial in meeting two of the Millennium Development Goals. According to national family health survey-3 there is considerable variation across states with Madhya Pradesh recording the highest rate for underweight children (60.3% and Kerala among the lowest (28.8%. The great majority of cases of PEM nearly 80% are intermediate that is mild and moderate cases which frequently go unrecognized. These are the fact that made us to pick this issue in order to benefit the children of locality to some extent. Objectives: To identify under 5 year children with malnutrition, To demonstrate the method of preparing high protein mix diet and to educate mothers about adequate recommended diet as per age of children, To find out whether high protein mix improves nutritional status of identified malnourished children. Methodology: It was cross sectional and interventional study carried out in two villages of Jabalpur districts during the period of three months among 100 under five children. We had screened them and calculated weight for age (% and categorized them according to Gomez Classification that is normal, mild, moderate and severe malnutrition. Intervention was done on malnourished children then 4 follow ups at the interval of 15 days. Intervention strategies: Nutrition education and provision of High Protein Mix Diet. Result: 12% children were identified as malnourished where 7% were having mild grade malnutrition and 5% with moderate grade of malnutrition. Among male there were 14.04% children were malnourished while among female 9.3% were malnourished. After intervention 50% children were showing

  20. Designing a smoking cessation intervention for the unique needs of homeless persons: a community-based randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldade, Kate; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Thomas, Janet; Eischen, Sara; Guo, Hongfei; Connett, John; Des Jarlais, Don; Resnicow, Ken; Gelberg, Lillian; Owen, Greg; Grant, Jon; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2011-12-01

    Although smoking prevalence remains strikingly high in homeless populations (~70% and three times the US national average), smoking cessation studies usually exclude homeless persons. Novel evidence-based interventions are needed for this high-risk subpopulation of smokers. To describe the aims and design of a first-ever smoking cessation clinical trial in the homeless population. The study was a two-group randomized community-based trial that enrolled participants (n = 430) residing across eight homeless shelters and transitional housing units in Minnesota. The study objective was to test the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for enhancing adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; nicotine patch) and smoking cessation outcomes. Participants were randomized to one of the two groups: active (8 weeks of NRT + 6 sessions of MI) or control (NRT + standard care). Participants attended six in-person assessment sessions and eight retention visits at a location of their choice over 6 months. Nicotine patch in 2-week doses was administered at four visits over the first 8 weeks of the 26-week trial. The primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included adherence to nicotine patch assessed through direct observation and patch counts. Other outcomes included the mediating and/or moderating effects of comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Lessons learned from the community-based cessation randomized trial for improving recruitment and retention in a mobile and vulnerable population included: (1) the importance of engaging the perspectives of shelter leadership by forming and convening a Community Advisory Board; (2) locating the study at the shelters for more visibility and easier access for participants; (3) minimizing exclusion criteria to allow enrollment of participants with stable psychiatric comorbid conditions; (4) delaying the baseline visit from the eligibility visit by a week

  1. Improving health and energy efficiency through community-based housing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Crane, Julian; Chapman, Ralph; Fougere, Geoff

    2011-12-01

    Houses designed for one climate and cultural group may not be appropriate for other places and people. Our aim is to find cost-effective ways to improve the characteristics of older homes, ill-fitted for New Zealand's climate, in order to improve the occupants' health. We have carried out two community randomised trials, in partnership with local communities, which have focused on retrofitted insulation and more effective heating and have two other studies under way, one which focuses on electricity vouchers and the other on housing hazard remediation. The Housing, Insulation and Health Study showed that insulating 1,350 houses, built before insulation was required, improved the occupants' health and well being as well as household energy efficiency. In the Housing, Heating and Health Study we investigated the impact of installing more effective heating in insulated houses for 409 households, where there was a child with doctor-diagnosed asthma. Again, the study showed significant results in the intervention group; indoor temperatures increased and levels of NO(2) were halved. Children reported less poor health, lower levels of asthma symptoms and sleep disturbances by wheeze and dry cough. Children also had fewer days off school. Improving the energy efficiency of older housing leads to health improvements and energy efficiency improvements. Multidisciplinary studies of housing interventions can create compelling evidence to support policies for sustainable housing developments which improve health.

  2. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  3. Using a community-based participatory research approach to develop a faith-based obesity intervention for African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Goldmon, Moses V; Coker-Appiah, Dionne S

    2011-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a major epidemic, with African American (AA) children aged 6 to 11 years experiencing increased burden. The AA faith community has numerous assets that point to the need for the intersection of faith and health to address obesity-related racial disparities. The purpose of the Our Bodies, God's Temples (OBGT) study was to examine diet, physical activity, and body image behaviors among AA children aged 6 to 11 years; receptivity to a faith-based obesity intervention among AA children, parents, and church leaders; and strengths and barriers of implementing a faith-based obesity curriculum in the Sunday school setting. A community-based participatory research approach was used to develop an obesity intervention to be integrated into the church Sunday school setting for AA children. A Community Advisory Network worked with researchers to develop a 12-week culturally appropriate faith-based obesity intervention. Future work will test the effectiveness of the newly created curriculum on obesity-related outcomes in AA children.

  4. Using community-based participatory research to develop an intervention to reduce HIV and STD infections among Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Montaño, Jaime; Remnitz, Ivan M; Arceo, Ramiro; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Bowden, W Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although the Latino community living in the United States has been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV and STD prevention interventions designed to reduce infection among Latinos lags behind prevention efforts targeting other communities. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables is a sexual risk reduction intervention designed to reduce HIV and STD infection among recently arrived, non-English-speaking Latino men who are members of a multicounty Latino soccer league in central North Carolina, a region of the United States with both the fastest growing Latino population and disproportionate HIV and STD infection rates. HoMBReS was developed in partnership with the local Latino community using community-based participatory research (CBPR). We describe (a) the CBPR partnership history and further expansion; (b) the development of the intervention through the integration of collected formative data, theoretical considerations, and findings from the scientific literature; and (c) lessons learned while using a CBPR approach to develop HoMBReS.

  5. Community-based game intervention to improve South Asian Indian Americans' engagement with advanced care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T

    2017-07-27

    Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.

  6. A methodology for evaluating organizational change in community-based chronic disease interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Krista D; Mendoza, Elsa; Snider, John; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2007-10-01

    In 2003, the Monterey County Health Department, serving Salinas, California, was awarded one of 12 grants from the Steps to a HealthierUS Program to implement a 5-year, multiple-intervention community approach to reduce diabetes, asthma, and obesity. National adult and youth surveys to assess long-term outcomes are required by all Steps sites; however, site-specific surveys to assess intermediate outcomes are not required. Salinas is a medically underserved community of primarily Mexican American residents with high obesity rates and other poor health outcomes. The health department's Steps program has partnered with traditional organizations such as schools, senior centers, clinics, and faith-based organizations as well as novel organizations such as employers of agricultural workers and owners of taquerias. The health department and the Stanford Prevention Research Center developed new site-specific, community-focused partner surveys to assess intermediate outcomes to augment the nationally mandated surveys. These site-specific surveys will evaluate changes in organizational practices, policies, or both following the socioecological model, specifically the Spectrum of Prevention. Our site-specific partner surveys helped to 1) identify promising new partners, select initial partners from neighborhoods with the greatest financial need, and identify potentially successful community approaches; and 2) provide data for evaluating intermediate outcomes matched to national long-term outcomes so that policy and organizational level changes could be assessed. These quantitative surveys also provide important context-specific qualitative data, identifying opportunities for strengthening community partnerships. Developing site-specific partner surveys in multisite intervention studies can provide important data to guide local program efforts and assess progress toward intermediate outcomes matched to long-term outcomes from nationally mandated surveys.

  7. Advantages and Disadvantages for Receiving Internet-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions at Home or at Community Based Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shana M.; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years public health interventions have become technologically based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions. The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to effective behavioral interventions like Healthy Relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based Healthy Relationships Video Groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages, disadvantages and overall preference for home or agency delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907

  8. Effectiveness of a Multifaceted Community-Based Promotion Strategy on Use of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a Local Community Health Education Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle; Mateo, Katrina F; Morita, Haruka; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2015-07-01

    The use of health communication extends beyond simply promoting or disseminating a particular product or proposed behavior change; it involves the systematic and strategic integration and execution of evidence-based, theory-driven, and community engagement strategies. Much like in public health intervention design based on health behavior theory, health communication seeks to encourage the target audience to make a positive behavior change through core concepts such as understanding and specifying the target audience, tailoring messages based on audience segmentation, and continually conducting evaluation of specific and overarching goals. While our first article "Development of a Culturally Relevant Consumer Health Information Website for Harlem, New York" focused on the design, development, and initial implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org between 2004 and 2009, this article delves into the process of promoting the website to increase its use and then evaluating use among website visitors. Just as for the development of the website, we used community-based participatory research methods, health behavior theory, and health communication strategies to systemically develop and execute a health communication plan with the goals of increasing awareness of GetHealthyHarlem.org in Harlem, driving online traffic, and having the community recognize it as a respected community resource dedicated to improving health in Harlem. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Effects of a Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity among Economically Disadvantaged Adults with Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…

  10. Costs of community-based interventions from the Community Transformation Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Yarnoff, Benjamin; Bradley, Christina; Soler, Robin; Orenstein, Diane

    2018-07-01

    Limited data are available on the costs of evidence-based community-wide prevention programs. The objective of this study was to estimate the per-person costs of strategies that support policy, systems, and environmental changes implemented under the Community Transformation Grants (CTG) program. We collected cost data from 29 CTG awardees and estimated program costs as spending on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead activities; partners; and the value of in-kind contributions. We estimated costs per person reached for 20 strategies. We assessed how per-person costs varied with the number of people reached. Data were collected in 2012-2015, and the analysis was conducted in 2015-2016. Two of the tobacco-free living strategies cost less than $1.20 per person and reached over 6 million people each. Four of the healthy eating strategies cost less than $1.00 per person, and one of them reached over 6.5 million people. One of the active living strategies cost $2.20 per person and reached over 7 million people. Three of the clinical and community preventive services strategies cost less than $2.30 per person, and one of them reached almost 2 million people. Across all 20 strategies combined, an increase of 10,000 people in the number of people reached was associated with a $0.22 reduction in the per-person cost. Results demonstrate that interventions, such as tobacco-free indoor policies, which have been shown to improve health outcomes have relatively low per-person costs and are able to reach a large number of people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Community-Based Participatory Research to Promote Healthy Diet and Nutrition and Prevent and Control Obesity Among African-Americans: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Smith, Selina A

    2017-04-01

    The literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches for promoting healthy diet and nutrition and preventing and controlling obesity in African-American communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for new research. CBPR studies of diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-Americans were identified from 1989 through October 31, 2015, using PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 16 CBPR studies on healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-Americans were identified; outcome evaluation results were available for all but two. Of the remaining 14 studies, 11 focused on adults, 1 on children, and 2 on both children and adults. Eight studies employed CBPR methods to address diet, nutrition, and weight management in church settings. Four had a cluster-randomized controlled design. Others had a pre-post test, quasi-experimental, or uncontrolled design. Only one study addressed four levels of the socioecological model; none addressed all five levels of the model. The studies identified in this review indicate that CBPR approaches can be effective for promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-American adults, but there is a need for additional studies with rigorous study designs that overcome methodologic limitations of many existing studies. There is only limited evidence for the effectiveness of CBPR approaches for promoting healthy eating and weight control among African-American children and adolescents. To address health disparities, additional CBPR studies are needed to promote healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management in African-American communities. Of particular interest are multilevel CBPR studies that include interventions aimed at multiple levels of the socioecological model.

  12. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emond Alan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60

  13. Advantages and disadvantages for receiving Internet-based HIV/AIDS interventions at home or at community-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective.

  14. Facilitator and Participant Use of Facebook in a Community-Based Intervention for Parents: The InFANT Extend Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Campbell, Karen J; van der Pligt, Paige; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-12-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook afford new opportunities for behavior-change interventions. Although often used as a recruitment tool, few studies have reported the use of Facebook as an intervention component to facilitate communication between researchers and participants. The aim of this study was to examine facilitator and participant use of a Facebook component of a community-based intervention for parents. First-time parent groups participating in the intervention arm of the extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program were invited to join their own private Facebook group. Facilitators mediated the Facebook groups, using them to share resources with parents, arrange group sessions, and respond to parent queries. Parents completed process evaluation questionnaires reporting on the usefulness of the Facebook groups. A total of 150 parents (from 27 first-time parent groups) joined their private Facebook group. There were a mean of 36.9 (standard deviation 11.1) posts/group, with the majority being facilitator posts. Facilitator administration posts (e.g., arranging upcoming group sessions) had the highest average comments (4.0), followed by participant health/behavior questions (3.5). The majority of participants reported that they enjoyed being a part of their Facebook group; however, the frequency of logging on to their groups' page declined over the 36 months of the trial, as did their perceived usefulness of the group. Facebook appears to be a useful administrative tool in this context. Parents enjoyed being part of their Facebook group, but their reported use of and engagement with Facebook declined over time.

  15. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

    2009-04-08

    Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.3, p water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial

  16. Effects of intervention using a community-based walking program for prevention of mental decline: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Ura, Chiaki; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Murai, Tatsuhiko; Isahai, Mikie; Kaiho, Ayumi; Yamagami, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Satoshi; Miyamae, Fumiko; Sugiyama, Mika; Awata, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a municipality-led walking program under the Japanese public Long-Term Care Insurance Act to prevent mental decline. Randomized controlled trial. The city of Takasaki. One hundred fifty community members aged 72.0 ± 4.0 were randomly divided into intervention (n = 75) and control (n = 75) groups. A walking program was conducted once a week for 90 minutes for 3 months. The program encouraged participants to walk on a regular basis and to increase their steps per day gradually. The intervention was conducted in small groups of approximately six, so combined benefits of exercise and social interaction were expected. Cognitive function was evaluated focusing on nine tests in five domains: memory, executive function, word fluency, visuospatial abilities, and sustained attention. Quality of life (QOL), depressive state, functional capacity, range of activities, and social network were assessed using questionnaires, and motor function was evaluated. Significant differences between the intervention and control groups were shown in word fluency related to frontal lobe function (F(1, 128) = 6.833, P = .01), QOL (F(1,128) = 9.751, P = .002), functional capacity including social interaction (F(1,128) = 13.055, P < .001), and motor function (Timed Up and Go Test: F(1,127) = 10.117, P = .002). No significant differences were observed in other cognitive tests. Walking programs may provide benefits in some aspects of cognition, QOL, and functional capacity including social interaction in elderly community members. This study could serve as the basis for implementation of a community-based intervention to prevent mental decline. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. The effect of community-based health education intervention on management of menstrual hygiene among rural Indian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of a community-based health education intervention on awareness and behaviour change of rural adolescent girls regarding their management of menstrual hygiene. A participatory-action study was undertaken in Primary Health Centres in 23 villages in Anji, in the Wardha district of Maharashtra state. Study subjects were unmarried rural adolescent girls (12-19 years). We conducted a needs assessment for health messages with this target audience, using a triangulated research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group discussions) methods. Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) guidelines were used to develop a pre-tested, handmade flip book containing needs-based key messages about the management of menstrual hygiene. The messages were delivered at monthly meetings of village-based groups of adolescent girls, called Kishori Panchayat. After 3 years, the effect of the messages was assessed using a combination of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (trend analysis) methods. After 3 years, significantly more adolescent girls (55%) were aware of menstruation before its initiation compared with baseline (35%). The practice of using ready-made pads increased significantly from 5% to 25% and reuse of cloth declined from 85% to 57%. The trend analysis showed that adolescent girls perceived a positive change in their behaviour and level of awareness. The present community health education intervention strategy could bring significant changes in the awareness and behaviour of rural adolescent girls regarding management of their menstrual hygiene.

  18. The effectiveness of community-based coordinating interventions in dementia care: a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis of intervention components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Richards, David A; McCabe, Rose; Watkins, Ross; Dickens, Chris

    2017-11-13

    Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based care coordinating interventions on health outcomes and investigate whether specific components of interventions influence their effects. We searched four databases from inception to April 2017: Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO. This was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full text screen by two independent reviewers, and quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. We then conducted meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. A total of 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 10,372 participants were included in the review. Altogether we carried out 12 meta-analyses and 19 subgroup analyses. Meta-analyses found coordinating interventions showed a statistically significant improvement in both patient behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (mean difference (MD) = -9.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): -18.1 to -1.0; p = 0.03; number of studies (n) = 4; I 2  = 88%) and caregiver burden (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.54; 95% CI: -1.01 to -0.07; p = 0.02; n = 5, I 2  = 92%) compared to the control group. Subgroup analyses found interventions using a case manager with a nursing background showed a greater positive effect on caregiver quality of life than those that used case managers from other professional backgrounds (SMD = 0.94 versus 0.03, respectively; p < 0.001). Interventions that did not provide supervision for the case managers showed greater effectiveness for reducing the percentage of patients that are institutionalised compared to those that provided supervision (odds ratio (OR) = 0.27 versus 0.96 respectively; p = 0.02). There was little

  19. The effectiveness of community-based coordinating interventions in dementia care: a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis of intervention components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Backhouse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based care coordinating interventions on health outcomes and investigate whether specific components of interventions influence their effects. Methods We searched four databases from inception to April 2017: Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO. This was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full text screen by two independent reviewers, and quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. We then conducted meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. Results A total of 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs involving 10,372 participants were included in the review. Altogether we carried out 12 meta-analyses and 19 subgroup analyses. Meta-analyses found coordinating interventions showed a statistically significant improvement in both patient behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI (mean difference (MD = −9.5; 95% confidence interval (CI: −18.1 to −1.0; p = 0.03; number of studies (n = 4; I2 = 88% and caregiver burden (standardised mean difference (SMD = −0.54; 95% CI: -1.01 to −0.07; p = 0.02; n = 5, I2 = 92% compared to the control group. Subgroup analyses found interventions using a case manager with a nursing background showed a greater positive effect on caregiver quality of life than those that used case managers from other professional backgrounds (SMD = 0.94 versus 0.03, respectively; p < 0.001. Interventions that did not provide supervision for the case managers showed greater effectiveness for reducing the percentage of patients that are institutionalised compared to those that provided supervision (odds ratio (OR = 0.27 versus 0

  20. Lay perspectives on lay health worker roles, boundaries and participation within three UK community-based health promotion projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, J; Kinsella, K; Meah, A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines lay interpretations of lay health worker roles within three UK community-based health promotion projects. It argues that understanding lay health worker roles requires critical analysis of the complex interrelationships between professionals, lay workers and the communities receiving a programme. Findings are presented that are drawn from a qualitative study of lay engagement in public health programme delivery where a key objective was to examine the perspectives of community members with the experience of receiving services delivered by lay health workers. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 46 programme recipients from three case study projects; a breastfeeding peer support service, a walking for health scheme and a neighbourhood health project. The results show how participants interpreted the function and responsibilities of lay health workers and how those roles provided personalized support and facilitated engagement in group activities. Further insights into community participation processes are provided revealing the potential for active engagement in both formal and informal roles. The paper concludes that social relationships are core to understanding lay health worker programmes and therefore analysis needs to take account of the capacity for community members to move within a spectrum of participation defined by increasing responsibility for others.

  1. The Boost study: Design of a school- and community-based randomised trial to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Boost study was to produce a persistent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption among 13-year-olds. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-and community-based, multi-component intervention guided by theory, evidence, and best practice....

  2. Effect of 6-month community-based exercise interventions on gait and functional fitness of an older population: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalho F

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fátima Ramalho,1,2 Rita Santos-Rocha,1,2 Marco Branco,1,2 Vera Moniz-Pereira,2 Helô-Isa André,2 António P Veloso,2 Filomena Carnide2 1Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior (ESDRM, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, Rio Maior, Portugal; 2Laboratory of Biomechanics and Functional Morphology, Interdisciplinary Centre for the Study of Human Performance (CIPER, Faculty of Human Kinetics (FMH, University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada, Portugal Background: Gait ability in older adults has been associated with independent living, increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. There are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters.Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of a community-based periodized exercise intervention on the improvement of gait parameters and functional fitness in an older adult group compared with a non-periodized program.Methods: A quasi-experimental study with follow-up was performed in a periodized exercise group (N=15 and in a non-periodized exercise group (N=13. The primary outcomes were plantar pressure gait parameters, and the secondary outcomes were physical activity, aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, agility, and balance. These variables were recorded at baseline and after 6 months of intervention.Results: Both programs were tailored to older adults’ functional fitness level and proved to be effective in reducing the age-related decline regarding functional fitness and gait parameters. Gait parameters were sensitive to both the exercise interventions. Conclusion: These exercise protocols can be used by exercise professionals in prescribing community exercise programs, as well as by health professionals in promoting active aging. Keywords: mobility, community exercise programs, active aging, plantar pressure analysis, ground reaction forces, gait properties

  3. PERSPECTIVE ON OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH AND INTERVENTIONS PROVIDED BY COMMUNITY BASED HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM ILLUSTRATED BY THE POTENTIAL USE OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisore, P; Were, F; Ayuku, D; Kaseje, D

    2012-05-01

    With the growth of Community-Based Health Information (CBHIS) for decision making and service provision in the low income settings, innovative models of addressing Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) morbidity and mortality are necessary. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that five hundred thousand mothers and about three million newborns die each year in middle and low income countries. To stimulate interest in utilisation CBHIS for research and interventions, with an illustration of potential using on Motivational Interviewing intervention. Literature searched electronically, discussion with behavioural experts, health system researchers, and maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) experts, and book reviews. Broad selection criteria including all current literature relevantsubjects including CBHIS, behaviour change methods and Community MNH. A checklist for relevance was used to identify the relevant behaviour change intervention to use in the illustration. A method that met the criteria was identified, and based on a discussion with behavioural experts, the decision to use it the illustration was reached. Motivational Interviewing Intervention (MII) should be considered for implementation and study on near-term Pregnant women in a setting where these mothers can be identified and a targeted intervention instituted.

  4. REFOCUS Trial: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a pro-recovery intervention within community based mental health teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Bird, Victoria; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; McCrone, Paul; Leamy, Mary

    2011-11-23

    There is a consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the evidence base is limited. A two centre, cluster randomised controlled trial. Participants are community-based mental health teams, and service users aged 18-65 years with a primary clinical diagnosis of psychosis. In relation to the REFOCUS Manual researchintorecovery.com/refocus, which describes a 12-month, pro-recovery intervention based on the REFOCUS Model, the objectives are: (1) To establish the effectiveness of the intervention described in the REFOCUS Manual; (2) To validate the REFOCUS Model; (3) To establish and optimise trial parameters for the REFOCUS Manual; and (4) To understand the relationship between clinical outcomes and recovery outcomes. The hypothesis for the main study is that service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR) compared to service users receiving care from control teams. The hypothesis for the secondary study is that black service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR) and client satisfaction (as measured by the CSQ) compared to Black service users receiving care from control teams. The intervention comprises treatment as usual plus two components: recovery-promoting relationships and working practices. The control condition is treatment as usual. The primary outcme is the Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR). Secondary outcomes are satisfaction, Goal setting - Personal Primary Outcome, hope, well-being, empowerment, and quality of life. Primary outcomes for the secondary study will be QPR and satisfaction. Cost data will be estimated, and clinical outcomes will also be reported (symptomatology, need, social disability, functioning). 29 teams (15 intervention and 14 control) will be randomised. Within each team, 15 services users will be randomly

  5. REFOCUS Trial: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a pro-recovery intervention within community based mental health teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slade Mike

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the evidence base is limited. Methods/Design A two centre, cluster randomised controlled trial. Participants are community-based mental health teams, and service users aged 18-65 years with a primary clinical diagnosis of psychosis. In relation to the REFOCUS Manual researchintorecovery.com/refocus, which describes a 12-month, pro-recovery intervention based on the REFOCUS Model, the objectives are: (1 To establish the effectiveness of the intervention described in the REFOCUS Manual; (2 To validate the REFOCUS Model; (3 To establish and optimise trial parameters for the REFOCUS Manual; and (4 To understand the relationship between clinical outcomes and recovery outcomes. The hypothesis for the main study is that service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR compared to service users receiving care from control teams. The hypothesis for the secondary study is that black service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR and client satisfaction (as measured by the CSQ compared to Black service users receiving care from control teams. The intervention comprises treatment as usual plus two components: recovery-promoting relationships and working practices. The control condition is treatment as usual. The primary outcme is the Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR. Secondary outcomes are satisfaction, Goal setting - Personal Primary Outcome, hope, well-being, empowerment, and quality of life. Primary outcomes for the secondary study will be QPR and satisfaction. Cost data will be estimated, and clinical outcomes will also be reported (symptomatology, need, social disability, functioning. 29 teams (15 intervention and 14 control will be randomised. Within

  6. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  7. The Impact of a Community-Based Intervention Including a Monthly Food Ration on Food Insecurity Among HIV-Positive Adults During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica; Kayigamba, Felix; Hills, Victoria; Gupta, Neil; Machara, Faustin; Niyigena, Peter; Franke, Molly F

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how food insecurity changed among HIV-positive adults during the first 12 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and whether any change differed according to the receipt of food support, which was provided in the context of a comprehensive community-based intervention. We conducted secondary data analyses of data from a prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of a community-based cART delivery model when added to clinic-based cART delivery in Rwanda. We included patients from four health centers that implemented a clinic-based cART delivery model alone and five health centers that additionally implemented the intervention, which included 10 months of food support. We compared food insecurity at 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to baseline, and stratified by receipt of the intervention. Relative to baseline, median food insecurity score decreased after 3, 6, and 12 months (p value insecurity scores remained unchanged at 3 and 12 months and were significantly higher after 6 months. In adjusted analyses, participants enrolled in the community-based intervention with a food ration had a lower risk of severe food insecurity and a lower risk of moderate or severe food insecurity after 12 months. A comprehensive community-based HIV program including a food ration likely contributes to an alleviation of food insecurity among adults newly initiating cART.

  8. Exploring barriers and enablers for scaling up a community-based grain bank intervention for improved infant and young child feeding in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sako, Binta; Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Lelisa, Azeb; Hailemariam, Abebe; Brouwer, Inge D.; Tucker Brown, Amal; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Child malnutrition remains high in Ethiopia, and inadequate complementary feeding is a contributing factor. In this context, a community-based intervention was designed to provide locally made complementary food for children 6–23 months, using a bartering system, in four Ethiopian regions. After a

  9. Developing the IDEFICS Community-Based Intervention Program to Enhance Eating Behaviors in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from Focus Groups with Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, L.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Barba, G.; Eiben, G.; Fernandez, J.; Hebestreit, A.; Kovacs, E.; Lasn, H.; Regber, S.; Shiakou, M.; De Henauw, S.

    2009-01-01

    One purpose of "identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants" (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary…

  10. The Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign: A Community-Based Model for Breastfeeding Promotion, Protection, and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazal, Hessa; Rashid, Shehnaz; Ruf, Evelyne

    2015-11-01

    Breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support are one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to advance maternal and child health. The World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and numerous health organizations have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, which is a key indicator of breastfeeding promotion programs worldwide. Despite the recommendations and various initiatives to promote breastfeeding, most women do not reach the exclusive breastfeeding target in both developed and developing countries. Such has been the case in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Therefore, based on the decree for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support by the ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE, H.H. Sheikh Doctor Sultan Al Qasimi, a multisectorial, multidirectional breastfeeding campaign--the Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign--was launched in March 2012 by H.E. Sheikha Bodour Al Qasimi, under her patronage. It consisted of four initiatives-namely, Baby-Friendly Health Facility, Mother-Friendly Workplace, Breastfeeding-Friendly Nursery, and Mother-Baby Friendly Public Place. Once an organization met the criteria for any of these initiatives, it was awarded the designation or accreditation of that initiative. The campaign initiatives worked through capacity building of healthcare workers, provided professional support and facilitation for the accreditation process, developed breastfeeding education content and resources, and organized and conducted breastfeeding promotion seminars in health facilities and community, as well as community outreach through social media and an innovative mobile mother' room. The positive impact of the campaign on breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support is evident by the increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months and decreased bottle feeding rates at both 4 and 6 months.

  11. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Daisy R Singla, PhD; Elias Kumbakumba, MMed; Prof. Frances E Aboud, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal...

  12. A Community-Based Intervention Program to Enhance Family Communication and Family Well-being: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFamily communication is important to maintain family relationships and family well-being. To enhance family communication and family well-being, a community-based “Learning Families Project,” based on the social ecological model was developed in Kwun Tong in Hong Kong, a district with high prevalence of family problems.MethodsThis quasi-experimental study included two nearby government subsidized low-rent housing estates separated by busy main roads, as the intervention [Tsui Ping (South Estate] and control (Shun Tin Estate estate. The main intervention was resident training programs, such as talks, day camps, and thematic activities. No program was implemented in the control estate. Participants in the intervention group received assessments before the intervention (T1, immediately after the intervention (T2, and 6 weeks after the intervention (T3. Control group participants were assessed at baseline (March to April 2011 and follow-up (December 2011 to March 2012. Assessments of family communication (time and perceived adequacy and family well-being (harmony, happiness, and health at T1 and T3 were obtained in the intervention group to examine within-group changes. In addition, these differences in outcomes in the intervention group were compared with those in the control group to examine the effectiveness of the intervention.ResultsFamily communication time and perceived communication adequacy increased significantly in the intervention group (n = 515 with a small effect size (Cohen effect d: 0.10 and 0.24, respectively. Compared with the control group (n = 476, the improvements in family communication time and perceived communication adequacy (Cohen effect d: 0.13 and 0.14, respectively, and perceived family harmony and happiness (Cohen effect d: 0.12 and 0.12, respectively were significantly greater in the intervention group, adjusting for age and education, suggesting the intervention was effective in improving

  13. Treating the untreated: applying a community-based, culturally sensitive psychiatric intervention to confined and physically restrained mentally ill individuals in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Luh Ketut; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2011-11-01

    This study identified, mapped and treated the clinical features of mentally ill people, who had been isolated and restrained by family and community members as a result of a functional failure of the traditional medical, hospital-based mental health model currently practiced in Indonesia. A 10-month epidemiological population survey was carried out in Karangasem regency of Bali, Indonesia. A total of 404,591 individuals were clinically interviewed, of which 895 individuals with mental health problems were identified, with 23 satisfying criteria of physical restraint and confinement. Of the latter, twenty were males; age range was 19-69 years, all diagnosed by the researchers with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (ICD-10 diagnostic criteria). Duration of restraint ranged from 3 months to 30 years (mean = 8.1 years, SD = 8.3 years). Through the application of a holistic intervention model, all patients exhibited a remarkable recovery within 19 months of treatment. We conclude that the development of a community-based, culturally sensitive and respectful mental health model can serve as an optimum promoter of positive mental health outcomes.

  14. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians' Assistants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gill

    Full Text Available Community health workers (CHWs provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW's clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS-based mobile CME (mCME intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician's Assistants-CBPAs who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations.The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later. Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy.638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%. Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average

  15. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; van Reeuwijk, Miranda A J; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-09-08

    A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Semi-structured interviews (N = 23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N = 9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N = 1036) were analysed. The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers' position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and the emphasis on education and income

  16. Recruitment and Lessons Learned from a Community-Based Intervention Program: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna T. W. Chu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecruitment is central to any research project, and recruitment itself should be well documented and researched. We describe our recruitment efforts for a community-based research project—entitled the Learning Families Project—conducted in Hong Kong.MethodsIn collaboration with community stakeholders, residents from a public housing estate were recruited to participate in family programs aimed at enhancing family well-being. Various recruitment strategies were employed including the distribution of 19,200 leaflets, 688 posters, a banner, a kick-off ceremony, 10 promotion activities, 1,000 direct calls, word of mouth, 51 mobile counters, and 10 door-to-door visits. Drawing on field notes, research logs, short questionnaires, and focus group conducted with our community partners and residents, we describe and discuss our recruitment strategies, challenges, and lessons learned.ResultsOver a 9-month period, 980 participants were recruited and participated in our study, exceeding our recruitment goal (860 participants. Several observations were made including active recruitment strategies (i.e., door-to-door and mobile counter being more effective than passive strategies (i.e., posters and leaflets; the importance of raising project awareness to facilitate recruitment; and the challenges encountered (i.e., burn-out and loss of motivation of staff, decreased community capacity in collaborating in research projects.ConclusionThe lessons learned include the importance of engaging Chinese communities, utilizing a positive outreach approach, and setting realistic expectations. Although similar recruitment strategies have been reported the West, a number of cultural differences should be taken into account when working with Chinese population. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of tailoring recruitment strategies to various populations.

  17. Recruitment and Lessons Learned from a Community-Based Intervention Program: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joanna T W; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M; Ng, Kwok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment is central to any research project, and recruitment itself should be well documented and researched. We describe our recruitment efforts for a community-based research project-entitled the Learning Families Project-conducted in Hong Kong. In collaboration with community stakeholders, residents from a public housing estate were recruited to participate in family programs aimed at enhancing family well-being. Various recruitment strategies were employed including the distribution of 19,200 leaflets, 688 posters, a banner, a kick-off ceremony, 10 promotion activities, 1,000 direct calls, word of mouth, 51 mobile counters, and 10 door-to-door visits. Drawing on field notes, research logs, short questionnaires, and focus group conducted with our community partners and residents, we describe and discuss our recruitment strategies, challenges, and lessons learned. Over a 9-month period, 980 participants were recruited and participated in our study, exceeding our recruitment goal (860 participants). Several observations were made including active recruitment strategies (i.e., door-to-door and mobile counter) being more effective than passive strategies (i.e., posters and leaflets); the importance of raising project awareness to facilitate recruitment; and the challenges encountered (i.e., burn-out and loss of motivation of staff, decreased community capacity in collaborating in research projects). The lessons learned include the importance of engaging Chinese communities, utilizing a positive outreach approach, and setting realistic expectations. Although similar recruitment strategies have been reported the West, a number of cultural differences should be taken into account when working with Chinese population. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of tailoring recruitment strategies to various populations.

  18. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the 'Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes' to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses.

  19. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Ellen; Warden, Stuart J; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y K James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening, and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (P control period (P > 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (P = 0.04), but not after the control period. A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  20. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. Ellen; Warden, Stuart J.; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y.K. James

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. Design This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1-T2 and T2-T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. Results All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (p 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (p = 0.04), but not after the control period. Conclusions A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26829081

  1. Patient perceptions that limit a community-based intervention to promote participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Manklow, Jennifer; Wiesinger, Holly

    2003-07-01

    A workshop designed to teach seniors to communicate more effectively with their physicians and enhance patient participation in the consultation was held in a community centre. A grounded theory analysis of follow-up telephone interviews provided examples of effectiveness but also revealed six categories of barriers to changing the pattern of established communication, particularly over the short term.

  2. [The Seintinelles: an innovative approach to promoting Community-Based Research and sustaining health democracy in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauquier, Charlotte; Pannard, Myriam; Préau, Marie

    2017-10-02

    Community-based research drives innovation in major fields of public health, HIV/AIDS being the most emblematic example (Demange, Henry & Préau, 2012), and hepatitis. However, this type of research appears to be more difficult to develop in certain specific diseases, such as cancer (Shankand, Saïas & Friboulet, 2009). This article proposes various approaches concerning current citizen mobilization in relation to cancer research, including potential new levers to the development of participative and community-based research based on the recent creation of the Seintinelles platform, designed to federate researchers and citizens concerned by the problem of cancer. This reflection will be supported by more global issues concerning health democracy.

  3. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  4. Novel Three-Day, Community-Based, Nonpharmacological Group Intervention for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain (COPERS: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J C Taylor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for chronic pain is often limited, and there is growing concern about the adverse effects of these treatments, including opioid dependence. Nonpharmacological approaches to chronic pain may be an attractive alternative or adjunctive treatment. We describe the effectiveness of a novel, theoretically based group pain management support intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain.We conducted a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomised, controlled effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (cost-utility trial across 27 general practices and community musculoskeletal services in the UK. We recruited 703 adults with musculoskeletal pain of at least 3 mo duration between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012, and randomised participants 1.33:1 to intervention (403 or control (300. Intervention participants were offered a participative group intervention (COPERS delivered over three alternate days with a follow-up session at 2 wk. The intervention introduced cognitive behavioural approaches and was designed to promote self-efficacy to manage chronic pain. Controls received usual care and a relaxation CD. The primary outcome was pain-related disability at 12 mo (Chronic Pain Grade [CPG] disability subscale; secondary outcomes included the CPG disability subscale at 6 mo and the following measured at 6 and 12 mo: anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS], pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, social integration (Health Education Impact Questionnaire social integration and support subscale, pain-related self-efficacy (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, pain intensity (CPG pain intensity subscale, the census global health question (2011 census for England and Wales, health utility (EQ-5D-3L, and health care resource use. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle, accounted for clustering by course

  5. [Assessment on the short-term impact regarding the community-based interventions to improve physical activities in three urban areas of Hangzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; He, Ping-ping; LV, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the short-term impact of comprehensive community based intervention on physical activity (PA) of adults living in the three urban communities of Hangzhou city. Within the framework of Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Program, a community trial was conducted in two urban areas (Xiacheng district and Gongshu district)and an urban area(Xihu district)as control, by a parallel comparison and random grouping based quasi-experimental design. Two independent questionnaire-based surveys of cross-sectional samples in the intervention and comparison areas were used to assess the short-term impact of the intervention program. A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up stages, completed the survey, including 1016 adults from the intervention areas and 1000 from the comparison area. Over the two-year intervention period, the cognitive level on benefits of physical activity in the intervention areas were trending downward. The changes observed in the comparison area did not show statistical significance. Intervention areas showed a statistically significant increase (1204 vs. 1386, P = 0.023) in the level of physical activity(metabolic equivalent, MET-minutes/week)compared with the comparison area(918 vs. 924, P = 0.201). And results remained the same after eliminating the possible effects of age factor. After a two-year intervention, beneficial changes were noted in the intervention areas with respect to the level of physical activity. A community-based intervention program on physical activity seemed feasible and effective in the urban areas of Hangzhou.

  6. Contribution of community-based newborn health promotion to reducing inequities in healthy newborn care practices and knowledge: evidence of improvement from a three-district pilot program in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Nonyane, Bareng A S; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Deborah; Ligowe, Reuben; Chimbalanga, Emmanuel; Zimba, Evelyn; Kachale, Fannie; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-11-07

    Inequities in both health status and coverage of health services are considered important barriers to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Community-based health promotion is a strategy that is believed to reduce inequities in rural low-income settings. This paper examines the contributions of community-based programming to improving the equity of newborn health in three districts in Malawi. This study is a before-and-after evaluation of Malawi's Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Care (CBMNC) program, a package of facility and community-based interventions to improve newborn health. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) within the catchment area of 14 health facilities were trained to make pregnancy and postnatal home visits to promote healthy behaviors and assess women and newborns for danger signs requiring referral to a facility. "Core groups" of community volunteers were also trained to raise awareness about recommended newborn care practices. Baseline and endline household surveys measured the coverage of the intervention and targeted health behaviors for this before-and-after evaluation. Wealth indices were constructed using household asset data and concentration indices were compared between baseline and endline for each indicator. The HSAs trained in the intervention reached 36.7% of women with a pregnancy home visit and 10.9% of women with a postnatal home visit within three days of delivery. Coverage of the intervention was slightly inequitable, with richer households more likely to receive one or two pregnancy home visits (concentration indices (CI) of 0.0786 and 0.0960), but not significantly more likely to receive a postnatal visit or know of a core group. Despite modest coverage levels for the intervention, health equity improved significantly over the study period for several indicators. Greater improvements in inequities were observed for knowledge indicators than for coverage of routine health services. At endline, a greater proportion of

  7. Effects of Community-Based Health Worker Interventions to Improve Chronic Disease Management and Care Among Vulnerable Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Choi, Janet S; Choi, Eunsuk; Nieman, Carrie L; Joo, Jin Hui; Lin, Frank R; Gitlin, Laura N; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-04-01

    Community-based health workers (CBHWs) are frontline public health workers who are trusted members of the community they serve. Recently, considerable attention has been drawn to CBHWs in promoting healthy behaviors and health outcomes among vulnerable populations who often face health inequities. We performed a systematic review to synthesize evidence concerning the types of CBHW interventions, the qualification and characteristics of CBHWs, and patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness of such interventions in vulnerable populations with chronic, noncommunicable conditions. We undertook 4 electronic database searches-PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane-and hand searched reference collections to identify randomized controlled trials published in English before August 2014. We screened a total of 934 unique citations initially for titles and abstracts. Two reviewers then independently evaluated 166 full-text articles that were passed onto review processes. Sixty-one studies and 6 companion articles (e.g., cost-effectiveness analysis) met eligibility criteria for inclusion. Four trained research assistants extracted data by using a standardized data extraction form developed by the authors. Subsequently, an independent research assistant reviewed extracted data to check accuracy. Discrepancies were resolved through discussions among the study team members. Each study was evaluated for its quality by 2 research assistants who extracted relevant study information. Interrater agreement rates ranged from 61% to 91% (average 86%). Any discrepancies in terms of quality rating were resolved through team discussions. All but 4 studies were conducted in the United States. The 2 most common areas for CBHW interventions were cancer prevention (n = 30) and cardiovascular disease risk reduction (n = 26). The roles assumed by CBHWs included health education (n = 48), counseling (n = 36), navigation assistance (n

  8. Are community-based nurse-led self-management support interventions effective in chronic patients? Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Massimi

    Full Text Available The expansion of primary care and community-based service delivery systems is intended to meet emerging needs, reduce the costs of hospital-based ambulatory care and prevent avoidable hospital use by the provision of more appropriate care. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of self-management in the complex process of care of patient with long-term conditions. Several studies have determined that nurses, among the health professionals, are more recommended to promote health and deliver preventive programs within the primary care context. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of the nurse-led self-management support versus usual care evaluating patient outcomes in chronic care community programs. Systematic review was carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science including RCTs of nurse-led self-management support interventions performed to improve observer reported outcomes (OROs and patients reported outcomes (PROs, with any method of communication exchange or education in a community setting on patients >18 years of age with a diagnosis of chronic diseases or multi-morbidity. Of the 7,279 papers initially retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses on systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure reduction (10 studies-3,881 patients and HbA1c reduction (7 studies-2,669 patients were carried-out. The pooled MD were: SBP -3.04 (95% CI -5.01--1.06, DBP -1.42 (95% CI -1.42--0.49 and HbA1c -0.15 (95% CI -0.32-0.01 in favor of the experimental groups. Meta-analyses of subgroups showed, among others, a statistically significant effect if the interventions were delivered to patients with diabetes (SBP or CVD (DBP, if the nurses were specifically trained, if the studies had a sample size higher than 200 patients and if the allocation concealment was not clearly defined. Effects on other OROs and PROs as well as quality of life remain inconclusive.

  9. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  10. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.

  11. Individualization of a Manualized Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program: Targeting Risky Life Circumstances Through a Community-Based Intervention for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Ashwini; Clark, Florence; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To sensitize practitioners working with individuals with spinal cord injury to the complex life circumstances that are implicated in the development of pressure ulcers, and to document the ways that interventions can be adapted to target individual needs. Methods Content analysis of weekly fidelity/ quality control meetings that were undertaken as part of a lifestyle intervention for pressure ulcer prevention in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury. Results Four types of lifestyle-relevant challenges to ulcer prevention were identified: risk-elevating life circumstances, communication difficulties, equipment problems, and individual personality issues. Intervention flexibility was achieved by changing the order of treatment modules, altering the intervention content or delivery approach, or going beyond the stipulated content. Conclusion Attention to recurrent types of individual needs, along with explicit strategies for tailoring manualized interventions, has potential to enhance pressure ulcer prevention efforts for adults with spinal cord injury. Target audience This continuing education article is intended for practitioners interested in learning about a comprehensive, context-sensitive, community-based pressure ulcer prevention program for people with spinal cord injury. Objectives After reading this article, the reader should be able to: Describe some of the contextual factors that increase pressure ulcer risk in people with spinal cord injury living in the community.Distinguish between tailored and individualized intervention approaches.Identify the issues that must be taken into account to design context-sensitive, community-based pressure ulcer prevention programs for people with spinal cord injury.Describe approaches that can be used to individualize manualized interventions. PMID:21586911

  12. Innovations in adult influenza vaccination in China, 2014-2015: Leveraging a chronic disease management system in a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bo; Zhou, Suizan; Song, Ying; Chen, Enfu; Lao, Xuyin; Cai, Jian; Greene, Carolyn M; Feng, Luzhao; Zheng, Jiandong; Yu, Hongjie; Dong, Hongjun

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate a community-based intervention that leveraged the non-communicable disease management system to increase seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among older adults in Ningbo, China. From October 2014 - March 2015, we piloted the following on one street in Ningbo, China: educating community healthcare workers (C-HCWs) about influenza and vaccination; requiring C-HCWs to recommend influenza vaccination to older adults during routine chronic disease follow-up; and opening 14 additional temporary vaccination clinics. We selected a non-intervention street for comparison pre- and post-intervention vaccine coverage. In April 2016, we interviewed a random sample of unvaccinated older adults on the intervention street to ask why they remained unvaccinated. Pre-intervention influenza vaccine coverage among adults aged 60 years and older on both streets was 0.3%. Post-intervention, coverage among adults 60 years and older was 19% (1338/7013) on the intervention street and 0.4% (20/5500) on the non-intervention street (phealth (39%); not trusting C-HCWs' recommendations (24%); not knowing where to get vaccinated (17%); and not wanting to pay (9%). Recommending influenza vaccination within a non-communicable disease management system, combined with adding vaccination sites, increased vaccine coverage among older adults in Ningbo, China.

  13. Transforming Social Regularities in a Multicomponent Community-Based Intervention: A Case Study of Professionals' Adaptability to Better Support Parents to Meet Their Children's Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Saavedra, Rodrigo; Brunson, Liesette; Bigras, Nathalie

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an in-depth case study of the dynamic processes of mutual adjustment that occurred between two professional teams participating in a multicomponent community-based intervention (CBI). Drawing on the concept of social regularities, we focus on patterns of social interaction within and across the two microsystems involved in delivering the intervention. Two research strategies, narrative analysis and structural network analysis, were used to reveal the social regularities linking the two microsystems. Results document strategies and actions undertaken by the professionals responsible for the intervention to modify intersetting social regularities to deal with a problem situation that arose during the course of one intervention cycle. The results illustrate how key social regularities were modified in order to resolve the problem situation and allow the intervention to continue to function smoothly. We propose that these changes represent a transition to a new state of the ecological intervention system. This transformation appeared to be the result of certain key intervening mechanisms: changing key role relationships, boundary spanning, and synergy. The transformation also appeared to be linked to positive setting-level and individual-level outcomes: confidence of key team members, joint planning, decision-making and intervention activities, and the achievement of desired intervention objectives. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  14. Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

  15. Impact of non-clinical community-based promotional campaigns on bowel cancer screening engagement: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Angelita; Morris, Julia N; Preen, David

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviewed the relationship between non-clinical, client-oriented promotional campaigns to raise bowel cancer awareness and screening engagement. An integrative literature review using predefined search terms was conducted to summarise the accumulated knowledge. Data was analysed by coding and categorising, then synthesized through development of themes. Eighteen of 116 studies met inclusion criteria. Promotional campaigns had varying impact on screening uptake for bowel cancer. Mass media was found to moderately increase screening, predominately amongst "worried well". Small media used in conjunction with other promotional activities, thus its effect on screening behaviours was unclear. One-on-one education was less effective and less feasible than group education in increasing intention to screen. Financial support was ineffective in increasing screening rates when compared to other promotional activities. Screening engagement increased because of special events and celebrity endorsement. Non-clinical promotional campaigns did impact uptake of bowel cancer screening engagement. However, little is evident on the effect of single types of promotion and most research is based on clinician-directed campaigns. Cancer awareness and screening promotions should be implemented at community and clinical level to maximize effectiveness. Such an approach will ensure promotional activities are targeting consumers, thus strengthening screening engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wu

    2016-11-01

    for public health communication and promotion; further studies are needed to investigate the long term benefits of these interventions on the reduction of dog bites and resulting human rabies incidence.

  17. Evaluation of a community-based HIV preventive intervention for female sex workers in rural areas of Karnataka State, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Reynold G; Nath, Anita; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To examine changes in behavioral outcomes among rural female sex workers (FSWs) involved in a community-based comprehensive HIV preventive intervention program in south India. A total of 14, 284 rural FSWs were reached by means of a community-based model for delivering outreach, medical, and referral services. Changes in behavior were assessed using 2 rounds of polling booth surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. In all, 95% of the mapped FSWs were reached at least once, 80.3% received condoms as per need, and 71% received health services for sexually transmitted infections. There was a significant increase in condom use (from 60.4% to 72.4%, P = .001) and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (from 63.9% to 92.4%; P = .000) between the 2 time periods. This model for a community-based rural outreach and HIV care was effective and could also be applied to many other health problems. © 2014 APJPH.

  18. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (Pmetabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; Pexercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  19. Planning community-based intervention for speech for children with cleft lip and palate from rural South India: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniyan Balasubramaniyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A community-based rehabilitation programme, Sri Ramachandra University-Transforming Faces project, was initiated to provide comprehensive management of communication disorders in individuals with CLP in two districts in Tamil Nadu, India. This community-based programme aims to integrate hospital-based services with the community-based initiatives and to enable long-term care. The programme was initiated in Thiruvannamalai (2005 district and extended to Cuddalore (2011. The aim of this study was to identify needs related to speech among children with CLP, enroled in the above community-based programme in two districts in Tamil Nadu, India. Design: This was a cross–sectional study. Participants and Setting: Ten camps were conducted specifically for speech assessments in two districts over a 12-month period. Two hundred and seventeen individuals (116 males and 101 females> 3 years of age reported to the camps. Methods: Investigator (SLP collected data using the speech protocol of the cleft and craniofacial centre. Descriptive analysis and profiling of speech samples were carried out and reported using universal protocol for reporting speech outcomes. Fleiss' Kappa test was used to estimate inter-rater reliability. Results: In this study, inter-rater reliability between three evaluators revealed good agreement for the parameters: resonance, articulatory errors and voice disorder. About 83.8% (n = 151/180 of the participants demonstrated errors in articulation and 69% (n = 124/180 exhibited abnormal resonance. Velopharyngeal port functioning assessment was completed for 55/124 participants. Conclusion: This study allows us to capture a “snapshot” of children with CLP, living in a specific geographical location, and assist in planning intervention programmes.

  20. A Community-Based Culture Collection for Targeting Novel Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria from the Sugarcane Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderson Silveira Leite Armanhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-plant ecosystem harbors an immense microbial diversity that challenges investigative approaches to study traits underlying plant-microbe association. Studies solely based on culture-dependent techniques have overlooked most microbial diversity. Here we describe the concomitant use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to target plant-beneficial microbial groups from the sugarcane microbiome. The community-based culture collection (CBC approach was used to access microbes from roots and stalks. The CBC recovered 399 unique bacteria representing 15.9% of the rhizosphere core microbiome and 61.6–65.3% of the endophytic core microbiomes of stalks. By cross-referencing the CBC (culture-dependent with the sugarcane microbiome profile (culture-independent, we designed a synthetic community comprised of naturally occurring highly abundant bacterial groups from roots and stalks, most of which has been poorly explored so far. We then used maize as a model to probe the abundance-based synthetic inoculant. We show that when inoculated in maize plants, members of the synthetic community efficiently colonize plant organs, displace the natural microbiota and dominate at 53.9% of the rhizosphere microbial abundance. As a result, inoculated plants increased biomass by 3.4-fold as compared to uninoculated plants. The results demonstrate that abundance-based synthetic inoculants can be successfully applied to recover beneficial plant microbes from plant microbiota.

  1. Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the slums of Nairobi: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A combination of increasing urbanization, behaviour change, and lack of health services in slums put the urban poor specifically at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a community-based CVD prevention intervention on blood pressure (BP and other CVD risk factors in a slum setting in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Prospective intervention study includes awareness campaigns, household visits for screening, and referral and treatment of people with hypertension. The primary outcome was overall change in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP, while secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of hypertension and other CVD risk factors. We evaluated the intervention's impact through consecutive cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after 18 months, comparing outcomes of intervention and control group, through a difference-in-difference method. Results: We screened 1,531 and 1,233 participants in the intervention and control sites. We observed a significant reduction in mean SBP when comparing before and after measurements in both intervention and control groups, −2.75 mmHg (95% CI −4.33 to −1.18, p=0.001 and −1.67 mmHg (95% CI −3.17 to −0.17, p=0.029, respectively. Among people with hypertension at baseline, SBP was reduced by −14.82 mmHg (95% CI −18.04 to −11.61, p<0.001 in the intervention and −14.05 (95% CI −17.71 to −10.38, p<0.001 at the control site. However, comparing these two groups, we found no difference in changes in mean SBP or hypertension prevalence. Conclusions: We found significant declines in SBP over time in both intervention and control groups. However, we found no additional effect of a community-based intervention involving awareness campaigns, screening, referral, and treatment. Possible explanations include the beneficial effect of baseline measurements in the control group on behaviour and related BP levels, and the limited success of treatment and

  2. Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Dyson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the widely documented health advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding, initiation rates remain relatively low in many high-income countries, particularly among women in lower income groups. OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions which aim to encourage women to breastfeed in terms of changes in the number of women who start to breastfeed. METHODS : Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2007, handsearched the Journal of Human Lactation, Health Promotion International and Health Education Quarterly from inception to 15 August 2007, and scanned reference lists of all articles obtained. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials, with or without blinding, of any breastfeeding promotion intervention in any population group except women and infants with a specific health problem. Data collection and analysis: One review author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality, checked by a second author. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. MAIN RESULTS: Main results: Eleven trials were included. Statistical analyses were conducted on data from eight trials (1553 women. Five studies (582 women on low incomes in the USA with typically low breastfeeding rates showed breastfeeding education had a significant effect on increasing initiation rates compared to standard care (risk ratio (RR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15 to 2.15, P = 0.005. Subgroup analyses showed that one-to-one, needs-based, informal repeat education sessions and generic, formal antenatal education sessions are effective in terms of an increase in breastfeeding rates among women on low incomes regardless of ethnicity and feeding intention. Needs-based, informal peer support in the antenatal and postnatal periods was also shown to be effective in one study conducted among Latina women who were considering breastfeeding in the USA (RR 4.02, 95% CI

  3. Effectiveness of a community-based intervention for people with schizophrenia and their caregivers in India (COPSI): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudipto; Naik, Smita; John, Sujit; Dabholkar, Hamid; Balaji, Madhumitha; Koschorke, Mirja; Varghese, Mathew; Thara, Rangaswamy; Weiss, Helen A; Williams, Paul; McCrone, Paul; Patel, Vikram; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-04-19

    Observational evidence suggests that community-based services for people with schizophrenia can be successfully provided by community health workers, when supervised by specialists, in low-income and middle-income countries. We did the COmmunity care for People with Schizophrenia in India (COPSI) trial to compare the effectiveness of a collaborative community-based care intervention with standard facility-based care. We did a multicentre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial at three sites in India between Jan 1, 2009 and Dec 31, 2010. Patients aged 16-60 years with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases, Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10-DCR) were randomly assigned (2:1), via a computer-generated randomisation list with block sizes of three, six, or nine, to receive either collaborative community-based care plus facility-based care or facility-based care alone. Randomisation was stratified by study site. Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was a change in symptoms and disabilities over 12 months, as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale (IDEAS). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN 56877013. 187 participants were randomised to the collaborative community-based care plus facility-based care group and 95 were randomised to the facility-based care alone group; 253 (90%) participants completed follow-up to month 12. At 12 months, total PANSS and IDEAS scores were lower in patients in the intervention group than in those in the control group (PANSS adjusted mean difference -3.75, 95% CI -7.92 to 0.42; p=0.08; IDEAS -0.95, -1.68 to -0.23; p=0.01). However, no difference was shown in the proportion of participants who had a reduction of more than 20% in overall

  4. Place of death among older Americans: does state spending on home- and community-based services promote home death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Hoyem, Ruby L; Yin, Hongjun; Campbell, Richard T

    2008-08-01

    The majority of Americans die in institutions although most prefer to die at home. States vary greatly in their proportion of home deaths. Although individuals' circumstances largely determine where they die, health policies may affect the range of options available to them. To examine whether states' spending on home- and community-based services (HCBS) affects place of death, taking into consideration county health care resources and individuals' family, sociodemographic, and health factors. Using exit interview data from respondents in the Health and Retirement Study born in 1923 or earlier who died between 1993 and 2002 (N = 3362), we conducted discrete-time survival analysis of the risk of end-of-life nursing home relocation to examine whether states' HCBS spending would delay or prevent end-of-life nursing home admission. Then we ran logistic regression analysis to investigate the HCBS effects on place of death separately for those who relocated to a nursing home and those who remained in the community. Living in a state with higher HCBS spending was associated with lower risk of end-of-life nursing home relocation, especially among people who had Medicaid. However, state HCBS support was not directly associated with place of death. States' generosity for HCBS increases the chance of dying at home via lowering the risk of end-of-life nursing home relocation. State-to-state variation in HCBS spending may partly explain variation in home deaths. Our findings add to the emerging encouraging evidence for continued efforts to enhance support for HCBS.

  5. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Anderson, Annie S; Longbottom, Pat J; Valentine, Karen; Stead, Martine; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim; Gray, Bill; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a food skills intervention study in areas of social deprivation aimed at altering cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices. A standardised skills programme was implemented in community-based settings. Pre- (T1) and post-intervention (T2) and 6-month follow-up (T3) measures (7-day diaries and self-administered questionnaires) were undertaken in intervention and comparison groups. Eight urban communities in Scotland. One hundred and thirteen adults living in areas of social deprivation. It was clear that many subjects led fragmented lives and found commitment to intervention classes problematic. Sixty-three subjects completed the final (T3) assessments. The response to each component varied due to inability to attend sessions, illness, study requirements, employment, moving out of the area, change in circumstances, loss of interest and loss of postal questionnaires. At baseline, reported consumption of fruit and vegetables was low (mean frequency 8.1 +/- 4.78 times per week). Fruit intake increased significantly (P food skills intervention is likely to have a small but positive effect on food choice and confidence in food preparation. A full-scale randomised controlled trial in this hard-to-reach group would require a range of flexible approaches rather than a fully defined intervention, and presents challenges for trial design.

  6. Reach Out Churches: A Community-Based Participatory Research Pilot Trial to Assess the Feasibility of a Mobile Health Technology Intervention to Reduce Blood Pressure Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Cowdery, Joan; Dome, Mackenzie; Bailey, Sarah; Baek, Jonggyu; Byrd, James Brian; Hartley, Sarah E; Valley, Staci C; Saberi, Sima; Wheeler, Natalie C; McDermott, Mollie; Hughes, Rebecca; Shanmugasundaram, Krithika; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L

    2017-06-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to reduce the hypertension epidemic among African Americans. Reach Out was a faith-collaborative, mobile health, randomized, pilot intervention trial of four mobile health components to reduce high blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. It was designed and tested within a community-based participatory research framework among African Americans recruited and randomized from churches in Flint, Michigan. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of the Reach Out processes. Feasibility was assessed by willingness to consent (acceptance of randomization), proportion of weeks participants texted their BP readings (intervention use), number lost to follow-up (retention), and responses to postintervention surveys and focus groups (acceptance of intervention). Of the 425 church members who underwent BP screening, 94 enrolled in the study and 73 (78%) completed the 6-month outcome assessment. Median age was 58 years, and 79% were women. Participants responded with their BPs on an average of 13.7 (SD = 10.7) weeks out of 26 weeks that the BP prompts were sent. All participants reported satisfaction with the intervention. Reach Out, a faith-collaborative, mobile health intervention was feasible. Further study of the efficacy of the intervention and additional mobile health strategies should be considered.

  7. Childhood obesity prevention through a community-based cluster randomized controlled physical activity intervention among schools in china: the health legacy project of the 2nd world summer youth olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Xu, F; Ye, Q; Tse, L A; Xue, H; Tan, Z; Leslie, E; Owen, N; Wang, Y

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been becoming a worldwide public health problem. We conducted a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention program aiming at childhood obesity prevention in general student population in Nanjing of China, the host city of the 2nd World Summer Youth Olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study). This was a cluster randomized controlled intervention study. Participants were the 4th (mean age±s.e.: 9.0±0.01) and 7th (mean age±s.e.: 12.0±0.01) grade students (mean age±s.e.: 10.5±0.02) from 48 schools and randomly allocated (1:1) to intervention or control groups at school level. Routine health education was provided to all schools, whereas the intervention schools additionally received an 1-year tailored multi-component PA intervention program, including classroom curricula, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events. The primary outcome measures were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence and PA. Overall, 9858 (97.7%) of the 10091 enrolled students completed the follow-up survey. Compared with the baseline, PA level increased by 33.13 min per week (s.e. 10.86) in the intervention group but decreased by 1.76 min per week (s.e. 11.53) in the control group (P=0.028). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with the control group, the intervention group were more likely to have increased time of PA (adj. Odds ratio=1.15, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.25), but had a smaller increase in mean body mass index (BMI) (0.22 (s.e. 0.02) vs 0.46 (0.02), P=0.01) and BMI z-score (0.07 (0.01) vs 0.16 (0.01), P=0.01), and were less likely to be obese (adj. Odds ratio=0.7, 95% confidence interval=0.6, 0.9) at study end. The intervention group had fewer new events of obesity/overweight but a larger proportion of formerly overweight/obese students having normal weight by study end. This large community-based PA intervention was feasible and effective in promoting PA and preventing obesity among the general

  8. C.A.M.P.: A Community-Based Approach to Promoting Safe Sex Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Bianca L.; Casad, Bettina J.; Schlehofer-Sutton, Michele M.; Villanueva, Christina M.; Feria, Aida

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the Community Awareness Motivation Partnership (C.A.M.P.) theater intervention based on the behavioral ecological model. C.A.M.P addresses the role of contraceptive use in safe sex behavior through an informative and entertaining culturally relevant dramatization program. Adolescents (N=1613) between…

  9. The involvement of young people in school- and community-based noncommunicable disease prevention interventions: a scoping review of designs and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Jourdan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since stakeholders’ active engagement is essential for public health strategies to be effective, this review is focused on intervention designs and outcomes of school- and community-based noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention interventions involving children and young people. Methods The review process was based on the principles of scoping reviews. A systematic search was conducted in eight major databases in October 2015. Empirical studies published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered. Five selection criteria were applied. Included in the review were (1 empirical studies describing (2 a health intervention focused on diet and/or physical activity, (3 based on children’s and young people’s involvement that included (4 a relationship between school and local community while (5 providing explicit information about the outcomes of the intervention. The search provided 3995 hits, of which 3253 were screened by title and abstract, leading to the full-text screening of 24 papers. Ultimately, 12 papers were included in the review. The included papers were analysed independently by at least two reviewers. Results Few relevant papers were identified because interventions are often either based on children’s involvement or are multi-setting, but rarely both. Children were involved through participation in needs assessments, health committees and advocacy. School-community collaboration ranged from shared activities, to joint interventions with common goals and activities. Most often, collaboration was school-initiated. Most papers provided a limited description of the outcomes. Positive effects were identified at the organisational level (policy, action plans, and healthy environments, in adult stakeholders (empowerment, healthy eating and in children (knowledge, social norms, critical thinking, and health behaviour. Limitations related to the search and analytical methods are discussed. Conclusion

  10. Community Alternatives for Love and Limits (CALL: A community-based family strengthening multi-family intervention program to respond to adolescents at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilkerson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Family strengthening has become a source of growing interest, research, and program design in the fields of prevention and treatment for problems of youth delinquency, school failure, alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse (ATOD. Despite many studies that illustrate the positive outcomes of family strengthening programs and family-focused interventions, their use in communities has not advanced commensurate with their promise. This article offers a rationale for why programming efforts should continue to be directed towards family strengthening efforts as opposed to youth-focused only interventions. In addition, a community-based, family-strengthening alternative is described that addresses issues of youth delinquency while reducing barriers associated with availability, accessibility, and cost.

  11. Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2015-01-01

    Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...... patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis...

  12. A community-based group-guided self-help intervention for low mood and stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Carrie-Anne; Morrison, Jill; McConnachie, Alex; Williams, Christopher

    2013-11-19

    Depression is a mental health condition which affects millions of people each year, with worldwide rates increasing. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the treatment of depression. However, waiting lists can cause delays for face-to-face therapy. Also a proportion of people decline to present for help through the health service - the so-called treatment gap. Self-referral to CBT using community-based group interventions delivered by a voluntary sector organization may serve to resolve this problem. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the efficacy of such a guided CBT self-help course, the 'Living Life to the Full' (LLTTF) classes delivered by the charity Action on Depression (AOD). The primary outcome is level of depression at 6 months assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) depression scale. Secondary measures include levels of anxiety and social functioning. Participants with symptoms of low mood will be recruited from the community through newspaper adverts and also via the AOD website. Participants will receive either immediate or delayed access to guided CBT self-help classes - the eight session LLTTF course. The primary endpoint will be at 6 months at which point the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety and social functioning will be assessed and an economic analysis will be carried out. This RCT will test whether the LLTTF intervention is effective and/or cost-effective. If the LLTTF community-based classes are found to be cost effective, they may be helpful as both an intervention for those already seeking care in the health service, as well as those seeking help outside that setting, widening access to psychological therapy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86292664.

  13. Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterbach, Laura; Mena, Noereem Z; Greene, Geoffrey; Redding, Colleen A; De Groot, Annie; Tovar, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n  = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention. The intervention was delivered to nine groups of parents by trained paraprofessional educators over a two-year period. Children participated in a separate curriculum that covered topics similar to those covered in the parent intervention. Parents completed self-administered pre/post surveys, which included demographic questions, seven subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, and the 16-item HCHF Behavior Checklist. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze data from parents that completed the intervention. Fifty-two, primarily Hispanic (93%) parents completed the intervention (39% attrition rate). For parents who completed the intervention, there was a significant increase in one of the feeding practice subscales: encouragement of balance and variety ( p  = 0.01). There were significant improvements in several parent and child diet and activity outcomes ( p  ≤ 0.01). Although attrition rates were high, parents completing the study reported enjoying and being satisfied with the intervention. For parents who completed the intervention, reported 'encouragement of balance and variety', in addition to several health behaviors significantly improved. Larger studies utilizing an experimental design, should further explore the impact of the HCHF curriculum on improving certain FPPs and health behaviors that contribute to obesity.

  14. Hospital- and community-based interventions enhancing (re) employment for people with spinal cord injury : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roels, E. H.; Aertgeerts, B.; Ramaekers, D.; Peers, K.

    Study design: Systematic Review. Objectives: To investigate the effect of interventions enhancing (re) employment following spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Studies from multiple countries were included. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL,

  15. Effectiveness of a community-based multifaceted fall-prevention intervention in active and independent older Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Q H; Jiang, Y; Niu, C J; Tang, C X; Xia, Z L

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an 18-month multifaceted intervention designed to reduce the incidence of falls in community-living older adults in China. Methods: A population-based community trial evaluated by before-and-after cross-sectional surveys. Four residential communities were randomised to either a multifaceted intervention or a control condition. Baseline information was collected from a sample of older adults in each community. A 1-year annual fall rate was calculated...

  16. Modifying Alcohol Consumption to Reduce Obesity (MACRO): development and feasibility trial of a complex community-based intervention for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Iain K; Cunningham, Kathryn B; Irvine, Linda; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Norrie, John; Melson, Ambrose; Jones, Claire; Briggs, Andrew; Rice, Peter M; Achison, Marcus; McKenzie, Andrew; Dimova, Elena; Slane, Peter W

    2017-04-01

    Obese men who consume alcohol are at a greatly increased risk of liver disease; those who drink > 14 units of alcohol per week have a 19-fold increased risk of dying from liver disease. To develop an intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in obese men and to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to investigate its effectiveness. The intervention was developed using formative research, public involvement and behaviour change theory. It was organised in two phases, comprising a face-to-face session with trained laypeople (study co-ordinators) followed by a series of text messages. Participants explored how alcohol consumption contributed to weight gain, both through direct calorie consumption and through its effect on increasing food consumption, particularly of high-calorie foodstuffs. Men were encouraged to set goals to reduce their alcohol consumption and to make specific plans to do so. The comparator group received an active control in the form of a conventional alcohol brief intervention. Randomisation was carried out using the secure remote web-based system provided by the Tayside Clinical Trials Unit. Randomisation was stratified by the recruitment method and restricted using block sizes of randomly varying lengths. Members of the public were involved in the development of all study methods. Men were recruited from the community, from primary care registers and by time-space sampling (TSS). The intervention was delivered in community settings such as the participant's home, community centres and libraries. Men aged 35-64 years who had a body mass index (BMI) of > 30 kg/m 2 and who drank > 21 units of alcohol per week. The screening methods successfully identified participants meeting the entry criteria. Trial recruitment was successful, with 69 men (36 from 419 approached in primary care, and 33 from 470 approached via TSS) recruited and randomised in 3 months. Of the 69 men randomised, 35 were allocated to the intervention

  17. Interactive online health promotion interventions : a “health check”

    OpenAIRE

    Duffett-Leger, Linda; Lumsden, Jo

    2008-01-01

    As an increasingly popular medium by which to access health promotion information, the Internet offers significant potential to promote (often individualized) health-related behavioral change across broad populations. Interactive online health promotion interventions are a key means, therefore, by which to empower individuals to make important well being and treatment decisions. But how ldquohealthyrdquo are interactive online health promotion interventions? This paper discusses a literature ...

  18. Community-based comprehensive intervention for people with schizophrenia in Guangzhou, China: Effects on clinical symptoms, social functioning, internalized stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Huang, Yuan-Guang; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Fan, Yu; Chen, Wen; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive interventions including components of stigma and discrimination reduction in schizophrenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. We developed a community-based comprehensive intervention to evaluate its effects on clinical symptoms, social functioning, internalized stigma and discrimination among patients with schizophrenia. A randomized controlled trial including an intervention group (n = 169) and a control group (n = 158) was performed. The intervention group received comprehensive intervention (strategies against stigma and discrimination, psycho-education, social skills training and cognitive behavioral therapy) and the control group received face to face interview. Both lasted for nine months. Participants were measured at baseline, 6 months and 9 months using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI), Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and PANSS negative scale (PANSS-N). Insight and medication compliance were evaluated by senior psychiatrists. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Linear Mixed Models were used to show intervention effectiveness on scales. General Linear Mixed Models with multinomial logistic link function were used to assess the effectiveness on medication compliance and insight. We found a significant reduction on anticipated discrimination, BPRS and PANSS-N total scores, and an elevation on overcoming stigma and GAF in the intervention group after 9 months. These suggested the intervention may be effective in reducing anticipated discrimination, increasing skills overcoming stigma as well as improving clinical symptoms and social functioning in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Can gossip change nutrition behaviour? Results of a mass media and community-based intervention trial in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sian; Schmidt, Wolf; Sahanggamu, Daniel; Fatmaningrum, Dewi; van Liere, Marti; Curtis, Val

    2016-03-01

    It is unclear how best to go about improving child feeding practices. We studied the effect of a novel behaviour change intervention, Gerakan Rumpi Sehat (the Healthy Gossip Movement), on infant and young child feeding practices in peri-urban Indonesia. The pilot intervention was designed based on the principles of a new behaviour change theory, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD). It avoided educational messaging in favour of employing emotional drivers of behaviour change, such as affiliation, nurture and disgust and used television commercials, community activations and house-to-house visits as delivery channels. The evaluation took the form of a 2-arm cluster randomised trial with a non-randomised control arm. One intervention arm received TV only, while the other received TV plus community activations. The intervention components were delivered over a 3-month period in 12 villages in each arm, each containing an average of 1300 households. There were two primary outcomes: dietary diversity of complementary food and the provision of unhealthy snacks to children aged 6-24 months. Dietary diversity scores increased by 0.8 points in the arm exposed to TV adverts only (95% CI: 0.4-1.2) and a further 0.2 points in the arm that received both intervention components (95% CI: 0.6-1.4). In both intervention arms, there were increases in the frequency of vegetable and fruit intake. We found inconsistent evidence of an effect on unhealthy snacking. The study suggests that novel theory-driven approaches which employ emotional motivators are capable of having an effect on improving dietary diversity and the regularity of vegetable and fruit intake among children aged 6-24 months. Mass media can have a measurable effect on nutrition-related behaviour, but these effects are likely to be enhanced through complementary community activations. Changing several behaviours at once remains a challenge. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley

  20. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Isidore T; Meda, Nicolas; Hema, Noelie M; Ouedraogo, Djeneba; Some, Felicien; Some, Roselyne; Niessougou, Josiane; Sanon, Anselme; Konate, Issouf; Van De Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Although interventions to control HIV among high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSW) are highly recommended in Africa, the contents and efficacy of these interventions are unclear. We therefore designed a comprehensive dedicated intervention targeting young FSW and assessed its impact on HIV incidence in Burkina Faso. Between September 2009 and September 2011 we conducted a prospective, interventional cohort study of FSW aged 18 to 25 years in Ouagadougou, with quarterly follow-up for a maximum of 21 months. The intervention combined prevention and care within the same setting, consisting of peer-led education sessions, psychological support, sexually transmitted infections and HIV care, general routine health care and reproductive health services. At each visit, behavioural characteristics were collected and HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy were tested. We compared the cohort HIV incidence with a modelled expected incidence in the study population in the absence of intervention, using data collected at the same time from FSW clients. The 321 HIV-uninfected FSW enrolled in the cohort completed 409 person-years of follow-up. No participant seroconverted for HIV during the study (0/409 person-years), whereas the expected modelled number of HIV infections were 5.05/409 person-years (95% CI, 5.01-5.08) or 1.23 infections per 100 person-years (p=0.005). This null incidence was related to a reduction in the number of regular partners and regular clients, and by an increase in consistent condom use with casual clients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.19; 95% CI, 1.16-4.14, p=0.01) and with regular clients (aOR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.26-3.76, p=0.005). Combining peer-based prevention and care within the same setting markedly reduced the HIV incidence among young FSW in Burkina Faso, through reduced risky behaviours.

  1. Bereaved Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Combined Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Study of Two Community-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S.; Hubert, J.; White, S.; Hollins, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Bereaved adults with intellectual disabilities are known to experience prolonged and atypical grief which is often unrecognized. The aim of this project was to find an effective way to improve mental health and behavioural outcomes. Methods: Subjects were randomized to two different therapeutic interventions: traditional counselling by…

  2. Modifying Alcohol Consumption to Reduce Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study of a Complex Community-based Intervention for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Cunningham, Kathryn B; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Norrie, John; Melson, Ambrose J; Jones, Claire; Rice, Peter; Slane, Peter W; Achison, Marcus; McKenzie, Andrew; Dimova, Elena D; Allan, Sheila

    2017-11-01

    Being obese and drinking more than 14 units of alcohol per week places men at very high risk of developing liver disease. This study assessed the feasibility of a trial to reduce alcohol consumption. It tested the recruitment strategy, engagement with the intervention, retention and study acceptability. Men aged 35-64 years who drank >21 units of alcohol per week and had a BMI > 30 were recruited by two methods: from GP patient registers and by community outreach. The intervention was delivered by a face to face session followed by a series of text messages. Trained lay people (Study Coordinators) delivered the face to face session. Participants were followed up for 5 months from baseline to measure weekly alcohol consumption and BMI. The recruitment target of 60 was exceeded, with 69 men recruited and randomized. At baseline, almost all the participants (95%) exceeded the threshold for a 19-fold increase in the risk of dying from liver disease. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. A very high follow-up rate was achieved (98%) and the outcomes for the full trial were measured. Process evaluation showed that participants responded as intended to key steps in the behaviour change strategy. The acceptability of the study methods was high: e.g. 80% of men would recommend the study to others. This feasibility study identified a group at high risk of liver disease. It showed that a full trial could be conducted to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Current controlled trials: ISRCTN55309164. National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment (NIHR HTA). This feasibility study recruited 69 men at high risk of developing liver disease. The novel intervention, to reduce alcohol consumption through the motivation of weight loss, was well received. A very high follow-up rate was achieved. Process evaluation showed that participants engaged with key components of the behaviour change strategy. © The Author 2017

  3. Exploring barriers and enablers for scaling up a community-based grain bank intervention for improved infant and young child feeding in Ethiopia: A qualitative process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Binta; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Lelisa, Azeb; Hailemariam, Abebe; Brouwer, Inge D; Tucker Brown, Amal; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2018-04-01

    Child malnutrition remains high in Ethiopia, and inadequate complementary feeding is a contributing factor. In this context, a community-based intervention was designed to provide locally made complementary food for children 6-23 months, using a bartering system, in four Ethiopian regions. After a pilot phase, the intervention was scaled up from 8 to 180 localities. We conducted a process evaluation to determine enablers and barriers for the scaling up of this intervention. Eight study sites were selected to perform 52 key informant interviews and 31 focus group discussions with purposely selected informants. For analysis, we used a framework describing six elements of successful scaling up: socio-political context, attributes of the intervention, attributes of the implementers, appropriate delivery strategy, the adopting community, and use of research to inform the scale-up process. A strong political will, alignment of the intervention with national priorities, and integration with the health care system were instrumental in the scaling up. The participatory approach in decision-making reinforced ownership at community level, and training about complementary feeding motivated mothers and women's groups to participate. However, the management of the complex intervention, limited human resources, and lack of incentives for female volunteers proved challenging. In the bartering model, the barter rate was accepted, but the bartering was hindered by unavailability of cereals and limited financial and material resources to contribute, threatening the project's sustainability. Scaling up strategies for nutrition interventions require sufficient time, thorough planning, and assessment of the community's capacity to contribute human, financial, and material resources. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Yéego Gardening! A Community Garden Intervention to Promote Health on the Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, India J; Deschenie, Desiree; Jim, Jesse; Bishop, Sonia; Lombard, Kevin; Beresford, Shirley A

    2017-01-01

    Yéego Gardening! is a community garden intervention to increase gardening behavior, increase access to low-cost fruit and vegetables, and ultimately increase consumption in Navajo communities. To design a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention with three components: a community garden, monthly workshops on gardening and healthy eating, and community outreach. Gardens were constructed and maintained in collaboration with community-based organizations in two Navajo communities. Monthly workshops were held throughout the growing season and incorporated aspects of Navajo culture and opportunities to build confidence and skills in gardening and healthy eating behaviors. In addition, program staff attended community events to promote gardening and healthy eating. Community input was essential throughout the planning and implementation of the intervention. If effective, community gardens may be a way to increase fruit and vegetable availability and intake, and ultimately reduce risk of obesity and diabetes.

  5. Community-based interventions that work to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination: results of an evaluation study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aparna; Nuankaew, Ratana; Mongkholwiboolphol, Nungruthai; Banpabuth, Arunee; Tuvinun, Rachada; Oranop Na Ayuthaya, Pakprim; Richter, Kerry

    2013-11-13

    HIV stigma and discrimination are major issues affecting people living with HIV in their everyday lives. In Thailand, a project was implemented to address HIV stigma and discrimination within communities with four activities: (1) monthly banking days; (2) HIV campaigns; (3) information, education and communication (IEC) materials and (4) "Funfairs." This study evaluates the effect of project interventions on reducing community-level HIV stigma. A repeated cross-sectional design was developed to measure changes in HIV knowledge and HIV-related stigma domains among community members exposed to the project. Two cross-sectional surveys were implemented at baseline (respondent n=560) and endline (respondent n=560). T-tests were employed to assess changes on three stigma domains: fear of HIV infection through daily activity, shame associated with having HIV and blame towards people with HIV. Baseline scales were confirmed at endline, and each scale was regressed on demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge and exposure to intervention activities. No differences were observed in respondent characteristics at baseline and endline. Significant changes were observed in HIV transmission knowledge, fear of HIV infection and shame associated with having HIV from baseline to endline. Respondents exposed to three specific activities (monthly campaign, Funfair and IEC materials) were less likely to exhibit stigma along the dimensions of fear (3.8 points lower on average compared to respondents exposed to none or only one intervention; 95% CI: -7.3 to -0.3) and shame (4.1 points lower; 95% CI: -7.7 to -0.6), net of demographic controls and baseline levels of stigma. Personally knowing someone with HIV was associated with low fear and shame, and females were less likely to possess attitudes of shame compared to males. The multivariate linear models suggest that a combination of three interventions was critical in shifting community-level stigma--monthly campaign, Funfair and IEC

  6. Assessing the Efficacy of Restricting Access to Barbecue Charcoal for Suicide Prevention in Taiwan: A Community-Based Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Chang, Shu-Sen; Wong, Jacky; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Charcoal-burning suicide has recently been spreading to many Asian countries. There have also been several cases involving this new method of suicide in Western countries. Restricting access to suicide means is one of the few suicide-prevention measures that have been supported by empirical evidence. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention program that restricts access to charcoal to prevent suicide in Taiwan. Methods and Findings A quasi-experimental design is used to compare method-specific (charcoal-burning suicide, non-charcoal-burning suicide) and overall suicide rates in New Taipei City (the intervention site, with a population of 3.9 million) with two other cities (Taipei City and Kaohsiung City, the control sites, each with 2.7 million residents) before (Jan 1st 2009- April 30th 2012) and after (May 1st 2012-Dec. 31st 2013) the initiation of a charcoal-restriction program on May 1st 2012. The program mandates the removal of barbecue charcoal from open shelves to locked storage in major retail stores in New Taipei City. No such restriction measure was implemented in the two control sites. Generalized linear regression models incorporating secular trends were used to compare the changes in method-specific and overall suicide rates before and after the initiation of the restriction measure. A simulation approach was used to estimate the number of lives saved by the intervention. Compared with the pre-intervention period, the estimated rate reduction of charcoal-burning suicide in New Taipei City was 37% (95% CI: 17%, 50%) after the intervention. Taking secular trends into account, the reduction was 30% (95% CI: 14%, 44%). No compensatory rise in non-charcoal-burning suicide was observed in New Taipei City. No significant reduction in charcoal-burning suicide was observed in the other two control sites. The simulation approach estimated that 91 (95%CI [55, 128]) lives in New Taipei City were saved during the 20

  7. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E

    2015-08-01

    Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. In this community-based, cluster randomised trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a manualised, parenting intervention in Lira, Uganda. We selected and randomly assigned 12 parishes (1:1) to either parenting intervention or control (inclusion on a waitlist with a brief message on nutrition) groups using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Within each parish, we selected two to three eligible communities that had a parish office or a primary school in which a preschool could be established, more than 75 households with children younger than 6 years, and at least 15 socially disadvantaged families (ie, maternal education of primary school level or lower) with at least one child younger than 36 months. Participants within communities were mother-child dyads, where the child was 12-36 months of age at enrollment, and the mother had low maternal education. In the parenting intervention group, participants attended 12 fortnightly peer-led group sessions focusing on child care and maternal wellbeing. The primary outcomes were cognitive and receptive language development, as measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edn. Secondary outcomes included self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and child growth. Theoretically-relevant parenting practices, including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, and mother-care variables, such as perceived spousal

  8. Promoting IEP Participation: Effects of Interventions, Considerations for CLD Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Various interventions have been developed to promote student individualized education program (IEP) participation. Although they are generally endorsed by educators and researchers, critics argue that interventions to promote self-determination and IEP participation may be counter to the values of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD)…

  9. Entrepreneurial Modes of Teaching in Health Promoting Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Ernst; Thorø, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    , Department of Physiotherapy, Department of Nutrition and Health, VIA University College, Aarhus, Denmark. Background Previous studies have shown that the workplace is an ideal arena for health promotion interventions. Most studies focus on the ways in which health promoting interventions influence the health...

  10. The Boost study: design of a school- and community-based randomised trial to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the Boost study was to produce a persistent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption among 13-year-olds. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-and community-based, multi-component intervention guided by theory, evidence, and best practice. Methods/design We used the Intervention Mapping protocol to guide the development of the intervention. Programme activities combined environmental and educational strategies and focused on increasing access to fruit and vegetables in three settings: School: Daily provision of free fruit and vegetables; a pleasant eating environment; classroom curricular activities; individually computer tailored messages; one-day-workshop for teachers. Families: school meeting; guided child-parent activities; newsletters. Local community: guided visits in grocery stores and local area as part of classroom curriculum; information sheets to sports-and youth clubs. The Boost study employed a cluster-randomised controlled study design and applied simple two-stage cluster sampling: A random sample of 10 municipalities followed by a random sample of 4 schools within each municipality (N = 40 schools). Schools were randomised into a total of 20 intervention-and 20 control schools. We included all year 7 pupils except those from school classes with special needs. Timeline: Baseline survey: August 2010. Delivery of intervention: September 2010-May 2011. First follow-up survey: May/June 2011. Second follow-up survey: May/June 2012. Primary outcome measures: Daily mean intake of fruit and vegetables and habitual fruit and vegetable intake measured by validated 24-hour recall-and food frequency questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures: determinants of fruit and vegetable intake, positive side-effects and unintended adverse effects. Implementation was monitored by thorough process evaluation. Discussion The baseline data file included 2,156 adolescents (95%). There was baseline equivalence

  11. A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: a controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzdalifat Abeid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited. Objective: This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community's knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence. Design: The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials, and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012 and endline (2014 with men and women aged 18–49 years. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community's knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence. Results: The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3 to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5 to 71.9% in the comparison area; p<0.001, and the net effect of the intervention between the two areas was statistically significant (6.9, 95% CI 0.2–13.5, p=0.03. There was significant improvement in most of the attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect on the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (−2.4, 95% CI: −8.4 to 3.6, p=0.42. Conclusions: The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health

  12. A community-based randomized controlled trial of Mom Power parenting intervention for mothers with interpersonal trauma histories and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Katherine L; Muzik, Maria; Morelen, Diana M; Alfafara, Emily A; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Schuster, Melisa M; Ribaudo, Julie

    2017-10-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of Mom Power, a multifamily parenting intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers with young children in a community-based randomized controlled trial (CB-RCT) design. Participants (N = 122) were high-risk mothers (e.g., interpersonal trauma histories, mental health problems, poverty) and their young children (age parenting intervention (treatment condition), or weekly mailings of parenting information (control condition). In this study, the 13-session intervention was delivered by community clinicians trained to fidelity. Pre- and post-trial assessments included mothers' mental health symptoms, parenting stress and helplessness, and connection to care. Mom Power was delivered in the community with fidelity and had good uptake (>65%) despite the risk nature of the sample. Overall, we found improvements in mental health and parenting stress for Mom Power participants but not for controls; in contrast, control mothers increased in parent-child role reversal across the trial period. The benefits of Mom Power treatment (vs. control) were accentuated for mothers with interpersonal trauma histories. Results of this CB-RCT confirm the effectiveness of Mom Power for improving mental health and parenting outcomes for high-risk, trauma-exposed women with young children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01554215.

  13. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the adaptation of kangaroo mother care for community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2014-12-01

    Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention

  14. Can Social Support in the Guise of an Oral Health Education Intervention Promote Mother-Infant Bonding in Chinese Immigrant Mothers and Their Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…

  15. The effectiveness of a community-based fundamental motor skill intervention in children aged 3-8 years: Results of the "Multimove for Kids" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Lenoir, Matthieu; Huyben, Floris; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Deconinck, Frederik J A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 30-week fundamental motor skill program in typically developing young children and to investigate possible sex differences. A multicenter quasi experimental design was set up for this study which involved 992 children aged 3-8 years. All participants received their typical Physical Education curriculum and habitual movement activities. The intervention group (n=523; 53.5% boys) received a weekly 60-min motor skill session provided by trained local instructors in existing child settings; the control group (n=469; 49.7% boys) received no additional practice. Fundamental motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd Edition before and after the intervention. To assess the effect of the intervention and possible sex differences, hierarchical linear regressions analyses were conducted for locomotor and object control gain scores. The intervention group demonstrated a higher gain in both locomotor (β=3.78, SE=1.08, pskills than the control group. Girls demonstrated a lower gain in object control skills (β=-3.50, SE=0.49, pskills (β=1.01, SE=0.44, p=0.022) than boys, regardless of group. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a wide-scale community-based intervention in typically developing children. The sex differences reported may indicate the need to use different pedagogical and instructional strategies to enable boys and girls to develop and master a wide range of motor skills. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-based interventions for enhancing access to or consumption of fruit and vegetables among five to 18-year olds: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganann Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low fruit and vegetable ( FV consumption is a key risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Consumption of FV is limited by a lack of access to FV. Enhanced understanding of interventions and their impact on both access to and consumption of FV can provide guidance to public health decision-makers. The purpose of this scoping review is to identify and map literature that has evaluated effects of community-based interventions designed to increase FV access or consumption among five to 18-year olds. Methods The search included 21 electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, targeted organization websites, and 15 key journals for relevant studies published up to May 2011. Retrieved citations were screened in duplicate for relevance. Data extracted from included studies covered: year, country, study design, target audience, intervention setting, intervention strategies, interventionists, and reported outcomes. Results The search located 19,607 unique citations. Full text relevance screening was conducted on 1,908 studies. The final 289 unique studies included 30 knowledge syntheses, 27 randomized controlled trials, 55 quasi-experimental studies, 113 cluster controlled studies, 60 before-after studies, one mixed method study, and three controlled time series studies. Of these studies, 46 included access outcomes and 278 included consumption outcomes. In terms of target population, 110 studies focused on five to seven year olds, 175 targeted eight to 10 year olds, 192 targeted 11 to 14 year olds, 73 targeted 15 to 18 year olds, 55 targeted parents, and 30 targeted teachers, other service providers, or the general public. The most common intervention locations included schools, communities or community centres, and homes. Most studies implemented multi-faceted intervention strategies to increase FV access or consumption. Conclusions While consumption measures were commonly reported, this review identified a small yet

  17. Community-based randomized controlled trial of diabetes prevention study for high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes: lifestyle intervention using web-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seon-Ah; Lim, Sun-Young; Kim, Kook-Rye; Lee, Eun-Young; Kang, Borami; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2017-05-05

    The trend of increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes emphasizes the need for active screening of high-risk individuals and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM). The community-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (C-KDPS) is a randomized controlled clinical trial to prevent type 2 diabetes by intensive LSM using a web-based program. The two public healthcare centers in Korea are involved, and 420 subjects are being recruited for 6 months and will be followed up for 22 months. The participants are allocated randomly to intensive LSM (18 individual sessions for 24 weeks) and usual care (control group). The major goals of the C-KDPS lifestyle intervention program are: 1) a minimum of 5-7% loss of initial body weight in 6 months and maintenance of this weight loss, 2) increased physical activity (≥ 150 min/week of moderate intensity activity), 3) balanced healthy eating, and 4) quitting smoking and alcohol with stress management. The web-based program includes education contents, video files, visit schedules, and inter-communicable keeping track sites. Primary outcomes are the diagnoses of newly developed diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with hemoglobin A1c level determination and cardiovascular risk factor assessment is scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 22 months. Active screening of high-risk individuals and an effective LSM program are an essential prerequisite for successful diabetes prevention. We hope that our C-KDPS program can reduce the incidence of newly developed type 2 diabetes and be implemented throughout the country, merging community-based public healthcare resources and a web-based system. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Republic of Korea (No. KCT0001981 ). Date of registration; July 28, 2016.

  18. Community-based randomized controlled trial of diabetes prevention study for high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes: lifestyle intervention using web-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ah Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trend of increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes emphasizes the need for active screening of high-risk individuals and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM. Methods/design The community-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (C-KDPS is a randomized controlled clinical trial to prevent type 2 diabetes by intensive LSM using a web-based program. The two public healthcare centers in Korea are involved, and 420 subjects are being recruited for 6 months and will be followed up for 22 months. The participants are allocated randomly to intensive LSM (18 individual sessions for 24 weeks and usual care (control group. The major goals of the C-KDPS lifestyle intervention program are: 1 a minimum of 5–7% loss of initial body weight in 6 months and maintenance of this weight loss, 2 increased physical activity (≥ 150 min/week of moderate intensity activity, 3 balanced healthy eating, and 4 quitting smoking and alcohol with stress management. The web-based program includes education contents, video files, visit schedules, and inter-communicable keeping track sites. Primary outcomes are the diagnoses of newly developed diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with hemoglobin A1c level determination and cardiovascular risk factor assessment is scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 22 months. Discussion Active screening of high-risk individuals and an effective LSM program are an essential prerequisite for successful diabetes prevention. We hope that our C-KDPS program can reduce the incidence of newly developed type 2 diabetes and be implemented throughout the country, merging community-based public healthcare resources and a web-based system. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, Republic of Korea (No. KCT0001981 . Date of registration; July 28, 2016.

  19. Community-based implementation and effectiveness in a randomized trial of a risk reduction intervention for HIV-serodiscordant couples: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Mittman, Brian S; Williams, John K; Liu, Honghu H; Eccles, Alicia M; Hutchinson, Craig S; Wyatt, Gail E

    2014-06-20

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to disproportionately affect African American communities in the US, particularly those located in urban areas. Despite the fact that HIV is often transmitted from one sexual partner to another, most HIV prevention interventions have focused only on individuals, rather than couples. This five-year study investigates community-based implementation, effectiveness, and sustainability of 'Eban II,' an evidence-based risk reduction intervention for African-American heterosexual, serodiscordant couples. This hybrid implementation/effectiveness implementation study is guided by organizational change theory as conceptualized in the Texas Christian University Program Change Model (PCM), a model of phased organizational change from exposure to adoption, implementation, and sustainability. The primary implementation aims are to assist 10 community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement and sustain Eban II; specifically, to partner with CBOs to expose providers to the intervention; facilitate its adoption, implementation and sustainment; and to evaluate processes and determinants of implementation, effectiveness, fidelity, and sustainment. The primary effectiveness aim is to evaluate the effect of Eban II on participant (n = 200 couples) outcomes, specifically incidents of protected sex and proportion of condom use. We will also determine the cost-effectiveness of implementation, as measured by implementation costs and potential cost savings. A mixed methods evaluation will examine implementation at the agency level; staff members from the CBOs will complete baseline measures of organizational context and climate, while key stakeholders will be interviewed periodically throughout implementation. Effectiveness of Eban II will be assessed using a randomized delayed enrollment (waitlist) control design to evaluate the impact of treatment on outcomes at posttest and three-month follow-up. Multi-level hierarchical modeling with a multi

  20. A prospective interrupted time series study of interventions to improve the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal-setting in community-based brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Simpson, Grahame; Cotter, Rachel; Whiting, Diane; Hodgkinson, Adeline; Martin, Diane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of an electronic goals system followed by staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goals written by a community-based brain injury rehabilitation team. Interrupted time series design. Two interventions were introduced six months apart. The first intervention comprised the introduction of an electronic goals system. The second intervention comprised a staff goal training workshop. An audit protocol was devised to evaluate the goals. A random selection of goal statements from the 12 months prior to the interventions (Time 1 baseline) were compared with all goal statements written after the introduction of the electronic goals system (Time 2) and staff training (Time 3). All goals were de-identified for client and time-period, and randomly ordered. A total of 745 goals (Time 1 n = 242; Time 2 n = 283; Time 3 n = 220) were evaluated. Compared with baseline, the introduction of the electronic goals system alone significantly increased goal rating, framing and structure (χ(2) tests 144.7, 18.9, 48.1, respectively, p goal quality, which was only a trend at Time 2, was statistically significant at Time 3 (χ(2) 15.0, p ≤ 001). The training also led to a further significant increase in the framing and structuring of goals over the electronic goals system (χ(2) 11.5, 12.5, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). An electronic goals system combined with staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal statements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a community-based dementia care coordination intervention: effects of MIND at Home on caregiver outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jeremy A; Black, Betty S; Johnston, Deirdre; Hess, Edward; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Gitlin, Laura N; Rabins, Peter V; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Samus, Quincy M

    2015-04-01

    To assess whether MIND at Home, a community-based, multicomponent, care coordination intervention, reduces unmet caregiving needs and burden in informal caregivers of persons with memory disorders. An 18-month randomized controlled trial of 289 community-living care recipient (CR)-caregiver (informal caregivers, i.e., unpaid individuals who regularly assisted the CR) dyads from 28 postal code areas of Baltimore, Maryland was conducted. All dyads and the CR's primary care physician received the written needs assessment results and intervention recommendations. Intervention dyads then received an 18-month care coordination intervention delivered by nonclinical community workers to address unmet care needs through individualized care planning, referral and linkage to dementia services, provision of caregiver dementia education and skill-building strategies, and care progress monitoring by an interdisciplinary team. Primary outcome was total percent of unmet caregiver needs at 18 months. Secondary outcomes included objective and subjective caregiver burden measures, quality of life (QOL), and depression. Total percent of unmet caregiver needs declined in both groups from baseline to 18 months, with no statistically significant between-group difference. No significant group differences occurred in most caregiver burden measures, depression, or QOL. There was a potentially clinically relevant reduction in self-reported number of hours caregivers spent with the CR for MIND participants compared with control subjects. No statistically significant impacts on caregiver outcomes were found after multiple comparison adjustments. However, MIND at Home appeared to have had a modest and clinically meaningful impact on informal caregiver time spent with CRs. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes and lessons from a pilot RCT of a community-based HIV prevention multi-session group intervention for gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, R; Bensley, J; Corrigan, N; Franks, L; Stratman, J; Waller, Z; Warner, J

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the first outcome evaluation of multi-session groupwork for HIV prevention among gay men in the UK. This community-based RCT recruited 50 men, of whom 42% were HIV-positive or untested, and 32% reported status unknown or serodiscordant UAI in the previous 12 months. No knowledge, skills, attitudinal or behavioural differences were detected between intervention and control at baseline. At eight weeks, those attending the group reported significant gains over their control in making sexual choices, physical safety, HIV and STI transmission knowledge, and sexual negotiation skills. At 20 weeks, significant differences remained for HIV and STI transmission knowledge and comfort with sexual choices. Although no behavioural differences were detected, the aims of the National Prevention Strategy were met. This pilot RCT is appraised in the light of modest sample size and attrition, and recommendations for establishing behavioural outcomes are presented. This study has demonstrated that high-risk community samples can be recruited to multi-session interventions, and has provided feasibility data for future rigorous evaluation designs.

  3. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traill, W. B.; Shankar, B.; Branbila-Macias, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although in several EU Member States many public interventions have been running for the prevention and/or management of obesity and other nutritionrelated health conditions, few have yet been formally evaluated. The multidisciplinary team of the EATWELL project will gather benchmark data...... on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health...... and (iii) The value attached by society to these changes, measured in life years gained, cost savings and quality-adjusted life years. Where evaluations have been inadequate, EATWELL will gather secondary data and analyse them with a multidisciplinary approach incorporating models from the psychology...

  4. Promoting interventional radiology in clinical practice of emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Yuan Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Interventional radiology has lot of advantages in dealing with various emergencies. The technique is minimally-invasive, highly-effective and immediately-efficient, moreover, it integrates the diagnosis with the therapy perfectly. Besides, the interventional techniques applied in emergency medicine include not only the vascular interventions,such as embolization, embolectomy, etc, but also the nonvascular interventions, such as tracheal s tent implantation, percutaneous vertebroplasty and so forth. However, importance has not been attached to the clinical use of interventional therapy in emergency medicine so far. It is imperative for us to promote the acceptance of interventional therapy in emergency medicine as well as to popularize the technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  5. Effective analysis of a community-based intervention during heat waves to improve knowledge, attitude and practice in a population in Licheng District, Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Liu, Keke; Liu, Qiyong

    2017-09-18

    Intervention strategies that focus on coping with continuous heat wave threats have been implemented in many countries. Despite these efforts, we still lack evidence concerning intervention efficacy. A Heat Wave Intervention Program (HWIP) that impacts knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) was designed, and its effectiveness during heat waves was evaluated. A stratified two-stage probability proportion to size sampling method was employed to analyze an intervention group and a control group. Two cross-sectional surveys, which included questions about heat waves in 2014 and 2015, were analyzed using difference-in-difference (DID) analysis. Mean KAP scores among participants with different demographic characteristics in the intervention group were higher in 2015 than those in 2014. Further analysis by DID found that implementing interventions was positively associated with knowledge (ß = 0.387, P < 0.001) and attitude (ß = 0.166, P < 0.01). Intervention measures can significantly promote levels of knowledge and attitude. However, as the practice level, most of the sub-groups showed no significant differences for net values between in the intervention group and control group. A cost-benefit analysis was suggested as future work to check the effectiveness of the program. Therefore, further improvement measures should be targeted towards the populations to enable them to effectively cope with the heat waves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Performance of a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention in the management of diarrhoea in a slum of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G S

    2010-12-01

    Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers (n=370) of children, aged >12-71 months, identified by a door-to-door survey from a large urban slum, were enrolled in the study in two groups, i.e. control and intervention. To ensure minimal group interaction, enrollment for the control and intervention groups was done purposively from two extreme ends of the slum cluster. Baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diarrhoea-related issues, such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT), oral rehydration salt (ORS), and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea, was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. Thereafter, mothers (n=195) from the intervention area were provided health and nutrition education through fortnightly contacts achieved by two approaches developed for the study--'personal discussion sessions' and 'lane approach'. The mothers (n=175) from the control area were not contacted. After the intervention, there was a significant (p=0.000) improvement in acquaintance to the term 'ORS' (65-98%), along with its method of reconstitution from packets (13-69%); preparation of home-made sugar-salt solution (10-74%); role of both in the prevention of dehydration (30-74%) and importance of their daily preparation (74-96%); and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea (47-90%) in the intervention area. Sensitivity about age-specific feeding of ORS also improved significantly (p=0.000) from 13% to 88%. The reported usage of ORS packets and sugar-salt solution improved significantly from 12% to 65

  7. "Making the Ordinary More Extraordinary": Exploring Creativity as a Health Promotion Practice Among Older Adults in a Community-Based Professionally Taught Arts Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Adelita G; Fleuriet, K Jill

    2018-06-01

    Document psychosocial and mental well-being outcomes across artistic mediums and classes of a community-based, professionally taught arts program for older adults. One hundred and thirty-eight students completed pre and post class surveys about expectations/experiences when creating art in four mediums (painting, drawing, mixed media, creative writing). In addition, 162 students composed one-paragraph biographical narratives describing their relationships to art and creative engagement. Text was coded for a priori and emergent themes to identify and explain well-being outcomes. Results of this new study supported and expanded our earlier model of improved psychosocial and mental well-being due to creative engagement: impact of class-cognitive focus and outcome of class-cognitive focus, happiness as component of mental and social well-being due to creative engagement, and robust sense of calmness during the creative process. Results suggest that professionally taught arts programming can contribute to well-being and may contribute to brain health through promoting an enhanced ability to focus. Holistic nursing treats creativity as healing, and results suggest that creative engagement should be a priority in therapeutic programming, and individual counseling for older adults to begin engaging in some form of art making suited to their abilities should be incorporated into nursing practice.

  8. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP) among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norliza; Ming Moy, Foong; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Ismail, Ikram Shah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001) compared to the usual care group. This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk factors and

  9. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP) among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Moy, Foong; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Mohd Ali, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants’ mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001) compared to the usual care group. Conclusions This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction

  10. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk

  11. The Development of Media Activities by Undergraduate Students in Order to Promote Agricultural Tourism Community Enterprise According to the Principles of Social Service Learning and Community-Based Leaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamwipat, Kuntida; Princhankol, Pornpapatsorn; Yampinij, Sakesun; Meejaleurn, Sopon

    2018-01-01

    This research was aimed to develop media activities by undergraduate students to promote agricultural tourism community enterprise according to the principles of social service learning and community-based learning, 2) to evaluate the quality of such media activities, 3) to measure the income of the community after the development of media…

  12. Healthy Universities: Mapping Health-Promotion Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…

  13. Review of mental health promotion interventions in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Adams, Sarah; Dogra, Nisha

    2018-05-11

    The prevalence of mental disorders amongst children and adolescents is an increasing global problem. Schools have been positioned at the forefront of promoting positive mental health and well-being through implementing evidence-based interventions. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based research of mental health promotion interventions in schools and examine the reported effectiveness to identify those interventions that can support current policy and ensure that limited resources are appropriately used. The authors reviewed the current state of knowledge on school mental health promotion interventions globally. Two major databases, SCOPUS and ERIC were utilised to capture the social science, health, arts and humanities, and education literature. Initial searches identified 25 articles reporting on mental health promotion interventions in schools. When mapped against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included and explored. Three of these were qualitative and seven were quantitative. A range of interventions have been tested for mental health promotion in schools in the last decade with variable degrees of success. Our review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of mental health promotion, which should focus on both universal work and targeted approaches to fully address mental health in our young populations.

  14. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: the MOM project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed. METHODS: Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services. RESULTS: Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-2.04] and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69-3.54], malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15-3.85], and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76-18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63-2.17], and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%-40%. Attendance at birth by those trained to

  15. Promoting positive outcomes through strengths interventions : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghielen, S.T.S.; van Woerkom, M.; Meyers, M.C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of strengths interventions published between 2011 and 2016. Strengths interventions aim to promote well-being or other positive outcomes by facilitating strengths identification, and sometimes also strengths use and/or development. The present review provides an overview

  16. The evaluation of a culturally appropriate, community-based lifestyle intervention program for elderly Chinese immigrants with chronic diseases: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Dipierro, Moneika; Chen, Lingjun; Chin, Richard; Fava, Maurizio; Yeung, Albert

    2014-03-01

    The 'Healthy Habits Program' is a 6-month community-based program, which offers exercise facilities, training and weekly health education group to underserved elderly Chinese Americans with chronic medical diseases in their native languages. This pilot study evaluates the acceptability and the health effects of the 'Healthy Habits Program'. Ninety-nine subjects participated in the 'Healthy Habits Program' in 2011. Before and after the program, the participants were assessed in their physical and mental health using various fitness tests as well as measures of disability and psychological functioning. Participants provided overwhelmingly positive feedback on the program, which was associated with significant improvements in physical and mental health including a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and increase in stamina. The participants reported lower mean scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item Scale (PHQ-9), indicating improved psychological well-being. These promising pilot study results from this lifestyle intervention program for elderly Chinese American immigrants with chronic diseases inform the design of a more definitive trial using a randomized design and larger sample size.

  17. A community-based intervention to reduce alcohol-related accidents and violence in 9th grade students in southern Sweden: the example of the Trelleborg project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse if a community-based intervention has led to a decrease in alcohol-related accidents and violence, and whether this was mediated by a reduction in excessive drinking and frequency of distilled spirits consumption. We applied logistic regression analyses on cross-sectional, non-repeated data, which was collected from a questionnaire distributed in classrooms to all 9th graders from 1999 to 2001, and in 2003 (n=1376, 724 boys and 652 girls; response rate=92.3%). All alcohol abstainers (n=330) were excluded from the analyses, making the sample 1046 individuals. The odds ratio for alcohol-related accidents was significantly lower, comparing the baseline year (1999) with 2003 (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.27-0.76). There was also an indication that self-reported alcohol-related violence had decreased between 1999 and 2003 (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.43-1.01). When controlling these estimates for excessive drinking and frequency of distilled spirits consumption, the differences between survey years were substantially reduced or even deleted. In conclusion, the decrease in alcohol-related accidents and violence among 15-16-year-olds in Trelleborg, between 1999 and 2002, is likely to be attributed to the identified reduction in excessive drinking and frequency of distilled spirits consumption.

  18. Community based interventional study to assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himalaya Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult to understand or restrain their use. Apart from the health concerns, chronic alcoholism is one of the greatest causes for poverty in the country. Objective: To assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based interventional study conducted in the Bareilly district among males aged >15 years during November 2015 to April 2017 taking a sample of 699 by 30 cluster sampling with PPS. Data was collected by home visit using WHO-AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. After data collection, health education was given to study population in form of speech, posters, short films and focus group discussion. One year after providing health education, AUDIT questionnaire was re-filled by current alcohol drinkers to know the impact of health education. Results: Prevalence of drinking alcohol is 30.47% i.e. 213 current drinkers. AUDIT Scores before and after Health education were positively correlated (r=.768, p=0.0001. There was a significant average difference between AUDIT Scores before and after Health education (t178=2.973, p=0.003. Conclusion: Health education has a positive impact on alcohol use therefore research focus should be on primary prevention by health education/behaviour change communication in primary and secondary care settings.

  19. A systematic review of the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Margaret M; Clarke, Aleisha M; Jenkins, Rachel; Patel, Vikram

    2013-09-11

    This systematic review provides a narrative synthesis of the evidence on the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Commissioned by the WHO, a review of the evidence for mental health promotion interventions across the lifespan from early years to adulthood was conducted. This paper reports on the findings for interventions promoting the positive mental health of young people (aged 6-18 years) in school and community-based settings. Searching a range of electronic databases, 22 studies employing RCTs (N = 11) and quasi-experimental designs conducted in LMICs since 2000 were identified. Fourteen studies of school-based interventions implemented in eight LMICs were reviewed; seven of which included interventions for children living in areas of armed conflict and six interventions of multicomponent lifeskills and resilience training. Eight studies evaluating out-of-school community interventions for adolescents were identified in five countries. Using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) criteria, two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the evidence. The findings from the majority of the school-based interventions are strong. Structured universal interventions for children living in conflict areas indicate generally significant positive effects on students' emotional and behavioural wellbeing, including improved self-esteem and coping skills. However, mixed results were also reported, including differential effects for gender and age groups, and two studies reported nonsignficant findings. The majority of the school-based lifeskills and resilience programmes received a moderate quality rating, with findings indicating positive effects on students' self-esteem, motivation and self-efficacy. The quality of evidence from the community-based interventions for adolescents was moderate to strong with promising findings concerning the potential of multicomponent

  20. Locally Available Dietary Menus Promote Weight Gain among Acutely Malnourished Children Undergoing a Community-Based Nutrition Rehabilitation Program in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugisha, Jennifer; Kakande, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: A significant proportion of Uganda’s children still suffer from acute malnutrition, despite decades of government, donor and agency investment in basic health services. The demand for the WHO recommended Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) for community based nutrition rehabilitation programs (CMAM) and costs involved have been overwhelming, thus prompting the need for alternative, sustainable, local solutions. Methods The Management Sciences for Health STRIDES for Family Health Project (MSH-STRIDES), funded by USAID, implemented a community-based nutritional rehabilitation intervention using the principles of Positive Deviance. The approach identified solutions (practices) already being used by community members with well-nourished children despite not having access to special resources (positive deviants). Community volunteers encouraged children to be assessed for nutrition during special growth monitoring sessions. Children found malnourished were enrolled into a nutrition rehabilitation program also known as a hearth cycle, in a volunteer’s home. Project staff and trained volunteers followed-up with malnourished children in their homes and invited the caregivers to bring them to participate in hearth cycles over 26 days. Caregivers were taught to recognize malnutrition and to treat it with supervised supplemental feedings of menu-mixtures of locally prepared, nutrient-dense foods. Weight gain was used as an outcome measure. Children were linked to health centers within the locality for curative services. MSH-STRIDES provided training to staff in the facilities and equipped them to serve as referral points for the children identified from the community. Results: Hearth cycles were conducted in 230 villages from 34 sub-counties in 11 out of 15 project districts. A total of 1336 health workers and 283 caregivers were trained and involved in the implementation of the community model. Overall, 2525 children with moderate and severe

  1. Evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a package of community-based maternal and newborn interventions in Mirzapur, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L Darmstadt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a delivery strategy for newborn interventions in rural Bangladesh.A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in Mirzapur, Bangladesh. Twelve unions were randomized to intervention or comparison arm. All women of reproductive age were eligible to participate. In the intervention arm, community health workers identified pregnant women; made two antenatal home visits to promote birth and newborn care preparedness; made four postnatal home visits to negotiate preventive care practices and to assess newborns for illness; and referred sick neonates to a hospital and facilitated compliance. Primary outcome measures were antenatal and immediate newborn care behaviours, knowledge of danger signs, care seeking for neonatal complications, and neonatal mortality.A total of 4616 and 5241 live births were recorded from 9987 and 11153 participants in the intervention and comparison arm, respectively. High coverage of antenatal (91% visited twice and postnatal (69% visited on days 0 or 1 home visitations was achieved. Indicators of care practices and knowledge of maternal and neonatal danger signs improved. Adjusted mortality hazard ratio in the intervention arm, compared to the comparison arm, was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.80-1.30 at baseline and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.68-1.12 at endline. Primary causes of death were birth asphyxia (49% and prematurity (26%. No adverse events associated with interventions were reported.Lack of evidence for mortality impact despite high program coverage and quality assurance of implementation, and improvements in targeted newborn care practices suggests the intervention did not adequately address risk factors for mortality. The level and cause-structure of neonatal mortality in the local population must be considered in developing interventions. Programs must ensure skilled care during childbirth, including management of birth asphyxia and prematurity, and curative postnatal care during the first two days of life, in

  2. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Chris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial

  3. Health promotion interventions in social economy companies in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea; Mommen, Jasmine; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-05

    Disadvantaged groups are often not reached by mainstream health promotion interventions. Implementing health promotion (HP) interventions in social economy companies, can be an opportunity to reach those people. The implementation of these interventions in social economy companies was studied. Factors that could be related to the implementation of HP and being supportive towards implementation in the future, were investigated. An online, quantitative survey was sent to all 148 sheltered and social workshops in Flanders. In the questionnaire, the status of HP interventions and characteristics of the workshop were explored. Personal factors (such as attitudes towards HP, behavioural control, social norms and moral responsibility) were asked to the person responsible for implementation of HP interventions. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Respondents of 88 workshops completed the questionnaire. Almost 60% of the workshops implemented environmental or policy interventions. Having a positive attitude towards HP, being more morally responsible, and having the subjective norm that employees are positive towards health promotion at work, were related to being more supportive towards the implementation of HP in the univariate analyses. Only attitude stayed significantly related to being more supportive towards the implementation of HP in the multivariate analyses. Sheltered and social workshops are open to HP interventions, but more can be done to optimize the implementation. To persuade persons responsible for the implementation of HP to invest more in HP, changing attitudes concerning the benefits of health promotion for the employee and the company, is an important strategy.

  4. Protocol for the economic evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve growth among children under two in rural India (CARING trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Sinha, Rajesh; Kumar Ojha, Amit; Sarangi, Soumendra; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sachdev, H S; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Gope, Rajkumar; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Srivastava, Aradhana; Batura, Neha; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Costello, Anthony; Copas, Andrew; Saville, Naomi; Prost, Audrey; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan

    2016-11-02

    Undernutrition affects ∼165 million children globally and contributes up to 45% of all child deaths. India has the highest proportion of global undernutrition-related morbidity and mortality. This protocol describes the planned economic evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve growth in children under 2 years of age in two rural districts of eastern India. The intervention is being evaluated through a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT, the CARING trial). A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis nested within a cRCT will be conducted from a societal perspective, measuring programme, provider, household and societal costs. Programme costs will be collected prospectively from project accounts using a standardised tool. These will be supplemented with time sheets and key informant interviews to inform the allocation of joint costs. Direct and indirect costs incurred by providers will be collected using key informant interviews and time use surveys. Direct and indirect household costs will be collected prospectively, using time use and consumption surveys. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) will be calculated for the primary outcome measure, that is, cases of stunting prevented, and other outcomes such as cases of wasting prevented, cases of infant mortality averted, life years saved and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of results. There is a shortage of robust evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve early child growth. As this economic evaluation is nested within a large scale, cRCT, it will contribute to understanding the fiscal space for investment in early child growth, and the relative (in)efficiency of prioritising resources to this intervention over others to prevent stunting in this and other comparable contexts. The protocol has all necessary ethical approvals and the findings will be disseminated within academia

  5. Community-based interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage among 13- to 15-year-old females: measures implemented by local governments in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Fujiwara

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various community-based interventions in support of HPV vaccination implemented by cities and towns within Tochigi prefecture, Japan with a view to identifying useful indicators which might guide future interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage in the prefecture. A postal questionnaire survey of all 27 local governments in Tochigi Prefecture was conducted in December 2010. All 27 responded, and 22 provided the exact numbers of the targeted and vaccinated populations of 13- to 15-year-old girls from April to December 2010. The local governments also answered questions on the type of interventions implemented including public subsidies, school-based programs, direct mail, free tickets and recalls. Local governments that conducted a school-based vaccination program reported 96.8% coverage for the 1(st dose, 96.2% for the 2(nd dose, and 91.2% for the 3(rd dose. Those that provided subsidies without school-based programs reported a wide range of vaccination rates: 45.7%-95.0% for the 1(st dose, 41.1%-93.7% for the 2(nd dose and 3.1%-90.1% for the 3(rd dose. Among this group, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail and recall was most effective, with 95.0% coverage for the 1(st dose, 93.7% for the 2(nd dose, and 90.1% for the 3(rd dose. The governments that did not offer a subsidy had the lowest vaccination coverage, with 0.8%-1.4% for the 1(st dose, 0.0%-0.8% for the 2(nd dose, and 0.1%-0.1% for the 3(rd dose. The results of this survey indicate that school-based vaccinations and public subsidies are the most effective method to improve HPV vaccination coverage; however, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail, and recalls with public subsidies are also important measures in increasing the vaccination rate. These data may afford important indicators for the successful implementation of future HPV vaccination programs.

  6. Promoting wellbeing and improving access to mental health care through community champions in rural India: the Atmiyata intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields-Zeeman, Laura; Pathare, Soumitra; Walters, Bethany Hipple; Kapadia-Kundu, Nandita; Joag, Kaustubh

    2017-01-01

    There are limited accounts of community-based interventions for reducing distress or providing support for people with common mental disorders (CMDs) in low and middle-income countries. The recently implemented Atmiyata programme is one such community-based mental health intervention focused on promoting wellness and reducing distress through community volunteers in a rural area in the state of Maharashtra, India. This case study describes the content and the process of implementation of Atmiyata and how community volunteers were trained to become Atmiyata champions and mitras ( friends ). The Atmiyata programme trained Atmiyata champions to provide support and basic counselling to community members with common mental health disorders, facilitate access to mental health care and social benefits, improve community awareness of mental health issues, and to promote well-being. Challenges to implementation included logistical challenges (difficult terrain and weather conditions at the implementation site), content-related challenges (securing social welfare benefits for people with CMDs), and partnership challenges (turnover of public health workers involved in referral chain, resistance from public sector mental health specialists). The case study serves as an example for how such a model can be sustained over time at low cost. The next steps of the programme include evaluation of the impact of the Atmiyata intervention through a pre-post study and adapting the intervention for further scale-up in other settings in India.

  7. Community based interventional study to assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himalaya Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult to understand or restrain their use. Apart from the health concerns, chronic alcoholism is one of the greatest causes for poverty in the country. Objective: To assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based interventional study conducted in the Bareilly district among males aged >15 years during November 2015 to April 2017 taking a sample of 699 by 30 cluster sampling with PPS. Data was collected by home visit using WHO-AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. After data collection, health education was given to study population in form of speech, posters, short films and focus group discussion. One year after providing health education, AUDIT questionnaire was re-filled by current alcohol drinkers to know the impact of health education. Results: Prevalence of drinking alcohol is 30.47% i.e. 213 current drinkers. AUDIT Scores before and after Health education were positively correlated (r=.768, p=0.0001. There was a significant average difference between AUDIT Scores before and after Health education (t178=2.973, p=0.003. Conclusion: Health education has a positive impact on alcohol use therefore research focus should be on primary prevention by health education/behaviour change communication in primary and secondary care settings.

  8. A community-based trial of educational interventions with fecal immunochemical tests for colorectal cancer screening uptake among blacks in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Davis, Stacy N; Williams, Kimberly R; Zhao, Xiuhua; Govindaraju, Swapomthi K; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lin, Hui-Yi; Sutton, Steven K; Roethzeim, Richard R; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2016-11-15

    Intervention studies among individuals in diverse community settings are needed to reduce health disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and mortality rates. The current study compared the efficacy of 2 intervention conditions promoting CRC screening among black individuals. Black individuals ages 50 to 75 years (N = 330) were recruited in community settings in 4 Tampa Bay counties. After obtaining consent and conducting a baseline interview to assess sociodemographic and health-related variables, participants received either a culturally targeted CRC photonovella booklet plus a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit or a standard CRC screening brochure plus an FIT kit. The primary outcome was FIT kit screening uptake. FIT screening uptake at 6 months was 86.7% overall (90.3% in the brochure group and 81.9% in the photonovella group). Controlling for baseline between-group differences, there was no influence of intervention on FIT kit uptake (P = .756). Significant predictors of not returning an FIT kit included being unable to work (P = .010), having higher religious belief scores (P = .015), and living farther from the cancer center (P = .015). Providing FIT kits and educational print materials to black individuals in community settings resulted in high rates of CRC screening. The study also identified subgroups of participants who were less likely to return an FIT kit and provides insight for future interventions. Cancer 2016;122:3288-3296. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS) is a community-partnered randomized controlled trial designed to prevent obesity beginning at birth in AI children. PTOTS was developed to test the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention designed to: promote breastfeeding, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, appropriately time the introduction of healthy solid foods, and counsel parents to reduce sedentary lifestyles in their children. A birth cohort of 577 children from five AI tribes is randomized by tribe to either the intervention (three tribes) or the comparison condition (two tribes). The strengths and weaknesses of PTOTS include a focus on a critical growth phase, placement in the community, and intervention at many levels, using a variety of approaches. PMID:23001689

  10. Effects of a new community-based reproductive health intervention on knowledge of and attitudes and behaviors toward stress urinary incontinence among young women in Shanghai: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; He, Yuan; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Ke-qin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to introduce a new community-based reproductive health intervention. We then evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention. In this cluster-randomized trial, 2100 participants aged 18-40 years were divided randomly into an intervention group (IG, 1400 women) and a control group (CG, 700 women). The CG received traditional community intervention, cmprising limited reproductive information and education; the IG received the new community-based reproductive health intervention model, comprising self-designed handbooks, health lectures, and free medical consultations, in addition to the traditional community intervention. All participants were surveyed face to face using a self-designed questionnaire before and after the 6-month intervention. In Shanghai, the prevalence rate of SUI was 14.3 %. No difference was observed between groups regarding mean knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) about SUI and the total score at baseline (P > 0.05). The IG scored significantly higher than the CG on the KAP questions at follow-up, and a significant improvement was observed in the IG after the intervention. Total scores increased with age, educational level, income, and time spent working in Shanghai per year but decreased with gravidity and the number of abortions. Native respondents scored higher than did migrants. The prevalence of SUI is high in Shanghai, and the new community-based reproductive health intervention model is both effective and easily implemented. This intervention should focus on women with a low income, women with low education levels, young women, migrant women, and women who have had multiple abortions or pregnancies.

  11. Interventions to Promote Cancer Awareness and Early Presentation: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    J Austoker; C Bankhead; Lindsay J. L. Forbes; L Atkins; F Martin; K Robb; J Wardle; A J. Ramirez

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low cancer awareness contributes to delay in presentation for cancer symptoms and may lead to delay in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to raise cancer awareness and promote early presentation in cancer to inform policy and future research. Methods: We searched bibliographic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials of interventions delivered to individuals, and controlled or uncontrolled...

  12. Effects of Promotion and Compunction Interventions on Real Intergroup Interactions: Promotion Helps but High Compunction Hurts

    OpenAIRE

    Greenland, Katy; Xenias, Dimitrios; Maio, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discriminatio...

  13. The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Mott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, and process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and successes and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation processes. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as to promote the adoption and

  14. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife M Doyle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469. The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. Process evaluation in 1999-2002 showed high intervention quality and coverage. A 2001/2 intervention impact evaluation showed no impact on the primary outcomes of HIV seroincidence and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 seroprevalence but found substantial improvements in SRH knowledge, reported attitudes, and some reported sexual behaviours. It was postulated that the impact on "upstream" knowledge, attitude, and reported behaviour outcomes seen at the 3-year follow-up would, in the longer term, lead to a reduction in HIV and HSV-2 infection rates and other biological outcomes. A further impact evaluation survey in 2007/8 ( approximately 9 years post-intervention tested this hypothesis.This is a cross-sectional survey (June 2007 through July 2008 of 13,814 young people aged 15-30 y who had attended trial schools during the first phase of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention trial (1999-2002. Prevalences of the primary outcomes HIV and HSV-2 were 1.8% and 25.9% in males and 4.0% and 41.4% in females, respectively. The intervention did not significantly reduce risk of HIV (males adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.91, 95%CI 0.50-1.65; females aPR 1.07, 95%CI 0.68-1.67 or HSV-2 (males aPR 0.94, 95%CI 0.77-1.15; females aPR 0.96, 95%CI 0.87-1.06. The intervention was associated with a reduction in the proportion of males reporting more than four sexual partners in their lifetime (aPR 0.87, 95%CI 0.78-0.97 and an increase in reported

  15. A community-based intervention for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the slums of Nairobi: the SCALE UP study protocol for a prospective quasi-experimental community-based trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel O.; van de Vijver, Steven J. M.; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Agyemang, Charles; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Schultsz, Constance; Ettarh, Remare; Ezeh, Alex; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease is rising in sub-Saharan Africa with hypertension being the main risk factor. However, context-specific evidence on effective interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in resource-poor settings is limited. This study aims to evaluate the

  16. Theories underlying health promotion interventions among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Floyd, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    To review the theories that have been the basis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) promoting health behavior change among adults diagnosed and treated for cancer. Electronic databases and recent review papers. Several theories have been used in intervention development: Transtheoretical Model, Motivational Interviewing, Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Cognitive Behavioral Theory. There is support for the efficacy of some of these interventions. However, there has been limited assessment of theory-based constructs and examination of the mediational role of theoretical constructs in intervention efficacy. There is a need to apply theory in the development of interventions to assess the effects of the intervention on the constructs and to conduct mediational tests of these constructs.

  17. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  19. Interventions to promote psychiatric patients' compliance to mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A systematic review was chosen as a design to identify primary studies that answered the following research question: What is the current evidence on interventions to promote psychiatric patients' compliance to mental health treatment? Selected electronic databases were thoroughly searched. Studies were ...

  20. MODEL2TALK : An Intervention to Promote Productive Classroom Talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a

  1. Examining the Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Community-Based Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Bera, Victoria; Elsemore, Johanna; Snelling, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    Background: Latinos in the United States are at heightened risk for obesity and health disparities, yet community-based interventions to promote health are limited. Purpose: This research examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program (Vivir Sano), which included stress reduction and behavioral lifestyle…

  2. Undiagnosed hypertensive participants demonstrate the largest blood pressure improvements from a community based lifestyle intervention: implications for addressing the silent hypertension epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: It is important to understand effective strategies to reach and treat individuals who lack awareness of or have uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). The objectives of this secondary analysis from a community-based participatory research initiative, HUB City Steps, were to quantify the pre...

  3. Interventions to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviene A Temple

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe interventions designed to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities and the effects on overall physical activity levels and on health outcomes. Materials and methods. A systematic review of eight databases until January 31, 2015 identified 383 citations. The inclusion criteria were: a the study sample consisted of adults with intellectual disabilities, b the study implemented an intervention to initiate, increase, or maintain physical activity, and c quantitative or qualitative data were used to report the effectiveness of the intervention. Six articles from the 383 citations met this criterion. Results. Three studies resulted in significant increases in physical activity behaviour; however well-controlled trials designed to improve weight status by increasing physical activity did not produce significant effects. Conclusion. Overall, the results indicate that interventions to increase physical activity should simultaneously target the individual with intellectual disability as well as their proximal environment over a sustained period of time.

  4. Health Advocacy Project: Evaluating the Benefits of Service Learning to Nursing Students and Low Income Individuals Involved in a Community-Based Mental Health Promotion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels-Dennis, Joan; Xia, Liudi; Secord, Sandra; Raiger, Amelia

    2016-10-08

    Poverty, along with other factors such as unemployment, work and life stressors, interpersonal violence, and lack of access to high quality health and/or social services all play a role in determining who develops a mental illness and for whom those symptoms persist or worsen. Senior nursing student preparing to enter the field and working in a service learning capacity may be able to influence early recovery and symptom abatement among those most vulnerable to mental illness. A consortium of community stakeholders and researchers collaboratively designed a 10-week mental health promotion project called the Health Advocacy Project (HAP). The project combines case management and system navigation support delivered by trained and highly supervised nursing students to individuals experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, we present the findings of a qualitative fidelity evaluation that examines the effectiveness of nursing students in delivering the health advocacy intervention at the level and with the intensity originally intended. The findings demonstrate how the services of senior nursing students may be optimized to benefit our healthcare system and populations most at risk for developing MDD and PTSD.

  5. The SISTA pilot project: understanding the training and technical assistance needs of community-based organizations implementing HIV prevention interventions for African American women--implications for a capacity building strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Taleria R; Brown, Mari; King, Winifred; Prather, Cynthia; Cazaubon, Janine; Mack, Justin; Russell, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    The disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among African American women in the U.S. signify the ongoing need for targeted HIV prevention interventions. Additionally, building the capacity of service providers to sustain prevention efforts is a major concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a pilot project to disseminate the Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), an HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women. The project was to inform the diffusion process and examine the training and technical assistance needs of participating community-based organizations. Results demonstrated a need for extensive pre-planning and skills-building prior to implementation.

  6. Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan L; Burke, Nancy J; Chen, Moon S

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors.

  7. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  8. Community-based human-elephant conflict mitigation: The value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Gunaryadi

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007 in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus out of crop fields in 91.2% (52 out of 57, 87.6% (156 out of 178, and 80.0% (16 out of 20 of attempted raids. Once the method had been shown to be effective at demonstration sites, farmers in 16 villages around WKNP voluntarily adopted it during the July 2008 to March 2009 period and were able to repel elephants in 73.9% (150 out of 203 of attempted raids, with seven villages repelling 100% of attempted raids. These 16 villages had all experienced high levels of HEC in the preceding years; e.g. they accounted for >97% of the 742 HEC incidents recorded for the entire park in 2006. Our work shows, therefore, that a simple evidence-based approach can facilitate significant reductions in HEC at the protected area scale.

  9. Promoting mental wellbeing among older people: technology-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Nordmyr, Johanna; Matosevic, Tihana; Park, A-La; Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David

    2017-08-30

    This systematic review explored the effectiveness of technology-based interventions in promoting the mental health and wellbeing of people aged 65 and over. Data were collected as part of a wider review commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England on the effectiveness of different actions to promote the mental wellbeing and independence of older people. All studies identified through this review were subject to a detailed critical appraisal of quality, looking at internal and external validity. Twenty-one papers covering evaluations of technological interventions were identified. They examined the psychosocial effects of technologies for education, exposure to, and/or training to use, computers and the internet, telephone/internet communication and computer gaming. Few studies took the form of randomized controlled trials, with little comparability in outcome measures, resulting in an inconsistent evidence base with moderate strength and quality. However, three out of six studies with high or moderate quality ratings (all focused on computer/internet training) reported statistically significant positive effects on psychosocial outcomes, including increased life satisfaction and experienced social support, as well as reduced depression levels among intervention recipients. The review results highlight the need for more methodologically rigorous studies evaluating the effects of technology-based interventions on mental wellbeing. Well-performed technology-based interventions to promote various aspects of mental wellbeing, as identified in this review, can serve as best practice examples in this emerging field. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Behavioral economics strategies for promoting adherence to sleep interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting first relationships: randomized trial of a relationship-based intervention for toddlers in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J; Oxford, Monica L; Kelly, Jean F; Nelson, Elizabeth M; Fleming, Charles B

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a community-based, randomized control trial with intent-to-treat analyses of Promoting First Relationships (PFR) to improve parenting and toddler outcomes for toddlers in state dependency. Toddlers (10-24 months; N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized to 10-week PFR or a comparison condition. Community agency providers were trained to use PFR in the intervention for caregivers. From baseline to postintervention, observational ratings of caregiver sensitivity improved more in the PFR condition than in the comparison condition, with an effect size for the difference in adjusted means postintervention of d = .41. Caregiver understanding of toddlers' social emotional needs and caregiver reports of child competence also differed by intervention condition postintervention (d = .36 and d = .42) with caregivers in the PFR condition reporting more understanding of toddlers and child competence. Models of PFR effects on within-individual change were significant for caregiver sensitivity and understanding of toddlers. At the 6-month follow-up, only 61% of original sample dyads were still intact and there were no significant differences on caregiver or child outcomes.

  12. Men's health promotion interventions: what have we learned from previous programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steve; Witty, Karl; Zwolinsky, Steve; Day, Rhiannon

    2013-11-01

    Concern persists in health-related literature about men's reduced life expectancy and higher premature death rates; this is often linked to difficulties in engaging with men as a client group. However, some innovative projects and programmes, often led by health visitors or other community based nurses, have developed successful health promotion work with men. This article collates existing tacit knowledge (previous learning) about men's health interventions by integrating interview data from nine practitioners who have established such initiatives with data from 35 men's health project reports to consider 'what works'. Five themes stood out as being significant across the data reviewed: using the right setting (often outside statutory services); ensuring the right approach (drawing on male-specific interests and language); actively listening to what local men say; appropriate training (initial and ongoing) for those involved in such work; and partnership working with local community groups, businesses and statutory service providers. While not a panacea for working with any and all men, these themes form a good basis for successful engagement with men and align well with what a recent review of health visitor interventions suggest works in helping bridge service provision-uptake gaps.

  13. Nuevo Amanecer: results of a randomized controlled trial of a community-based, peer-delivered stress management intervention to improve quality of life in Latinas with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nápoles, Anna María; Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. We adapted a cognitive-behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer-specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential.

  14. A randomized pilot study of a community-based weight loss intervention for African-American women: Rationale and study design of Doing Me! Sisters Standing Together for a Healthy Mind and Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springfield, Sparkle; Buscemi, Joanna; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Zenk, Shannon N; Schiffer, Linda; Sampson, Jameika; Jones, Quiana; Murdock, Tanine; Davis, Iona; Holland, Loys; Watkins, April; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among African-American women and modest success in behavioral weight loss interventions, the development and testing of weight management interventions using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach have been limited. Doing Me!: Sisters Standing Together for Healthy Mind and Body (Doing Me!) is an intervention adapted from an evidence-based behavioral obesity intervention using a CBPR approach. The purpose of Doing Me! is to test the feasibility and acceptability of this adapted intervention and determine its efficacy in achieving improvements in anthropometrics, diet, and physical activity. Sixty African-American women, from a low-income, urban community, aged 30-65 years will be randomized to one of two arms: 16-week Doing Me! (n = 30) or waitlist control (n = 30). Doing Me! employs CBPR methodology to involve community stakeholders and members during the planning, development, implementation, and evaluation phases of the intervention. There will be thirty-two 90-minute sessions incorporating 45 min of instruction on diet, physical activity, and/or weight management plus 45 min of physical activity. Data will be collected at baseline and post-intervention (16 weeks). Doing Me! is one of the first CBPR studies to examine the feasibility/acceptability of an adapted evidence-based behavioral weight loss intervention designed for obese African-American women. CBPR may be an effective strategy for implementing a weight management intervention among this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child’s life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure’s reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children’s developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children’s needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing

  16. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vitor; Melo, Madalena; Santos, Graça; Apolónio, Ana; Amaral, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure's reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children's developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children's needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing educational policies that

  17. Community-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of healthcare options ... day care centers are either in churches or community centers. Adult day care is commonly used to care for people who ...

  18. Enhancement of a locally developed HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A partnership of community-based organizations, a university, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J.; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the development and enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated. Our enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If efficacious, HOLA en Grupos will be the first behavioral intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners. PMID:26241382

  19. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based "teams" delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Snetro-Plewman, Gail; Waltensperger, Karen Z; Hamer, Davidson H; Kambikambi, Chilobe; MacLeod, William; Filumba, Stephen; Sichamba, Bias; Marsh, David

    2013-06-27

    The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0-59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries.

  20. Interventions to promote the wearing of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dib, R P; Verbeek, J; Atallah, A N; Andriolo, R B; Soares, B G O

    2006-04-19

    Noise induced hearing loss can only be prevented by eliminating or lowering noise exposure levels. Where the source of the noise can not be eliminated workers have to rely on hearing protective equipment. Several trials have been conducted to study the effectiveness of interventions to influence the wearing of hearing protection and to decrease noise exposure. We aimed to establish whether interventions to increase the wearing of hearing protection are effective. To summarise the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to enhance the wearing of hearing protection among workers exposed to noise in the workplace. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2005), EMBASE (1980 to June 2005), NIOSHTIC, CISDOC, CINAHL, LILACS (1982 to June 2005) and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The date of the last search was June 2005. Studies were included if they had a randomised design, if they were among noise exposed (> 80 dB(A)) workers or pupils, if there was some kind of intervention to promote the wearing of hearing protection (compared to another intervention or no intervention), and if the outcome measured was the amount of use of hearing protection or a proxy measure thereof. Two reviewers selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. There were no cases where the pooling of data was appropriate. Two studies were found. One study was a two-phased randomised controlled trial. A computer-based intervention tailored to the risk of an individual worker lasting 30 minutes was not found to be more effective than a video providing general information among workers, around 80% of whom already used hearing protection. The second phase of the trial involved sending a reminder to the home address of participants at 30 days, 90 days or at both 30 and 90 days after the intervention

  1. Framework for an Evidence-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Promoting Healthy Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Bruno

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Opportunities to participate in a community based intervention program should be extended throughout all communities in an effort to improve holistic well-being. Further, type and duration as well as point of data collection of such programs should be differentiated in future research.

  2. Utilization of the state led public private partnership program "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India: a cross sectional community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Dholakia, Nishith B; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-15

    "Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY)", a state-led large-scale demand-side financing scheme (DSF) under public-private partnership to increase institutional delivery, has been implemented across Gujarat state, India since 2005. The scheme aims to provide free institutional childbirth services in accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). These services are paid for by the state to the private facility with the intention of service being free to the user. This community-based study estimates CY uptake among eligible women and explores factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. This was a community-based cross sectional survey of eligible women who gave birth between January and July 2013 in 142 selected villages of three districts in Gujarat. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to collect information on socio-demographic details, pregnancy details, details of childbirth and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses incurred. A multivariable inferential analysis was done to explore the factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. Out of 2,143 eligible women, 559 (26 %) gave birth under the CY program. A further 436(20 %) delivered at free public facilities, 713(33 %) at private facilities (OOP payment) and 435(20 %) at home. Eligible women who belonged to either scheduled tribe or poor [aOR = 3.1, 95 % CI:2.4 - 3.8] or having no formal education [aOR = 1.6, 95 % CI:1.1, 2.2] and who delivered by C-section [aOR = 2.1,95 % CI: 1.2, 3.8] had higher odds of not utilizing CY program. Of births at CY accredited facilities (n = 924), non-utilization was 40 % (n = 365) mostly because of lack of required official documentation that proved eligibility (72 % of eligible non-users). Women who utilized the CY program overall paid more than women who delivered in the free public facilities. Uptake of the CY among eligible women was low after almost a decade

  3. The development of a network for community-based obesity prevention: the CO-OPS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based interventions are a promising approach and an important component of a comprehensive response to obesity. In this paper we describe the Collaboration of COmmunity-based Obesity Prevention Sites (CO-OPS Collaboration) in Australia as an example of a collaborative network to enhance the quality and quantity of obesity prevention action at the community level. The core aims of the CO-OPS Collaboration are to: identify and analyse the lessons learned from a range of community-based initiatives aimed at tackling obesity, and; to identify the elements that make community-based obesity prevention initiatives successful and share the knowledge gained with other communities. Methods Key activities of the collaboration to date have included the development of a set of Best Practice Principles and knowledge translation and exchange activities to promote the application (or use) of evidence, evaluation and analysis in practice. Results The establishment of the CO-OPS Collaboration is a significant step toward strengthening action in this area, by bringing together research, practice and policy expertise to promote best practice, high quality evaluation and knowledge translation and exchange. Future development of the network should include facilitation of further evidence generation and translation drawing from process, impact and outcome evaluation of existing community-based interventions. Conclusions The lessons presented in this paper may help other networks like CO-OPS as they emerge around the globe. It is important that networks integrate with each other and share the experience of creating these networks. PMID:21349185

  4. Requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people: a focus group study amongst experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krops, Leonie A; Hols, Doortje H J; Folkertsma, Nienke; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-06-14

    To explore ideas experts, working in the field of physical activity for people with a disability, pose on a stimulating movement intervention for physically disabled people longer than one year post rehabilitation or not familiar with rehabilitation. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted with experts (n = 28). Transcripts were analysed following thematic analysis, using the integrated physical activity for people with a disability and intervention mapping model. Experts expressed no need for a new intervention, but, instead, a need for adapting an existing intervention, and increased collaboration between organisations. Such an adapted intervention should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase visibility of potential activities. Several methods were mentioned, for instance individual coaching. Potential participants should be personally approached via various intermediates. The intervention owner and government are responsible for stimulating physical activity and should finance an intervention together with health insurances and the user. According to experts adapting an existing intervention, together with increased collaboration between organisations, will be effective in stimulating physical activity in the target population. This study provides requirements on an intervention to stimulate physical activity, and suggestions for the approach of the target population, finance, and responsibility. Implications for Rehabilitation There is no need for designing a new intervention, but need for adaptation of an existing intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase the visibility of potential activities. Methods for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people could be

  5. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  6. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based “teams” delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0–59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Methods Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. Results We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Conclusion Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries. PMID:23802766

  7. Implementation of Policy, Systems, and Environmental Community-Based Interventions for Cardiovascular Health Through a National Not-for-Profit: A Multiple Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garney, Whitney R; Szucs, Leigh E; Primm, Kristin; King Hahn, Laura; Garcia, Kristen M; Martin, Emily; McLeroy, Kenneth

    2018-05-01

    In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the American Heart Association to implement policy, systems, and environment-focused strategies targeting access to healthy food and beverages, physical activity, and smoke-free environments. To understand factors affecting implementation and variations in success across sites, evaluators conducted a multiple case study. Based on past literature, community sites were categorized as capacity-building or implementation-ready, for comparison. A sample of six communities were selected using a systematic selection tool. Through site visits, evaluators conducted interviews with program staff and community partners and assessed action plans. Evaluators identified important implications for nationally coordinated community-based prevention programming. Differences in implementation varied by the communities' readiness, with the most notable differences in how they planned activities and defined success. Existing partner relationships (or lack thereof) played a significant role, regardless of the American Heart Association's existing presence within the communities, in the progression of initiatives and the differences observed among phases. Last, goals in capacity-building sites were tied to organizational goals while goals in implementation-ready sites were more incremental with increased community influence and buy-in. Using national organizations as a mechanism to carry out large-scale community-based prevention work is a viable option that provides coordinated, wide-scale implementation without sacrificing a community's priorities or input. In funding future initiatives, the presence of relationships and the time needed to cultivate such relationships should be accounted for in the planning and implementation processes, as well as both local and national expectations.

  8. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of a Community-Based HIV Risk Reduction Intervention Among HIV-Positive Individuals: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Krishna C; Buchanan, David R; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention utilizing protection motivation and social cognitive theories to address knowledge, threat and coping appraisals, and condom use intentions among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Using a quasi-experimental research design, we assigned 277 participants to intervention (n=146) and control (n=131) groups. The intervention group received six sessions on sexual risk reduction strategies and the control group six sessions on medication adherence, smoking, and mental health. Data were collected at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Results indicate that the sexual risk reduction intervention produced a significant increase in HIV transmission knowledge, perceived threat and coping appraisals, and intentions to use condoms with regular, HIV-positive, and HIV-negative partners. The positive effects of the intervention remained significant after adjusting for baseline scores and other potential confounders. In conclusion, our theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention was effective in improving HIV transmission knowledge, perceived threat and coping appraisals, and condom use intentions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the intervention in increasing protection motivation and maintaining preventive behaviors.

  10. "La Comunidad Habla": Using Internet Community-Based Information Interventions to Increase Empowerment and Access to Health Care of Low Income Latino/a Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…

  11. Exploring pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting brand changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U; Polwin, A; Kan, S W; Amerasinghe, N; McCarthy, S; Rasheed, F; Stewart, J; Lessing, C; Ragupathy, R; Scahill, S L

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the use of generic medicines is advocated by the Pharmaceutical Management Agency of New Zealand (PHARMAC). Among other interventions, PHARMAC uses educational awareness campaigns to educate pharmacists to promote the uptake of generic medicines. However, the opinion of pharmacists regarding these interventions has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting medicine brand changes. A cross-sectional study design was employed to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding brand changes. A questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected pharmacists in New Zealand. In second component of the study, five community pharmacies in the Auckland region were selected through convenience sampling, and a semi-structured interview was conducted with a pharmacist in each site. One-hundred and eighty seven questionnaires were returned and analyzed (response rate of 37.4%). Sixty-eight percent of pharmacists supported brand changes and 98.4% mentioned that PHARMAC is responsible for informing them of brand changes. Over half (51.3%) of pharmacists found the current interventions effective, and 39.6% were satisfied with the current brand change information provided by PHARMAC. The majority (94.7%) of pharmacists currently receive faxed information but many indicated (70.8%) that they prefer email notifications. Cilazapril was considered the least difficult medicine to substitute in the past 10 years and omeprazole the most difficult. Patient acceptance and claims about effectiveness were the main factors in determining the difficulty of brand substitution. Fewer than half of the respondents felt that interventions were implemented with enough preparation time for a brand change. The ideal lead-in time was in the range of three to six months. Pharmacists expressed a number of concerns about brand changes such as the frequency at which they occur and the lack of generic stock

  12. Rehabilitation Interventions to Promote Recovery from Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Laurent; Franck, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Only one out of seven patients recovers after a first episode of psychosis despite psychiatric care. Rehabilitation interventions have been developed to improve functional outcomes and to promote recovery. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the main psychiatric rehabilitation interventions following a search of the electronic databases Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using combinations of terms relating to cognitive remediation, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapies, and schizophrenia. Eighty articles relevant to the topic of interest were found. According to results, cognitive remediation has been found to be effective in reducing the impact of cognitive impairment, social skills in the learning a variety of skills and to a lesser extent in reducing negative symptoms, psychoeducation in improving compliance and reducing relapses, and cognitive therapy in reducing the intensity of or distress related to positive symptoms. All psychosocial rehabilitation interventions should be considered as evidence-based practices for schizophrenia and need to become a major part of the standard treatment of the disease. PMID:28659832

  13. Rehabilitation Interventions to Promote Recovery from Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Morin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Only one out of seven patients recovers after a first episode of psychosis despite psychiatric care. Rehabilitation interventions have been developed to improve functional outcomes and to promote recovery. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the main psychiatric rehabilitation interventions following a search of the electronic databases Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using combinations of terms relating to cognitive remediation, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapies, and schizophrenia. Eighty articles relevant to the topic of interest were found. According to results, cognitive remediation has been found to be effective in reducing the impact of cognitive impairment, social skills in the learning a variety of skills and to a lesser extent in reducing negative symptoms, psychoeducation in improving compliance and reducing relapses, and cognitive therapy in reducing the intensity of or distress related to positive symptoms. All psychosocial rehabilitation interventions should be considered as evidence-based practices for schizophrenia and need to become a major part of the standard treatment of the disease.

  14. Analysis of a Community-based Intervention to Reduce Heat-related Illness during Heat Waves in Licheng, China: a Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yun; Song, Xiu Ping; Liu, Zhi Dong; Cao, Li Na; Jiang, Bao Fa; Liu, Qi Yong

    2016-11-01

    To reduce health-related threats of heat waves, interventions have been implemented in many parts of the world. However, there is a lack of higher-level evidence concerning the intervention efficacy. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of an intervention to reduce the number of heat-related illnesses. A quasi-experimental design was employed by two cross-sectional surveys in the year 2014 and 2015, including 2,240 participants and 2,356 participants, respectively. Each survey was designed to include one control group and one intervention group, which conducted in Licheng, China. A representative sample was selected using a multistage sampling method. Data, collected from questionnaires about heat waves in 2014 and 2015, were analyzed using a difference-in-difference analysis and cost effectiveness analysis. Outcomes included changes in the prevalence of heat-related illnesses and cost-effectiveness variables. Relative to the control participants, the prevalence of heat-related illness in the intervention participants decreased to a greater extent in rural areas than in urban areas (OR=0.495 vs. OR=1.281). Moreover, the cost-effectiveness ratio in the intervention group was less than that in the control group (US$15.06 vs. US$15.69 per participant). Furthermore, to avoid one additional patient, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio showed that an additional US$14.47 would be needed for the intervention compared to when no intervention was applied. The intervention program may be considered a worthwhile investment for rural areas that are more likely to experience heat waves. Meanwhile, corresponding improving measures should be presented towards urban areas. Future research should examine whether the intervention strategies could be spread out in other domestic or international regions where heat waves are usually experienced. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of a 3-year multi-centre community-based intervention on risk factors for chronic disease and obesity among free-living adults: the Healthy Alberta Communities study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina Lytvyak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy Alberta Communities (HAC was a 3-year community-based intervention to reduce lifestyle-related risk factors for chronic disease and obesity at a population-level. The current paper examines changes in blood pressure (BP and anthropometric indicators within HAC communities compared to secular trends. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, this community-academic partnership sought to create environments supportive of healthier dietary and physical activity behaviours within four diverse communities in Alberta, Canada. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference and BP were measured among 1554 and 1808 community residents at baseline (2006 and follow-up (2009, respectively. A comparison sample was drawn from a representative national survey. Samples were stratified by age and change between pre- and post-intervention was assessed using t-tests. Changes in parameters over time between groups were compared using meta-analysis. The net difference in change in outcomes (change in intervention communities minus change in comparison group represented the effect of the intervention. Results Adjusted systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP BP declined within most age groups in HAC communities from pre- to post-intervention. The net decline in SBP was 1 mmHg in 20–39 year olds (p = 0.006 and 2 mmHg in 40–59 year olds (p = 0.001, while the net decline in DBP was 3 mmHg in 20–39 year olds (p < 0.001, 2 mmHg in 40–59 year olds (p < 0.001 and 3 mmHg in 60–79 year olds (p < 0.001. The net increase in the proportion of individuals with normal BP was 5.9 % (p < 0.001, while the net decline in the proportion of individuals with stage 1 hypertension was 4.5 % (p < 0.001. BMI and body weight were unchanged. There was a significant net increase in waist and hip circumference among 20–39 year olds within intervention communities. Conclusions Findings suggest HAC succeeded in shifting the population

  16. An evaluation of the interaction of place and community-based participatory research as a research methodology in the implementation of a sexually transmitted infection intervention for Greenlandic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging research suggests that the actual physical location of a study and the geographic context in which a study is implemented influences the types of research methods most appropriate to use in a study as well as the study's research outcomes. This article presents a reflection on the extent to which place influenced the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) as a research methodology in the implementation of an intervention to address sexually transmitted infections in Greenland. An evaluation of the interaction between place and CBPR suggests that the physicality of place influenced the intervention's successes and challenges. Future research that uses CBPR as a research methodology in sexual and reproductive health research in the Arctic warrants situating the research design, implementation and outcomes within the context of place.

  17. A multifaceted community-based asthma intervention in Chicago: effects of trigger reduction and self-management education on asthma morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyk, Mary; Banda, Elizabeth; Chisum, Gay; Weems, Dolores; Liu, Yangyang; Damitz, Maureen; Williams, Rhonda; Persky, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    Home-based, multifaceted interventions have been effective in reducing asthma morbidity in children. However, identification of independent components that contribute to outcomes and delineating effectiveness by level of asthma symptoms would help to refine the intervention and target appropriate populations. A community health educator led asthma intervention implemented in a low-income African-American neighborhood included asthma management education, individually tailored low-cost asthma home trigger remediation, and referrals to social and medical agencies, when appropriate. Changes in asthma morbidity measures were assessed in relation to implementation of individual intervention components using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 218 children who completed the year-long program, there were significant reductions in measures of asthma morbidity, including symptoms, urgent care visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, missed school days, and missed work days for caretakers. We also found significant decreases in the prevalence of many home asthma triggers and improvements in asthma management practices. Improvement in caretaker's ability to manage the child's asthma was associated with reduction in ED visits for asthma and uncontrolled asthma. Specific home interventions, such as repair of water leaks and reduced exposure to plants, dust, clutter and stuffed toys, may be related to reduction in asthma morbidity. This program was effective in reducing asthma morbidity in low-income African-American children and identified specific interventions as possible areas to target in future projects. Furthermore, the intervention was useful in children with persistent asthma symptoms as well as those with less frequent asthma exacerbations.

  18. Community-based intervention for depression management at the primary care level in Ha Nam Province, Vietnam: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maria; Kiel, Simone; Allebeck, Peter; Hoan, Le Thi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention including psychoeducation and yoga for depression management at the primary healthcare level in one district in the Hà Nam province, Vietnam. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used for depression screening and follow-up. Screened patients were further diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Diagnostic Interview, by a trained general doctor. A linear regression model, adjusted for age, gender and baseline PHQ-9 score was used to assess whether the intervention leads to decreased depression severity compared to standard care in the control communes. Both groups had similar PHQ-9 scores at baseline. The intervention group had on average significantly lower PHQ-9 scores after the intervention than the control group. Almost half of the patients in the intervention group recovered from depression, whereas nobody did in the control group. The results indicate that the intervention can be more effective than standard care in treating depression. The mean change of the PHQ-9 score after the intervention is deemed to be of clinical relevance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of marketing to disseminate brief alcohol intervention to general practitioners: promoting health care interventions to health promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F

    2000-11-01

    Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group.

  20. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health advisor HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montaño, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Background Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot, lay health advisor (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Methods Fifteen LHAs (mean age=35.6; range 23–60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Results Data were collected from 222 men (mean age=29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; P<.001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio=2.3; CI=1.2–4.3) and HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio=2.5; CI=1.5–4.3). Conclusions LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:19824838

  1. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health adviser HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime

    2009-10-01

    Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Fifteen LHAs (mean age = 35.6; range 23-60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 18 months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Data were collected from 222 men (mean age = 29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; p < .001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3; confidence interval [CI = 1.2-4.3) and HIV testing (AOR = 2.5; CI = 1.5-4.3). LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.

  2. Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and collaborative practice in a health sciences faculty: Student perceptions and experiences. ... It became apparent that students need to be prepared to work in interprofessional groups. The overall intervention was perceived positively, allowing students to become ...

  3. DEFINING THE "COMMUNITY" FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance abuse, violence and sex risk among Latino immigrant youth and young adults. Research staff and community partners knew that the intervention community had grown beyond its Census-designated place (CDP) boundaries, and that connection and attachment to community were relevant to an intervention. Thus, in order to understand current geographic and social boundaries of the community for sampling, data collection, intervention design and implementation, the research team conducted an ethnographic study to identify self-defined community boundaries, both geographic and social. Beginning with preliminary data from a pilot intervention and the original CDP map, the research included: geo-mapping de-identified addresses of service clients from a major community organization; key informant interviews; and observation and intercept interviews in the community. The results provided an expanded community boundary profile and important information about community identity.

  4. Understanding the Challenges of Improving Sanitation and Hygiene Outcomes in a Community Based Intervention: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Joseph Kihika; Galukande, Moses; Maeda, Florence; Luboga, Sam; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2017-06-05

    Good sanitation and clean water are basic human rights yet they remain elusive to many rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We carried out a cross sectional study to examine the impact of a four-year intervention aimed at improving access to water and sanitation and reducing waterborne disease, especially diarrhea in children under five years old. The study was carried out in April and May 2015 in Busangi, Chela and Ntobo wards of Kahama District of Tanzania. The interventions included education campaigns and improved water supply, and sanitation. The percentage of households (HHs) with access to water within 30 min increased from 19.2 to 48.9 and 17.6 to 27.3 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The percentage of HHs with hand washing facilities at the latrine increased from 0% to 13.2%. However, the incidence of diarrhea among children under five years increased over the intervention period, RR 2.91 95% CI 2.71-3.11, p < 0.0001. Availability of water alone may not influence the incidence of waterborne diseases. Factors such as water storage and usage, safe excreta disposal and other hygiene practices are critical for interventions negating the spread of water borne diseases. A model that articulates the extent to which these factors are helpful for such interventions should be explored.

  5. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyzi, O; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G; Gökçay, G; Taşdelen, E; Akar, U

    1991-07-01

    This study was designed to search for an effective method to promote exclusive breast feeding among Turkish city women delivering in hospitals. Four hundred and forty-two primiparae with uncomplicated deliveries and with healthy infants with birthweights of greater than 2500 g were exposed to a group educational session on breast feeding after birth, followed by one repeat session at home. Four hundred and ninety-nine women served as controls. All homes were visited monthly for 6 months by independent observers and data relevant to the feeding of the infants were collected. Weight measurements of 176 infants were taken at age 4 months. The study and control mothers were similar in sociodemographic characteristics which reflected a low socio-economic/educational background but relatively good housing conditions. Although significant differences in frequency of exclusive breast feeding were found between the study and control groups, the impact of the intervention was much lower than our expectations and short-lived. Type of feeding was not related to sex or birthweight of the infant, nor to maternal variables. Weight at age 4 months was within normal limits and similar in the study and control groups. It was concluded that lack of up-to-date information on infant feeding was the main obstacle to breast feeding in urban groups in Turkey, and that the impact of an educational intervention limited to the first week after delivery was lost within the first 2 months.

  6. Uptake, Accuracy, Safety, and Linkage into Care over Two Years of Promoting Annual Self-Testing for HIV in Blantyre, Malawi: A Community-Based Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine T Choko

    2015-09-01

    ,639/1,649 systematically selected (1 in 20 QA participants (99.4%, giving a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 88.2%-97.0% and a specificity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.6%-100%. Key limitations included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HIVST and being unable to adjust for population turnover.Community-based HIVST achieved high coverage in two successive years and was safe, accurate, and acceptable. Proactive HIVST strategies, supported and monitored by communities, could substantially complement existing approaches to providing early HIV diagnosis and periodic repeat testing to adolescents and adults in high-HIV settings.

  7. Impact of community-based interventions on maternal and neonatal health indicators: Results from a community randomized trial in rural Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Stan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan has high maternal mortality, particularly in the rural areas. The delay in decision making to seek medical care during obstetric emergencies remains a significant factor in maternal mortality. Methods We present results from an experimental study in rural Pakistan. Village clusters were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (16 clusters each. In the intervention clusters, women were provided information on safe motherhood through pictorial booklets and audiocassettes; traditional birth attendants were trained in clean delivery and recognition of obstetric and newborn complications; and emergency transportation systems were set up. In eight of the 16 intervention clusters, husbands also received specially designed education materials on safe motherhood and family planning. Pre- and post-intervention surveys on selected maternal and neonatal health indicators were conducted in all 32 clusters. A district-wide survey was conducted two years after project completion to measure any residual impact of the interventions. Results Pregnant women in intervention clusters received prenatal care and prophylactic iron therapy more frequently than pregnant women in control clusters. Providing safe motherhood education to husbands resulted in further improvement of some indicators. There was a small but significant increase in percent of hospital deliveries but no impact on the use of skilled birth attendants. Perinatal mortality reduced significantly in clusters where only wives received information and education in safe motherhood. The survey to assess residual impact showed similar results. Conclusions We conclude that providing safe motherhood education increased the probability of pregnant women having prenatal care and utilization of health services for obstetric complications.

  8. Randomized Trial of the Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC) Organizational Intervention With Community-Based Mental Health Programs and Clinicians Serving Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Dukes, Denzel; Atkinson, Shannon; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evidence-based Practice (EBP) implementation is likely to be most efficient and effective in organizations with positive social contexts (i.e., organizational culture, climate, and work attitudes of clinicians). The study objective was to test whether an organizational intervention labeled Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity…

  9. Implementation of a Community-Based Secondhand Smoke Reduction Intervention for Caregivers of Urban Children with Asthma: Process Evaluation, Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaakman, Susan; Tremblay, Paul J.; Halterman, Jill S.; Fagnano, Maria; Borrelli, Belinda

    2013-01-01

    Many children, including those with asthma, remain exposed to secondhand smoke. This manuscript evaluates the process of implementing a secondhand smoke reduction counseling intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) for caregivers of urban children with asthma, including reach, dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. Challenges,…

  10. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  11. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-01-01

    In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert

  12. Developing a community-based psycho-social intervention with older people and third sector workers for anxiety and depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingstone, Tom; Burroughs, Heather; Bartlam, Bernadette; Ray, Mo; Proctor, Janine; Shepherd, Thomas; Bullock, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn Anne

    2017-07-12

    One-in-five people in the UK experience anxiety and/or depression in later life. However, anxiety and depression remain poorly detected in older people, particularly in those with chronic physical ill health. In the UK, a stepped care approach, to manage common mental health problems, is advocated which includes service provision from non-statutory organisations (including third/voluntary sector). However, evidence to support such provision, including the most effective interventions, is limited. The qualitative study reported here constitutes the first phase of a feasibility study which aims to assess whether third sector workers can deliver a psychosocial intervention to older people with anxiety and/or depression. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the views of older people and third sector workers about anxiety and depression among older people in order to refine an intervention to be delivered by third sector workers. Semi-structured interviews with participants recruited through purposive sampling from third sector groups in North Staffordshire. Interviews were digitally recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using principles of constant comparison. Nineteen older people and 9 third sector workers were interviewed. Key themes included: multiple forms of loss, mental health as a personal burden to bear, having courage and providing/receiving encouragement, self-worth and the value of group activities, and tensions in existing service provision, including barriers and gaps. The experience of loss was seen as central to feelings of anxiety and depression among community-dwelling older people. This study contributes to the evidence pointing to the scale and severity of mental health needs for some older people which can arise from multiple forms of loss, and which present a significant challenge to health, social care and third sector services. The findings informed development of a psychosocial intervention and training for third sector

  13. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  14. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784.

  15. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: a randomised controlled trial--design, evaluation, recruitment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Wiedow, Annika; Wartberg, Lutz; Ruths, Sylvia; Haevelmann, Andrea; Kindermann, Sally-Sophie; Moesgen, Diana; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Klein, Michael; Thomasius, Rainer

    2012-03-22

    Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784).

  16. Revisiting the concept of growth monitoring and its possible role in community-based nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasaryan, Nuné; Arabi, Mandana; Schultink, Werner

    2011-03-01

    Community-based growth monitoring (GM) and growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) have been implemented worldwide. The literature provides controversial messages regarding their effectiveness. Numerous countries have GM as their main community-based activity and need guidance for future programming. The notion of GM is usually clear, but the follow-up actions include a range of activities and interventions, all under the heading of "promotion." We suggested definitions, objectives, and outcomes of the GM and GMP. By providing some clarity on these conceptual issues we attempted to provide a basis for consensus building and development of recommendations on when this activity should be promoted or discouraged. We reviewed basic concepts and global experience of GM and GMP using publications about GM and GMP, UNICEF country reports and other publications, field observations, and reports of recent expert consultations. Realistic added benefits are suggested as compared with general counseling that could also be delivered outside the GM session. We provide a narrow definition of "promotion" in GMP, in which actions are tailored to the results of monitoring, as well as suggest quality implementation criteria. GM, even if complemented by a promotional package, can have only a limited impact if it is not part of a comprehensive program. GMP cannot be viewed as a competitor to highly effective interventions, but may serve as a possible platform for their delivery. The decision to build community-based programs on a GMP platform should be based on consideration of benefits, feasibility of quality implementation, and capacity of human resources.

  17. Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study "Baby Smiles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Philip; Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn; Nykamp, Ann

    2014-02-24

    Fidelity assessments are integral to intervention research but few published trials report these processes in detail. We included plans for fidelity monitoring in the design of a community-based intervention trial. The study design was a randomized clinical trial of an intervention provided to low-income women to increase utilization of dental care during pregnancy (mother) or the postpartum (child) period. Group assignment followed a 2 × 2 factorial design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Health Education (HE) during pregnancy (prenatal) and then randomly reassigned to one of these groups for the postpartum intervention. The study setting was four county health departments in rural Oregon State, USA. Counseling was standardized using a step-by-step manual. Counselors were trained to criteria prior to delivering the intervention and fidelity monitoring continued throughout the implementation period based on audio recordings of counselor-participant sessions. The Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS), modified for this study, was used to code the audio recordings of the counselors' delivery of both the MI and HE interventions. Using Interclass Correlation Coefficients totaling the occurrences of specific MI counseling behaviors, ICC for prenatal was .93, for postpartum the ICC was .75. Participants provided a second source of fidelity data. As a second source of fidelity data, the participants completed the Feedback Questionnaire that included ratings of their satisfaction with the counselors at the completion of the prenatal and post-partum interventions. Coding indicated counselor adherence to MI protocol and variation among counselors in the use of MI skills in the MI condition. Almost no MI behaviors were found in the HE condition. Differences in the length of time to deliver intervention were found; as expected, the HE intervention took less time. There were no differences between the

  18. A model of roles and responsibilities in oral health promotion based on perspectives of a community-based initiative for pre-school children in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E; Rubin, G

    2014-03-01

    (i) To explore dental, school and family perspectives of an oral health promotion (OHP) initiative to improve access for pre-school children in deprived communities; (ii) to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP in community settings. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 6) with dental practice staff (n = 24), and semi-structured interviews with school staff (n = 9) and parents and children (n = 4) who were involved in an OHP initiative for pre-school children. Framework analysis was applied to identify themes. Themes were used to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP, based on the WHO Planning and evaluating health promotion model. Respondents subscribed to a community-based approach to improving access to dental services for pre-school children in deprived areas, with an emphasis on shared responsibility and communication. In addition to macro-level actions in directing health policy and services, commissioners were held responsible for investing in micro-level actions, such as funding OHP training and involving parents, and meso-level actions such as reducing barriers to access. The model we have developed builds on WHO recommendations on health promotion to identify the key roles and responsibilities that should be incorporated into further initiatives in OHP.

  19. Improving Mental Health Outcomes of Burmese Migrant and Displaced Children in Thailand: a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parenting and Family Skills Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jeannie; Sim, Amanda; Puffer, Eve S; Salhi, Carmel; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-10-01

    The negative effects of displacement and poverty on child mental health are well-known, yet research on prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries, especially fragile states, remains limited. We examined the effectiveness of a parenting skills intervention on mental health outcomes among Burmese migrant and displaced children living in 20 communities in Thailand. Participants were primary caregivers and children aged 7 to 15 years (n = 479 families). Families were randomly assigned to receive an adapted version of the Strengthening Families Program (n = 240) or a wait-list control condition (n = 239). Assessments were conducted at baseline and 1-month post-intervention for both conditions and at 6 months for treatment group only. One month after the program, children in the treatment condition showed significant reductions in externalizing problems (caregiver effect size (ES) -0.22, p = 0.02; child report ES -0.11, p = 0.02) and child attention problems compared with controls (caregiver report ES -0.23, p = 0.03). There was no significant treatment effect on children's internalizing problems (ES -0.06; p = 0.31). Children reported a significant increase in prosocial protective factors relative to controls (ES 0.20, p skills intervention adapted for a displaced and migrant Burmese population facing high levels of adversity can have positive effects on children's externalizing symptoms and protective psychosocial factors. Clinicaltrials.gov: https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01829815.

  20. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  1. Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Henry C Y; Mui, Moses; Wan, Alice; Ng, Yin-Lam; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-07-29

    Most positive psychology interventions conducted in the West have been focused on the individual. Family relationships are highly valued in the Chinese collectivist culture, and it is of interest to know whether family-focused interventions can improve the well-being of Chinese people. We have previously reported the effectiveness of a positive psychology family intervention in terms of family well-being. Based on the data derived from the Happy Family Kitchen II project, this paper examines the effectiveness of a community-based positive psychology family intervention on subjective happiness and health-related quality of life. Thirty-one social service units and schools organized intervention programs for 2070 participants in Hong Kong. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, participants were randomly assigned on the basis of computer-generated numbers into the intervention group or the control group. The intervention programs emphasized one of five positive psychology themes: joy, gratitude, flow, savoring, and listening. The control group engaged in activities unrelated to the intervention, such as arts and crafts workshops. Subjective happiness and mental and physical quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. Data of 1261 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the intervention was more effective than the control condition in improving subjective happiness, with a small effect size, at 12 weeks postintervention (β = .15, p = .020, Cohen's d = .16). However, there were no improvements in mental and physical quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group at 4 weeks (β = .39, p = .494, d = .05; β = -.10, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively) and 12 weeks postintervention (β = .71, p = .233, d = .08; β = -.05, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively). Furthermore, the booster session was no more effective than the tea

  2. Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Big-Canoe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.

  3. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  4. Projecting the long-term impact of school- or community-based mass-treatment interventions for control of Schistosoma infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a significant health burden in many areas of the world. Morbidity control, focused on limiting infection intensity through periodic delivery of anti-schistosomal medicines, is the thrust of current World Health Organization guidelines (2006 for reduction of Schistosoma-related disease. A new appreciation of the lifetime impact of repeated Schistosoma infection has directed attention toward strategies for greater suppression of parasite infection per se, with the goal of transmission interruption. Variations in drug schedules involving increased population coverage and/or treatment frequency are now undergoing field trials. However, their relative effectiveness in long-term infection suppression is presently unknown.Our study used available field data to calibrate advanced network models of village-level Schistosoma transmission to project outcomes of six different community- or school age-based programs, as compared to the impact of current 2006 W.H.O. recommended control strategies. We then scored the number of years each of 10 typical villages would remain below 10% infection prevalence (a practicable level associated with minimal prevalence of disease. All strategies that included four annual treatments effectively reduced community prevalence to less than 10%, while programs having yearly gaps ('holidays' failed to reach this objective in half of the communities. Effective post-program suppression of infection prevalence persisted in half of the 10 villages for 7-10 years, whereas in five high-risk villages, program effects on prevalence lasted zero to four years only.At typical levels of treatment adherence (60 to 70%, current WHO recommendations will likely not achieve effective suppression of Schistosoma prevalence unless implemented for ≥6 years. Following more aggressive 4 year annual intervention, some communities may be able to continue without further intervention for 8-10 years, while in higher

  5. Adolescents and parental caregivers as lay health advisers in a community-based risk reduction intervention for youth: baseline data from Teach One, Reach One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Dave, Gaurav; Carthron, Dana L.; Isler, Malika Roman; Blumenthal, Connie; Wynn, Mysha; Odulana, Adebowale; Lin, Feng-Chang; Akers, Aletha Y.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of adolescent and caregiver lay health advisers (LHAs) participating in an intervention designed to reduce risk behaviors among rural African-American adolescents. Teach One, Reach One integrates constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. It acknowledges that changing the sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents requires changing one's knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs about the behavior of peers, and self-efficacy regarding adolescent sexual behavior, parent–teen communication about sex, and healthy dating relations among adolescents. Study participants completed baseline questionnaires assessing demographics and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) of sexual behaviors. Sixty-two adolescent and caregiver dyads participated. Caregivers included biological parents, legal guardians, or other parental figures. Strengths and areas in need of improvement were determined using median splits. Few adolescents had initiated sex. Their strengths included high levels of open parent–teen communication; positive attitudes and normative beliefs regarding both sex communication and healthy dating relationships; and high knowledge and self-efficacy for healthy dating behaviors. Areas needing improvement included low knowledge, unfavorable attitudes, poor normative beliefs, and low self-efficacy regarding condom use. Caregiver strengths included positive attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy for sex communication; positive attitudes and self-efficacy for condom use; and low acceptance of couple violence. Areas needing improvement included low levels of actual communication about sex and low knowledge about effective communication strategies and condom use. The current study highlights the value of assessing baseline characteristics of LHAs prior to

  6. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  7. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  8. How Can Humanities Interventions Promote Progress in the Environmental Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Kitch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental humanists make compelling arguments about the importance of the environmental humanities (EH for discovering new ways to conceptualize and address the urgent challenges of the environmental crisis now confronting the planet. Many environmental scientists in a variety of fields are also committed to incorporating socio-cultural analyses in their work. Despite such intentions and rhetoric, however, and some humanists’ eagerness to incorporate science into their own work, “radical interdisciplinarity [across the humanities and sciences] is ... rare ... and does not have the impact one would hope for” (Holm et al. 2013, p. 32. This article discusses reasons for the gap between transdisciplinary intentions and the work being done in the environmental sciences. The article also describes a project designed to address that gap. Entitled “From Innovation to Progress: Addressing Hazards of the Sustainability Sciences”, the project encourages humanities interventions in problem definition, before any solution or action is chosen. Progress offers strategies for promoting expanded stakeholder engagement, enhancing understanding of power struggles and inequities that underlie problems and over-determine solutions, and designing multiple future scenarios based on alternative values, cultural practices and beliefs, and perspectives on power distribution and entitlement.

  9. Promoting Awareness about Psychological Consequences of Living in a Community Oppressed by the Mafia: A Group-Analytic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giordano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the Mafia have been extensively studied from sociological, economic, and historical points of view. However, little research has investigated the influence of the Mafia on individuals and communities in terms of its psychological and social impact. In order to contribute to the advancement of our understanding of the psychological effects of the Mafia on individuals and communities and to promote a participative process of social change, a group analytic intervention was conducted within a Community Based Participatory Research carried out in Corleone, a small Sicilian town with a historically recognized role in the evolution of the Mafia, as well as in the fight against its control. Qualitative findings from the group intervention revealed the development of an awareness process that allowed participants to become aware of their social unconscious anxieties and defenses and to recognize and manage the strong emotional impact related to the Mafia's presence in their lives. Highlighting how psychological processes can have negative impacts on individual and collective capacity to pursuit transformation and resilience, this article provides important insight on how clinical psychology may operate in socio-cultural contexts to promote the reconstruction of the traumatic social dimensions in the community.

  10. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanchez-Vindas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician provision of preventive care in a network of community-based mental health services: a study protocol of a non-randomized, multiple baseline trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate; Bowman, Jennifer; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula; McElwaine, Kathleen; Knight, Jenny; McElduff, Patrick; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2013-08-06

    People with a mental illness experience substantial disparities in health, including increased rates of morbidity and mortality caused by potentially preventable chronic diseases. One contributing factor to such disparity is a higher prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviors, such as smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of preventive care in reducing such risks, and guidelines recommend that preventive care addressing such risks be incorporated into routine clinical care. Although community-based mental health services represent an important potential setting for ensuring that people with a mental illness receive such care, research suggests its delivery is currently sub-optimal. A study will be undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the routine provision of preventive care by clinicians in community mental health settings. A two-group multiple baseline design will be utilized to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention implemented over 12 months in increasing clinician provision of preventive care. The intervention will be implemented sequentially across the two groups of community mental health services to increase provision of client assessment, brief advice, and referral for four health risk behaviors (smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity). Outcome measures of interest will be collected via repeated cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interviews undertaken on a weekly basis for 36 months with community mental health clients. This study is the first to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic clinical practice change intervention in increasing routine clinician provision of preventive care for chronic disease behavioral risk factors within a network of community mental health services

  12. Development and formative evaluation of an innovative mHealth intervention for improving coverage of community-based maternal, newborn and child health services in rural areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiren Modi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new cadre of village-based frontline health workers, called Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs, was created in India. However, coverage of selected community-based maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH services remains low. Objective: This article describes the process of development and formative evaluation of a complex mHealth intervention (ImTeCHO to increase the coverage of proven MNCH services in rural India by improving the performance of ASHAs. Design: The Medical Research Council (MRC framework for developing complex interventions was used. Gaps were identified in the usual care provided by ASHAs, based on a literature search, and SEWA Rural's1 three decades of grassroots experience. The components of the intervention (mHealth strategies were designed to overcome the gaps in care. The intervention, in the form of the ImTeCHO mobile phone and web application, along with the delivery model, was developed to incorporate these mHealth strategies. The intervention was piloted through 45 ASHAs among 45 villages in Gujarat (population: 45,000 over 7 months in 2013 to assess the acceptability, feasibility, and usefulness of the intervention and to identify barriers to its delivery. Results: Inadequate supervision and support to ASHAs were noted as a gap in usual care, resulting in low coverage of selected MNCH services and care received by complicated cases. Therefore, the ImTeCHO application was developed to integrate mHealth strategies in the form of job aid to ASHAs to assist with scheduling, behavior change communication, diagnosis, and patient management, along with supervision and support of ASHAs. During the pilot, the intervention and its delivery were found to be largely acceptable, feasible, and useful. A few changes were made to the intervention and its delivery, including 1 a new helpline for ASHAs, 2 further simplification of processes within the ImTeCHO incentive management system and 3 additional web

  13. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A Community-Based Intervention Targeting Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in a First Nations Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekagumick, Kara E.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B.; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22 year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  14. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A community-based intervention targeting type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in a First Nations community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Elizabeth Kakekagumick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the twenty-two year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners.

  15. Towards evidence-based, quality-controlled health promotion: the Dutch recognition system for health promotion interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, J.; Dale, D. van; Lanting, L.; Kremers, S.; Veenhof, C.; Leurs, M.; Yperen, T. van; Kok, G.

    2010-01-01

    Registration or recognition systems for best-practice health promotion interventions may contribute to better quality assurance and control in health promotion practice. In the Netherlands, such a system has been developed and is being implemented aiming to provide policy makers and professionals

  16. Move the Neighbourhood: a novel study design of a participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR......) to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. METHODS: The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design including two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study....... During spring 2017 the interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban...

  17. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  18. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  19. The Design of a Multi-component Intervention to Promote Screening Mammography in an American Indian Community: The Native Women's Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Engelman, Kimberly; Stoner, Julie A.; Thomas, Cara; Joseph, Stephanie; Li, Ji; Blackwater, Cecily; Henderson, J. Neil; Carson, L. D.; Neely, Norma; Edwards, Tewanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is an important public health issue among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in the US. This article describes the design and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention to promote breast health among AI/AN women through a hybrid model that incorporates clinical and community-based approaches. This is one of the first studies using this model addressing breast cancer disparities among AI/AN populations in the US. Methods The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as the guiding framework of the intervention and Community Based Participatory Research was the primary vehicle for the intervention planning and implementation. Three preliminary studies took place that aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively what deterred or encouraged AI women to get past or future mammograms. The research results were shared with community members who, through a prioritization process, identified the theoretical focus of the intervention and its corresponding activities. The priority population consisted of AI women ages 40–74, with no recent mammogram, and no breast cancer history. Results The intervention centered on the promotion of social modeling and physician recommendation. The main corresponding activities included enhancing patient-physician communication about screening mammography through a structured dialogue, receipt of a breast cancer brochure, participation in an inter-generational discussion group, and a congratulatory bracelet upon receipt of a mammogram. Environmental and policy related changes also were developed. Conclusion Creating a theory-based, culturally-sensitive intervention through tribal participatory research is a challenging approach towards eliminating breast cancer disparities among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:29546205

  20. Uptake and Acceptability of Information and Communication Technology in a Community-Based Cohort of People Who Inject Drugs: Implications for Mobile Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genz, Andrew; Kirk, Gregory; Piggott, Damani; Mehta, Shruti H; Linas, Beth S; Westergaard, Ryan P

    2015-06-25

    barrier to successful implementation of mobile health and Internet-based interventions for people who inject drugs, particularly those who are older and have lower levels of income and educational attainment. As mobile communication technology continues to expand, future studies should re-examine whether mHealth applications become more accessible and accepted by socioeconomically disadvantaged groups.

  1. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CSC Tip Sheets: Community-Based Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.

  3. Intervention-engagement and its role in the effectiveness of stage-matched interventions promoting physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Jana; Lippke, Sonia; Ziegelmann, Jochen P

    2011-01-01

    Intervention-engagement has received little attention in sports medicine as well as research and promotion of physical exercise. The construct is important, however, in the understanding of why interventions work. This study aimed at shedding more light on the interplay of engagement and the subsequent effectiveness of physical exercise interventions. A three-stage model differentiating among nonintenders, intenders, and actors informed the intervention design in this study. In an Internet-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two measurement points, N = 326 participants received a stage-matched, stage-mismatched, or control treatment. Assessed variables were goal setting, planning, behavior, and intervention-engagement. It was found that regarding goal setting, nonintenders in the stage-matched intervention and those who engaged highly in the stage-matched intervention improved significantly over time. Regarding planning, intenders in the matched condition as well as all actors increased their levels over time. Regarding behavior, nonintenders and intenders having engaged highly in the intervention improved more than those having engaged little. In order to help nonintenders progress on their way toward goal behavior, it is necessary that they engage highly in a stage-matched intervention. Implications for exercise promotion are that interventions should also aim at increasing participants' intervention-engagement.

  4. The clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions aimed at improving or maintaining quality of life in children of parents with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Penny; Bower, Peter; Byford, Sarah; Churchill, Rachel; Calam, Rachel; Stallard, Paul; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Berzins, Kathryn; Cary, Maria; Wan, Ming; Abel, Kathryn

    2014-02-01

    Serious parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents. Improving the lives of these children is a political and public health concern. To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions for improving QoL in children of parents with serious mental illness (SMI). Nineteen health, allied health and educational databases, searched from database inception to May 2012, and supplemented with hand searches, reference checking, searches of grey literature, dissertations, ongoing research registers, forward citation tracking and key author contact. Inclusion criteria required≥50% of parents to have SMI or severe depression confirmed by clinical diagnosis or baseline symptoms. Children were ≤18 years of age. Community-based interventions included any non-residential psychological/psychosocial intervention involving parents or children for the purposes of improving health or well-being. Intervention comparators were not predefined and primary outcomes were validated measures of children's QoL and emotional health. Secondary outcomes were derived from UK policy and stakeholder consultation. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and the study quality was assessed via Cochrane criteria for randomised/non-randomised designs, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative criteria or a standard checklist for economic evaluations. Separate syntheses were conducted for SMI and severe depression. Standardised effect size (ES) trials were pooled using random-effects modelling for which sufficient data were available. Economic data were summarised and acceptability data were synthesised via a textual narrative approach. Three trials targeted mothers/the children of mothers with psychotic symptoms. Children were ≤12 years of age and no primary QoL or emotional health outcomes were reported. Insufficient

  5. Developing a mHealth intervention to promote uptake of HIV testing among African communities in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C; Turner, K; Suggs, L S; Occa, A; Juma, A; Blake, H

    2016-07-28

    HIV-related mHealth interventions have demonstrable efficacy in supporting treatment adherence, although the evidence base for promoting HIV testing is inconclusive. Progress is constrained by a limited understanding of processes used to develop interventions and weak theoretical underpinnings. This paper describes a research project that informed the development of a theory-based mHealth intervention to promote HIV testing amongst city-dwelling African communities in the conditions. A community-based participatory social marketing design was adopted. Six focus groups (48 participants in total) were undertaken and analysed using a thematic framework approach, guided by constructs from the Health Belief Model. Key themes were incorporated into a set of text messages, which were pre-tested and refined. The focus groups identified a relatively low perception of HIV risk, especially amongst men, and a range of social and structural barriers to HIV testing. In terms of self-efficacy around HIV testing, respondents highlighted a need for communities and professionals to work together to build a context of trust through co-location in, and co-involvement of, local communities which would in turn enhance confidence in, and support for, HIV testing activities of health professionals. Findings suggested that messages should: avoid an exclusive focus on HIV, be tailored and personalised, come from a trusted source, allay fears and focus on support and health benefits. HIV remains a stigmatized and de-prioritized issue within African migrant communities in the UK, posing barriers to HIV testing initiatives. A community-based participatory social marketing design can be successfully used to develop a culturally appropriate text messaging HIV intervention. Key challenges involved turning community research recommendations into brief text messages of only 160 characters. The intervention needs to be evaluated in a randomized control trial. Future research should explore the

  6. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-11-23

    In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement. We interviewed 53 selected key informants from research, policy and practice in the Netherlands and observed the assessment of 12 interventions. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 94 interventions were submitted to the ERS, of which 23 were rejected, 58 were rated as 'theoretically sound', 10 were rated as 'probably effective' and 3 were rated as 'proven effective'. According to participants, the ERS was intended to facilitate both the improvement of available interventions and the improvement of health promotion in practice. While participants expected that describing and rating interventions promoted learning and enhanced the transferability of interventions, they were concerned that the ERS approach was not suitable for guiding intervention development and improving health promotion in practice. The expert committees that assessed the interventions struggled with a lack of norms for the relevance of effects and questions about how effects should be studied and rated. Health promotion practitioners were concerned that the ERS neglected the local adaptation of interventions and did not encourage the improvement of aspects like applicability and costs. Policy-makers and practitioners were worried that the lack of proven effectiveness legitimised cutbacks rather than learning and advancing health promotion. While measuring and centrally rating the effectiveness of interventions can be

  7. HealtheSteps™ Study Protocol: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial promoting active living and healthy lifestyles in at-risk Canadian adults delivered in primary care and community-based clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn P. Gill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is one of the leading causes of chronic disease in Canadian adults. With less than 50% of Canadian adults reaching the recommended amount of daily physical activity, there is an urgent need for effective programs targeting this risk factor. HealtheSteps™ is a healthy lifestyle prescription program, developed from an extensive research base to address risk factors for chronic disease such as physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and poor eating habits. HealtheSteps™ participants are provided with in-person lifestyle coaching and access to eHealth technologies delivered in community-based primary care clinics and health care organizations. Method/Design To determine the effectiveness of Healthesteps™, we will conduct a 6-month pragmatic randomized controlled trial with integrated process and economic evaluations of HealtheSteps™ in 5 clinic settings in Southwestern Ontario. 110 participants will be individually randomized (1:1; stratified by site to either the intervention (HealtheSteps™ program or comparator (Wait-list control. There are 3 phases of the HealtheSteps™ program, lasting 6 months each. The active phase consists of bi-monthly in-person coaching with access to a full suite of eHealth technology supports. During the maintenance phase I, the in-person coaching will be removed, but participants will still have access to the full suite of eHealth technology supports. In the final stage, maintenance phase II, access to the full suite of eHealth technology supports is removed and participants only have access to publicly available resources and tools. Discussion This trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the program in increasing physical activity levels and improving other health behaviours and indicators, the acceptability of the HealtheSteps™ program, and the direct cost for each person participating in the program as well as the costs associated with delivering the program

  8. mHealth Intervention Promoting Cardiovascular Health Among African-Americans: Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are promising avenues to promote cardiovascular (CV) health among African-Americans (AAs) and culturally tailored technology-based interventions are emerging for this population. Objective The objectives of this study were to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to recruit AAs into a pilot intervention study of an innovative mHealth CV health promotion program and to characterize technology use patterns and eHealth literacy (EHL). Methods Community partners from five predominately AA churches in southeast Minnesota collaborated with our academic institution to recruit AA congregants into the pilot study. Field notes as well as communications between the study team and community partners were used to design the recruitment strategy and its implementation with a goal of enrolling 50 participants. At its core, the recruitment strategy included community kickoff events to detail the state-of-the-art nature of the mHealth intervention components, the utility of CV health assessments (physical examination, laboratory studies and surveys) and the participants’ role in advancing our understanding of the efficacy of mHealth interventions among racial/ethnic minority groups. Detailed recruitment data were documented throughout the study. A self-administered, electronic survey measured sociodemographics, technology use and EHL (eHEALS scale). Results A total of 50 participants (70% women) from five AA churches were recruited over a one-month period. The majority (>90%) of participants reported using some form of mobile technology with all utilizing these technologies within their homes. Greater than half (60% [30/50]) reported being “very comfortable” with mobile technologies. Overall, participants had high EHL (84.8% [39/46] with eHEALS score ≥26) with no differences by sex. Conclusions This study illustrates the feasibility and success of a CBPR approach in recruiting AAs into m

  9. A systematic review of workplace health promotion interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sumaira H; Blake, Holly; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of an active lifestyle are widely documented, yet studies show that only a small proportion of adults engage in sufficient levels of physical activity. The workplace presents an ideal avenue for delivering initiatives to promote physical activity, overcoming commonly cited barriers such as a 'lack of time' and providing access to a large intersection of society. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore the types of interventions workplaces implement to promote physical activity among staff, (2) describe the characteristics of those interventions, (3) understand whether these interventions positively impact on activity levels, and (4) assess the methodological quality of studies. A systematic review of workplace physical activity interventions published up to April 2011 was conducted to identify types of interventions and their outcomes. Of the 58 studies included, the majority utilized health promotion initiatives. There were six physical activity/exercise interventions, 13 counselling/support interventions, and 39 health promotion messages/information interventions. Thirty-two of these studies showed a statistically significant increase in a measure of physical activity against a control group at follow-up. While the studies included in this review show some evidence that workplace physical activity interventions can be efficacious, overall the results are inconclusive. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there is still a need for more well-designed studies to fully determine the effectiveness of workplace interventions for increasing physical activity and to identify the types of interventions that show the most promise. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. The pro children intervention: applying the intervention mapping protocol to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Wind, Marianne; Hildonen, Christina; Bjelland, Mona; Aranceta, Javier; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The importance of careful theory-based intervention planning is recognized for fruit and vegetable promotion. This paper describes the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop the Pro Children intervention to promote consumption of fruit and vegetable among 10- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Based on a needs assessment, promotion of intake of fruit and vegetable was split into performance objectives and related personal, social and environmental determinants. Crossing the performance objectives with related important and changeable determinants resulted in a matrix of learning and change objectives for which appropriate educational strategies were identified. Theoretically similar but culturally relevant interventions were designed, implemented and evaluated in Norway, the Netherlands and Spain during 2 school years. Programme activities included provision of fruits and vegetables in the schools, guided classroom activities, computer-tailored feedback and advice for children, and activities to be completed at home with the family. Additionally, optional intervention components for community reinforcement included incorporation of mass media, school health services or grocery stores. School project committees were supported. The Pro Children intervention was carefully developed based on the IM protocol that resulted in a comprehensive school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme, but culturally sensible and locally relevant. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  12. Laughter therapy as an intervention to promote psychological well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... Laughter therapy is being used as an intervention to positively influence individuals experiencing various forms of .... to facilitate healing or coping, whether physical, emotional, cognitive, social or ...... Geriatrics & Geron-.

  13. Health promotion interventions for community-dwelling older people with mild or pre-frailty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Rachael; Belk, Celia; Jovicic, Ana; Ricciardi, Federico; Kharicha, Kalpa; Gardner, Benjamin; Iliffe, Steve; Goodman, Claire; Manthorpe, Jill; Drennan, Vari M; Walters, Kate

    2017-07-20

    Mild or pre-frailty is common and associated with increased risks of hospitalisation, functional decline, moves to long-term care, and death. Little is known about the effectiveness of health promotion in reducing these risks. This systematic review aimed to synthesise randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating home and community-based health promotion interventions for older people with mild/pre-frailty. We searched 20 bibliographic databases and 3 trials registers (January 1990 - May 2016) using mild/pre-frailty and associated terms. We included randomised controlled and crossover trials of health promotion interventions for community-dwelling older people (65+ years) with mild/pre-frailty and excluded studies focussing on populations in hospital, long term care facilities or with a specific condition. Risk of bias was assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We pooled study results using standardised mean differences (SMD) where possible and used narrative synthesis where insufficient outcome data were available. We included 10 articles reporting on seven trials (total n = 506 participants) and included five trials in a meta-analysis. Studies were predominantly small, of limited quality and six studies tested group exercise alone. One study additionally investigated a nutrition and exercise intervention and one evaluated telemonitoring. Interventions of exercise in groups showed mixed effects on functioning (no effects on self-reported functioning SMD 0.19 (95% CI -0.57 to 0.95) n = 3 studies; positive effects on performance-based functioning SMD 0.37 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.68) n = 3 studies). No studies assessed moves to long-term care or hospitalisations. Currently the evidence base is of insufficient size, quality and breadth to recommend specific health promotion interventions for older people with mild or pre- frailty. High quality studies of rigorously developed interventions are needed. CRD42014010370 (Review 2).

  14. Effectiveness of Social Marketing Interventions to Promote Physical Activity Among Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuan; Deshpande, Sameer; Bonates, Tiberius

    2016-11-01

    Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks," modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts. A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions. Findings based on χ 2 , Mallows' Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions. Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.

  15. Working on wellness (WOW): A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW), a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees’ preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928) will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting employees at increased risk for

  16. Working on wellness (WOW: A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW, a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods The intervention mapping (IM protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees’ preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928 will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting

  17. Working on wellness (WOW): a worksite health promotion intervention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Proper, Karin I; Lambert, Estelle V; van Wier, Marieke F; Pillay, Julian D; Nossel, Craig; Adonis, Leegale; Van Mechelen, Willem

    2012-05-24

    Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW), a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees' preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928) will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting employees at increased risk for CVD is preferred. Importantly

  18. The Recreovía of Bogotá, a Community-Based Physical Activity Program to Promote Physical Activity among Women: Baseline Results of the Natural Experiment Al Ritmo de las Comunidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Rios, Ana Paola; Paez, Diana C; Quijano, Karoll; Fermino, Rogério César

    2017-06-13

    Community-based physical activity (PA) programs in Latin America have been recognized because of the use of available environmental resources to offer PA classes. Yet, the evaluation of programs focused on PA classes involving dancing in public spaces is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity levels, park use, and the contextual characteristics of public parks with and without the Recreovía in Bogotá in Colombia. Al Ritmo de las Comunidades is a natural experiment conducted in nine parks (3 parks implementing new Recreovías, 3 control parks and 3 parks with existing Recreovías) during 2013. We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities to evaluate park use (gender, age, and physical activity level) and target areas. A total of 4925 people were observed during 702 observation visits to parks. The percentage of women was higher in parks with Recreovía, compared to parks without Recreovía (53% vs. 40% vs. 33%; p < 0.001). Women using parks with Recreovía compared to women in parks without Recreovía were less likely to be sedentary (25% vs. 39%; p < 0.0001) and more likely to engage in moderate-to-vigorous activity (75% vs. 61%; p < 0.0001). Among men, the activity pattern was the opposite. The Recreovía is a promising strategy to promote park use and PA, especially among women who are less likely to meet PA recommendations during their leisure time. The provision of a cost-free community program may be an effective approach and a good investment for health.

  19. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.

  20. Behavioural interventions promoting condom use among female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five studies measuring condom use with regular non-paying partners recorded less consistent condom use with these partners. This review illustrates the existence of sufficient evidence showing the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting correct and consistent condom use by FSWs. Keywords: commercial sex ...

  1. Interventions to promote the wearing of hearing protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Dib, R. P.; Verbeek, J.; Atallah, A. N.; Andriolo, R. B.; Soares, B. G. O.

    2006-01-01

    Background Noise induced hearing loss can only be prevented by eliminating or lowering noise exposure levels. Where the source of the noise can not be eliminated workers have to rely on hearing protective equipment. Several trials have been conducted to study the effectiveness of interventions to

  2. Laughter therapy as an intervention to promote psychological well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores the experiences of volunteer community care workers working with HIV-affected families, participating in laughter therapy. Laughter therapy is being used as an intervention to positively influence individuals experiencing various forms of emotional distress. Community care workers play a vital role in the ...

  3. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...

  4. School Mental Health Promotion and Intervention: Experiences from Four Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Whitaker, Kelly; Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stanley; Larsen, Torill; Holsen, Ingrid; Cooper, Janice L.; Geroski, Anne; Short, Kathryn H.

    2017-01-01

    All around the world, partnerships among schools and other youth-serving systems are promoting more comprehensive school-based mental health services. This article describes the development of international networks for school mental health (SMH) including the International Alliance for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Schools (INTERCAMHS)…

  5. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard

    ... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...

  6. [Are Interventions Promoting Physical Activity Cost-Effective? A Systematic Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and

  7. The "Balance Intervention" for Promoting Caloric Compensatory Behaviours in Response to Overeating: A Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the "balance intervention", which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information…

  8. Promoting water consumption on a Caribbean island: An intervention using children's social networks at schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, S.C.M.; Smit, C.R.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the associated childhood obesity are major concerns in the Caribbean, creating a need for interventions promoting water consumption as a healthy alternative. A social network-based intervention (SNI) was tested among Aruban children to increase their

  9. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  10. Evidence-based behavioral interventions to promote diabetes management in children, adolescents, and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Powell, Priscilla W; Anderson, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories. The article summarizes the evidence base for established diabetes skills training programs, family interventions, and multisystemic interventions, and introduces emerging evidence for technology and mobile health interventions and health care delivery system interventions. Next steps in behavioral T1D intervention research include tailoring interventions to meet individuals' and families' unique needs and strengths, and systematically evaluating cost-effectiveness to advocate for dissemination of well-developed interventions. Although in its infancy, this article reviews observational and intervention research for youth with T2D and their families and discusses lessons for future research with this population. Interventions for youth with T2D will need to incorporate family members, consider cultural and family issues related to health behaviors, and take into account competing priorities for resources. As psychologists and behavioral scientists, we must advocate for the integration of behavioral health into routine pediatric diabetes care in order to effectively promote meaningful change in the behavioral and medical well-being of youth and families living with T1D and T2D. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Entreprenurial Modes of Teaching in Health Promoting Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Ernst; Thorø, Karsten

    The Department of Physiotherapy, and the Professional Bachelor Program in Nutrition and Health at VIA University College, Aarhus, Denmark merged on a new campus in an area which soon will host approx. 25.000 worker and students. The geographical location provided a unique opportunity to create...... a pratice-related teaching program focused on health promotion. The project creates a framework for the interaction of theory and practice. Moreover, this blend generates new modes of teaching due to the fact that the teaching is transferred from the usu-al environment to sites where the students experience...... the potential of engaging with real-time media, instead of just practising their professional skills amongst their fellow students. The emerging didactical graphics in the teaching of entrepreneurship are conceptualized as elements where the students take action and thereby develop an active approach...

  12. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school

  13. The Karnataka Anemia Project 2--design and evaluation of a community-based parental intervention to improve childhood anemia cure rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Arun S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Mascarenhas, Maya; Risbud, Arvind; Atkins, Salla; Klar, Neil; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2015-12-30

    Childhood anemia is highly prevalent worldwide. Improving the hemoglobin level of preschool age children could yield substantial benefits in cognitive and psychosocial development and overall health. While evidence-based recommendations for reducing childhood anemia in high anemia prevalence countries are available, there is no experimental evidence of community centered education and counseling programs, as a route to improved acceptance of iron supplements, demonstrating beneficial effects on anemia outcomes. We report on the evaluation protocol of a complex educational intervention led by the community lay health worker (LHW) and delivered to mothers of 12-59-month-old anemic children living in and visiting village day care centers in a large district of southern India. The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention is based on the social cognitive theory and aims to promote among mothers, anemia awareness, dietary modifications to increase iron intake in the child, and recognition of the need for enhanced adherence to supplemental iron in the anemic child. From 270 eligible villages in the study area, a sample of 60 villages will be randomized to intervention [n = 30] or to treatment as usual [n = 30] of the study. LHWs in the intervention arm will be trained to administer the following intervention components to mothers of anemic children: 1] monthly distribution of Iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements to mothers of anemic children, and 2] five monthly counseling sessions of mothers of anemic children covering: a] anemia awareness education b] IFA adherence counseling and assessment, c] dietary modification to improve iron intake, and d] hygiene and sanitation. LHWs in the control arm will distribute IFA to mothers of anemic children as in the intervention arm but will not provide monthly education and counseling support. The primary outcome is the difference between the two experimental groups in anemia cure rates of

  14. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Scoping review of health promotion and disease prevention interventions addressed to elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Rodzinka, Marcin; Kopec, Agnieszka

    2016-09-05

    The ageing of modern societies remains one of the greatest challenges for health and social systems. To respond to this challenge, we need effective strategies assuring healthy active life for elderly people. Health promotion and related activities are perceived as a key intervention, which can improve wellbeing in later life. The main aim of this study is the identification and classification of such interventions addressed to older adults and elderly. Therefore, the strategy based on the scoping review as a feasible tool for exploring this domain, summarizing research findings and identifying gaps of evidence, was applied. The scoping review relies on the analysis of previous reviews of interventions aimed at older adults (55-64 years old) and elderly persons (65 years and above) assessed for their effectiveness in the framework of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis. The search strategy was based on the identification of interventions reported as health promotion, primary disease prevention, screening or social support. In the analysis, the reviews published from January 2000 to April 2015 were included. The search strategy yielded 334 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses addressed to target groups of interest, 182 of them assessed interventions belonging to health promotion, 219 to primary prevention, 34 to screening and 35 to social support. The studies focused on elderly (65 years and above) made up 40.4 % of all retrieved reviews and those addressing population of 55 years and above accounted for 24.0 %. Interventions focused on health maintenance and improvement in elderly and older adults represent frequently combined health promotion and disease prevention actions. Many interventions of this type are not addressed exclusively to elderly populations and/or older adults but are designed for the general population. The most common types of interventions addressed to elderly and older adults in the area of health promotion include health

  17. Development of a theory and evidence-based program to promote community treatment of fevers in children under five in a rural district in Southern Ghana: An intervention mapping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Abbey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development and implementation of a program to promote prompt and appropriate care seeking for fever in children under the age of five. Designed as a multicomponent program, the intervention comprises elements to influence the behavior of caregivers of children, Community Health Workers, professional health care providers and the wider community. Methods Following the six fundamental steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol, we involved relevant stakeholders from the commencement of planning to program end. The IM protocol also recommends various behavior change methods to guide intervention development. Results The intervention components implemented were successful in achieving program goals. For example, the intervention resulted in the primary outcome of reductions in all-cause mortality of 30% and 44%, among children treated with an antimalarial and those treated with the antimalarial plus an antibiotic respectively. Most Community Health Workers were retained on the program, with an attrition rate of 21.2% over a period of 30 months and the Community Health Workers rate of adherence to performance guidelines was high at 94.6%. Conclusion We were able to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based health promotion program based on the Intervention Mapping protocol. This article contributes to the response to recent calls for a more detailed description of the development of interventions and trials. The intervention mapping approach can serve as a guide for others interested in developing community- based health interventions in similar settings.

  18. Development of a theory and evidence-based program to promote community treatment of fevers in children under five in a rural district in Southern Ghana: An intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Mercy; Bartholomew, L Kay; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John O; van den Borne, Bart

    2017-01-25

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a program to promote prompt and appropriate care seeking for fever in children under the age of five. Designed as a multicomponent program, the intervention comprises elements to influence the behavior of caregivers of children, Community Health Workers, professional health care providers and the wider community. Following the six fundamental steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol, we involved relevant stakeholders from the commencement of planning to program end. The I