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Sample records for community relational processes

  1. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ferrenberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the

  2. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species) and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers) arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community) and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community) and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity) among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the aboveground arthropod

  3. Community and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Harold W.

    This brief presentation describes public relations projects of Dubuque schools to popularize athletics. Among the activities cited which are used to promote community interest in sports events are public school-private school informal matches, talks, swim-a-thons, travel and adventure nights, class banquets with popular speakers, booster clubs,…

  4. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

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    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  5. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

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    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  6. Relative Roles of Deterministic and Stochastic Processes in Driving the Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Communities in a Permafrost Core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

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    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; Stegen, James C; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence the structure of biotic communities is one of the major ecological topics, and both stochastic and deterministic processes are expected to be at work simultaneously in most communities. Here, we investigated the vertical distribution patterns of bacterial communities in a 10-m-long soil core taken within permafrost of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To get a better understanding of the forces that govern these patterns, we examined the diversity and structure of bacterial communities, and the change in community composition along the vertical distance (spatial turnover) from both taxonomic and phylogenetic perspectives. Measures of taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity revealed that bacterial community composition changed continuously along the soil core, and showed a vertical distance-decay relationship. Multiple stepwise regression analysis suggested that bacterial alpha diversity and phylogenetic structure were strongly correlated with soil conductivity and pH but weakly correlated with depth. There was evidence that deterministic and stochastic processes collectively drived bacterial vertically-structured pattern. Bacterial communities in five soil horizons (two originated from the active layer and three from permafrost) of the permafrost core were phylogenetically random, indicator of stochastic processes. However, we found a stronger effect of deterministic processes related to soil pH, conductivity, and organic carbon content that were structuring the bacterial communities. We therefore conclude that the vertical distribution of bacterial communities was governed primarily by deterministic ecological selection, although stochastic processes were also at work. Furthermore, the strong impact of environmental conditions (for example, soil physicochemical parameters and seasonal freeze-thaw cycles) on these communities underlines the sensitivity of permafrost microorganisms to climate change and potentially subsequent

  7. Eight Great Community Relations Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bete, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Presents eight winners of School Planning & Management's Community Relations Contest that produced ideas that other school districts can use to strengthen community/school coexistence. Papers cover such topics as improving communication between stakeholders, connecting with parents, and keeping the community informed during construction projects.…

  8. The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the roots of a ruderal forb is not related to the forest fragmentation process.

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    Grilli, Gabriel; Urcelay, Carlos; Galetto, Leonardo; Davison, John; Vasar, Martti; Saks, Ülle; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja

    2015-08-01

    Land-use changes and forest fragmentation have strong impact on biodiversity. However, little is known about the influence of new landscape configurations on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. We used 454 pyrosequencing to assess AMF diversity in plant roots from a fragmented forest. We detected 59 virtual taxa (VT; phylogenetically defined operational taxonomic units) of AMF - including 10 new VT - in the roots of Euphorbia acerensis. AMF communities were mainly composed of members of family Glomeraceae and were similar throughout the fragmented landscape, despite variation in forest fragment size (i.e. small, medium and large) and isolation (i.e. varying pairwise distances). AMF communities in forest fragments were phylogenetically clustered compared with the global, but not regional and local AMF taxon pools. This indicates that non-random community assembly processes possibly related to dispersal limitation at a large scale, rather than habitat filtering or biotic interactions, may be important in structuring the AMF communities. In this system, forest fragmentation did not appear to influence AMF community composition in the roots of the ruderal plant. Whether this is true for AMF communities in soil and the roots of other ecological groups of host plants or in other habitats deserves further study.

  9. Relational Processing Following Stroke

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    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  10. Learning process for creating community identity

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    Ratanakosol Kulthida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating community identity needs a learning process to assist community to identify, recognize, build acceptance and cultivate awareness in identity. The purpose of this study was to develop the draft of a learning process to create community identity. The study employed a qualitative research method through literature review. The result shows that the community learning process must empower all parties concerned and empowerment should be based on the social capital of the community. A draft of the learning process involved in the creation of community identity includes four main steps: i plan consists of target community selection, community identity vision creation and operational planning for creation of community identity, ii action consists of community survey, social capital analysis, community identity identification, creating and operating activities to supplement community identity, and setting development goals and actions based on community identity, iii practical observation, iv reflection consists of evaluation and reflection, and public presentation.

  11. Community relations 2.0.

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    Kane, Gerald C; Fichman, Robert G; Gallaugher, John; Glaser, John

    2009-11-01

    Before the Internet, organizations had far more time to monitor and respond to community activity, but that luxury is long gone, leaving them in dire need of a coherent outreach strategy, fresh skills, and adaptive tactics. Drawing on the authors' study of more than two dozen firms, this article describes the changes wrought by social media in particular and shows managers how to take advantage of them--lessons that Kaiser Permanente, Domino's, and others learned the hard way. Social media platforms enhance the power of communities by promoting deep relationships, facilitating rapid organization, improving the creation and synthesis of knowledge, and enabling robust filtering of information. The authors cite many examples from the health care industry, where social media participation is vigorous and influential. For instance, members of Sermo, an online network exclusively for doctors, used the site to call attention to and organize against insurers' proposed reimbursement cuts. And on PatientsLikeMe, where people share details about their chronic diseases and the treatments they've pursued, charts and progress curves help members visualize their own complex histories and allow comparisons and feedback among peers. As you modernize your company's approach to community outreach, you'll need to assemble a social media team equipped to identify new opportunities for engagement and prevent brand damage. In the most successful firms the authors studied, community management was a dedicated function, combining marketing, public relations, and information technology skills.

  12. Community Relations: Bentuk Tanggung Jawab Sosial Organisasi

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    G. Arum Yudarwati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available  Community relations is performed as an institution’s planned, active, and continuing participation with and within a community to maintain and enhance its environment to the benefit of both the institution and the community. Community relations will reduce conflict and help to discover the best policy that lead to wellbeing community through the establishment of social capital as part of corporate social responsibility. At the macro level, the system approach and communitarian approach give perspectives to explain the interaction between organization with its environment. At the mezzo level, the community relations should be supported by its function in organization. Finally at the micro level, public relations practitioners should take a significant role in organizations.

  13. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study

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    Grogan Sarah C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up. Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s; and the development of

  14. A Bibliography on Police and Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin G., Comp.

    A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…

  15. Perceived Community Cohesion and the Stress Process in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gundy, Karen T.; Stracuzzi, Nena F.; Rebellon, Cesar J.; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Using survey data from two youth samples, one rural and one urban, we examine the role and significance of perceived community cohesion in the stress process. In particular, we assess the extent to which community attachment and detachment are related to depressed mood, problem substance use, and delinquency net of social statuses, stress…

  16. Bacterial communities and enzymatic activities in the vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) and related advantages by comparison with conventional constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Sun, Feiyun; Zhao, Ke; Du, Changhang; Shao, Yunxian

    2016-11-01

    A new-developed vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) was implemented for decentralized domestic wastewater treatment, and studied in lab-scale and full-scale. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of biomass activities and microbial communities in V-ASP by comparison with conventional constructed wetland (CW), to unveil the causations of its consistently higher pollutants removal efficiencies. Compared with CWs, V-ASP has greater vegetation nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates, higher biomass and enzymatic activities, and more bacteria community diversity. The microbial community structure was comprehensively analyzed by using high-throughput sequencing. It was observed that Proteobacteria was dominated in both CWs and V-ASPs, while their subdivisions distribution was rather different. V-ASPs contained a higher nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) abundances that resulted in a consistently better nitrogen removal efficiency. Hence, a long-term experiment of full-scale V-ASP displayed stably excellent capability in resistance of influent loading shocks and seasonal temperature effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processes of marginalization in relation to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses processes of marginalization in relation to the participation of two students, Amir and Saad, in the school in Copenhagen, Denmark, which they attend but also across the school and different communities outside the school. In the paper I discuss the effect of some teachers...

  18. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  19. Community of Interest Engagement Process Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    and input from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), as shown in the far left of Figure 2. The team may prepare a Business Process Model Notation ( BPMN ) 22...22 Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) is a method of illustrating business processes in the form of a...Community of Interest Engagement Plan Joint Planning and Development Office 21 10. Acronyms BPMN Business Process Modeling Notation COI

  20. Disability Competency in Community Relations and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    It is essential for a school public relations professional to be familiar with disability competency as it relates to counseling programs within the schools and community. This article is an introduction to disability competency in such settings. The initial discussion highlights a historical perspective of the treatment of persons with…

  1. Are Entrepreneurship, Communities, and Social Transformation Related?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article explores new forms of organizing (and organization creation) in relation to entrepreneurship and social transformation. In particular, in the dialogue that follows in this issue, we initiate a discussion regarding the ways through which social transformation is or can be related to community action and public and/or social entrepreneurship. By focusing on socioeconomic environments in flux, we suggest that emerging alternative initiatives are not simply oppositional, resistance f...

  2. Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.

  3. Obtaining Communities with a Fitness Growth Process

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    Beiró, Mariano G; Grynberg, Sebastian P; Alvarez-Hamelin, J Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The study of community structure has been a hot topic of research over the last years. But, while successfully applied in several areas, the concept lacks of a general and precise notion. Facts like the hierarchical structure and heterogeneity of complex networks make it difficult to unify the idea of community and its evaluation. The global functional known as modularity is probably the most used technique in this area. Nevertheless, its limits have been deeply studied. Local techniques as the ones by Lancichinetti et al. and Palla et al. arose as an answer to the resolution limit and degeneracies that modularity has. Here we start from the algorithm by Lancichinetti et al. and propose a unique growth process for a fitness function that, while being local, finds a community partition that covers the whole network, updating the scale parameter dynamically. We test the quality of our results by using a set of benchmarks of heterogeneous graphs. We discuss alternative measures for evaluating the community struc...

  4. Are Entrepreneurship, Communities, and Social Transformation Related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalaki, Maria; Hjorth, Daniel; Mair, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article explores new forms of organizing (and organization creation) in relation to entrepreneurship and social transformation. In particular, in the dialogue that follows in this issue, we initiate a discussion regarding the ways through which social transformation is or can be related...... to community action and public and/or social entrepreneurship. By focusing on socioeconomic environments in flux, we suggest that emerging alternative initiatives are not simply oppositional, resistance forces, but new organizing assemblages that co-constitute new social realities that urgently need...... to be actualized. We conclude the article with a number of theoretical propositions, which as we suggest, instigate the study of embedded and socially transformative organizing....

  5. Evaluating Community Forestry Processes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath

    With the overall objective to evaluate outcomes of decentralized forest governance in Nepal, particularly focusing on assessing forest conditions as well as the role of community forestry in household economies, this research was carried out in 10 community forests of Tanahun district of western...... Nepal. The fieldwork consisted of five components: forest measurement including boundary survey, household survey of 304 households, key informant interviews, counting and identification of farm trees, and focus group discussions. Different types of airborne analogue aerial photographs, satellite...... of supplying firewood and especially fodder for the rural households. Land holdings, livestock holdings, firewood consumption, and education level were positively related to the number of trees on a household’s farm land while distance to the forest and the use of alternative energy sources were negatively...

  6. Stochastic processes dominate during boreal bryophyte community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Nicole J; Bergeron, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Why are plant species found in certain locations and not in others? The study of community assembly rules has attempted to answer this question, and many studies articulate the historic dichotomy of deterministic (predictable niches) vs. stochastic (random or semi-random processes). The study of successional sequences to determine whether they converge, as would be expected by deterministic theory, or diverge, as stochastic theory would suggest, has been one method used to investigate this question. In this article we ask the question: Do similar boreal bryophyte communities develop in the similar habitat created by convergent succession after fires of different severities? Or do the stochastic processes generated by fires of different severity lead to different communities? Specifically we predict that deterministic structure will be more important for large forest-floor species than stochastic processes, and that the inverse will be true for small bryophyte species. We used multivariate regression trees and model selection to determine the relative weight of structure (forest structure, substrates, soil structure) and processes (fire severity) for two groups of bryophyte species sampled in 12 sites (seven high-severity and five low-severity fires). Contrary to our first hypothesis, processes were as important for large forest-floor bryophytes as for small pocket species. Fire severity, its interaction with the quality of available habitat, and its impact on the creation of biological legacies played dominant roles in determining community structure. In this study, sites with nearly identical forest structure, generated via convergent succession after high- and low-severity fire, were compared to see whether these sites supported similar bryophyte communities. While similar to some degree, both the large forest-floor species and the pocket species differed after high-severity fire compared to low-severity fire. This result suggests that the "how," or process of

  7. Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

    2009-01-01

    As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations.

  8. Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Garlick

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995 notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007 theoretical development has focussed on the liquidity of modernity, to give the impression that community - in the spatially, physically located and fixed sense of the term - no longer exists. This paper proposes that spatial dimensions, particularly in the context of developing relational ethics, are important. This is particularly so for paying adequate attention to context-specific values, principles and issues in communities, for developing enterprising human capital via engagement, and for addressing matters of socio-political importance such as the environment. Contemporary neo-liberal times require ethical and moral leadership from universities. This paper suggests that such leadership can be developed from focussing attention on the forms of togetherness fostered by university-community engagement.

  9. 20 CFR 638.543 - Community relations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community relations program. 638.543 Section... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.543 Community relations program. Each center operator shall establish a community relations program, which shall...

  10. Trust the process: community health psychology after Occupy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Flora; Montenegro, Cristian; van Reisen, Kirsten; Zaka, Flavia; Sevitt, James

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that community health psychology's core strategy of 'community mobilisation' is in need of renewal and proposes a new way of conceptualising community health action. Taking the Occupy movement as an example, we critique modernist understandings of community mobilisation, which are based on instrumental action in the service of a predetermined goal. Aiming to re-invigorate the 'process' tradition of community health psychology, we explore possibilities of an open-ended, anti-hierarchical and inclusive mode of community action, which we label 'trusting the process'. The gains to be made are unpredictable, but we suggest that the risk is worth taking.

  11. The process of the Community Psychologist training: Experiences in the Community Psychology nucleus (NUCOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, James Ferreira; Brito da Silva, Lorena; Cidade, Elívia Camurça; Braga, Alana Alencar; Ximenes, Verônica Morais

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Community Psychology training concept created at the Community Psychology Nucleus (NUCOM), Federal University of Ceará (Brazil); mainly composed of university extension processes and their theoretical-methodological bases. Thus, university extension/cooperation emerges as a space to build new knowledge based on a cooperative perspective opposed to traditional anti-dialogical and hegemonic mechanisms. By evidencing the unabridged training of NUCOM's graduate students, we seek to provide elements that will enable the comprehension of the learning concept present in daily relations constructed in extension activities. We also plan to socialize a way of thinking Community Psychology performance, whose reference is the people, with their needs and potentials, emphasizing them as the true subjects of psychological practice.

  12. Changes in assembly processes in soil bacterial communities following a wildfire disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; O'Neill, Sean P; Knelman, Joseph E; Todd, Bryan; Duggan, Sam; Bradley, Daniel; Robinson, Taylor; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R; Williams, Mark W; Cleveland, Cory C; Melbourne, Brett A; Jiang, Lin; Nemergut, Diana R

    2013-06-01

    Although recent work has shown that both deterministic and stochastic processes are important in structuring microbial communities, the factors that affect the relative contributions of niche and neutral processes are poorly understood. The macrobiological literature indicates that ecological disturbances can influence assembly processes. Thus, we sampled bacterial communities at 4 and 16 weeks following a wildfire and used null deviation analysis to examine the role that time since disturbance has in community assembly. Fire dramatically altered bacterial community structure and diversity as well as soil chemistry for both time-points. Community structure shifted between 4 and 16 weeks for both burned and unburned communities. Community assembly in burned sites 4 weeks after fire was significantly more stochastic than in unburned sites. After 16 weeks, however, burned communities were significantly less stochastic than unburned communities. Thus, we propose a three-phase model featuring shifts in the relative importance of niche and neutral processes as a function of time since disturbance. Because neutral processes are characterized by a decoupling between environmental parameters and community structure, we hypothesize that a better understanding of community assembly may be important in determining where and when detailed studies of community composition are valuable for predicting ecosystem function.

  13. School and community relations in North America: Creative tensions

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    Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.

    1980-09-01

    School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.

  14. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    The Ph.D. thesis contributes to a relational orientation to leading, emphasizing leadership as a shared, collaborative and co-creative activity. In this paradigm major emphasis is put on dialogue and interaction. Inspired by social constructionist ideas, the thesis considers approaches to learning...... and knowledge building as related to relational leading. The practices developed in the thesis research demonstrate that it is possible to create organizational learning and development through collaborative, dialogic practices in groups and teams, for instance combined with the use of roleplaying. In the work...

  15. 40 CFR 300.155 - Public information and community relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information and community...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES... community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt,...

  16. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    and knowledge building as related to relational leading. The practices developed in the thesis research demonstrate that it is possible to create organizational learning and development through collaborative, dialogic practices in groups and teams, for instance combined with the use of roleplaying. In the work...... with the thesis, dialogically based practices inspired by action research with the aim to enhance collaborative knowledge building, reflexivity and dialogical skills in groups and teams were carried out, analyzed and documented. Participants included school principals, leaders of kindergartens, teachers...

  17. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  18. Involvement of Women In Community Development Process In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Involvement of Women In Community Development Process In Ikeduru Local Government Area Of Imo State. ... between 31 and 40 years majority (47%) had primary education, majority (73.64%) were not involved in decision making process ...

  19. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

  20. Improving the health of Missouri communities: a process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Alewine, S

    1997-12-01

    It is important to note that while many states have communities involved in processes similar to CHART, few, if any, offer a team of professionals to support these initiatives, and none have a statewide partnership that is as committed to the process as Missouri does. The relationship between the key partner organizations is a unique phenomenon, and is certainly a key success factor for the process. CHART is an active member of the Coalition for Healthier Cities and Communities, a national network that exists as a multi-sector partnership to service the widespread communities movement in the U.S. The Coalition serves as both a link to resources, and as a voice for policy and action. The issues and concerns, as well as the successes, of Missouri communities are carried to this national Coalition to present a unified voice for communities nationwide. CHART is an innovative approach to empowered community development. It provides communities the opportunity to participate in the process of change. The CHART process provides a vehicle for communities to take charge of the future, to determine locally how issues are addressed, and to set a course that assures improved health, quality of life, and sustainable community systems for the 21st century.

  1. 冬瓜生腌过程细菌种群变化及其品质相关性%Bacteria Community Changes and Its Quality Related in Raw Process of Pickled Wax Gourd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锡权; 赵永威; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳; 卓鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    采用16S rDNA基因克隆文库的方法,对生腌冬瓜腌制体系的微生物多样性、优势种群及其相关品质变化过程进行分析.结果表明;冬瓜生腌开始时优势细菌为肠杆菌属、乳球菌属和魏斯氏茵属;早期阶段优势菌为戊糖片球菌;腌制30 d时优势茵属变成了肠杆菌属和片球菌属;在腌制中后期微生物组成基本稳定,其中片球菌属、魏斯氏茵属和枝芽孢杆菌属为优势菌属.冬瓜生腌制过程中pH值和亚硝酸盐质量分数下降,最低值分别为3.7和0.5 mg/kg,盐度稳定在7.0左右,细菌总数和乳酸茵总数由下降至最后稳定的过程,腌制中后期乳酸菌总数稳定在1.0×107 cfu/mL左右.冬瓜生腌过程检测到的乳球菌、片球菌和枝芽孢杆菌等菌属对维持腌冬瓜质量具有重要意义.%The microbial community diversity, predominant species and its related characters of the product were investigated during the fermentation process of pickled wax gourd using the 16S rDNA clone library. The results showed that in the pickling system Enterobacter, Lacto-coccus and Weissella are the predominant microbial community at earlier phase. After 15 days of fermentation, the dominant population has changed to be Pediococcus pentosaceus, on day 30 Enterobacter and Pediococcus become to be the predominant species. In the later stage of pickling, the community system is stable, and Pediococcus, Weissella and Virgibacillus are the major microbial species. At the same time, the pH value and nitrite concentration of pickled wax gourd samples had been decreasing, its minimum values reached 3. 7 and 0. 5 mg/kg, respectively. The salinity value was finally stable in 7. 0%. The total population of bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) changed from the high level to stable, the population of LAB was 1. O×07cfu/mL at the later phase of pickled. Some species including Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Virgibacillus detected in the pickled wax gourd

  2. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  3. Nurse-led home visitation programme to improve health-related quality of life and reduce disability among potentially frail community-dwelling older people in general practice: a theory-based process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijnen, Mandy M N; Jansen, Maria W J; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2014-10-25

    Population ageing fosters new models of care delivery for older people that are increasingly integrated into existing care systems. In the Netherlands, a primary-care based preventive home visitation programme has been developed for potentially frail community-dwelling older people (aged ≥75 years), consisting of a comprehensive geriatric assessment during a home visit by a practice nurse followed by targeted interdisciplinary care and follow-up over time. A theory-based process evaluation was designed to examine (1) the extent to which the home visitation programme was implemented as planned and (2) the extent to which general practices successfully redesigned their care delivery. Using a mixed-methods approach, the focus was on fidelity (quality of implementation), dose delivered (completeness), dose received (exposure and satisfaction), reach (participation rate), recruitment, and context. Twenty-four general practices participated, of which 13 implemented the home visitation programme and 11 delivered usual care to older people. Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews with practice nurses (PNs), general practitioners (GPs), and older people; feedback meetings with PNs; structured registration forms filled-out by PNs; and narrative descriptions of the recruitment procedures and registration of inclusion and drop-outs by members of the research team. Fidelity of implementation was acceptable, but time constraints and inadequate reach (i.e., the relatively healthy older people participated) negatively influenced complete delivery of protocol elements, such as interdisciplinary cooperation and follow-up of older people over time. The home visitation programme was judged positively by PNs, GPs, and older people. Useful tools were offered to general practices for organising proactive geriatric care. The home visitation programme did not have major shortcomings in itself, but the delivery offered room for improvement. General practices received

  4. Power-law relations in random networks with communities

    CERN Document Server

    Stegehuis, Clara; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S H

    2016-01-01

    Most random graph models are locally tree-like - do not contain short cycles - which makes them unfit for modeling networks with a community structure. We introduce the hierarchical configuration model (HCM), a generalization of the configuration model that includes community structures, while properties such as the size of the giant component, and the size of the giant percolating cluster under bond percolation can still be derived analytically. Furthermore, viewing real-world networks as realizations of the HCM reveals two previously unobserved power-law relations: between the number of edges inside a community and the community sizes, and between the number of edges going out of a community and the community sizes. Many real-world networks have both a community structure and a power-law degree distribution. We relate the power-law exponent $\\tau$ of the degree distribution with the power-law exponent of the community size distribution $\\gamma$. In the special case of dense communities, this relation takes ...

  5. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  6. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation.

  7. Human capital identification process: linkage for family medicine and community medicine to mobilize the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Thongbunjob, Krid

    2012-06-01

    Community diagnosis and approach has shifted from a professional focus to a community focus. The information system has also been developed to reflect socio-cultural information. This new system has been established throughout the country and is being recorded in the computer system. However these data still lack human capital information to promote community mobilization. The present study aims to develop a process which reflects human capital from the insider and outsider points of view and which builds on the existing work system of primary care service, family medicine, and community medicine. The present study applies the participatory action research design with mixed methods including community grand-tour, household survey socio-metric questionnaire and focus group discussion in order to gather insider view of human capital. A key instrument developed in the present study is the socio-metric questionnaire which was designed according to the community grand tour and household survey results. The findings indicate that the process is feasible and the insider point of view given a longer evidence based list of the human capital. The model enhanced a closer relationship between professional and community people and suggested the realistic community mobilizer name list. Human capital identification process is feasible and should be recommended to integrate in the existing work process of the health staff in family and community practice.

  8. Community-related factors militating against effective management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-related factors militating against effective management of ... high rates of out-of-hospital delivery,many affected babies often reach the health facility ... such as female education, mass media campaigns, development of national ...

  9. Microbes as Engines of Ecosystem Function: When Does Community Structure Enhance Predictions of Ecosystem Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Emily B; Knelman, Joseph E; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Siciliano, Steven; Breulmann, Marc; Yannarell, Anthony; Beman, J M; Abell, Guy; Philippot, Laurent; Prosser, James; Foulquier, Arnaud; Yuste, Jorge C; Glanville, Helen C; Jones, Davey L; Angel, Roey; Salminen, Janne; Newton, Ryan J; Bürgmann, Helmut; Ingram, Lachlan J; Hamer, Ute; Siljanen, Henri M P; Peltoniemi, Krista; Potthast, Karin; Bañeras, Lluís; Hartmann, Martin; Banerjee, Samiran; Yu, Ri-Qing; Nogaro, Geraldine; Richter, Andreas; Koranda, Marianne; Castle, Sarah C; Goberna, Marta; Song, Bongkeun; Chatterjee, Amitava; Nunes, Olga C; Lopes, Ana R; Cao, Yiping; Kaisermann, Aurore; Hallin, Sara; Strickland, Michael S; Garcia-Pausas, Jordi; Barba, Josep; Kang, Hojeong; Isobe, Kazuo; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Lindström, Eva S; Basiliko, Nathan; Nemergut, Diana R

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth's biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: 'When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?' We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.

  10. Bridging Schools and Community: Helpful Public Relations Guidelines for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, New Cumberland.

    Public relations guidelines for school principals are offered in this handbook, with an emphasis on improving student achievement and internal and external communication. Six chapters discuss the principal's public relations role, internal communication, securing and maintaining community involvement, school publications, media relations, and…

  11. A community psychology view of environmental organization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julie H; Bush, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    Environmental organizations have a key role in addressing environmental degradation and promoting ecologically and socially sustainable societies. Psychosocial processes underpin their work, however, empirical studies of these processes remain underdeveloped. This paper presents the first stage of a community psychology study involving in-depth interviews with leaders in environmental organizations. Qualitative analysis revealed a framework of five types of psychosocial processes that assist environmental organizations to achieve a range of outcomes, namely: problem analysis; influencing decision-making; inter-organizational relationships; community participation and knowledge transfer. These psychosocial processes were used in substantially different ways depending on the organizations' orientation. Three key orientations towards outcomes were evident: on-ground conservation, developing innovation in specialist areas and transforming wider social institutions. The findings provide a model of the psychosocial processes involved in fostering sustainable futures and exemplify the contribution of community psychology to this critical global issue.

  12. From Positivism to Critical Theory: School-Community Relations toward Community Equity Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on urban school-community relations has emerged with renewed vigor and a myriad of suggestions for how to best approach the topic. While most of these suggestions are anchored in positivist and interpretive epistemologies, a growing number of scholars are applying more critical approaches to school-community relations…

  13. From Positivism to Critical Theory: School-Community Relations toward Community Equity Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on urban school-community relations has emerged with renewed vigor and a myriad of suggestions for how to best approach the topic. While most of these suggestions are anchored in positivist and interpretive epistemologies, a growing number of scholars are applying more critical approaches to school-community relations…

  14. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents.

  15. SOCIAL RELATION NETWORKS IN UT-ONLINE COMMUNITY FORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, the existence of a virtual community forum has become a reality and social necessity in an era cybertech. It was also viewed as the electronic frontier of 21st century society that was undoubtedly for reorganizing and redefining to awareness of human being, that ways of their perceptions and explorations no longer limited by time, space, and geographic. Since the early decades of the 1990s, the existence of virtual community forum has attracted much attention and interest to the researchers, because it has significance as a social and cultural capital, and as a socio-technological solution for creating a learning community building forces. The UT-Online community forum is a virtual community forum that was built by (Universitas Terbuka UT in year 2006 to facilitate students to share and discuss various information, ideas, experiences in relation with academic or/and non-academic. This study examines and explains the contents of relation, social ties and structures of social relation networks in UT-Online Community Forum. The results of the study are important to the distance education institutions for building sense of community to DE students.

  16. Minimal Processing: Its Context and Influence in the Archival Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzalski, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Since its publication in 2005, Mark A. Greene and Dennis Meissner's "More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Archival Processing" has led to much discussion and self-examination within the archival community about working through backlogs. This article discusses the impact of Greene and Meissner's work and considers the questions and…

  17. Processes of developing 'community livability' in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole Shank, Kendra S; Cutchin, Malcolm P

    2016-12-01

    'Community livability' is a widely used term that is still under-conceptualized. The purpose of the project was to theorize key dynamics of livability for older adults who are aging in place in their homes and communities. Twelve community-dwelling adults (70+) were recruited in a multiple-case study design. Interviews and naturalistic observations were used over the course of 6months. Global positioning system (GPS) devices were used to generate maps (routines, routes, type and duration of activities) to elicit additional insights through interviews. We used grounded theory analysis. For older adults, livability is not experienced as the presence of amenities, but rather involves active and ongoing negotiation of physical and social dimensions of their communities. We identify three core processes of livability including enacting an ideology of aging, building social infrastructure, and negotiating daily participation. These three processes unfolded in varied ways, yet closely shaped-and were shaped by-the older adults' participation in their necessary and chosen daily activities. Community livability is a process that varies considerably from the current conceptualizations. Understanding and expanding livability considerations will have positive implications for older adults' well-being while aging in community settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Capital, Local Communities and Culture-led Urban Regeneration Processes: The Sydney Olympic Park Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hugh Prior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture has become increasingly important in regeneration processes designed to deal with urban futures. Urban regeneration processes in which culture has played a prominent role range from large-scale public investments in cultural facilities and artefacts as ‘hallmarks’ of urban regeneration projects (e.g. Guggenheim Bilbao, through to the use of ‘one shot’ cultural events such as the Olympic Games as a catalyst and engine for regenerating urban areas. The aim of this paper is to examine the association between social capital (SC, local communities and the culture-led regeneration process at Sydney Olympic Park (SOP, New South Wales, Australia. The catalyst for the transformation of an industrial wasteland into SOP was the awarding of the Olympics to Sydney in 1993. A convenience sample of 47 professional reports associated with the regeneration process at SOP between 1993 and 2010 were analyzed, the aim being to understand how local communities had been linked to the regeneration process through SC. Results from the analysis identified three principal associations between SC, local communities and the ongoing SOP regeneration process. The first association related to how, during the early years of the regeneration process, SC was used as a means of expressing concern about how governance mechanisms implemented at SOP might adversely impact the ability of local communities to engage in decision making that affected their local environment. The second related to the use of community development programs to build SC in local communities through the SOP development. The third related to a call for the development of measures to understand how the development of SOP impacts on the SC in local communities. Eight in-depth interviews with professionals involved in the regeneration process were used to provide further insights into the three principal associations. The paper discusses findings through reference to broader arguments surrounding

  19. Age-Related Differences in Worry and Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basevitz, Paul; Pushkar, Dolores; Chaikelson, June; Conway, Michael; Dalton, Connie

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that older adults would show age-related reductions in the tendency to worry in both their retrospective accounts and through cross-sectional age comparisons with a sample of younger adults. We also sought to determine whether age differences would be evident in psychological processes associated with a…

  20. Coupling Spatiotemporal Community Assembly Processes to Changes in Microbial Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Emily B.; Crump, Alex R.; Resch, Charles T.; Fansler, Sarah; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Stegen, James C.

    2016-12-16

    Community assembly processes govern shifts in species abundances in response to environmental change, yet our understanding of assembly remains largely decoupled from ecosystem function. Here, we test hypotheses regarding assembly and function across space and time using hyporheic microbial communities as a model system. We pair sampling of two habitat types through hydrologic fluctuation with null modeling and multivariate statistics. We demonstrate that dual selective pressures assimilate to generate compositional changes at distinct timescales among habitat types, resulting in contrasting associations of Betaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota with selection and with seasonal changes in aerobic metabolism. Our results culminate in a conceptual model in which selection from contrasting environments regulates taxon abundance and ecosystem function through time, with increases in function when oscillating selection opposes stable selective pressures. Our model is applicable within both macrobial and microbial ecology and presents an avenue for assimilating community assembly processes into predictions of ecosystem function.

  1. Image processing in diabetic related causes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of all the experimental results and analysis carried out on medical images of diabetic related causes. The experimental investigations have been carried out on images starting from very basic image processing techniques such as image enhancement to sophisticated image segmentation methods. This book is intended to create an awareness on diabetes and its related causes and image processing methods used to detect and forecast in a very simple way. This book is useful to researchers, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.

  2. Mapping spatial patterns of denitrifiers for bridging community ecology and microbial processes along environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, D.; Cuhel, J.; Saby, N.; Cheneby, D.; Chronokova, A.; Arrouays, D.; Martin-Laurent, F.; Simek, M.

    2010-12-01

    While there is ample evidence that microbial processes can exhibit large variations at a field scale, very little is known about the spatial distribution of the communities mediating these processes. To explore spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifying community, a functional guild involved in N-cycling, in a grassland field subjected to different cattle grazing regimes.We used geostatistical modeling to map the distribution of size and activity of the denitrifier community in the pasture. Size of the denitrifier community was estimated by PCR quantification of the denitrification gene copy numbers while its activity was estimated by measuring potential denitrification activity and potential N2O emissions. Non-random distribution patterns of the size and of the activity of the denitrifier community were observed with a field-scale spatial dependence. The soil properties, which were strongly affected by presence of cattle, imposed significant control on potential denitrification activity, potential N2O production but not on the size of the denitrifier community. The relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene encoding the N2O reductase within the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N2O/N2 ratio. Our results clearly indicated that patterns of distribution of the abundance of denitrifiers can be modelled at a field scale. Characterization of such pattern at a field-scale constitutes the first step in modelling distribution of functional bacterial communities at a scale compatible with land management strategies. The absolute abundance of most denitrification genes was not correlated with potential denitrification activity or potential N2O production. However, the relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene in the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N2O/(N2+N2O) ratio, suggesting a relationship between ecosystem processes and bacterial community composition.

  3. Oceanographic structure drives the assembly processes of microbial eukaryotic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Adam; Comte, Jérôme; Babin, Marcel; Forest, Alexandre; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-03-17

    Arctic Ocean microbial eukaryote phytoplankton form subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), where much of the annual summer production occurs. This SCM is particularly persistent in the Western Arctic Ocean, which is strongly salinity stratified. The recent loss of multiyear sea ice and increased particulate-rich river discharge in the Arctic Ocean results in a greater volume of fresher water that may displace nutrient-rich saltier waters to deeper depths and decrease light penetration in areas affected by river discharge. Here, we surveyed microbial eukaryotic assemblages in the surface waters, and within and below the SCM. In most samples, we detected the pronounced SCM that usually occurs at the interface of the upper mixed layer and Pacific Summer Water (PSW). Poorly developed SCM was seen under two conditions, one above PSW and associated with a downwelling eddy, and the second in a region influenced by the Mackenzie River plume. Four phylogenetically distinct communities were identified: surface, pronounced SCM, weak SCM and a deeper community just below the SCM. Distance-decay relationships and phylogenetic structure suggested distinct ecological processes operating within these communities. In the pronounced SCM, picophytoplanktons were prevalent and community assembly was attributed to water mass history. In contrast, environmental filtering impacted the composition of the weak SCM communities, where heterotrophic Picozoa were more numerous. These results imply that displacement of Pacific waters to greater depth and increased terrigenous input may act as a control on SCM development and result in lower net summer primary production with a more heterotroph dominated eukaryotic microbial community.

  4. Relations among Resources in Professional Learning Communities and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Arya, Poonam; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on two professional learning communities (PLCs) situated in literacy education practica courses. How four PLC resources (colleagues, facilitators, readings, and videos) were related to outcomes, including teachers' learning, teachers' application of this learning, and subsequent students' learning, was examined. Participants…

  5. School Public Relations: Communicating to the Community. Fastback 182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, J. A.

    To help school administrators, this handbook suggests guidelines for establishing a school public relations (PR) program and offers techniques used by schools to communicate with the community. The introductory section stresses the need for school PR, given recent political, financial, and demographic changes. The second section outlines a master…

  6. Relations among Resources in Professional Learning Communities and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Arya, Poonam; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on two professional learning communities (PLCs) situated in literacy education practica courses. How four PLC resources (colleagues, facilitators, readings, and videos) were related to outcomes, including teachers' learning, teachers' application of this learning, and subsequent students' learning, was examined. Participants…

  7. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremenko, Ivan A; Vil’, Vera A; Demchuk, Dmitry V

    2016-01-01

    Summary This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O–O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer−Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum−DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately. PMID:27559418

  8. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremenko, Ivan A; Vil', Vera A; Demchuk, Dmitry V; Terent'ev, Alexander O

    2016-01-01

    This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O-O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer-Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum-DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately.

  9. What Explains Differences in Availability of Community Health-Related Services for Seniors in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mildred E; Xu, Yuanshuo; Morken, Lydia J

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzes the links between planning, the built environment, and availability of health-related community services across U.S. urban and rural communities. We analyze the first national survey of health-related community services for seniors (2010 Maturing of America), covering 1,459 U.S. cities and counties. We tested the influence of morbidity (diabetes and obesity), city management, socioeconomic characteristics, planning and the built environment, metro status, and government finance. Community health-related services are more common in places that plan for and involve seniors in planning processes. Places with higher need and government capacity also show higher levels. Service levels in rural communities are not lower after controlling for other population characteristics. Morbidity measures (diabetes and obesity) do not explain differences in service availability. Policies promoting planning for aging and elder involvement in the planning process have the greatest impact on the level of community health-related services for seniors.

  10. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  11. Relation between process and service logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the process control of a small and medium-sized manufacturing business enterprise is the foundation of high quality care of firm’s business processes. Any business process is seen as an indivisible sequence of activity steps designed to perform complex business activities. In its statutory documents the company should have concise descriptions of at least the main processes, along with their contexts in a given department of the company and the employee position.The main business processes, of course many others, are not immutable, on the contrary, they are very often changing. Many processes occur, others are modified others disappear as antiquated and useless to support strategic business objectives. All this is a consequence of the firms’ effort needed to maintain competitiveness in the harsh and dynamic consumer market.Business processes are not isolated, many of them are part of a relatively large process chains, so-called enterprise services, see (Erl, 2005. The discipline of Software Engineering responded to the possibility of consolidating enterprise functionality with enterprise services with the method SOA (Service Oriented Architecture leading to new applications for enterprise information systems.In contrast to business processes, business services are still not sufficiently recognized in the statutory documents of enterprises. Informaticians, producing software applications for enterprise information systems, must draw on company management knowledge relating to the general context and processes together with management to prepare business services. There are therefore more relevant questions based on the emergence of corporate services and information modeling in the discipline of Information Engineering. Acceptable responses are not included in a lot of publications or in publications of the doyen of SOA Thomas Erl, see (Erl, 2006 and thus the proposed SOA paradigm suffers from the same problem

  12. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  13. Responses of diatom communities to hydrological processes during rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The importance of diatoms as a tracer of hydrological processes has been recently recognized (Pfister et al. 2009, Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013). However, diatom variations in a short-term scale (e.g., sub-daily) during rainfall events have not been well documented yet. In this study, rainfall event-based diatom samples were taken at the outlet of the Kielstau catchment (50 km2), a lowland catchment in northern Germany. A total of nine rainfall events were caught from May 2013 to April 2014. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed that diatom communities of different events were well separated along NMDS axis I and II, indicating a remarkable temporal variation. By correlating water level (a proxy of discharge) and different diatom indices, close relationships were found. For example, species richness, biovolume (μm3), Shannon diversity and moisture index01 (%, classified according to van Dam et al. 1994) were positively related with water level at the beginning phase of the rainfall (i.e. increasing limb of discharge peak). However, in contrast, during the recession limb of the discharge peak, diatom indices showed distinct responses to water level declines in different rainfall events. These preliminary results indicate that diatom indices are highly related to hydrological processes. The next steps will include finding out the possible mechanisms of the above phenomena, and exploring the contributions of abiotic variables (e.g., hydrologic indices, nutrients) to diatom community patterns. Based on this and ongoing studies (Wu et al. unpublished data), we will incorporate diatom data into End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) and select the tracer set that is best suited for separation of different runoff components in our study catchment. Keywords: Diatoms, Rainfall event, Non-metric multidimensional scaling, Hydrological process, Indices References: Pfister L, McDonnell JJ, Wrede S, Hlúbiková D, Matgen P, Fenicia F, Ector L, Hoffmann L

  14. Microbes as engines of ecosystem function: when does community structure enhance predictions of ecosystem processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Graham

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth’s biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: ‘When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?’ We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.

  15. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  16. Angular processes related to Cauchy random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarota, Valemtina

    2011-01-01

    We study the angular process related to random walks in the Euclidean and in the non-Euclidean space where steps are Cauchy distributed. This leads to different types of non-linear transformations of Cauchy random variables which preserve the Cauchy density. We give the explicit form of these distributions for all combinations of the scale and the location parameters. Continued fractions involving Cauchy random variables are analyzed. It is shown that the $n$-stage random variables are still Cauchy distributed with parameters related to Fibonacci numbers. This permits us to show the convergence in distribution of the sequence to the golden ratio.

  17. Coupling spatiotemporal community assembly processes to changes in microbial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Community assembly processes generate shifts in species abundances that influence ecosystem cycling of carbon and nutrients, yet our understanding of assembly remains largely separate from ecosystem-level functioning. Here, we investigate relationships between assembly and changes in microbial metabolism across space and time in hyporheic microbial communities. We pair sampling of two habitat types (i.e., attached and planktonic through seasonal and sub-hourly hydrologic fluctuation with null modeling and temporally-explicit multivariate statistics. We demonstrate that multiple selective pressures—imposed by sediment and porewater physicochemistry—integrate to generate changes in microbial community composition at distinct timescales among habitat types. These changes in composition are reflective of contrasting associations of Betaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota with ecological selection and with seasonal changes in microbial metabolism. We present a conceptual model based on our results in which metabolism increases when oscillating selective pressures oppose temporally-stable selective pressures. Our conceptual model is pertinent to both macrobial and microbial systems experiencing multiple selective pressures and presents an avenue for assimilating community assembly processes into predictions of ecosystem-level functioning.

  18. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  19. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-04-15

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession.

  20. AIDS-related illness trajectories in Mexico: findings from a qualitative study in two marginalized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Orozco, E; Eroza, E; Manca, M C; Hernández, J J; Aggleton, P

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes findings from a recent study examining how people affected directly and indirectly by the HIV/AIDS epidemic cope with HIV-related illness in Mexico. One-hundred-and-thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in two contrasting communities: Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl (an economically marginalized community) and the gay community in Mexico City (a sexually marginalized community). This paper describes the AIDS-related wellness/illness careers or trajectories followed by individuals in both communities, and identifies critical points for material and emotional intervention. This career comprises four stages: (1) life before infection; (2) life surrounding the discovery of seropositivity; (3) living as an HIV-positive person; and (4) facing death. Comparisons are drawn between the processes of adjustment and coping found in both communities. In Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl, wellness/illness careers are closely linked to prevailing poverty and oppression, as well as the sense of urgency in which local people live their lives. In the case of the gay community, wellness/illness careers are associated with the intolerance and social repression faced by homosexual men. The paper concludes by suggesting possible interventions to improve the lives of people with HIV/AIDS in Mexico today.

  1. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed.

  2. Microbial community in anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic sludge reduction process revealed by 454 pyrosequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xinqiang; Qiao, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Modification of the anoxic-oxic (AO) process by inserting a sludge holding tank (SHT) into the sludge return line forms an anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic (A+OSA) process that can achieve a 48.98% sludge reduction rate. The 454 pyrosequencing method was used to obtain the microbial communities of the AO and A+OSA processes. Results showed that the microbial community structures of the 2 processes were different as a result of the SHT insertion. Bacteria assigned to the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes commonly existed and dominated the microbial populations of the 2 processes. However, the relative abundance of these populations shifted in the presence of SHT. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased during the A+OSA process. A specific comparison at the class level showed that Sphingobacteria was enriched in the A+OSA process. The result suggested that the fermentative bacteria Sphingobacteria may have key functions in reducing the sludge from the A+OSA process. Uncultured Nitrosomonadaceae gradually became the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrospira was enriched in the A+OSA process. Both occurrences were favorable for stabilized nitrogen removal. The known denitrifying species in the A+OSA process were similar to those in the AO process; however, their relative abundance also decreased.

  3. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  4. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  5. Food related processes in the insular cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eFrank

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex.In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa. The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex.

  6. Age-related perspectives and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchard, Nicholas A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2012-12-01

    Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-related perspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken.

  7. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  8. ENGINEERING INSIDE PROCESS OF URBAN RENEWAL AND COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrantes, K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the community management process and interdisciplinary work involve in the Social Action project named “University social work: Calle de la Amargura towards a physical, recreational and cultural renewal” which belongs to the Civil Engineering School of Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR This initiative began in 2005 as a response to the security issue in a place known as “Calle de la Amargura”, in Costa Rica, this street has been stigmatized as an unsafe and damaged spot. Even though, this place has a negative concept, it has a huge urban potential as a meeting point for youth; this, due to closeness to Universidad de Costa Rica. Nevertheless, situations as drugs dealing and violence have created a negative perception within people all around the country. This project of urban renewal since the beginning has sought to enhance the perception of “Calle de la Amargura” from three axes: the development of educational and leisure activities, the foundation of community working networks and the improvement of physical conditions. Interdisciplinary groups were created in different areas such as engineer, arts, social sciences, health and education. Today, this plan is a recognize project, which involves a hard work on public space appropriation. Indeed, this paper seeks to expose the high content of social action and community management process of urban renewal leading by Engineering Faculty

  9. Community reintegration and related factors in a Nigerian stroke sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher; Nworah, Chioma; Okoye, Emmanuel; Adegoke, Babatunde; Umunnah, Joseph; Fabunmi, Ayodeji

    2016-09-01

    The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling stroke survivors (CDSS). This was a cross-sectional survey of 71 volunteering CDSS (35 males, 36 females) from selected South-Eastern Nigerian communities. Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess participants' CR. Data was analysed using Spearman rank-order correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at p≤0.05. Participants generally had deficits in CR which was either mild/moderate (52.1%) or severe (47.9%). Scores in the CR domains of distance mobility, performance of daily activities, recreational activities and family roles were particularly low (median scores ≤ 4). CR was significantly correlated with and influenced by age (r=-0.35; p=0.00) and presence/absence of diabetes mellitus (u=3.56.50; p=0.01), pre- (k=6.13; p=0.05) and post-stroke employment (k=18.26; p=0.00) status, type of assistive mobility device being used (AMD) (k=25.39; p=0.00) and support from the community (k=7.15; p=0.03) respectively. CR was generally poor for this CDSS sample. Survivors who are older, having diabetes as co-morbidity, using AMD (particularly wheel-chair) and without employment pre- and/or post-stroke may require keener attention. Rehabilitation focus may be targeted at enhancing mobility functions, vocational and social skills.

  10. Public Relations in the Community College: How to Start up an Operation, Determine the Program, and Master the Skills of Community College Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Richard L., Ed.

    This nine-chapter manual provides a practical guide to community college public relations (PR) for PR officers with expanding responsibilities. Chapter I explores the philosophy of community college public relations, considering the issue of community, the role of the PR director, and potential problem areas. Chapters II and III provide guidelines…

  11. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  12. [Characteristics of microbial community and operation efficiency in biofilter process for drinking water purification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong; Lü, Xi-Wu; Yang, Fei; Yin, Li-Hong; Zhu, Guang-Can

    2011-04-01

    In order to explore characteristics of microbial community and operation efficiency in biofilter (biologically-enhanced active filter and biological activated carbon filter) process for drinking water purification, Biolog and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) techniques were applied to analyze the metabolic function and structure of microbial community developing in biofilters. Water quality parameters, such as NH; -N, NO; -N, permanganate index, UV254 and BDOC etc, were determined in inflow and outflow of biofilters for investigation of operation efficiency of the biofilters. The results show that metabolic capacity of microbial community of the raw water is reduced after the biofilters, which reflect that metabolically active microbial communities in the raw water can be intercepted by biofilters. After 6 months operation of biofilters, the metabolic profiles of microbial communities are similar between two kinds of biologically-enhanced active filters, and utilization of carbon sources of microbial communities in the two filters are 73.4% and 75.5%, respectively. The metabolic profiles of microbial communities in two biological activated carbon filters showed significant difference. The carbon source utilization rate of microbial community in granule-activated carbon filter is 79.6%, which is obviously higher than 53.8% of the rate in the columnar activated carbon filter (p water purification efficiency was not significant (p > 0.05). However, in biological activated carbon filters, granule-activated carbon is conducive to microbial growth and reproduction, and the microbial communities in the biofilter present high metabolic activities, and the removal efficiency for NH4(+)-N, permanganate index and BDOC is better than the columnar activated carbon filter(p < 0.05). The results also suggest that operation efficiency of biofilter is related to the metabolic capacity of microbial community in biofilter.

  13. Contrasting Ecological Processes and Functional Compositions Between Intestinal Bacterial Community in Healthy and Diseased Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinyong; Dai, Wenfang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Dong, Chunming; Zhang, Jinjie; Xiong, Jinbo

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities play a pivotal role in promoting host health; therefore, the disruption of intestinal bacterial homeostasis could result in disease. However, the effect of the occurrences of disease on intestinal bacterial community assembly remains unclear. To address this gap, we compared the multifaceted ecological differences in maintaining intestinal bacterial community assembly between healthy and diseased shrimps. The neutral model analysis shows that the relative importance of neutral processes decreases when disease occurs. This pattern is further corroborated by the ecosphere null model, revealing that the bacterial community assembly of diseased samples is dominated by stochastic processes. In addition, the occurrence of shrimp disease reduces the complexity and cooperative activities of species-to-species interactions. The keystone taxa affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in healthy shrimp gut shift to Gammaproteobacteria species in diseased shrimp. Changes in intestinal bacterial communities significantly alter biological functions in shrimp. Within a given metabolic pathway, the pattern of enrichment or decrease between healthy and deceased shrimp is correlated with its functional effects. We propose that stressed shrimp are more prone to invasion by alien strains (evidenced by more stochastic assembly and higher migration rate in diseased shrimp), which, in turn, disrupts the cooperative activity among resident species. These findings greatly aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern shrimp intestinal community assembly between health statuses.

  14. Mining Intention-Related Products on Online Q & A Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段俊文; 陈毅恒; 刘挺; 丁效

    2015-01-01

    User generated content on social media has attracted much attention from service/product providers, as it contains plenty of potential commercial opportunities. However, previous work mainly focuses on user consumption intention (CI) identification, and little effort has been spent to mine intention-related products. In this paper, focusing on the Baby &Child Care domain, we propose a novel approach to mine intention-related products on online question and answer (Q&A) community. Making use of the question-answering pairs as data source, we first automatically extract candidate products based on dependency parser. And then by means of the collocation extraction model, we identify the real intention-related products from the candidate set. The experimental results on our carefully constructed evaluation dataset show that our approach achieves better performance than two natural baseline methods.

  15. [Effect of dissolved oxygen on microbial community in simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Chen, Chuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on microbial community in simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur process and reveal the mechanism of high elemental sulfur conversion rate under aerobic condition, GeoChip was employed to characterize the structure of microbial community. The results indicated that the microbial community structure significantly changed with different aerobic conditions (P bacteria (SRB) with the changing DO. The relative abundance of sox gene showed significant difference between aeration rate of 20 mL x min(-1) and aeration rate of 0 mL x min(-1), which might suggest that the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was obviously improved by DO. Moreover, cluster analysis of sox gene confirmed this suggestion, with higher signal intensity found in numbers of probes derived from SOB under such aerobic conditions. Overall, the results revealed a positive effect of micro-aerobic conditions on the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur process.

  16. THE SOCIAL PHENOMENON IN PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES OF COMMUNITY COUNCILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to interpret the social phenomenon in participatory processes of Community Councils of Carabobo State, centering participation within these organizations is an indispensable condition to conceive citizens as active subjects in management public affairs. It is inserted into a document type from the qualitative approach. Eventually you will reach a reflection that the success of citizen participation in these organizations rely on training, degree of commitment, teamwork, sense of belonging, responsibility and communication from their cultural worldview.

  17. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  18. School intervention related to school and community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaycox, Lisa H; Stein, Bradley D; Wong, Marleen

    2014-04-01

    Schools are well positioned to facilitate recovery for students exposed to community or school violence or other traumatic life events affecting populations of youth. This article describes how schools can circumvent several key barriers to mental health service provision, outcomes that school interventions target, and the role of the family in school-based services. It includes a description of the history of schools in facilitating recovery for students exposed to traumatic events, particularly related to crisis intervention, and the current status of early intervention and strategies for long-term recovery in the school setting. Challenges and future directions are also discussed.

  19. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process.

  20. Spatial processes structuring riparian plant communities in agroecosystems: implications for restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Bérenger; González, Eduardo; Vanasse, Anne; Aubin, Isabelle; Poulin, Monique

    2016-10-01

    The disruption of hydrological connectivity by human activities such as flood regulation or land-use changes strongly impacts riparian plant communities. However, landscape-scale processes have generally been neglected in riparian restoration projects as opposed to local conditions, even though such processes might largely influence community recovery. We surveyed plant composition of field edges and riverbanks in 51 riparian zones restored by tree planting (565 1-m(2) plots) within two agricultural watersheds in southeastern Québec, Canada. Once the effects of environmental variables (hydrology, soil, agriculture, landscape, restoration) were partialled out, three models of spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's eigenvector maps and asymmetric eigenvector maps were compared to quantify the pathways and direction of the spatial processes structuring riparian communities. The ecological mechanisms underlying predominant spatial processes were then assessed by regression trees linking species response to spatial gradients to seed and morphological traits. The structure of riparian communities was predominantly related to unidirectional spatial gradients from upstream to downstream along watercourses, which contributed more to species composition than bidirectional gradients along watercourses or overland. Plant traits selected by regression trees explained 22% of species response to unidirectional upstream-downstream gradients in field edges and 24% in riverbanks, and predominantly corresponded to seed traits rather than morphological traits of the adult plants. Our study showed that even in agriculturally open landscapes, water flow remains a major force structuring spatially riparian plant communities by filtering species according to their seed traits, thereby suggesting long-distance dispersal as a predominant process. Preserving hydrological connectivity at the watershed-scale and restoring riparian plant communities from upstream to downstream should be

  1. Dynamics of microbial community in a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste: Relationship between community structure and process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; He, Qin; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoming; Peng, Xuya

    2015-01-01

    Organic loading rate (OLR) disturbances were introduced into a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste (FW) to induce stable and deteriorative phases. The microbial community of each phase was investigated using 454-pyrosequencing. Results show that the relative abundance of acid-producing bacteria and syntrophic volatile fatty acid (VFA) oxidizers increased dramatically at deteriorative phase, while the dominant methanogens did not shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic groups. The mismatching between bacteria and methanogens may partially be responsible for the process deterioration. Moreover, the succession of predominant hydrogenotrophic methanogens reduced the consumption efficiency of hydrogen; meanwhile, the dominant Methanosaeta with low acetate degradation rate, and the increase of inhibitors concentrations further decreased its activity, which may be the other causes for the process failure. These results improve the understanding of the microbial mechanisms of process instability, and provide theoretical basis for the efficient and stable operation of anaerobic digester treating FW.

  2. Branching Processes with Immigration and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeng-hu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on the recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration,generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes,and affine Markov processes.We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  3. Uruguay Resuscitates Its Relations with the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Juan y Peñalosa

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the specific analysis of the bilateral relations Uruguay-EC, the author gives an overlook at the situation of this country in 1991 as well as at the global relations EC-Latin America as to offer a general frame of reference. On November 4, -1991 the General Agreement on Cooperation between the EC and Uruguay was signed in Brussels, coming to substitute the one signed on April 2, 1973. Between these two facts there are severa1 years of lack of interest by both parts, although the EC has been, and continues to be the first trade partner and with a larger number of enterprises in that country. The author thinks there are no reasons which could lead to a worse situation; on the contrary, some facts -specially the industrial, scientific and technological cooperation instruments implemented by the EC- seem to suggest a larger implication of theCommunity in the country's development.

  4. Community Opinion and Satisfaction with the Leadership at an Urban Community Educational Learning Center during an Organizational Transformation Process: A Frontline Perspective from Community Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study examined selected community stakeholders' perception of the current leadership at their local community educational learning center during an organizational transformation and cultural change process. The transition from a community college to an educational learning center, mandated in 2006 by the Accredition Commission and agreed on…

  5. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  6. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  7. Nitrogen amendments have predictable effects on soil microbial communities and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Craine, J. M.; Fierer, N.

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are receiving increasing amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) through anthropogenic activities. While there has been much effort devoted to quantifying aboveground impacts of anthropogenic N effects, less work has focused on identifying belowground impacts. Bacteria play critical roles in ecosystem processes and identifying how anthropogenic N impacts bacterial communities may elucidate how critical microbially-mediated ecosystem functions are altered by N additions. In order to connect changes in soil processes to changes in the microbial community, we need to first determine if the changes are consistent across different soil types and ecosystems. We assessed the patterns of N effects across a variety of ecosystems in two ways. First, utilizing long-term experimental N gradients at Cedar Creek LTER, MN and Kellogg Biological Station LTER, MI, we examined the response of microbial communities to anthropogenic N additions. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing techniques we quantified changes in soil microbial communities across the nitrogen gradients. We observed strong directional shifts in community composition at both sites; N fertilization consistently impacted both the phylogenetic and taxonomic structure of soil bacterial community structure in a predictable manner regardless of ecosystem type. For example, at both sites Acidobacteria experienced significant declines as nitrogen increased, while other groups such as Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased in relative abundance. Our results suggest that bacterial communities across these N fertility gradients are structured by either nitrogen and/or soil carbon availability, rather than by shifts in the plant community or soil pH indirectly associated with the elevated nitrogen inputs. Still, this field-work does not incorporate changes in soil processes (e.g. soil respiration) or microbial activity (e.g. microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity), or separate N from C effects. To

  8. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  9. Community perception on climate change and climate-related disaster preparedness in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sandholz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades, Kathmandu Valley in Nepal has been characterized by rapid population growth and related urbanization processes, leading to environmental degradation, pollution and supply bottlenecks in the metropolitan area. Effects of climate change are now putting additional stress on the urban system. In our research in Kathmandu, we carried out community and household surveys to analyze community perception on climate change and climate-related disaster preparedness. For this purpose, three categories of communities, 12 in all, were surveyed and interviewed: Squatter settlements, agricultural villages, and traditional villages. All settlements are located close to main rivers and therefore especially exposed to floods and droughts, and in slope position also to landslides. As a main result, we can conclude that people are generally aware of climate change and its potential consequences, such as climate change-related disasters. However, in their daily lives, climate change does not play a significant role and most communities have not taken any adaptation measures so far.

  10. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context...

  11. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a disorder of face processing in the absence of brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and general cognitive...

  12. MEDIATION ON INDUSTRIAL RELATION DISPUTE AND ITS RELATION WITH RELATIVE AUTHORITY IN THE LEGAL PROCEEDINGS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iron Sarira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Relations or Employment in the Indonesia legal system is based on Law No 13 of 2003 on Employment, and the Law No 2 of 2004 concerning Industrial Relations Dispute Settlement. The industrial relations are expected to be harmonious and give positive mutual engagement in the effort to support the development of Indonesian society and to improve the welfare of the Indonesian people, especially the workers or the labors. The desired goal is still far from the expectations if seeing the practice of industrial relations. The aim of the research was to get a better understanding of the practice and theory following the laws which regulated the procedures of employment as well as technical aspects. The research method applied was library research. There was some positive law approaches related to this research, which consisted of several rules as the normative law, such as Law No 2 of 2004, Act Number 30 of 1999, and PERMA No 1 of 2008. The research finds that the dispute of industrial relations as mentioned in Article 4 PERMA No 1 of 2008, Article 8 of Law No 2 of 2004, and Article 136 paragraph (2 of Act 13 of 2003. It explains and requires the mediation process before going into the courts of first instance (in this case is the Industrial Relations Court. The mediation process is led by a mediator who has the authority to conduct industrial relations dispute resolution processes in their jurisdiction. Industrial relations mediator does not have the authority to process the industrial relations dispute if the case territory is not located within its jurisdiction. As for, the relative authority of this provide an understanding that mediator aims to resolve disputes in industrial relations must apply the principle of locus delictus as a manifestation of its authority under the jurisdiction of the law.

  13. Striving for Authentic Community Engagement: A Process Model from Urban Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an urban teacher education center as a process model of how a university can cultivate authentic community engagement. Tree essential steps of the process model are identified: (1) being physically located at the school or community site in order to build trust and become integrated into the life of the school or community,…

  14. The budget of the community in the system of interbudgetary relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Максимовна Боголиб

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a new approaches to the formation of the budget of the territorial community, which is based on decentralization of local governments; methodological approaches to the monitoring of the planning process and execution of revenues and expenditures of the local community; methodological approaches to the planning of the budget of the community; the approaches for developing a balanced budget for the community; improved approaches to perspective in the forecasting of the revenues of the community

  15. Semantic associative relations and conceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; De Federicis, Lucia Serenella; Pistelli, Manuela; Fiorenzi, Daniela; Passafiume, Domenico

    2012-02-01

    We analysed the organisation of semantic network using associative mechanisms between different types of information and studied the progression of the use of these associative relations during development. We aimed to verify the linkage of concepts with the use of semantic associative relations. The goal of this study was to analyse the cognitive ability to use associative relations between various items when describing old and/or new concepts. We examined the performance of 100 subjects between the ages of 4 and 7 years on an experimental task using five associative relations based on verbal encoding. The results showed that children are able to use the five semantic associative relations at age 4, but performance with each of the different associative relations improves at different times during development. Functional and part/whole relations develop at an early age, whereas the superordinate relations develop later. Our study clarified the characteristics of the progression of semantic associations during development as well as the roles that associative relations play in the structure and improvement of the semantic store.

  16. Discovering Equations in Relation of Process to the Counseling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Yanagisawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Each counselor understands counseling freely as all counseling theories are explained without equations. Therefore, there are two kinds of mistakes in counseling. One is counter-transference, the other is a mistake wherein the counselor forces his thought and induces certain thoughts in the client. The counselor assists in aiding the client’s real intentions to be converted to the client’s consciousness from their unconsciousness. It is equal to a process in which the methods rearrange and unify the thoughts from a chaotic state. For example, such methods include the KJ (Kawakida Jiro method, the SEIQoL-DW (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting method, dialectics, the process discovering equation. In this report, the counseling process is compared with a process of discovering equations from observed values. In the process of discovering equations, it is important that the curve of equations smoothly continues. On the curve, the contact point and the gradient of the tangent line must not break off. Similarly, it is important that a counselor easily understands a client. Therefore, it is a necessary condition for counseling that the counselor’s and client’s original characters are smoothly patterned and that the communicating method of the counselor must be equal to that of the client. It will be useful for preventing two kinds of mistakes in counseling if counseling can be represented using equations and graphs.

  17. Assembly processes of gastropod community change with horizontal and vertical zonation in ancient Lake Ohrid: a metacommunity speciation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, Torsten; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Balkan Lake Ohrid is the oldest and most diverse freshwater lacustrine system in Europe. However, it remains unclear whether species community composition, as well as the diversification of its endemic taxa, is mainly driven by dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or species interaction. This calls for a holistic perspective involving both evolutionary processes and ecological dynamics, as provided by the unifying framework of the "metacommunity speciation model".The current study used the species-rich model taxon Gastropoda to assess how extant communities in Lake Ohrid are structured by performing process-based metacommunity analyses. Specifically, the study aimed (1) to identifying the relative importance of the three community assembly processes and (2) to test whether the importance of these individual processes changes gradually with lake depth or discontinuously with eco-zone shifts.Based on automated eco-zone detection and process-specific simulation steps, we demonstrated that dispersal limitation had the strongest influence on gastropod community composition. However, it was not the exclusive assembly process, but acted together with the other two processes - environmental filtering and species interaction. The relative importance of the community assembly processes varied both with lake depth and eco-zones, though the processes were better predicted by the latter.This suggests that environmental characteristics have a pronounced effect on shaping gastropod communities via assembly processes. Moreover, the study corroborated the high importance of dispersal limitation for both maintaining species richness in Lake Ohrid (through its impact on community composition) and generating endemic biodiversity (via its influence on diversification processes). However, according to the metacommunity speciation model, the inferred importance of environmental filtering and biotic interaction also suggests a small but significant influence of ecological

  18. Problems and Issues Related to Legislative Process: The State Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hunter

    Perspectives on the legislative process in Virginia and the relationship between the higher education community and the legislature are presented by a state senator. Virginia's legislature operates on a 60-day calendar basis, has an executive budget, and the governor has item veto power. The budget process requires that constituencies needing…

  19. Strengthening community involvement in grant review: insights from the Community-University Research Partnership (CURES) pilot review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA.

  20. Disruption of Relational Processing Underlies Poor Memory for Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2015-01-01

    McDaniel and Bugg (2008) proposed that relatively uncommon stimuli and encoding tasks encourage elaborative encoding of individual items (item-specific processing), whereas relatively typical or common encoding tasks encourage encoding of associations among list items (relational processing). It is this relational processing that is thought to…

  1. Evaluation of STAT medication ordering process in a community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most health care facilities, problems related to delays in STAT medication order processing time are of common concern. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate processing time for STAT orders at Kimball Medical Center. Methods: All STAT orders were reviewed to determine processing time; order processing time was also stratified by physician order entry (physician entered (PE orders vs. non-physician entered (NPE orders. Collected data included medication ordered, indication, time ordered, time verified by pharmacist, time sent from pharmacy, and time charted as given to the patient. Results: A total of 502 STAT orders were reviewed and 389 orders were included for analysis. Overall, median time was 29 minutes, IQR 16–63; p<0.0001. . The time needed to process NPE orders was significantly less than that needed for PE orders (median 27 vs. 34 minutes; p=0.026. In terms of NPE orders, the median total time required to process STAT orders for medications available in the Automated Dispensing Devices (ADM was within 30 minutes, while that required to process orders for medications not available in the ADM was significantly greater than 30 minutes. For PE orders, the median total time required to process orders for medications available in the ADM (i.e., not requiring pharmacy involvement was significantly greater than 30 minutes. [Median time = 34 minutes (p<0.001]. Conclusion: We conclude that STAT order processing time may be improved by increasing the availability of medications in ADM, and pharmacy involvement in the verification process.

  2. Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) Process Strengthens the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Method to Improve Health in Rural Delta Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to describe community workshops on the CPPE process to identify the top three nutrition- and health-related issues that could be addressed by nutrition and physical activity intervention research. The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is ...

  3. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2012 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…

  4. Training in therapeutic communities and the promotion of relational well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lo Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers about a training intervention finalized to the integration of two Public Therapeutic Communities, with the general objective to improve the quality of the service through the integration of the clinical practices, the improvement of exchange network between the two communities and the foundation of a shared organizational culture. The paper contains two focuses: the definition of the setting related to objectives of institutional analysis and transformation, and the value of the median and large groups in order to promote wellness in work relationship. The experience of the training process moves around the development of the cultural themes connected to the relationship of care and the models of health and mental illness. The outcomes of the group process has been to build a healthy way of the relationship among communities operators with different roles and between caregivers and patients, and to increase mutual utility inside the service relationship.Keywords: Therapeutic communities; Organizational well-being; Group-Analytic training 

  5. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production.

  6. PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN INFORMATION PROCESS PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH L. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.

  7. Thickening compositions, and related materials and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Michael Joseph; Perry, Robert James; Enick, Robert Michael; Lee, Jason Jiwoo

    2017-10-03

    A silicone polymer is provided, modified with at least one functional group from the class of anthraquinone amide groups; anthraquinone sulfonamide groups; thioxanthone amide groups; or thioxanthone sulfone amide groups. The polymer can be combined with a hydrocarbon solvent or with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), and is very effective for increasing the viscosity of either medium. A process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean, oil-bearing formation is also described, using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with the functionalized silicone polymer. A process for extracting natural gas or oil from a bedrock-shale formation is also described, again using the modified silicone polymer.

  8. Process related contaminations causing climatic reliability issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Dutta, Mondira; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2012-01-01

    Some level of solder flux residue is inevitably found on electronics no matter whether the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing is carried out by hand, wave or reflow soldering process. The current use of no-clean flux systems should in principle only leave benign surface contamina...

  9. SAR Systems and Related Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is today a valuable source of remote sensing information. SAR is a side-looking imaging radar and operates from airborne and spacebome platforms. Coverage, resolution and image quality are strongly influenced by the platform. SAR processing can be performed on standard

  10. SAR Systems and Related Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is today a valuable source of remote sensing information. SAR is a side-looking imaging radar and operates from airborne and spacebome platforms. Coverage, resolution and image quality are strongly influenced by the platform. SAR processing can be performed on standard

  11. Relating Process to Outcome in Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan M.; Greenberg, L. S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed process of change in "best" sessions of Emotionally Focused Marital Therapy (EFT). Rated client performance in therapy on depth of experiencing and quality of interpersonal interactions. Noted occurrences of particular change events arising from theoretical principles of EFT. Confirmed that higher levels of experiencing and more…

  12. Process related contaminations causing climatic reliability issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Dutta, Mondira; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2012-01-01

    contaminants during the wave and re-flow soldering process; however variation in temperature on the PCBA surface during soldering can result in considerable amounts of active residues being left locally. Typical no-clean flux systems used today consist of weak organic acids (WOA) and active residues left...... of WOAs from reflow solder paste (malic, adipic, succinic, and glutaric acid) and its effects on leakage current and corrosion of Sn and Cu. Leakage current due to flux residue was investigated using a localized cleanliness test system C3 (Foresite Inc., USA). The system extracts residue contaminants......Some level of solder flux residue is inevitably found on electronics no matter whether the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing is carried out by hand, wave or reflow soldering process. The current use of no-clean flux systems should in principle only leave benign surface...

  13. Multi-Relational Characterization of Dynamic Social Network Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Sundaram, Hari; Kelliher, Aisling

    The emergence of the mediated social web - a distributed network of participants creating rich media content and engaging in interactive conversations through Internet-based communication technologies - has contributed to the evolution of powerful social, economic and cultural change. Online social network sites and blogs, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and LiveJournal, thrive due to their fundamental sense of "community". The growth of online communities offers both opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners. Participation in online communities has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways ranging from financial decision-making to political choices, suggesting the rich potential for diverse applications. However, although studies on the social web have been extensive, discovering communities from online social media remains challenging, due to the interdisciplinary nature of this subject. In this article, we present our recent work on characterization of communities in online social media using computational approaches grounded on the observations from social science.

  14. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  15. Runoff-related agricultural impact in relation to macroinvertebrate communities of the Lourens River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiere, Geraldine; Schulz, Ralf

    2004-07-01

    A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers. The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 microg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 microg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 microg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 microg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are

  16. Community Integration, Local Media Use, and Democratic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jack M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explicates the concept of community integration and its dimensions. Specifies structural and media antecedents and political consequences of these dimensions. Uses 15 indicators to test the hypothesis that integration is a multidimensional concept. Reveals that community integration has at least five dimensions: psychological attachment,…

  17. Law and Dispute Processing in the Academic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, Charles E.; Vago, Steven

    1980-01-01

    As the university becomes more of a bureaucracy than a community, changes occur in the law, power structures, and student faculty relationships, and members of the community are turning to the courts to resolve disputes they once settled informally. (Author/MSE)

  18. An enhanced relative spectral processing of speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Bin; WU Xihong; LIU Zhimin; CHI Huisheng

    2002-01-01

    An enhanced relative spectral (E_RASTA) technique for speech and speaker recognition is proposed. The new method consists of classical RASTA filtering in logarithmic spectral domain following by another additive RASTA filtering in the same domain. In this manner,both the channel distortion and additive noise are removed effectively. In speaker identification and speech recognition experiments on TI46 database, the E_RASTA performs equal or better than J_RASTA method in both tasks. The E_RASTA does not need the speech SNR estimation in order to determinate the optimal value of J in J_RASTA, and the information of how the speech degrades. The choice of E_RASTA filter also indicates that the low temporal modulation components in speech can deteriorate the performance of both recognition tasks. Besides, the speaker recognition needs less temporal modulation frequency band than that of the speech recognition.

  19. Creating Professional Communities in Schools through Organizational Learning: An Evaluation of a School Improvement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Jay Paredes; Cockrell, Karen Sunday; Cockrell, Dan H.; Valentine, Jerry W.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes a school-improvement process's potential to foster professional community in three rural middle schools through organizational learning. Findings of a two-year qualitative case study reveal bureaucracy/community tensions and isolate four influential community-building factors: principal leadership, organizational history, organizational…

  20. Medication Incidents Related to Automated Dose Dispensing in Community Pharmacies and Hospitals - A Reporting System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. Methods The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Main Outcome Measures Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. Results From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. Conclusion A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident

  1. Understandings and misunderstandings in Brazil’s relations with the European Economic Community (1957-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ayllón Pino

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the relations between Brazil and the European Economic Community (EECin terms of their past and present importance for Brazil’s foreign policy. The article provides a historical overview of the various phases of the process of European integration and Brazil’s different positions relative to them. It then proceeds to a synthesis of almost 50 years of Brazil-EEC relations and, finally, focuses on the most problematic outstanding issues. It also looks at the dimension of cooperation in these relations, particularly since the 1995 signing of the Framework Agreement on Interregional Cooperation between the European Union (EU and Mercosur and between the EU and Brazil with the resulting increase in contacts.

  2. Interplay Between Intended Brand Identity and Identities in a Nike Related Brand Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Al Zagir, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    While branding research traditionally views brand identity as an inside-out management controlled phenomenon, recent research emphasizes that a wide variety of stakeholders in the brand ecosystem enact and co-create brand identity. Following this theoretical perspective, management forms......, this research compares individual and collective articulations of a Nike related brand community with articulations of the intended brand identity. While earlier findings solely emphasize inside-out brand management or outside-in brand community perspectives, the findings of this article reveal a nested system...... the intended brand identity in a deliberate process and articulates this identity, surfacing as values and artifacts. Stakeholders develop and articulate values and artifacts in their own manner, but enact the brand identity at the same time. On the basis of data from a participatory ethnographic study...

  3. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  4. SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS--A NEW APPROACH. ADMINISTRATION IN EDUCATION SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGSTROM, YVONNE; SUMPTION, MERLE R.

    THIS BOOK PRESENTS A VIEW OF SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF THE CHANGING SCHOOL IN THE CHANGING COMMUNITY. TO DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN A DESIRABLE AND ADEQUATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY, FOUR ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES MUST BE OPERATIVE--(1) RECOGNITION THAT THE SCHOOL IS A PUBLIC ENTERPRISE, (2) UNDERSTANDING THAT THE…

  5. A Tool and Process that Facilitate Community Capacity Building and Social Learning for Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Raymond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a self-assessment tool and process that facilitate community capacity building and social learning for natural resource management. The tool and process provide opportunities for rural landholders and project teams both to self-assess their capacity to plan and deliver natural resource management (NRM programs and to reflect on their capacities relative to other organizations and institutions that operate in their region. We first outline the tool and process and then present a critical review of the pilot in the South Australian Arid Lands NRM region, South Australia. Results indicate that participants representing local, organizational, and institutional tiers of government were able to arrive at a group consensus position on the strength, importance, and confidence of a variety of capacities for NRM categorized broadly as human, social, physical, and financial. During the process, participants learned a lot about their current capacity as well as capacity needs. Broad conclusions are discussed with reference to the iterative process for assessing and reflecting on community capacity.

  6. The Microbial Community Dynamics during the Vitex Honey Ripening Process in the Honeycomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities of vitex honey were surveyed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Vitex honey samples were analyzed at different stage of ripening; the vitex flower was also analyzed, and the effect of the chemical composition in the experimental setup was assessed. The results confirmed the presence of dominant Bacillus spp. as the dominant bacterial in honey, and yeast related genera was the main fungal in the honey, respectively. Lactococcus and Enterococcus were detected for the first time in honey. The proportion of most of the fungal community decreased during the honey ripening process. Multivariate analyses also showed that the fungal community of 5, 10, and 15 days honey samples tended to cluster together and were completely separated from the 1 day honey sample. The change in the fungal community showed a correlation with the variation in the chemical components, such as moisture and phenolic compounds. Together, these results suggest that ripening of honey could change its microbial composition, and decrease the potential risk of microbiology.

  7. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper compares results from 2015 and 2012 across such areas as the structure, operations and budget for alumni relations, alumni data collection and management, alumni communications…

  8. Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks Bay is a shallow, microtidal, eutrophic sub-estuary of Mobile Bay, AL. High watershed nutrient inputs to the estuary contribute to a eutrophic condition characterized by frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation. Spatial and seasonal variability of microbial communities that contribute to estuarine ecosystem metabolism were characterized using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Surface water samples were collected from spring to fall at three sites along a transect of Weeks Bay from the Fish River to Mobile Bay. Water samples were analyzed for physiochemical properties and were also filtered onto Sterivex filters for DNA extraction. Genes for 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA were amplified and sequenced according to Earth Microbiome Project protocols. Sequences were assembled into contigs and clustered into OTUs with mothur using the Silva database. The prokaryotes were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spartobacteria, whereas the eukaryotes were dominated by Bacillariophyta (diatoms). Multivariate statistical analysis of microbial community composition and environmental data showed that Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota were clustered by season. BEST analysis by station showed that prokaryotic community structure was associated with salinity and CDOM (Rho=0.924), whereas eukaryotic community structure was most associated with salinity (Rho=0.846). Prokaryotic community structure within seasons was associated with six

  9. Community facilitation of problem structuring and decision making processes: Experiences from the EU LEADER+ programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2009-01-01

    making processes related to the agreement on action plans. Learning to design, plan, manage and facilitate conferences and workshops have also being another central activity. The main purpose of these conferences and workshops was not only problem structuring and decision making in connection...... contribute to long-term and sustainable development in these regions. The main tasks have been the organisation and facilitation of conferences and workshops to structure the problematic situation of identifying and designing innovative projects for the development of the community and to support decision...

  10. A comparative study of the bacterial community in denitrifying and traditional enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Chao-Lin; Li, Ji; Gao, Xin-Lei; Sun, Fei-Yun

    2014-09-17

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated in alternating anaerobic-anoxic (A-A) or anaerobic-oxic (A-O) conditions to achieve denitrifying enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) and traditional EBPR. No significant differences were observed in phosphorus removal efficiencies between A-A SBR and A-O SBR, with phosphorus removal rates being 87.9% and 89.0% respectively. The community structures in denitrifying and traditional EBPR processes were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of the PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes from each sludge. The results obtained showed that the bacterial community was more diverse in A-O sludge than in A-A sludge. Taxonomy and β-diversity analyses indicated that a significant shift occurred in the dominant microbial community in A-A sludge compared with the seed sludge during the whole acclimation phase, while a slight fluctuation was observed in the abundance of the major taxonomies in A-O sludge. One Dechloromonas-related OTU outside the 4 known Candidatus "Accumulibacter" clades was detected as the main OTU in A-A sludge at the stationary operation, while Candidatus "Accumulibacter" dominated in A-O sludge.

  11. 12 CFR 618.8010 - Related services authorization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Related services authorization process. 618.8010 Section 618.8010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Related Services § 618.8010 Related services authorization process. (a) Authorities. System...

  12. Sense of community in Hong Kong: relations with community-level characteristics and residents' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Law, Lawrence S C

    2009-09-01

    Sense of community (SOC) has been one of the most studied topics in community psychology. However, no empirical study to date has investigated SOC in Hong Kong and its relations with community characteristics and residents' psychological well-being. A representative sample of 941 Hong Kong Chinese based on a randomized household survey was conducted in all 18 districts in Hong Kong. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that SOC was not associated with sociodemographic indicators on both the individual-level (i.e., gender, age, family income, education level, type of residence, and area-to-capita ratio of residence) and the community-level (i.e., proportion of individuals with tertiary education, median family income, ownership of residence, population density, and resident stability). SOC was negatively related to daily hassles and positively with social support and quality of life. Conceptualization of SOC in Hong Kong was discussed.

  13. Microbial community structure in different wastewater treatment processes characterized by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangguo ZHAO; Aijie WANG; Nanqi REN; Yan ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate microbial community structures in different wastewater treatment processes and understand the relationship between the structures and the status of processes, the microbial community diversity, variety and distribution in five wastewater treatment processes were studied by a culture-independent genetic fingerprinting technique single-strand conformation poly-morphism (SSCP). The five processes included denitrifying and phosphate-removal system (diminished N), Chinese traditional medicine wastewater treatment system (P), beer wastewater treatment system (W), fermentative biohydrogen-producing system (H), and sulfate-reduction system (S). The results indicated that the microbial community profiles in the wastewater bioreactors with the uniform status were very similar. The diversity of microbial populations was correlated with the complexity of organic contaminants in wastewater. Chinese traditional medicine wastewater contained more complex organic components; hence, the population diversity was higher than that of simple nutrient bioreactors fed with molasses wastewater. Compared with the strain bands in a simulated community, the relative proportion of some functional microbial populations in bioreactors was not dom-inant. Fermentative biohydrogen producer Ethanoligenens harbinense in the better condition bioreactor had only a 5% band density, and the Desulfovibrio sp. in the sulfate-reducing bioreactor had less than 1.5% band density. The SSCP profiles could identify the difference in microbial community structures in wastewater treatment processes, monitor some of the functional microbes in these processes, and consequently provide useful guidance for improving their efficiency.

  14. Processes of community development and responses of ecosystems to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.

    1989-05-26

    Our studies focus on attempting to understand the role of decomposer-primary producer linkages in successional dynamics. We are testing a series of hypotheses that relate changes in plant species composition during succession to changes in activity and structure of the soil microfloral and faunal community, dynamics of soil organic matter, and availability of soil nutrients. As these successional patterns are identified, they are being applied to understanding specific processes and mechanics involved in ecosystem development during recovery from moderate and severe disturbances. These findings are then being used in conjunction with simulation models to assess potential effects of climate change on ecosystems. Our research involves field studies in northwestern Colorado and southeastern Washington, laboratory studies, and simulation modeling. Ongoing projects include studies of response patterns of primary producer and soil microbial communities to nutrient additions (N, P, and sucrose), the function of mycorrhizal fungi in plant community development, and the dynamics of litter decomposition under semiarid conditions. New studies are being implemented to investigate the significance of nutrient transfers from VAM fungi to plants and plant-root exudate interactions, and to relate this to understanding their roles in succession.

  15. Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Whatley, M.H.; van der Geest, H.G.; Mulder, C.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Detritus processing is driven by a complex interplay between macroinvertebrate and microbial activities. Bioturbation/feeding activities of invertebrates in sediments are known to influence decomposition rates. However, direct effects of invertebrates on bacterial communities and detritus processing

  16. Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Whatley, M.H.; van der Geest, H.G.; Mulder, C.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Detritus processing is driven by a complex interplay between macroinvertebrate and microbial activities. Bioturbation/feeding activities of invertebrates in sediments are known to influence decomposition rates. However, direct effects of invertebrates on bacterial communities and detritus processing

  17. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their perfor

  18. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their perfor

  19. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their

  20. does road safety projects relate to community capacity building?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: AARSI road safety projects, capacity building, capacity building ... key stakeholders on road safety in Nigeria in order to complement the ... challenges the notion that practitioners and community programmes should .... Federal Road Safety Commission-FRSC and Lagos State Traffic Management .... perspective.

  1. Professional Learning Community in Relation to School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of schools as professional learning communities, defined by nine characteristics and their relationship with the schools' level of effectiveness. The study was conducted within three schools in Iceland. It was designed as a mixed methods study, conducted in two phases: a correlational study of survey data on schools as professional…

  2. Social Relation Networks in UT-Online Community Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2012-01-01

    So far, the existence of a virtual community forum has become a reality and social necessity in an era cybertech. It was also viewed as the electronic frontier of 21st century society that was undoubtedly for reorganizing and redefining to awareness of human being, that ways of their perceptions and explorations no longer limited by time, space,…

  3. Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Brizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives: The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results: In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR to participatory action research (PAR, community-based research (CBR and community

  4. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  5. Bacterial community associated with ensilage process of wilted guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, S; Nishino, N

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of wilting, storage period and bacterial inoculant on the bacterial community and ensiling fermentation of guinea grass silage. Fermentation products, colony counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were determined. There was more lactic acid than acetic acid in all silages, but the lactic acid to acetic acid ratio decreased with storage time. This shift from lactic to acetic acid was not prevented even with a combination of wilting and bacterial inoculant. The DGGE analyses suggest that facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus) were involved in the shift to acetic acid fermentation. Lactic acid can dominate the fermentation in tropical grass silage with sufficient wilting prior to ensiling. Prolonged storage may lead to high levels of acetic acid without distinctive changes in the bacterial community. The bacterial community looks stable compared to fermentation products over the course of long storage periods in tropical grass silage. Acetic acid fermentation in tropical grass silage can be a result of the changes in bacterial metabolism rather than community structure.

  6. Learning: A Process of Enculturation into the Community's Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ailing; Pearson, P. David

    2005-01-01

    The authors gave the following talk at the 2004 NCTE Annual Convention in Indianapolis upon receiving the Alan C. Purves Award, presented to the RTE article from the previous volume year judged most likely to have an impact on classroom practice ("The Road to Participation: The Construction of a Literacy Practice in a Learning Community of…

  7. Comprehensive Community Model for Physical Processes in the Nearshore Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    community model that predicts Nearshore hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed morphology changes given offshore wave conditions and initial...and morphological evolution Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13

  8. Communication and Social Exchange Processes in Community Theater Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…

  9. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…

  10. Community Relations: DOD’s Approach for Using Resources Reflects Sound Management Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    COMMUNITY RELATIONS DOD’s Approach for Using Resources Reflects Sound Management Principles Report to...Sound Management Principles What GAO Found The Department of Defense’s (DOD) approach for determining which community relations activities to...undertake reflects sound management principles —both for activities requested by non-DOD entities and for activities initiated by the department. DOD and

  11. Community data paradox: an informal look into data available for simulating community processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Jr, N F; Rabl, V A

    1978-11-01

    This paper is written to give engineers and modelers an idea of the types of data that they may expect to be available in a community that can be used as inputs for their models. As such, it is a broad representation of the reasons why data availability varies from place to place, and provides an idea of the quality of data that can be expected for a given community.

  12. Similar processes but different environmental filters for soil bacterial and fungal community composition turnover on a broad spatial scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré

    Full Text Available Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2: i to examine their spatial structuring; ii to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (Landescommunities' composition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at

  13. Slowing down: age-related neurobiological predictors of processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Eckert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-relatedcognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed - dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging.

  14. The process of adoption of the principle of subsidiarity in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lluís Piñol

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In disregarding the treatment that the European media offers the subject, the author sets out with the statement that the Principle of Subsidiarity is a procedural principle recently inserted in the logic of the attribution of competence and in the process of Community decision-making. Used as it is as a legal-political instrument,reinforcing the principle of democratic legitibility and closely connected to the principle of solidarity, the Principle of Subsidiarity favours the assumption of competence by the European Cornmunity as much as its decentralization.In order to understand the adoption of this principle in the Treaty on European Union, the author proceeds, in the first place, with a relatively abstract analysis about the ambiguous, multi-faceted and various interpretations that this principle has repeatedly received. Secondly, equal reference is made to the political debate concerning the inclusion or exclusion of the PS in the Community treaties, as to the specific meaning of the PS in the different Councils of Europe.The Edinburgh meeting deserves special treatment as the author considers it a model of analysis of Community decision-making in which the classic actors of the EC (its institutions and its member states have participated as well as other actors: organized political forces in the Europe of Twelve and, from 1986, the nationalparliaments of such countries. By way of a change, the author includes an analysis of the performance of those forces that existed before, but that were relatively poorly organized with respect to the theme of Community integration: the so-called regions, at individual level (lander, Catalonia or the Basque Country or organizationally in the CPLRE and the ARE and also looks at those actions taken by certain personalites such as Spinelli, Giscard dlEstaing or the very same Jacques Delors.

  15. Emotional connotations of words related to authority and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauenburg, Gesche; Ambrasat, Jens; Schröder, Tobias; von Scheve, Christian; Conrad, Markus

    2015-09-01

    We present a database of 858 German words from the semantic fields of authority and community, which represent core dimensions of human sociality. The words were selected on the basis of co-occurrence profiles of representative keywords for these semantic fields. All words were rated along five dimensions, each measured by a bipolar semantic-differential scale: Besides the classic dimensions of affective meaning (valence, arousal, and potency), we collected ratings of authority and community with newly developed scales. The results from cluster, correlational, and multiple regression analyses on the rating data suggest a robust negativity bias for authority valuation among German raters recruited via university mailing lists, whereas community ratings appear to be rather unrelated to the well-established affective dimensions. Furthermore, our data involve a strong overall negative correlation-rather than the classical U-shaped distribution-between valence and arousal for socially relevant concepts. Our database provides a valuable resource for research questions at the intersection of cognitive neuroscience and social psychology. It can be downloaded as supplemental materials with this article.

  16. The community epidemiology of underage drinking: variation across communities in relations of risk to alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Cleveland, Michael J; Greenberg, Mark T

    2012-12-01

    To test the assumption embedded in state-of-the-art, community assessment and decision-making regarding prevention of underage drinking: that there is minimal variation in the way that risk and protective factors (RPF) are associated with underage drinking across communities. Three large datasets provided the same measures of adolescent alcohol use and RPFs. Multilevel ordered-logistic regression models were carried out separately for each dataset and separately for males and females in 8th and 10th grades, testing random slopes for each RPF index. Predicted school-level coefficients were derived from these models, representing the association between RPFs and alcohol use. The variation in associations between RPFs and alcohol use across schools was greatest for antisocial peer risk and community protection; the lowest variation across schools was found for family cohesion and individual antisocial behavior. Ranges in predicted coefficients indicate large differences across schools for many RPFs. Bivariate correlations indicated that school-level associations vary across RPFs in expected directions. Policy makers should recognize that the magnitude of associations between RPFs and adolescent alcohol use vary considerably across communities, and that such variability is greater for certain RPFs than others. These findings have implications for policies regarding how prevention resources are targeted within and across communities.

  17. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Forces on the Composition and Dynamics of a Soft-Sediment Intertidal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwing, Travis G; Drolet, David; Hamilton, Diana J; Barbeau, Myriam A

    2016-01-01

    Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a "first come, first served" process.

  18. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Forces on the Composition and Dynamics of a Soft-Sediment Intertidal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2016-01-01

    Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a “first come, first served” process. PMID:26790098

  19. Detecting community structure in complex networks using an interaction optimization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Kim, Sangwook

    2017-01-01

    Most complex networks contain community structures. Detecting these community structures is important for understanding and controlling the networks. Most community detection methods use network topology and edge density to identify optimal communities; however, these methods have a high computational complexity and are sensitive to network forms and types. To address these problems, in this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses an interaction optimization process to detect community structures in complex networks. This algorithm efficiently searches the candidates of optimal communities by optimizing the interactions of the members within each community based on the concept of greedy optimization. During this process, each candidate is evaluated using an interaction-based community model. This model quickly and accurately measures the difference between the quantity and quality of intra- and inter-community interactions. We test our algorithm on several benchmark networks with known community structures that include diverse communities detected by other methods. Additionally, after applying our algorithm to several real-world complex networks, we compare our algorithm with other methods. We find that the structure quality and coverage results achieved by our algorithm surpass those of the other methods.

  20. Towards securing SCADA systems against process-related threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Bolzoni, Damiano; Hartel, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    We propose a tool-assisted approach to address process-related threats on SCADA systems. Process-related threats have not been addressed before in a systematic manner. Our approach consists of two steps: threat analysis and threat mitigation. For the threat analysis, we combine two methodologies (PH

  1. The Teacher and the Community: A Case Study of Teacher-Community Relations among the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…

  2. Linking land-use intensification, plant communities, and ecosystem processes in lowland Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Carreno Rocabado, I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use intensification (LUI) is one of the main global drivers of biodiversity loss with negative impact on ecosystem processes and the services that societies derive from the ecosystems. The effect of LUI on ecosystem processes can be direct through changes in environmental conditions and indirect through changes in plant community. In this dissertation I explored the mechanisms through which land-use intensification affects plant community assembly and ecosystem processes in the Bolivian ...

  3. Potts model based on a Markov process computation solves the community structure problem effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Wang, Yong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2012-07-01

    The Potts model is a powerful tool to uncover community structure in complex networks. Here, we propose a framework to reveal the optimal number of communities and stability of network structure by quantitatively analyzing the dynamics of the Potts model. Specifically we model the community structure detection Potts procedure by a Markov process, which has a clear mathematical explanation. Then we show that the local uniform behavior of spin values across multiple timescales in the representation of the Markov variables could naturally reveal the network's hierarchical community structure. In addition, critical topological information regarding multivariate spin configuration could also be inferred from the spectral signatures of the Markov process. Finally an algorithm is developed to determine fuzzy communities based on the optimal number of communities and the stability across multiple timescales. The effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm are theoretically analyzed as well as experimentally validated.

  4. Potts model based on a Markov process computation solves the community structure problem effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui-Jia; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Potts model is a powerful tool to uncover community structure in complex networks. Here, we propose a new framework to reveal the optimal number of communities and stability of network structure by quantitatively analyzing the dynamics of Potts model. Specifically we model the community structure detection Potts procedure by a Markov process, which has a clear mathematical explanation. Then we show that the local uniform behavior of spin values across multiple timescales in the representation of the Markov variables could naturally reveal the network's hierarchical community structure. In addition, critical topological information regarding to multivariate spin configuration could also be inferred from the spectral signatures of the Markov process. Finally an algorithm is developed to determine fuzzy communities based on the optimal number of communities and the stability across multiple timescales. The effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm are theoretically analyzed as well as experimentally validate...

  5. Community-onset healthcare-related urinary tract infections: comparison with community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Duran, Silvia; Horcajada, Juan P; Sorlí, Luisa; Montero, Milagro; Salvadó, Margarita; Grau, Santiago; Gómez, Julià; Knobel, Hernando

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the characteristics of infection, adequacy of empirical treatment and outcome of patients with community-onset healthcare-associated (HCA) urinary tract infections (UTI) and compare them with hospital (HA) and community-acquired (CA) UTI. Prospective observational cohort study performed at a university 600-bed hospital between July 2009 and February 2010. Patients with UTI requiring hospital admission were included. Epidemiological, clinical and outcome data were recorded. 251 patients were included. Patients with community-onset HCA UTI were older, had more co-morbidities and had received previous antimicrobial treatment more frequently than CA UTI (p = 0.02, p = 0.01 and p infections were more frequent in HCA than in CA UTI (p = 0.03 and p community-onset HCA and CA. Factors related to mortality were P. aeruginosa infection (OR 6.51; 95%CI: 1.01-41.73), diabetes mellitus (OR 22.66; 95%CI: 3.61-142.21), solid neoplasia (OR 22.48; 95%CI: 3.38-149.49) and age (OR 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28). Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features suggest that community-onset HCA UTI is different from CA and similar to HA UTI. However, in our series inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy and mortality were not significantly higher in community-onset HCA than in CA UTI. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Process Towards Societal Value within a Community-Based Regional Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Åslund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes, activities and tasks of a community-based area development project are described. The main process has been used three times and a model is presented. An earlier developed process map has been verified. The description of the project can help other communities to plan development projects. The illustration can be valuable for entrepreneurs who are planning a societal value initiative and for decision-makers and stakeholders who can contribute to, are concerned with, or may be affected by societal entrepreneurship. Observation, participating studies, dokumentations and an interview with the project leader has been carried out. Data have been analyzed and compared with the previously developed process map to achieve a deeper understanding of the processes within societal entrepreneurship. The purpose was to study and describe the processes of a community-based area development project and to compare it with a previously developed process map and to verify the process map.

  7. Relative importance of abiotic, biotic, and disturbance drivers of plant community structure in the sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel M; Bakker, Jonathan D; Vincent, John B; Davies, G Matt

    2017-04-01

    Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in the state of Washington, USA, to ask three questions: (1) What are the key drivers of community-level metrics of community structure? (2) Do community-level metrics and functional groups differ in magnitude or direction of response to drivers of community structure? (3) What is the relative importance of drivers of community structure? The vegetation in 2002 was expressed as seven response variables: three community-level metrics (species richness, total cover, compositional change from 1989 to 2002) and the relative abundances of four functional groups. We used a multi-model inference framework to identify a set of top models for each response metric beginning from a global model that included two abiotic drivers, six disturbances, a biotic driver (initial plant community), and interactions between the disturbance and biotic drivers. We also used a permutational relative variable importance metric to rank the influence of drivers. Moisture availability was the most important driver of species richness and of native forb cover. Fire was the most important driver of shrub cover and training area usage was important for compositional change, but disturbances, including grazing, were of secondary importance for most other variables. Biotic drivers, as represented by the initial plant communities, were the most important driver for total cover and for the relative covers of exotics and native grasses. Our results indicate that the relative importance of drivers is dependent on the choice of metric, and that drivers such as disturbance and initial plant community can interact. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Brand Community.

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Albert M, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces the idea of brand community. A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. Grounded in both classic and contemporary sociology and consumer behavior, this article uses ethnographic and computer mediated environment data to explore the characteristics, processes, and particularities of three brand communities (those centered on Ford Bronco, Macintosh, and Saab). These bran...

  9. Work Process in Primary Health Care: action research with Community Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article was to describe and analyze the work of community health workers (CHW). The main objective of study was to analyze the development process of primary health care practices related to drug consumption. The study is based on the Marxist theoretical orientation and the action research methodology, which resulted in the performance of 15 emancipatory workshops. The category work process spawned the content analysis. It exposed the social abandonment of the environment in which the CHWs work is performed. The latter had an essential impact on the identification of the causes of drug-related problems. These findings made it possible to criticize the reiterative, stressful actions that are being undertaken there. Such an act resulted in raising of the awareness and creating the means for political action. The CHWs motivated themselves to recognize the object of the work process in primary health care, which they found to be the disease or addiction in the case of drug users. They have criticized this categorization as well as discussed the social division of work and the work itself whilst recognizing themselves as mere instruments in the work process. The latter has inspired the CHW to become subjects, or co-producers of transformations of social needs.

  10. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

  11. Sense of Classroom Community and Team Development Process in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Aydin, Irem; Gumus, Salih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between Turkish online learners' sense of classroom community, perceptions of success in team development process and their preferences of studying in teams. A survey instrument included the Sense of Classroom Community Scale, Tuckman's Teamwork Questionnaire and some other…

  12. Economic and Trade Relations between the European Community and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nuñez

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available EC-Bolivia relations take place within the frame of the Cooperation Agreement signed by the EC and the Andean Group countries. The author studies the trading relations, focusing on its irregular evolution and the utilization of the preferential tools provided by the EC. His conclusion cannot be much optimistic as the continuous fall of relations between the EC and Latin America gives no hope for an improvement in the case of Bolivia.

  13. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Herd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  14. Community mobilization and the framing of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  15. Effect of continuous oleate addition on microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baserba, Manel Garrido; Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the microbial diversity in anaerobic reactors, continuously exposed to oleate, added to a manure reactor influent, was investigated. Relative changes in archaeal community were less remarkable in comparison to changes in bacterial community indicating that dominant archaeal ...... a comprehensive picture on oleate degrading microbial communities in high organic strength wastewater. The findings might be utilized for development of strategies for biogas production from lipid-riched wastes....

  16. STEM-related, Student-led Service Learning / Community Engagement Projects: Examples and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Wayland, K.

    2015-12-01

    Field-based, STEM-related service learning / community engagement projects present an opportunity for undergraduate students to demonstrate proficiencies related to the process of inquiry. These proficiencies include: appreciation of the larger project context, articulation of an informed question/hypothesis, project proposal development, interdisciplinary collaboration, project management (including planning, implementation reconfiguration and synthesis) and lastly the generation and handing off of acquired knowledge. Calls for these types of proficiencies have been expressed by governmental, non-governmental as well as the private sector. Accordingly, institutions of higher learning have viewed such activities as opportunities for enriching the learning experience for undergraduate students and for making such students more marketable, especially those from STEM-related fields. This institutional interest has provided an opportunity to support and expand field-based learning. Here we present examples of student-led/faculty-mentored international service learning and community engagement projects along the arc of preparation, implementation and post-field process. Representative examples that draw upon environmental science and engineering knowledge have been selected from more than 20 international undergraduate student projects over past decade and include: slow-sand water filtration, rainwater harvesting, methane biodigesters, water reticulation schemes and development and implementation of rocket stoves for communal cooking. We discuss these efforts in terms of the development of the aforementioned proficiencies, the utility of such proficiencies to the larger enterprise of STEM and the potential for transformative student learning outcomes. We share these experiences and lessons learned with the hope that others may intelligently borrow from our approach in a manner appropriate for their particular context.

  17. Determinants of beta diversity: the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring phytoplankton communities in an Amazonian floodplain Determinantes da diversidade beta: a importância relativa de processos ambientais e espaciais na estrutura de comunidades fitoplanctônicas de uma planície de inundação amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina de Souza Nogueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Beta diversity is defined as the change in species composition along environmental gradients, and in the present study, we investigated the influence of local (i.e., environmental and regional (i.e., dispersal factors in community structure. The aims of this study were to evaluate the beta diversity of phytoplankton communities in the Curuaí floodplain and to determine the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes in shaping phytoplankton community structure; METHOD: The phytoplankton communities were sampled in 16 lakes of the Curuaí floodplain (Amazon Basin during high-water periods in 2002 and 2003. We used partial redundancy analysis (pRDA to evaluate the pure effect of environmental (six variables and spatial (spatial filter variability on phytoplankton community composition; RESULTS: There were 156 taxa recorded in the two study years, including 122 algae species in 2002 and 66 algae species in 2003. The beta diversity that we measured (βSIM index was 0.889 in 2002 and 0.789 in 2003. The partitioning variation demonstrated that the majority of variation in phytoplankton community structure was not significantly explained by pure environmental and pure spatial components. However, environmental variables presented a larger coefficient of determination than the spatial variable; CONCLUSION: Other factors than those we measured in this study, such as local variables (i.e., biotic interactions, hydrology, etc. and stochastic events, affected the absence of significant results in our data. Therefore, we suggest that additional variables, such as biological interactions and other local factors, should be considered in this type of analysis to increase its explanatory power for understanding the variation of diversity in these communities.OBJETIVO: A diversidade beta é definida como as mudanças na composição de espécies ao longo de um gradiente ambiental, e atualmente, ecólogos têm investigado a influência de

  18. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  19. The Power of Competing Narratives: A New Interpretation of Rural School-Community Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Often considered harmonious places, rural communities are in reality spaces often fragmented along class lines, with political factions promoting competing values and interests regarding the purpose of schooling. Using an exemplar case, this study affords us a new interpretation of rural school-community relations in times of conflict. It…

  20. Impact evaluation of a Dutch community intervention to improve health-related behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, G.C.; Lenthe, van F.J.; Nierop, van P.W.M.; Koelen, Maria A.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a 2-year community intervention on health-related behaviour among adults aged 18-65 years living in deprived neighbourhoods in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The intervention is evaluated in a community intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design in a longi

  1. Community patterns of soil bacteria and nematodes in relation to geographic distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monroy, F.; Putten, van der W.H.; Yergeau, E.; Duyts, H.; Mortimer, S.R.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems consist of aboveground and belowground subsystems and the structure of their communities is known to change with distance. However, most of this knowledge originates from visible, aboveground components, whereas relatively little is known about how soil community structure varies with dis

  2. Women Leaders in High-Poverty Community Schools: Work-Related Stress and Family Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of women administrators in high-poverty community schools, investigating four women's perspectives on work demands and the impact on their families. Their work demands are related to the characteristics of impoverished communities, whereas their work resources are based on intrinsic rewards and…

  3. The virtual group identification process: a virtual educational community case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Young, Mei-Lein

    2008-02-01

    Because the Internet provides an alternative forum for the social interaction of professional groups, understanding how these groups form as virtual communities (VCs) in cyberspace is crucial. In this study, we observe the social interactions of teachers belonging to the largest VC in Taiwan and analyze discourse on an important educational policy, using content analysis to ascertain how virtual group identity is established. Our primary findings show that among the seven identity categories characterizing professional virtual group identity, both alliance and kinship types of identities are the main forces behind the formation of a virtual group. In contrast, the affection, attachment, bonding, closeness, and nostalgia types of identities show minimal effect. Moreover, leadership of the virtual group plays a critical role in the group setting, and participants play a part in restoring a positive sense of self or in shaping the group identity as they encounter threats in this dynamic environment.

  4. Implementing a community-based self care training initiative: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Darby, Frances; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; White, Alan

    2010-11-01

    Within the UK, there is growing recognition that individuals will need to take increased responsibility for managing their own health for there to be improvements in population health. The current evidence base on self care interventions reflects an interest in enhancing self care knowledge, skills and behaviour in relation to the management of long-term conditions. In contrast, this paper reports on a community-based self care initiative that was designed to promote self care approaches in the general population. The principal component was a self care skills training course delivered to groups of lay people in community and workplace settings. Self Care for People was piloted in three primary care trusts and a process evaluation was undertaken. The aim of this paper is to examine the feasibility, relevance and acceptability of the initiative. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a sample of stakeholders involved in implementation including coordinators, trainers and key informants from organisations hosting the course. In total 40 interviews and two focus groups were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and the data were analysed thematically. The evaluation found that implementation was relatively straightforward with few major barriers reported. Recruitment to the self care skills training course took place in both workplace and community group settings, including in organisations supporting socially excluded groups. The course was seen to provide a valuable space for contemplation on personal health, however, participation could raise sensitive issues that needed to be dealt with by skilled facilitators. Motivations for involvement differed markedly in host organisations and different strategies for marketing were adopted. The paper concludes by suggesting that while Self Care for People was both feasible and relevant to different stakeholder groups, there needs to be flexibility in responding to the needs of participants in different settings.

  5. Social learning Processes and Nature-Culture relations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores social learning processes and nature-culture relations in a context of ..... Extract 14: In this area, it has a lot of impact because you will be politically labelled. ..... Zimbabwe Ministry of Environment and Tourism (2002).

  6. Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration: The International Community and the Rwandan Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    The idea of Rwandan national unity is a cornerstone to a successful reintegration of all members of society, both the victims of the genocide and...Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration : The International Community and the Rwandan Process A Monograph by Major Jeffrey H. Powell, II...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration : The International Community and the Rwandan Process 5c. PROGRAM

  7. Partnering for Health with Nebraska's Latina Immigrant Community Using Design Thinking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Athena K; Trinidad, Natalia; Correa, Antonia; Rivera, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of Nebraska Medical Center partnered with El Centro de Las Americas, a community-based organization, and various community members to develop a 1-day Spanish-language health conference entitled El Encuentro de La Mujer Sana (Healthy Woman Summit) for immigrant Latinas in Nebraska during May 2013 as part of National Women's Health Week. Design thinking was used to create a meaningful learning experience specifically designed for monolingual Spanish-speaking immigrant Latinas in Nebraska and build a foundation for collaboration between an academic institution, community-based organizational partners, and community members. We used the design thinking methodology to generate ideas for topics and prototyped agendas with community stakeholders that would be relevant and provide culturally and linguistically appropriate health education. By developing community-based health education programs for Latinas with Latinas through a community-engaged co-creation process, organizations and communities build trust, enhance community capacity, and meet identified needs for education and service. Design thinking is a valuable tool that can be used to develop community health education initiatives and enhance civic participation. This method holds promise for health education and public health in becoming more relevant for traditionally marginalized or disenfranchised populations.

  8. Applications of Social Psychology in Police-Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Neil

    Many techniques can be utilized to improve citizen attitude toward police. Research in social psychology provides considerable information concerning attitude change processes. This paper explores interpersonal attraction (attitudes toward individuals) and helping behavior (assisting others) within the broader context of attitude change.…

  9. Evaluation of Candidate Teachers Related to the Weblog Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Tugba; Demirgünes, Sercan

    2016-01-01

    Weblogs offer a new writing and reading environment. Most people in the education process may improve their writing skills and achieve new perspectives related to writing via weblogs. In this study the changes that weblog writing process created in undergraduates'/candidate teachers' minds regarding writing are revealed. The weblog writing process…

  10. Dynamic neural processing of linguistic cues related to death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death's inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84-120 ms (N1 decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals' pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124-300 ms (P2 and of a frontal/central positivity at 300-500 ms (P3. However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information.

  11. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  12. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  13. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  14. A Relational Reasoning Approach to Text-Graphic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose that research on text-graphic processing could be strengthened by the inclusion of relational reasoning perspectives. We briefly outline four aspects of relational reasoning: "analogies," "anomalies," "antinomies", and "antitheses". Next, we illustrate how text-graphic researchers have been…

  15. Relational Processes in Career Transition: Extending Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Sue L.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of work in relational theory and career decision making explores how relational processes, not just people's relationships but more broadly their connections to self, others, and society, inform career development and counseling. This article presents the results of a qualitative research study of midlife women in career transition…

  16. Community College Journalism Professors Should Underscore Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the importance of including instruction in public relations (PR) in journalism curricula. Discusses common misconceptions regarding PR, the evolution of the field, and the social science aspects and ultimate goals of PR. Indicates that it is important to provide students with a balanced introduction to PR. (MAB)

  17. Community College Journalism Professors Should Underscore Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the importance of including instruction in public relations (PR) in journalism curricula. Discusses common misconceptions regarding PR, the evolution of the field, and the social science aspects and ultimate goals of PR. Indicates that it is important to provide students with a balanced introduction to PR. (MAB)

  18. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Media Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    One of the most effective ways to raise awareness about a problem and generate support for solutions is through the media. This guide describes the basic principles of media relations that can help organizations develop an effective media strategy for underage drinking prevention. The tools that are necessary for this strategy, including news…

  19. Discourse accessibility constraints in children's processing of object relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children's poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children's performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children's language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases.

  20. [The process of integrating oncology nurse navigators into joint (hospital-community) local teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Lise; Aubin, Michèle; de Serres, Marie; Robitaille, Danielle; Veillette, Anne-Marie; Rainville, François

    2010-01-01

    Implementing oncology nurse navigators or IPOs (which stands for "infirmière pivot en oncologie") is a key element of the Québec Cancer Control Program in order to improve the continuity of care. This qualitative study describes the process of implementing IPOs in teams working both in hospitals and in the community. Several groups of stakeholders (IPOs, physicians, nurses, various health workers, administrators, people with cancer and their families) described how they perceive the functions and effects related to this implementation. After putting results into perspective, we recommend developing measures promoting the dissemination of the role and integration of IPOs in formally defined health teams. We strongly advocate for the continuation of joint efforts in order to define and clarify this complex role.

  1. Methods for Dissecting Motivation and Related Psychological Processes in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    Motivational impairments are increasingly recognized as being critical to functional deficits and decreased quality of life in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disease. Accordingly, much preclinical research has focused on identifying psychological and neurobiological processes which underlie motivation . Inferring motivation from changes in overt behavioural responding in animal models, however, is complicated, and care must be taken to ensure that the observed change is accurately characterized as a change in motivation , and not due to some other, task-related process. This chapter discusses current methods for assessing motivation and related psychological processes in rodents. Using an example from work characterizing the motivational impairments in an animal model of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we highlight the importance of careful and rigorous experimental dissection of motivation and the related psychological processes when characterizing motivational deficits in rodent models . We suggest that such work is critical to the successful translation of preclinical findings to therapeutic benefits for patients.

  2. Fairness influences early signatures of reward-related neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Bart; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-12-01

    Many humans exhibit a strong preference for fairness during decision-making. Although there is evidence that social factors influence reward-related and affective neural processing, it is unclear if this effect is mediated by compulsory outcome evaluation processes or results from slower deliberate cognition. Here we show that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and late positive potential (LPP), two signatures of early hedonic processing, are modulated by the fairness of rewards during a passive rating task. We find that unfair payouts elicit larger FRNs than fair payouts, whereas fair payouts elicit larger LPPs than unfair payouts. This is true both in the time-domain, where the FRN and LPP are related, and in the time-frequency domain, where the two signals are largely independent. Ultimately, this work demonstrates that fairness affects the early stages of reward and affective processing, suggesting a common biological mechanism for social and personal reward evaluation.

  3. Abiotic stress tolerance and competition-related traits underlie phylogenetic clustering in soil bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna, Marta; Navarro-Cano, Jose A; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; García, Carlos; Verdú, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Soil bacteria typically coexist with close relatives generating widespread phylogenetic clustering. This has been ascribed to the abiotic filtering of organisms with shared ecological tolerances. Recent theoretical developments suggest that competition can also explain the phylogenetic similarity of coexisting organisms by excluding large low-competitive clades. We propose that combining the environmental patterns of traits associated with abiotic stress tolerances or competitive abilities with phylogeny and abundance data, can help discern between abiotic and biotic mechanisms underlying the coexistence of phylogenetically related bacteria. We applied this framework in a model system composed of interspersed habitats of highly contrasted productivity and comparatively dominated by biotic and abiotic processes, i.e. the plant patch-gap mosaic typical of drylands. We examined the distribution of 15 traits and 3290 bacterial taxa in 28 plots. Communities showed a marked functional response to the environment. Conserved traits related to environmental stress tolerance (e.g. desiccation, formation of resistant structures) were differentially selected in either habitat, while competition related traits (e.g. organic C consumption, formation of nutrient-scavenging structures) prevailed under high resource availability. Phylogenetic clustering was stronger in habitats dominated by biotic filtering, suggesting that competitive exclusion of large clades might underlie the ecological similarity of co-occurring soil bacteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Process Physics From Quantum Foam to General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, R T

    2002-01-01

    Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergen...

  5. Affine diffusions and related processes simulation, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of affine diffusions, from Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to Wishart processes and it considers some related diffusions such as Wright-Fisher processes. It focuses on different simulation schemes for these processes, especially second-order schemes for the weak error. It also presents some models, mostly in the field of finance, where these methods are relevant and provides some numerical experiments. The book explains the mathematical background to understand affine diffusions and analyze the accuracy of the schemes.  

  6. Relating Reasoning Methodologies in Linear Logic and Process Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Deng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that the proof-theoretic notion of logical preorder coincides with the process-theoretic notion of contextual preorder for a CCS-like calculus obtained from the formula-as-process interpretation of a fragment of linear logic. The argument makes use of other standard notions in process algebra, namely a labeled transition system and a coinductively defined simulation relation. This result establishes a connection between an approach to reason about process specifications and a method to reason about logic specifications.

  7. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

  8. Process Documentation of Community Diagnosis Posting in a Teaching Medical Institution: Learning the Process of Community Based Learning of Medical Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishanthini Natarajan, Shib Sekhar Datta, Hema priya S., Nitesh Mangal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Introduction: Sensitizing medical undergraduates about rural health through village health survey during their posting in Community Medicine has the potential to trigger active learning by medical students. The students are more exposed to real scenario in the community, which is rare in hospital based learning. Objectives: To document the community diagnosis posting of medical undergraduates in a teaching medical institution and understand the process of learning of medical undergraduates. Methodology: Present series of community diagnosis postings were organized in nearby villages of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pondicherry during Jan-June 2014. The students performed village transect walk, village health survey with pre-decided themes, focus group discussion followed by organization of a health camp with prior permission from the institution and village authorities. They were asked to submit a well drafted report highlighting glimpses of the posting to trigger their documentation skills. Results: Students participated actively during the village health survey. Students experienced learning being and within the community. They were inclined towards self-directed learning which in turn triggered their critical thinking and innovative culture. Students were able to appreciate importance of demography in epidemiological research and felt rural health needs. They also learnt the local language. Students learned about different research methodology through hands-on experience and were exposed to various computer and statistical softwares. Their attendance also increased in subsequent classes. The students understood importance of communication skills by maintaining good rapport with villagers. Their organizing skills, leadership qualities and documentations skills improved drastically followed the postings. Conclusion: It is possible to sensitize medical students to rural health through community diagnosis postings. Involving students to

  9. Use of a participatory planning process as a way to build community food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the multiple meanings of community food security among stakeholders with diverse interests and to assess the degree to which these stakeholders could find common ground around community food security during a participatory planning process called a search conference. The conceptual framework of citizen politics guided all aspects of the research design. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 44 participants purposefully recruited to attend a 2 1/2 h-day search conference. Open-ended questionnaires were distributed to all participants during the search conference, and a document review was performed. Prior to the search conference, 4 community food secruity groups emerged: anti-hunger advocates (n=12), agricultural visionaries (n=12), food traditionalists (n=10), and agricultural entrepreneurs (n=8). Participants were able to find common ground around 6 community food security action agendas: distribution of surplus food, education, family and community values, food processing and marketing, legislative initiatives and action, and new agriculture. Other salient community food security issues emerged, but they were not included on any of the action agendas. Formal training in facilitation, negotiation, conflict resolution, and how to influence the public policy-making process will enable dietetics professionals to effectively collaborate with community-based groups that have a stake in food security issues.

  10. Re-envisioning community-wildfire relations in the U.S. West as adaptive governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse B. Abrams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by a series of increasingly destructive, expensive, and highly visible wildfire crises in human communities across the globe, a robust body of scholarship has emerged to theorize, conceptualize, and measure community-level resilience to wildfires. To date, however, insufficient consideration has been given to wildfire resilience as a process of adaptive governance mediated by institutions at multiple scales. Here we explore the possibilities for addressing this gap through an analysis of wildfire resilience among wildland-urban interface communities in the western region of the United States. We re-engage important but overlooked components of social-ecological system resilience by situating rural communities within their state- to national-level institutional contexts; we then analyze two communities in Nevada and New Mexico in terms of their institutional settings and responses to recent wildfire events. We frame our analysis around the concepts of scale matching, linking within and across scales, and institutional flexibility.

  11. Microbial community characterization, activity analysis and purifying efficiency in a biofilter process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xiang; Xiwu Lu; Lihong Yin; Fei Yang; Guangcan Zhu; Wuping Liu

    2013-01-01

    The growth and metabolism of microbial communities on biologically activated carbon (BAC) play a crucial role in the purification of drinking water.To gain insight into the growth and metabolic characteristics of microbial communities and the efficiency of drinking water treatment in a BAC filter,we analyzed the heterotrophic plate count (HPC),phospholipid,dehydrogenase,metabolic function and water quality parameters during start-up and steady-state periods.In the start-up process of the filter with natural biofilm colonization,the variation in heterotrophic plate count levels was S-curved.The total phospholipid level was very low during the first 5 days and reached a maximum value after 40 days in the filter.The activity of dehydrogenase gradually increased during the first 30 days and then reached a plateau.The functional diversity of the microbial community in the filter increased,and then reached a relatively stable level by day 40.After an initial decrease,which was followed by an increase,the removal rate of NH4+-N and CODMn became stable and was 80% and 28%,respectively,by day 40.The consumption rate of dissolved oxygen reached a steady level after 29 days,and remained at 18%.At the steady operation state,the levels of HPC,phospholipid,dehydrogenase activity and carbon source utilization had no significant differences after 6 months compared to levels measured on day 40.The filter was shown to be effective in removing NH4+-N,NO2--N,CODMn,UV254,biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and trace organic pollutants from the influent.Our results suggest that understanding changes in the growth and metabolism of microorganisms in BAC filter could help to improve the efficiency of biological treatment of drinking water.

  12. Epigeic earthworms exert a bottleneck effect on microbial communities through gut associated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. METHODOLOGY: To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure, which differed in microbial composition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions

  13. Epigeic Earthworms Exert a Bottleneck Effect on Microbial Communities through Gut Associated Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. Methodology To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure), which differed in microbial composition. Principal Findings The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions within the decomposer

  14. Fluxes in PHA-storing microbial communities during enrichment and biopolymer accumulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janarthanan, Om Murugan; Laycock, Bronwyn; Montano-Herrera, Liliana; Lu, Yang; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica V; Werker, Alan; Pratt, Steven

    2016-01-25

    The use of mixed microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is emerging as a viable technology. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to analyse fluctuations in populations over a 63-day period within a PHA-storing mixed microbial community enriched on fermented whey permeate. This community was dominated by the genera Flavisolibacter and Zoogloea as well as an unidentified organism belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The population was observed to cycle through an increase in Zoogloea followed by a return to a community composition similar to the initial one (highly enriched in Flavisolibacter). It was found that the PHA accumulation capacity of the community was robust to population flux during enrichment and even PHA accumulation, with final polymer composition dependent on the overall proportion of acetic to propionic acids in the feed. This community adaptation suggests that mixed culture PHA production is a robust process.

  15. Coping styles moderate the relationships between exposure to community violence and work-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cody B; Johnson, Jennie; Coyle, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify coping strategies used by employees exposed to community violence and their relationships to work-related outcomes. In study 1, Mexican Maquiladora employees who experienced community violence reported their coping strategies. Results identified 3 strategies: social, solitary, and maladaptive coping. In study 2, another sample completed measures of violence exposure, strain, coping, and turnover intention. Supervisors provided performance evaluations. Community violence predicted the use of all 3 strategies. Social coping lessened the effects of community violence on turnover while maladaptive strategies predicted increased psychological strain. Results indicate that workers use a variety of coping strategies in response to community violence that both lessen and magnify the effects of violence exposure and impact their psychological strain, turnover intention, and job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND THE PROCESS OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN BRAGARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on sustainable development and the specific objectives that Romania intends to achieve in order to reach a new model of development that is capable of generating high value added, is interested in knowledge and innovation, and aims to improve the quality of life in harmony with the natural environment. The paper also analyzes the process of local development that Romania started in 2000 with the financial support of United Nations Development Programme - “Romania within the framework of Local Agenda 21” and continued within Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013. Finally, the study reveals the regional and local development priorities established by Romania within “The National Sustainable Development Strategy” for the next period of time – 2013-2020 -2030.

  17. Medical community preferences concerning adult living related donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, Denis; Azoulay, Daniel; Danet, Colette; Thoraval, Laurence; Tanguy Des Deserts, Catherine; Saliba, Faouzi; Samuel, Didier; Adam, René

    2006-02-01

    To assess acceptance and acceptable estimated mortality levels for right lobe adult-to-adult living related liver transplantation for the medical and allied professions. A paper questionnaire was sent to the physicians practicing with the French Graft Agency (Etablissement Français des Greffes) and to all nurses and ancillary staff of the Paul Brousse Hospital Hepatobiliary Center. Responses were received from surgeons: 38/73; internists specialized in hepatology: 44/120; nurses: 98/100; health care assistants: 45/86; others: 17/20. Acceptance of living donor transplantation is above average for all professional categories and indications may be extended including patients with cancer. Acceptable mortality for the donor was 4%, except among internists (0.7%). Currently, the real risk of mortality for the donor (1%) is lower. Acceptable mortality for the recipient was between 15 and 20%. Acceptance of adult living donor liver transplantation among health care professionals is clearly above average. Thus the psychological involvement of transplantation teams, which is very strong in such situations, should not hamper the development of this type of transplantation.

  18. A process evaluation of a community intervention to reduce youth drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Schelleman-Offermans (Karen); R.A. Knibbe (Ronald); M. Derickx (Mieke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: To provide a qualitative report of the process of development and implementation of a Dutch community intervention in which retail and social alcohol supply for adolescents was restricted. Insight will be provided into how relevant stakeholders evaluated their role in the process.

  19. A Model for Building School-Family-Community Partnerships: Principles and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Julia; Henry, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature documents the importance of school counselors' roles in school-family-community partnerships, yet no model exists to guide school counselors through the process of building partnerships. The authors propose a model to help school counselors navigate the process and principles of partnerships. They define partnerships; discuss…

  20. Engineering aspects of rate-related processes in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Many rate-related phenomena occur in food manufacturing processes. This review addresses four of them, all of which are topics that the author has studied in order to design food manufacturing processes that are favorable from the standpoint of food engineering. They include chromatographic separation through continuous separation with a simulated moving adsorber, lipid oxidation kinetics in emulsions and microencapsulated systems, kinetic analysis and extraction in subcritical water, and water migration in pasta.

  1. Human Auditory Processing: Insights from Cortical Event-related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Key

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.

  2. The Implementation of IGE and Related Home-School-Community Relations Programs and Activities: Seven Case Studies. Theoretical Paper No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; And Others

    Each of the seven case studies in this report describes the school and community, the implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE) programs, and home-school-community relations programs and activities, and analyzes the home-school-community relations programs and activities. The selection of the seven schools was primarily based on the…

  3. The Pain-Related Cognitive Processes Questionnaire: Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa A; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Lang, Cathryne P; Newton-John, Toby R O; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-03-06

     Cognitive processes may be characterized as how individuals think, whereas cognitive content constitutes what individuals think. Both cognitive processes and cognitive content are theorized to play important roles in chronic pain adjustment, and treatments have been developed to target both. However, the evaluation of treatments that target cognitive processes is limited because extant measures do not satisfactorily separate cognitive process from cognitive content. The current study aimed to develop a self-report inventory of potentially adaptive and presumed maladaptive attentional processes that may occur when someone is experiencing pain.  Scales were derived from a large item pool by successively applying confirmatory factor analysis to item data from two undergraduate samples (N = 393 and 233).  Items, which were generated to avoid confounding of cognitive content with cognitive processes, represented nine constructs: Suppression, Distraction, Enhancement, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Absorption, Rumination, Nonjudgment, and Acceptance. The resulting nine scales formed the Pain-Related Cognitive Process Questionnaire (PCPQ), and scale correlations produced four conceptually distinct composite scales: Pain Diversion, Pain Distancing, Pain Focus, and Pain Openness. Internal consistency reliabilities of the nine scales were adequate (α ≥ 0.70) to good, and the four composite scales had α values of 0.79 or higher. Correlations with pain-related criterion variables were generally consistent with putative constructs.  The developed PCPQ scales offer a comprehensive assessment of important cognitive processes specific to pain. Overall, the findings suggest that the PCPQ scales may prove useful for evaluating the role of pain-related cognitive processes in studies of chronic pain.

  4. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  5. Trait absorption is related to enhanced emotional picture processing and reduced processing of secondary acoustic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Stephen D; Rozalski, Vincent; Klingspon, Kara L

    2015-10-01

    Trait absorption reflects a propensity to have one's attention drawn to engaging sensory or imaginal experiences. It is related to self-reported levels of positive and negative emotionality, but little work has examined whether absorption is related to greater levels of basic emotional processing. We used the late positive potential (LPP) to pictures and P3 response to subsequent startle probes during those pictures to examine how absorption was related to initial emotional processing and reactivity to a second stimulus. Across genders, absorption was positively related to LPP amplitude to emotional versus neutral pictures at PZ, and it was negatively related to overall P3 amplitude to startle probes at FZ. Thus, absorption appears to index greater processing of emotional material at the cost of reduced processing of subsequent incoming stimuli.

  6. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  7. Community Detection for Multiplex Social Networks Based on Relational Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Many techniques have been proposed for community detection in social networks. Most of these techniques are only designed for networks defined by a single relation. However, many real networks are multiplex networks that contain multiple types of relations and different attributes on the nodes....... In this paper we propose to use relational Bayesian networks for the specification of probabilistic network models, and develop inference techniques that solve the community detection problem based on these models. The use of relational Bayesian networks as a flexible high-level modeling framework enables us...... to express different models capturing different aspects of community detection in multiplex networks in a coherent manner, and to use a single inference mechanism for all models....

  8. The consequences of increasing assertiveness of trans-national religious communities for international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najamudin Najamudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transnational communities, or in other terms, the migrant communities whowent to the US and the UK, or to any other European states had strong belief intheir religion in which they might not be contaminated by the secular ideology inthe Western countries. In this respect, the phenomenology of religion in internationalrelations is a relatively new and surprising. Accordingly, this paper aims atinvestigating the implications of the emergence of trans-national religious groupsfor international relations. The paper will argue that the rise of trans-nationalreligious groups has produced a profound impact on international relations. Thefactors that influenced this transformation in international relations is the contemporaryprocesses of globalization which scholars argue, are pivotal to bringingreligion to the centre stage of international relations. In order to deepen theunderstanding of this process, two case scenarios will be analyzed, namely, theSikh Diasporas and the imagined Islamic community, the umma. In this paper, ithas been argued that the rise of trans-national religious actors may affect statesovereignty in one way or another. Under secular ideology, the role of religion ismarginalized from the public sphere, in particular, the domain of politics and religion is being obviously separated. This separation, according to both groups,is problematic. It is therefore, the emergence of Islamic and Sikh communities isconsidered by some liberal democratic countries like India as a peril to its statesovereignty. In Islamic doctrines, the Muslims hold a principle in din wa dawla,the unity of state and religion, while in Sikhism, the Sikhs have to trust miri andpiri, the unification of religious and political institution.Masyarakat transnasional atau dalam terma lain disebut juga sebagai masyarakatmigran yang menetap di Amerika dan Inggris, atau ke negara-negara Eropalainnya memiliki keyakinan yang kuat terhadap agama mereka dan

  9. Community, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: Relative status and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-06-01

    Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES. Adolescents (13-16 years; N = 2,199) from the Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey were included. Socioeconomic measures included adolescents' subjective SES; parental education and household income; community education/employment, income, and poverty rate; and community income inequality. Health outcomes included self-rated health, mental health problems, dietary and exercise health behaviors, substance-related health behaviors, reported physical health, and biomarkers of health. Best-fitting multilevel regression models (participants nested within schools) were used to test associations. Findings indicated that lower subjective SES was associated with poorer health outcomes. After accounting for family SES, lower community education/employment had an additional negative effect on health, while lower community income had a protective effect for certain health outcomes. There was less evidence for an independent effect of income inequality. Findings highlight the importance of measures of relative SES that span across a number of levels and contexts, and provide further understanding into the socioeconomic gradient in adolescence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Processing Relative Clauses in Chinese as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates second language (L2) learners' processing of four types of Chinese relative clauses crossing extraction types and demonstrative-classifier (DCl) positions. Using a word order judgment task with a whole-sentence reading technique, the study also discusses how psycholinguistic theories bear explanatory power in L2 data. An…

  11. Syntactic processing with aging: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; De Ochoa, Esmeralda; Kutas, Marta

    2004-05-01

    To assess age-related changes in simple syntactic processing with normal aging, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by grammatical number violations as individuals read sentences for comprehension were analyzed. Violations were found to elicit a P600 of equal amplitude and latency regardless of an individual's age. Instead, advancing age was associated with a change in the scalp distribution of the P600 effect, being less asymmetric and more frontal (though still with a parietal maximum) in older than younger adults. Our results thus show that the brain's response to simple syntactic violations, unlike those reported for simple binary categorizations and simple semantic violations, is neither slowed nor diminished in amplitude by age. At the same time, the brain's processing of these grammatical number violations did engage at least somewhat different brain regions as a function of age, suggesting a qualitative change rather than any simple quantitative change in speed of processing.

  12. User roles and contributions during the new product development process in collaborative innovation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Qing; An, Weijin; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Collaborative innovation (co-innovation) community emerges as a new product design platform where companies involve users in the new product development (NPD) process. Large numbers of users participate and contribute to the process voluntarily. This exploratory study investigates the heterogeneous roles of users based on a global co-innovation project in online community. Content analysis, social network analysis and cluster method are employed to measure user behaviors, distinguish user roles, and analyze user contributions. The study identifies six user roles that emerge during the NPD process in co-innovation community: project leader, active designer, generalist, communicator, passive designer, and observer. The six user roles differ in their contribution forms and quality. This paper contributes to research on co-innovation in online communities, including design team structure, user roles and their contribution to design task and solution, as well as user value along the process. In addition, the study provides practices guidance on implementing project, attracting users, and designing platform for co-innovation community practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Algorithm of automatic generation of technology process and process relations of automotive wiring harnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Benzhu; ZHU Jiman; LIU Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying each process and their constraint relations from the complex wiring harness drawings quickly and accurately is the basis for formulating process routes. According to the knowledge of automotive wiring harness and the characteristics of wiring harness components, we established the model of wiring harness graph. Then we research the algorithm of identifying technology processes automatically, finally we describe the relationships between processes by introducing the constraint matrix, which is in or- der to lay a good foundation for harness process planning and production scheduling.

  14. Reflections on Researcher Identity and Power: The Impact of Positionality on Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Processes and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Michael; Wallerstein, Nina; Sussman, Andrew L; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Duran, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    The practice of community based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved over the past 20 years with the recognition that health equity is best achieved when academic researchers form collaborative partnerships with communities. This article theorizes the possibility that core principles of CBPR cannot be realistically applied unless unequal power relations are identified and addressed. It provides theoretical and empirical perspectives for understanding power, privilege, researcher identity and academic research team composition, and their effects on partnering processes and health disparity outcomes. The team's processes of conducting seven case studies of diverse partnerships in a national cross-site CBPR study are analyzed; the multi-disciplinary research team's self-reflections on identity and positionality are analyzed, privileging its combined racial, ethnic, and gendered life experiences, and integrating feminist and post-colonial theory into these reflections. Findings from the inquiry are shared, and incorporating academic researcher team identity is recommended as a core component of equalizing power distribution within CBPR.

  15. Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively.

  16. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rilov

    Full Text Available Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat. Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  17. Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Tara J; Foght, Julia M

    2010-06-01

    Processing oil sands to extract bitumen produces large volumes of a tailings slurry comprising water, silt, clays, unrecovered bitumen, and residual solvent used in the extraction process. Tailings are deposited into large settling basins, where the solids settle by gravity to become denser mature fine tailings (MFT). A substantial flux of methane, currently estimated at ~40 million L/day, is being emitted from the Mildred Lake Settling Basin. To better understand the biogenesis of this greenhouse gas, the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in 2 tailings deposits (Mildred Lake Settling Basin and West In-Pit) were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were almost exclusively cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were predominantly (87% of clones) affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. In contrast, bacterial clone libraries were unexpectedly diverse, with the majority (~55%) of sequences related to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera (e.g., Thauera, Rhodoferax, and Desulfatibacillum). Thus, MFT harbour a diverse community of prokaryotes presumptively responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to our understanding of biogenic methane production and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits.

  18. Community collaborations for farmworker health in New York and Maine: process analysis of two successful interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Sorensen, Julie; Brower, Melissa; Hawkes, Lynae; May, John J

    2009-11-01

    We conducted a process evaluation of 2 successful farmworker community-based participatory research intervention development projects (in Maine and New York State). Participant surveys measured satisfaction with the program process. We used qualitative methods to analyze free-text responses. Respondents indicated high satisfaction levels overall. The main concern was long-distance project coordination. Community-based participatory research programs in which (1) the work team defines the target health issue, (2) agricultural employers are meaningfully included, and (3) interventions are carried through to completion, warrant further study.

  19. [Satisfaction of relatives with the process of deinstitutionalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieten, B; Brinkmann, H

    2000-07-01

    During the last eight years we arranged an extensive process of change in Eckardtsheim, a part of Bethel in the city of Bielefeld. As part of the process of deinstitutionalization we tried to change institutional needs into the needs for help and support of the individuals. One important part of this process was working with family members of our clients in a variety of intervention strategies. We evaluated the relatives within the concept of customer orientation in different viewpoints. All family members got a mailed questionnaire (n = 1,068) in which they were questioned on their expectations and satisfaction with the most important aspects concerning the cooperation between family members and the treatment of the patients. We implemented support programs for the family members and asked them to judge these programs and the general process of change in the institution. 42% answered, mostly brothers and sisters. We received general support for our programs with a lot of individual criticism to certain parts of the process. Brothers and sisters were sceptical about deinstitutionalization of patients who had been institutionalized for decades. Working with families in these situations demands different ways of intervention, like information about the hospitalized family members and about the institutional change process as well as individualized support for the family members themselves. Services for the family members of long term hospitalized patients are extremely important and necessary for a positive outcome in the process of deinstitutionalization.

  20. Substance-related coping, HIV-related factors, and mental health among an HIV-positive sexual minority community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Colbourn, Scholar L; Gemberling, Tess M; Graham, James; Stroud, Caroline H

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive status poses a unique set of social stressors, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Among these difficulties are the internalization of HIV-related stigma and poor mental health. Unfortunately, substance use as a coping mechanism is also common, dependent on other demographic factors, among HIV-positive and LGB samples. The present study integrates these bodies of literature by examining main and interactive effects of HIV-related experiences (i.e., disclosure of HIV-positive status, fear of disclosure, HIV-related victimization, and internalized HIV-related stigma) and substance-related coping with discrimination as they impact mental health (i.e., stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and suicide and self-injury proneness). Participants were 216 HIV-positive LGB community members from an urban community medical clinic. Prominent results included: (1) robust negative effects of internalized HIV-related stigma on all mental health indicators when controlling for other HIV-related experiences and (2) a significant interaction in which substance-related coping significantly increases suicide proneness, only for those who have disclosed HIV-positive status to family or friends. Results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives of internalized stigma, implications for clinical work with LGB persons of HIV-positive status, and future research.

  1. The microbial community in a high-temperature enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process operated at a relatively high temperature, 28 °C, removed 85% carbon and 99% phosphorus from wastewater over a period of two years. This study investigated its microbial community through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and clone library generation. Through FISH, considerably more Candidatus “Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter-polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs than Candidatus ‘Competibacter phosphatis’ (Competibacter-glycogen accumulating organisms were detected in the reactor, at 36 and 7% of total bacterial population, respectively. A low ratio of Glycogen/Volatile Fatty Acid of 0.69 further indicated the dominance of PAOs in the reactor. From clone library generated, 26 operational taxonomy units were retrieved from the sludge and a diverse population was shown, comprising Proteobacteria (69.6%, Actinobacteria (13.7%, Bacteroidetes (9.8%, Firmicutes (2.94%, Planctomycetes (1.96%, and Acidobacteria (1.47%. Accumulibacter are the only recognized PAOs revealed by the clone library. Both the clone library and FISH results strongly suggest that Accumulibacter are the major PAOs responsible for the phosphorus removal in this long-term EBPR at relatively high temperature.

  2. Landscape community genomics: understanding eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic factors influencing evolutionary processes are often categorically lumped into interactions that are environmentally (e.g., climate, landscape) or community-driven, with little consideration of the overlap or influence of one on the other. However, genomic variation is strongly influenced by complex and dynamic interactions between environmental and community effects. Failure to consider both effects on evolutionary dynamics simultaneously can lead to incomplete, spurious, or erroneous conclusions about the mechanisms driving genomic variation. We highlight the need for a landscape community genomics (LCG) framework to help to motivate and challenge scientists in diverse fields to consider a more holistic, interdisciplinary perspective on the genomic evolution of multi-species communities in complex environments.

  3. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  4. Working Memory Regulates Trait Anxiety-Related Threat Processing Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Robert W; Mackintosh, Bundy; Sharma, Dinkar

    2016-12-19

    High trait anxious individuals tend to show biased processing of threat. Correlational evidence suggests that executive control could be used to regulate such threat-processing. On this basis, we hypothesized that trait anxiety-related cognitive biases regarding threat should be exaggerated when executive control is experimentally impaired by loading working memory. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates read ambiguous vignettes under high and low working memory load; later, their interpretations of these vignettes were assessed via a recognition test. Trait anxiety predicted biased interpretation of social threat vignettes under high working memory load, but not under low working memory load. In Study 2, 53 undergraduates completed a dot probe task with fear-conditioned Japanese characters serving as threat stimuli. Trait anxiety predicted attentional bias to the threat stimuli but, again, this only occurred under high working memory load. Interestingly however, actual eye movements toward the threat stimuli were only associated with state anxiety, and this was not moderated by working memory load, suggesting that executive control regulates biased threat-processing downstream of initial input processes such as orienting. These results suggest that cognitive loads can exacerbate trait anxiety-related cognitive biases, and therefore represent a useful tool for assessing cognitive biases in future research. More importantly, since biased threat-processing has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety, poor executive control may be a risk factor for anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Relations of alpine plant communities across environmental gradients: Multilevel versus multiscale analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Kinney, Mitch; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Alpine plant communities vary, and their environmental covariates could influence their response to climate change. A single multilevel model of how alpine plant community composition is determined by hierarchical relations is compared to a separate examination of those relations at different scales. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of species cover for plots in four regions across the Rocky Mountains created dependent variables. Climate variables are derived for the four regions from interpolated data. Plot environmental variables are measured directly and the presence of thirty-seven site characteristics is recorded and used to create additional independent variables. Multilevel and best subsets regressions are used to determine the strength of the hypothesized relations. The ordinations indicate structure in the assembly of plant communities. The multilevel analyses, although revealing significant relations, provide little explanation; of the site variables, those related to site microclimate are most important. In multiscale analyses (whole and separate regions), different variables are better explanations within the different regions. This result indicates weak environmental niche control of community composition. The weak relations of the structure in the patterns of species association to the environment indicates that either alpine vegetation represents a case of the neutral theory of biogeography being a valid explanation or that it represents disequilibrium conditions. The implications of neutral theory and disequilibrium explanations are similar: Response to climate change will be difficult to quantify above equilibrium background turnover.

  6. Intertwining and commutation relations for birth-death processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chafai, Djalil

    2010-01-01

    Given a birth-death process on N with semigroup P_t and a discrete gradient D depending on a positive weight u, we establish intertwining relations of the form D P_t = Q_t D, where Q_t is the Feynman-Kac semigroup with potential V_u of another birth-death process. We provide applications when V_u is positive and uniformly bounded from below, including Lipschitz contraction and Wasserstein curvature, various functional inequalities, and stochastic orderings. The proofs are remarkably simple and rely on interpolation, commutation, and convexity.

  7. Reduced-Order Kalman Filtering for Processing Relative Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.

    2008-01-01

    A study in Kalman-filter theory has led to a method of processing relative measurements to estimate the current state of a physical system, using less computation than has previously been thought necessary. As used here, relative measurements signifies measurements that yield information on the relationship between a later and an earlier state of the system. An important example of relative measurements arises in computer vision: Information on relative motion is extracted by comparing images taken at two different times. Relative measurements do not directly fit into standard Kalman filter theory, in which measurements are restricted to those indicative of only the current state of the system. One approach heretofore followed in utilizing relative measurements in Kalman filtering, denoted state augmentation, involves augmenting the state of the system at the earlier of two time instants and then propagating the state to the later time instant.While state augmentation is conceptually simple, it can also be computationally prohibitive because it doubles the number of states in the Kalman filter. When processing a relative measurement, if one were to follow the state-augmentation approach as practiced heretofore, one would find it necessary to propagate the full augmented state Kalman filter from the earlier time to the later time and then select out the reduced-order components. The main result of the study reported here is proof of a property called reduced-order equivalence (ROE). The main consequence of ROE is that it is not necessary to augment with the full state, but, rather, only the portion of the state that is explicitly used in the partial relative measurement. In other words, it suffices to select the reduced-order components first and then propagate the partial augmented state Kalman filter from the earlier time to the later time; the amount of computation needed to do this can be substantially less than that needed for propagating the full augmented

  8. Complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-jin, E-mail: e.kim@sheffield.ac.uk; Nicholson, S.B.

    2015-08-28

    Highlights: • Novel complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes. • Dependence of statistical measures (entropy, information, and work) on variables, reference frames, and time. • Equilibrium maximises simultaneous information while minimising simultaneous disorder/uncertainty. • Difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian entropy and its related concepts. • Hamilton–Jacobi relation for forced-dissipative system. - Abstract: We present novel complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes. Specifically, by utilising path integral formulation, we derive statistical measures (entropy, information, and work) and investigate their dependence on variables (x, v), reference frames, and time. In particular, we show that the equilibrium state maximises the simultaneous information quantified by the product of the Fisher information based on x and v while minimising the simultaneous disorder/uncertainty quantified by the sum of the entropy based on x and v as well as by the product of the variances of the PDFs of x and v. We also elucidate the difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian entropy. Our theory naturally leads to Hamilton–Jacobi relation for forced-dissipative systems.

  9. A bottom-up art event gave birth to a process of community empowerment in an Italian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardu, Claudia; Mereu, Alessandra; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Contu, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    Although community participation is a component of community empowerment, it often remains a theoretical exhortation. Reporting experiences which enable people to take control of their lives, can be useful to suggest practical elements for promoting empowerment. This article describes the experience of a Sardinian village (Ulassai), that developed into a community empowerment. The Laverack's operational domains were used to measure the community empowerment process. The process started in 1979 'almost by chance' with an art performance that was the entry point for community participation. This experience has been the foundation for the community empowerment. Citizens acquired the 'ability of thinking and planning as a community and not mere individuals'. In the following 30 years citizens gave birth to several outcomes rooted in that event. The intermediate outcomes highlight the 'ability of action by a group to mobilize existing resources, and act collectively against opposing forces'. The long-term outcomes demonstrate the 'ability to integrate the cultural experiences that strengthened the community's identification into a sustainable community asset', and the 'ability to cope with global environmental challenges and to collaborate on an equal basis with other stakeholders. The pathways to community empowerment, showed by the community of Ulassai, overlap with the 'operational domains'. The Ulassai experience shows that the empowerment process can start from an event apparently unrelated to health promotion. This community experience illustrates the positive role arts can play in community development. Hence, the call for health promoters to look carefully into those situations that occur naturally in communities.

  10. Leveraging Alumni and Business Community Relations to Assess the Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plice, Robert K.; Reinig, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (2006) task force called for increased interaction between business schools and the business community to identify essential skill sets and help with the curriculum-management process. An information systems curriculum-assessment study solicited input from recent alumni working in the…

  11. A community-based participatory planning process and multilevel intervention design: toward eliminating cardiovascular health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Coombe, Chris M; Gaines, Causandra; Reyes, Angela G; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L; Strong, Larkin L; Weir, Sheryl

    2011-11-01

    The elimination of persistent health inequities requires the engagement of multiple perspectives, resources, and skills. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is one approach to developing action strategies that promote health equity by addressing contextual as well as individual-level factors, and that can contribute to addressing more fundamental factors linked to health inequity. Yet many questions remain about how to implement participatory processes that engage local insights and expertise, are informed by the existing public health knowledge base, and build support across multiple sectors to implement solutions. This article describes a CBPR approach used to conduct a community assessment and action planning process, culminating in development of a multilevel intervention to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. The authors consider implications for future efforts to engage communities in developing strategies toward eliminating health inequities.

  12. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences.

  13. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  14. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  15. Research of personal decision process using event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-01

    To gain insights into the neural basis of such adaptive decision-making processes, we investigated the nature of learning process in humans playing a competitive game with binary choices, using a matching pennies game. As in reinforcement learning, the subject's choice during a competitive game was biased by its choice and reward history, as well as by the strategies of its opponent. Analyses of ERP data focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), we found that the magnitude of ERPs after losing to the computer opponent predicted whether subjects would change decision behavior on the subsequent trial. These findings provide novel evidence that humans engage a reinforcement learning process to adjust representations of competing decision options.

  16. An inverse relation between event-related and time-frequency violation responses in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D J; Indefrey, P

    2007-07-16

    The relationship between semantic and grammatical processing in sentence comprehension was investigated by examining event-related potential (ERP) and event-related power changes in response to semantic and grammatical violations. Sentences with semantic, phrase structure, or number violations and matched controls were presented serially (1.25 words/s) to 20 participants while EEG was recorded. Semantic violations were associated with an N400 effect and a theta band increase in power, while grammatical violations were associated with a P600 effect and an alpha/beta band decrease in power. A quartile analysis showed that for both types of violations, larger average violation effects were associated with lower relative amplitudes of oscillatory activity, implying an inverse relation between ERP amplitude and event-related power magnitude change in sentence processing.

  17. Emotional and movement-related body postures modulate visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Maier, Martin E; Avenanti, Alessio; Bertini, Caterina

    2015-08-01

    Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others' emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body images with neutral, fearful or happy expressions. At the early stage of visual structural encoding (N190), we found a difference in the sensitivity of the two hemispheres to observed body postures. Specifically, the right hemisphere showed a N190 modulation both for the motion content (i.e. all the observed postures implying body movements elicited greater N190 amplitudes compared with static postures) and for the emotional content (i.e. fearful postures elicited the largest N190 amplitude), while the left hemisphere showed a modulation only for the motion content. In contrast, at a later stage of perceptual representation, reflecting selective attention to salient stimuli, an increased early posterior negativity was observed for fearful stimuli in both hemispheres, suggesting an enhanced processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. The observed modulations, both at the early stage of structural encoding and at the later processing stage, suggest the existence of a specialized perceptual mechanism tuned to emotion- and action-related information conveyed by human body postures. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Complementarity relation for irreversible processes near steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, E. S.; Carusela, M. F.; Izquierdo, E. D.

    2013-10-01

    A relation giving a minimum for the irreversible work in quasi-equilibrium processes was derived by Sekimoto et al. [K. Sekimoto, S. Sasa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 66 (1997) 3326] in the framework of stochastic energetics. This relation can also be written as a type of “uncertainty principle” in such a way that the precise determination of the Helmholtz free energy through the observation of the work requires an indefinitely large experimental time Δt. In the present article, we extend this relation to the case of quasi-steady processes by using the concept of non-equilibrium Helmholtz free energy. We give a formulation of the second law for these processes that extends that presented by Sekimoto [K. Sekimoto, Prog. Theoret. Phys. Suppl. No. 130 (1998) 17] by a term of the first order in the inverse of the experimental time. As an application of our results, two possible experimental situations are considered: stretching of a RNA molecule and the drag of a dipolar particle in the presence of a gradient of electric force.

  19. Metaproteogenomics reveals the soil microbial communities active in nutrient cycling processes under different tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiblinger, Katharina Maria; Masse, Jacynthe; Zühlke, Daniela; Riedel, Katharina; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Prescott, Cindy E.; Grayston, Sue

    2016-04-01

    Tree species exert strong effects on microbial communities in litter and soil and may alter rates of soil processes fundamental to nutrient cycling and carbon fluxes (Prescott and Grayston 2013). However, the influence of tree species on decomposition processes are still contradictory and poorly understood. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant influences on soil processes is important for our ability to predict ecosystem response to altered global/environmental conditions. In order to link microbial community structure and function to forest-floor nutrient cycling processes, we sampled forest floors under western redcedar (Thuja plicata), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) grown in nutrient-poor sites in common garden experiments on Vancouver island (Canada). We measured forest-floor total N, total C, initial NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, DOC, Cmic and Nmic. Gross rates of ammonification and NH4+ consumption were measured using the 15N pool-dilution method. Organic carbon quality was assessed through FTIR analyses. Microbial community structure was analysed by a metaproteogenomic approach using 16S and ITS amplification and sequencing with MiSeq platform. Proteins were extracted and peptides characterized via LC-MS/MS on a Velos Orbitrap to assess the active microbial community. Different microbial communities were active under the three tree species and variation in process rates were observed and will be discussed. This research provides new insights on microbial processes during organic matter decomposition. The metaproteogenomic approach enables us to investigate these changes with respect to possible effects on soil C-storage at even finer taxonomic resolution.

  20. Six Community College Presidents: Organizational Pressures, Change Processes and Approaches to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A total of six Maryland community college presidents were guided through conversations to identify the organizational challenges and uncertainties that have forced organizational changes in their respective colleges. Another thrust of the research was to discover what organizational change processes these presidents have implemented to overcome…

  1. Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine B.; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maximum...

  2. Spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern for a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially...

  3. Incorporating Process-Based Writing Pedagogy into First-Year Learning Communities: Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhisel, Greg; Stoddard, Evan; Gorman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study that examines the efforts of one school--Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania--to improve student writing in first-year learning communities by promoting so-called process-based writing pedagogy outside of writing classes. Administrators encouraged instructors of subject-matter classes to integrate the…

  4. Process Evaluation: Assessing Re-Invention of Community-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunk, Susan E.; Goeppinger, Jean

    1990-01-01

    A case study of the Arthritis Self-Care Project, a rural community intervention in Virginia, demonstrates the importance of process evaluation in determining the actual independent variable. Instances of reinvention uncovered by the study are explored, and suggestions are provided for dealing with the reinvention inevitable in field research. (TJH)

  5. Interoperability Issues for Formal Authoring Processes, Community Efforts, and the Creation of Mashup PLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Schmitz, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Schmitz, B. (2009). Interoperability Issues for Formal Authoring Processes, Community Efforts, and the Creation of Mashup PLE. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with

  6. Six Community College Presidents: Organizational Pressures, Change Processes and Approaches to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A total of six Maryland community college presidents were guided through conversations to identify the organizational challenges and uncertainties that have forced organizational changes in their respective colleges. Another thrust of the research was to discover what organizational change processes these presidents have implemented to overcome…

  7. Interoperability Issues for Formal Authoring Processes, Community Efforts, and the Creation of Mashup PLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Schmitz, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Schmitz, B. (2009). Interoperability Issues for Formal Authoring Processes, Community Efforts, and the Creation of Mashup PLE. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with

  8. The Social Meaning of Sharing and Geocoding: Features and Social Processes in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how emergent communities might show different patterns of uses and perceptions for communication and profile features when geolocation features are used. It explores the ways that location awareness moderates the social and cognitive processes that motivate people's participation in the sharing of personal information…

  9. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  10. The Process of Planning for Community College Effectiveness by Managing Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses six elements necessary to effect change in a community college: the motivation to change, a vision of the future, knowledge of the institution's present status, a planning framework and process, adequate personnel and financial resources, and an evaluation/assessment mechanism. (DMM)

  11. Numeric Input Relations for Relational Learning with Applications to Community Structure Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    distribution is defined by the model from numerical input variables that are only used for conditioning the distribution of discrete response variables. We show how numerical input relations can very easily be used in the Relational Bayesian Network framework, and that existing inference and learning methods......Most work in the area of statistical relational learning (SRL) is focussed on discrete data, even though a few approaches for hybrid SRL models have been proposed that combine numerical and discrete variables. In this paper we distinguish numerical random variables for which a probability...... need only minor adjustments to be applied in this generalized setting. The resulting framework provides natural relational extensions of classical probabilistic models for categorical data. We demonstrate the usefulness of RBN models with numeric input relations by several examples. In particular, we...

  12. Diversity and Assembling Processes of Bacterial Communities in Cryoconite Holes of a Karakoram Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Roberto; Musitelli, Federica; Navarra, Federico; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Mayer, Christoph; Minora, Umberto; Azzoni, Roberto Sergio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; Franzetti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Cryoconite holes are small ponds that form on the surface of glaciers that contain a dark debris, the cryoconite, at the bottom and host active ecological communities. Differences in the structure of bacterial communities have been documented among Arctic and mountain glaciers, and among glaciers in different areas of the world. In this study, we investigated the structure of bacterial communities of cryoconite holes of Baltoro Glacier, a large (62 km in length and 524 km(2) of surface) glacier of the Karakoram, by high-throughput sequencing of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that Betaproteobacteria dominated bacterial communities, with large abundance of genera Polaromonas, probably thanks to its highly versatile metabolism, and Limnohabitans, which may have been favoured by the presence of supraglacial lakes in the area where cryoconite holes were sampled. Variation in bacterial communities among different sampling areas of the glacier could be explained by divergent selective processes driven by variation in environmental conditions, particularly pH, which was the only environmental variable that significantly affected the structure of bacterial communities. This variability may be due to both temporal and spatial patterns of variation in environmental conditions.

  13. Linking microbial community structure and microbial processes: An empirical and conceptual overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, R.L.; Bernhardt, E.S.;; Boot, C.M.; Graham, E.B.;; Hall, E.K.; Lennon, J.T.; Nemergut, D.R.; Osborne, B.B.; Ruiz-Gonzalez, C.; Schimel, J.P.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Wallenstein, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of microbial ecology is to identify links between microbial community structure and microbial processes. Although this objective seems straightforward, there are conceptual and methodological challenges to designing studies that explicitly evaluate this link. Here, we analyzed literature documenting structure and process responses to manipulations to determine the frequency of structure-process links and whether experimental approaches and techniques influence link detection. We examined nine journals (published 2009–13) and retained 148 experimental studies measuring microbial community structure and processes. Many qualifying papers (112 of 148) documented structure and process responses, but few (38 of 112 papers) reported statistically testing for a link. Of these tested links, 75% were significant and typically used Spearman or Pearson's correlation analysis (68%). No particular approach for characterizing structure or processes was more likely to produce significant links. Process responses were detected earlier on average than responses in structure or both structure and process. Together, our findings suggest that few publications report statistically testing structure-process links. However, when links are tested for they often occur but share few commonalities in the processes or structures that were linked and the techniques used for measuring them.

  14. Community perceptions of safety in relation to perceived youth violence-delinquency in a primarily native Hawaiian and Asian American community in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Soli, Faapisa M

    2012-02-01

    Perception of safety is an important component to the well-being of community members in their own neighborhood. The present study was the first of its kind to model community perception of safety utilizing a primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American community sample (N = 101) and with perceived youth violence and delinquency as prominent potential influences. The study found that the majority of participants felt that several types of youth violence and delinquency were problems in the community. The overall social-ecological model evidenced a strong fit and indicated that community perception of safety was adversely impacted by perceived youth violence and delinquency and increased through positive relations with neighbors. The implications included the need for a more comprehensive approach to positive youth development and community capacity-building, including incorporation of cultural components, and to determine whether the model is applicable to other minority communities.

  15. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Li, Yu-You, E-mail: yyli@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Key Lab of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  16. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  17. Properties of Teacher Networks in Twitter: Are They Related to Community-Based Peer Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macià, Maria; Garcia, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Teachers participate in social networking sites to share knowledge and collaborate with other teachers to create education-related content. In this study we selected several communities in order to better understand the networks that these participants establish in Twitter and the role that the social network plays in their activity within the…

  18. Why Teach Social Entrepreneurship: Enhance Learning and University-Community Relations through Service-Learning Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Stacy; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on providing a convincing argument for incorporating social entrepreneurship into the business professor's classroom. The outreach provided by social entrepreneurship enhances learning and promotes university-community relations. Service-learning engagement activities, in the form of social entrepreneurship, create a three-way…

  19. Integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in a globalized world: challenges and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Paronikian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the challenges and trends in integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in the world of globalization. Established that ethnic disintegration is inevitable consequence of ethnic integration, and its intensity depends on what method is carried Integration: voluntary or forced. What is important is the fact that in the era of globalization integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities that are inherent in the very essence of ethnicity, greatly amplified. It was found that entering to the cultural field of ethnic communities of other ethnic entities, penalized sustainable ethnic balance, contributes to the phenomenon of «rejection of other» causes of ethnic conflict and the consequent threat of disintegration of ethnic communities. Disintegration often leads to weakening of the linkages and interactions between components of the integrated system in a multi-ethnic society. However, the author concludes that the process of disintegration cannot be regarded as unambiguously negative because, on the one hand, it contributes to the weakening and decline; and sometimes division of multi-ethnic countries, but on the other hand - it contributes to the birth of the new and revival of the old nation-states, which is particularly important in conditions of transformation of the global community towards the post-industrial and information epoch in the future. In general, the integration and disintegration change each other depending on global processes and their transformations. Therefore, in the era of globalization’s challenges it is important is the effective management of these processes to prevent adverse effects.

  20. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  1. Numeric Input Relations for Relational Learning with Applications to Community Structure Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Most work in the area of statistical relational learning (SRL) is focussed on discrete data, even though a few approaches for hybrid SRL models have been proposed that combine numerical and discrete variables. In this paper we distinguish numerical random variables for which a probability...... distribution is defined by the model from numerical input variables that are only used for conditioning the distribution of discrete response variables. We show how numerical input relations can very easily be used in the Relational Bayesian Network framework, and that existing inference and learning methods...... use the augmented RBN framework to define probabilistic models for multi-relational (social) networks in which the probability of a link between two nodes depends on numeric latent feature vectors associated with the nodes. A generic learning procedure can be used to obtain a maximum-likelihood fit...

  2. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals--a reporting system study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Bouvy, Marcel L; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A G M

    2014-01-01

    Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident.

  3. Process-Structure-Function Relations of Pectin in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Houben, Ken; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Moelants, Katlijn R N; Ngouémazong, Eugénie D; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E G

    2016-01-01

    Pectin, a complex polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid, has been identified as a critical structural component of plant cell walls. The functionality of this intricate macromolecule in fruit- and vegetable-based-derived products and ingredients is strongly determined by the nanostructure of its most abundant polymer, homogalacturonan. During food processing, pectic homogalacturonan is susceptible to various enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic conversion reactions modifying its structural and, hence, its functional properties. Consequently, a profound understanding of the various process-structure-function relations of pectin aids food scientists to tailor the functional properties of plant-based derived products and ingredients. This review describes the current knowledge on process-structure-function relations of pectin in foods with special focus on pectin's functionality with regard to textural attributes of solid plant-based foods and rheological properties of particulated fruit- and vegetable-derived products. In this context, both pectin research performed via traditional, ex situ physicochemical analyses of fractionated walls and isolated polymers and pectin investigation through in situ pectin localization are considered.

  4. A Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process for Low-Lying, Communities Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Tatebe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While the province of British Columbia (BC, Canada, provides guidelines for flood risk management, it is local governments’ responsibility to delineate their own flood vulnerability, assess their risk, and integrate these with planning policies to implement adaptive action. However, barriers such as the lack of locally specific data and public perceptions about adaptation options mean that local governments must address the need for adaptation planning within a context of scientific uncertainty, while building public support for difficult choices on flood-related climate policy and action. This research demonstrates a process to model, visualize and evaluate potential flood impacts and adaptation options for the community of Delta, in Metro Vancouver, across economic, social and environmental perspectives. Visualizations in 2D and 3D, based on hydrological modeling of breach events for existing dike infrastructure, future sea level rise and storm surges, are generated collaboratively, together with future adaptation scenarios assessed against quantitative and qualitative indicators. This ‘visioning package’ is being used with staff and a citizens’ Working Group to assess the performance, policy implications and social acceptability of the adaptation strategies. Recommendations based on the experience of the initiative are provided that can facilitate sustainable future adaptation actions and decision-making in Delta and other jurisdictions.

  5. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-03-22

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  6. The Process and Product: Crafting Community Portraits with Young People in Flexible Learning Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Community-based alternative education is situated on the margins in relation to mainstream education. Young people attending these learning sites are often characterised as "disengaged learners", who have fallen through the cracks of the traditional schooling system. The aim of this project was to use participatory visual methods with…

  7. Biotic Interactions in Microbial Communities as Modulators of Biogeochemical Processes: Methanotrophy as a Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Angel, Roey; Veraart, Annelies J; Daebeler, Anne; Jia, Zhongjun; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Boon, Nico; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2016-01-01

    Microbial interaction is an integral component of microbial ecology studies, yet the role, extent, and relevance of microbial interaction in community functioning remains unclear, particularly in the context of global biogeochemical cycles. While many studies have shed light on the physico-chemical cues affecting specific processes, (micro)biotic controls and interactions potentially steering microbial communities leading to altered functioning are less known. Yet, recent accumulating evidence suggests that the concerted actions of a community can be significantly different from the combined effects of individual microorganisms, giving rise to emergent properties. Here, we exemplify the importance of microbial interaction for ecosystem processes by analysis of a reasonably well-understood microbial guild, namely, aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). We reviewed the literature which provided compelling evidence for the relevance of microbial interaction in modulating methane oxidation. Support for microbial associations within methane-fed communities is sought by a re-analysis of literature data derived from stable isotope probing studies of various complex environmental settings. Putative positive interactions between active MOB and other microbes were assessed by a correlation network-based analysis with datasets covering diverse environments where closely interacting members of a consortium can potentially alter the methane oxidation activity. Although, methanotrophy is used as a model system, the fundamentals of our postulations may be applicable to other microbial guilds mediating other biogeochemical processes.

  8. Control of Boreal Forest Soil Microbial Communities and Processes by Plant Secondary Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, M. C.; Leigh, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Plants release an array of secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs), which vary widely between plant species/progenies and may drive shifts in soil microbial community structure and function. We hypothesize that SPMEs released through litterfall and root turnover in the boreal forest control ecosystem carbon cycling by inhibiting microbial decomposition processes, which are overcome partially by increased aromatic biodegradation of microbial communities that also fortuitously prime soils for accelerated biodegradation of contaminants. Soils and litter (stems, roots, senescing leaves) were collected from 3 different birch progenies from Iceland, Finland, and Siberia that have been reported to contain different SPME content (low, medium, high, respectively) due to differences in herbivory pressure over their natural history, as well as black spruce, all growing in a long-term common tree garden at the Kevo Subarctic Field Research Institute, Finland. We characterized the SPME content of these plant progenies and used a variety of traditional microbiological techniques (e.g., enzyme assays, litter decomposition and contaminant biodegradation rates) and molecular techniques (e.g., high-throughput amplicon sequencing for bacteria and fungi) to assess how different levels of SPMEs may correlate to shifts in microbial community structure and function. Microbial communities (bacterial and fungal) significantly varied in composition as well as leaf litter and diesel biodegradation rates, in accordance with the phytochemistry of the trees present. This study offers novel, fundamental information about phytochemical controls on ecosystem processes, resilience to contaminants, and microbial decomposition processes.

  9. Colonisation processes and the role of coralline algae in rocky shore community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Thrush, Simon F.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Mangialajo, Luisa; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo; Chiantore, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Recovery from disturbance is an important attribute of community dynamics. Temperate rocky shores will experience increases in both the type and intensity of impacts under future expected global change. To gauge the community response to these potential changes in the disturbance regime it is important to assess space occupancy and the temporal dynamics of key species over the recovery process. We experimentally disturbed replicated 1 m2 plots in the lower intertidal at 5 sites along the Ligurian rocky coast (North-western Mediterranean) and assessed early succession processes over 18 months. To identify colonisation processes and role of key species in affecting species richness on recovery trajectories, we monitored species composition at the cm-scale along fixed transects within the plots. Our results highlighted the role of a limited number of taxa in driving the recovery of species richness across sites, despite site variation in community composition. Settlement of new propagules and overgrowth were the principal pathway of space occupancy. We detected an important role for coralline algae, particularly the articulated Corallina elongata, in promoting the colonisation of a diverse range of colonists. The present study highlights the important role played by calcifying coralline macroalgae as substrate providers for later colonists, favouring recovery of biodiversity after disturbance. This pivotal role may be compromised in a future scenario of elevated cumulative disturbance, where ocean acidification will likely depress the role of coralline algae in recovery, leading to a general loss in biodiversity and community complexity.

  10. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Blake, Christine E; Liese, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities.

  11. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; BLAKE, CHRISTINE E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.

    2014-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605

  12. Process stability and microbial community structure in anaerobic hydrogen-producing microflora from food waste containing kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Hye; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Jong Moon

    2007-09-15

    Hydrogen production by the dark fermentation of food wastes is an economic and environmentally friendly technology to produce the clean energy source as well as to treat the problematic wastes. However, the long-term operations of the continuous anaerobic reactor for fermentative hydrogen production were frequently unstable. In this study, the structure of microbial community within the anaerobic reactor during unstable hydrogen production was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) techniques. The changes in microbial community from H(2)-producing Clostridium spp. to lactic acid-producing Lactobacillus spp. were well coincident with the unexpected process failures and the changes of metabolites concentrations in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor. As the rate of hydrogen production decreased, effluent lactic acid concentration increased. Low rate of hydrogen production and changes in microbial community were related to the 'kimchi' content and storage temperature of food waste feed solution. After low temperature control of the storage tank of the feed solution, any significant change in microbial community within the anaerobic reactor did not occur and the hydrogen production was very stably maintained for a long time.

  13. A Discussion on the Relational Process of Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茜

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that business negotiation is an indispensable part in international trade and probably the most com⁃mon type of negotiation. Generally speaking, business negotiation is a process which business negotiators would make the interac⁃tion in order to get specific exchange goals. Because of the important role of business negotiations in business world, many Chi⁃nese researchers have engaged in study of business and achieved many useful findings. Although there are many researches in the field of business negotiation, focusing on the analysis of relational process of business negotiation is less, which is the main con⁃cern of this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to find the language mechanism and characteristic of business negotiation. At the mean⁃time, negotiators are more likely to attain the deep perception in choosing the better words and structure among the negotiation.

  14. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer.

  15. Enriching acid rock drainage related microbial communities from surface-deposited oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.

  16. Public Relations for Physics Departments: Convincing the Community that Quarks are Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alaina G.

    2002-03-01

    A strong public relations program can be of great importance to a physics department. Not only can effective PR improve the reputation of an individual department, but it can also serve the greater physics community by convincing the public that quarks, quantum dots, and nanostructures are cool. Building a solid reputation with the many constituents that a physics department serves can lead to greater media exposure, improved quality of student applicants, community and industrial partnerships, and even financial support. It isn’t difficult to create a strategic PR program, but it does take planning and commitment of resources. I will discuss the techniques and tactics of effective media, community, alumni, and internal relations, with special emphasis placed on establishing connections with media outlets, creating and publicizing outreach programs for the community, initiating a newsletter, organizing an external board of advisors, and developing an effective alumni relations program. The University of Arizona Physics Department serves as a case study, but other physics departments with similar communications programs will also be incorporated.

  17. Immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T

    2016-09-01

    In this review, the immune-to-brain communication pathways are briefly summarized, with emphasis on the impact of immune cells and their mediators on learning, memory and other cognitive domains. Further, the acute response of the central nervous system to peripherally generated inflammatory stimuli - termed as sickness behaviour - is described, and the central role of microglia in this immune-to-brain crosstalk in physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted. Finally, the role and consequences of immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Implicit and explicit self-related processing in relation to insight in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke E.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Self-related processing (SRP) has been associated with clinical and cognitive insight. We investigated the relationship between implicit SRP (ISRP) and explicit SRP (ESRP) and insight. We first hypothesised that impaired insight is associated with the extent to which implicit feedback

  19. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W. de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.; Emmelkamp, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the as

  20. Recovery of work-related stress: Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the a

  1. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-09-01

    The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.

  2. Separating natural and contaminant related gradients in estuarine macrobenthic community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakocinski, C.; Heard, R.; Walker, W. [Gulf Coast Research Lab., Ocean Springs, MS (United States); Brown, S.; Gaston, G. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Biology Dept.; Summers, J.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Using whole-community macrobenthic responses to assess pollution impacts in estuaries presents a difficult challenge due to dynamic natural conditions that may impose their own physical limitations on the biota. For example, the recognition of bioindicator taxa becomes confounded when correlations exist between gradients in natural environmental variables, such as salinity, and gradients in contaminants, such as trace metals. The authors used partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to separate natural and contaminant related gradients in macrobenthic community structure across 319 EMAP sites dispersed throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico. Residual variation in macrobenthic community structure was examined with respect to gradients in contaminant levels to identify responses by positive and negative bioindicator taxa. Gradients in concentrations of trace metals do not coincide completely with those in other chemical contaminants, and responses by characteristic bioindicator taxa reveal information regarding effects of specific contaminants. Several indigenous taxa serve as good negative bioindicators, whereas other opportunistic taxa serve as positive bioindicators of estuarine contamination.

  3. Biohydrogen production from cheese processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peilin [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McGarvey, Jeffery A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Benemann, John R. [Benemann Associates, Walnut Creek, CA 94595 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H{sub 2} fermentation experiments H{sub 2} yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of 1.0 and 1.5, respectively. Butyric, acetic, propionic, and valeric acids were the major volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the fermentation process. Continuous H{sub 2} fermentation experiments were also performed using a completely mixed reactor (CSTR). The pH of the bioreactor was controlled in a range of 4.0-5.0 by addition of carbonate in the feed material. Maximum H{sub 2} yields were between 1.8 and 2.3 mM/g COD fed for the loading rates (LRs) tested with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. Occasionally CH{sub 4} was produced in the biogas with concurrent reductions in H{sub 2} production; however, continuous H{sub 2} production was achieved for over 3 weeks at each LR. The 16S rDNA analysis of DNA extracted from the bioreactors during periods of high H{sub 2} production revealed that more than 50% of the bacteria present were members of the genus Lactobacillus and about 5% were Clostridia. When H{sub 2} production in the bioreactors decreased concurrent reductions in the genus Lactobacillus were also observed. Therefore, the microbial populations in the bioreactors were closely related to the conditions and performance of the bioreactors. (author)

  4. Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: gaining insight through the community gardening experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, James; Knapp, Corrine; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie; Sancar, Fahriye; Litt, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Current environmental and health challenges require us to identify ways to better align aesthetics, ecology, and health. At the local level, community gardens are increasingly praised for their therapeutic qualities. They also provide a lens through which we can explore relational processes that connect people, ecology and health. Using key-informant interview data, this research explores gardeners' tactile, emotional, and value-driven responses to the gardening experience and how these responses influence health at various ecological levels (n = 67 participants, 28 urban gardens). Our findings demonstrate that gardeners' aesthetic experiences generate meaning that encourages further engagement with activities that may lead to positive health outcomes. Gardeners directly experience nearby nature by 'getting their hands dirty' and growing food. They enjoy the way vegetables taste and form emotional connections with the garden. The physical and social qualities of garden participation awaken the senses and stimulate a range of responses that influence interpersonal processes (learning, affirming, expressive experiences) and social relationships that are supportive of positive health-related behaviors and overall health. This research suggests that the relational nature of aesthetics, defined as the most fundamental connection between people and place, can help guide community designers and health planners when designing environment and policy approaches to improve health behaviors.

  5. Schools as institutions for peace in Northern Ireland: pupils’, parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on the community relations dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the research reported in this paper is to inform the processes of school improvement for better intercommunal relations in Northern Ireland. Notwithstanding the present peace process, the quality of community relations remains a crucial concern for those interested in long-term stability. The research strategy drew on data from nine case study schools and was considered to be part of an interpretist-constructivist paradigm involving an inductive or grounded theory approach to analysis. The views of pupils, parents and teachers on the contribution of schooling towards improved inter-group relationships were explored in some depth and the wealth of rich data shed light on school practices and key institutional factors implicated in effectiveness and improvement. Nineteen themes were identified which appeared not to be discrete or self-contained but interact in complex ways creating different patterns at different organisational sites. Furthermore, the patterns spun by these factors appeared to vary in nature through relationship with identities such as geographical location, socio-economic status, ethnicity and gender. It is argued that this study contributes towards the existing literatures on school effectiveness and improvement and schooling and sectarianism in Northern Ireland. The results suggested that education for community relations in N. Ireland required an alternative concept of school effectiveness to the received model. The emerging organisational picture was more consistent with sensitivity to context models of effectiveness and improvement. The analysis in the final section was designed to offer some broad pointers for school improvement.

  6. Job autonomy, its predispositions and its relation to work outcomes in community health centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Tien-Tse

    2013-06-01

    It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations. This study examined employees' job autonomy in government-run community health centers, its predispositions and its relation to their work outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan. From 230 responding community health centers, 1380 staff members responded to the self-completed, structured questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that employees' job autonomy has positive work outcomes: greater work satisfaction, and less intent to transfer and intentions to leave. In addition, job autonomy was related to employees' higher education levels, medical profession, permanent employment and serving smaller populations. Moreover, employees' age, educational levels, medical profession and employment status were found to be related to their work satisfaction, intent to transfer and intent to leave.

  7. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...... of habitat loss on plant species richness was pervasive across different regions, whereas the effect of habitat isolation on species richness was not evident. This area effect was, however, not equal for all the species, and life-history traits related to both species persistence and dispersal modified plant...

  8. Influence of earthworm activity on microbial communities related with the degradation of persistent pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Lee, Iwa; Verweij, Rudo A; Morais, Paula V; Van Velzen, Martin J M; Sousa, José Paulo; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-04-01

    Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate™ and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation.

  9. Perfect error processing: Perfectionism-related variations in action monitoring and error processing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jutta; Acharki, Manuela; Kresimon, Miriam; Völler, Frederike; Gibbons, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Showing excellent performance and avoiding poor performance are the main characteristics of perfectionists. Perfectionism-related variations (N=94) in neural correlates of performance monitoring were investigated in a flanker task by assessing two perfectionism-related trait dimensions: Personal standard perfectionism (PSP), reflecting intrinsic motivation to show error-free performance, and evaluative concern perfectionism (ECP), representing the worry of being poorly evaluated based on bad performance. A moderating effect of ECP and PSP on error processing - an important performance monitoring system - was investigated by examining the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). The smallest Ne/ERN difference (error-correct) was obtained for pure-ECP participants (high-ECP-low-PSP), whereas the highest difference was shown for those with high-ECP-high-PSP (i.e., mixed perfectionists). Pe was positively correlated with PSP only. Our results encouraged the cognitive-bias hypothesis suggesting that pure-ECP participants reduce response-related attention to avoid intense error processing by minimising the subjective threat of negative evaluations. The PSP-related variations in late error processing are consistent with the participants' high in PSP goal-oriented tendency to optimise their behaviour.

  10. Relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblage during the spreading of a toxic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxi; Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; Jiang, Shengjing; Zhang, Qi; Cheng, Gang; An, Lizhe; Du, Guozhen; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-01-01

    Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree). Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts.

  11. Relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblage during the spreading of a toxic plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Shi

    Full Text Available Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree. Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts.

  12. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the anaerobic digestion of maize silage in a two-phase process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträuber, Heike; Lucas, Rico; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Two-phasic anaerobic digestion processes (hydrolysis/acidogenesis separated from acetogenesis/methanogenesis) can be used for biogas production on demand or a combined chemicals/bioenergy production. For an effective process control, detailed knowledge about the microbial catalysts and their correlation to process conditions is crucial. In this study, maize silage was digested in a two-phase process and interrelationships between process parameters and microbial communities were revealed. In the first-phase reactor, alternating metabolic periods were observed which emerged independently from the feeding frequency. During the L-period, up to 11.8 g L(-1) lactic acid was produced which significantly correlated to lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus as the most abundant community members. During the alternating G-period, the production of volatile fatty acids (up to 5.3, 4.0 and 3.1 g L(-1) for propionic, n-butyric and n-caproic acid, respectively) dominated accompanied by a high gas production containing up to 28 % hydrogen. The relative abundance of various Clostridiales increased during this metabolic period. In the second-phase reactor, the metabolic fluctuations of the first phase were smoothed out resulting in a stable biogas production as well as stable bacterial and methanogenic communities. However, the biogas composition followed the metabolic dynamics of the first phase: the hydrogen content increased during the L-period whereas highest CH4/CO2 ratios (up to 2.8) were reached during the G-period. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta as well as hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus and Methanobacteriaceae were identified as dominant methanogens. Consequently, a directed control of the first-phase stabilizing desired metabolic states can lead to an enhanced productivity regarding chemicals and bioenergy.

  13. Acid tolerance response (ATR) of microbial communities during the enhanced biohydrogen process via cascade acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqin; Xia, Yan; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Mingxing

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biohydrogen production via cascade acid stress on microbial communities, structure patterns of the microbial communities revealed by PLFAs, and the succession of biohydrogen related species against cascade acid stress were all investigated. It was found that hydrogen production could be improved from 48.7 to 79.4mL/gVS after cascade acid stress. In addition, the Gram negative (G(-)) bacteria were found to be more tolerant to organic acids than those of the Gram positive (G(+)) bacteria, regardless of the dominance of G(+) bacteria within the microbial communities. Moreover, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium aciditolerans and Azospira oryzae, were proved to be enriched, and then might play indispensable roles for the enhanced biohydrogen production after cascade acid stress, as which were responsible for the biohydrogen accumulation, acid tolerance and nitrogen removal, respectively.

  14. Developing indicators for evaluation of age-friendly communities in Canada: process and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Orpana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2006, the World Health Organization launched the Global Age-Friendly Cities Project to support active aging. Canada has a large number of age-friendly initiatives; however, little is known about the effectiveness and outcomes of age-friendly community (AFC initiatives. In addition, stakeholders report that they lack the capacity and tools to develop and conduct evaluations of their AFC initiatives. In order to address these gaps, the Public Health Agency of Canada developed indicators to support the evaluation of AFC initiatives relevant to a wide range of Canadian communities. These indicators meet the varied needs of communities, but are not designed to evaluate collective impact or enable cross-community comparisons. Methods: An evidence-based, iterative consultation approach was used to develop indicators for AFCs. This involved a literature review and an environmental scan. Two rounds of key expert and stakeholder consultations were conducted to rate potential indicators according to their importance, actionability and feasibility. A final list of indicators and potential measures were developed based on results from these consultations, as well as key policy considerations. Results: Thirty-nine indicators emerged across eight AFC domains plus four indicators related to long-term health and social outcomes. All meet the intended purpose of evaluating AFC initiatives at the community level. A user-friendly guide is available to support and share this work. Conclusion: The AFC indicators can help communities evaluate age-friendly initiatives, which is the final step in completing a cycle of the Pan-Canadian AFC milestones. Communities are encouraged to use the evaluation results to improve their AFC initiatives, thereby benefiting a broad range of Canadians.

  15. Multistage A-O Activated Sludge Process for Paraformaldehyde Wastewater Treatment and Microbial Community Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of formaldehyde on microorganisms and body had become a global public health issue. The multistage combination of anaerobic and aerobic process was adopted to treat paraformaldehyde wastewater. Microbial community structure in different reaction stages was analyzed through high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that multistage A-O activated sludge process positively influenced polyformaldehyde wastewater. The removal rates of formaldehyde were basically stable at more than 99% and those of COD were about 89%. Analysis of the microbial diversity index indicated that the microbial diversity of the reactor was high, and the treatment effect was good. Moreover, microbial community had certain similarity in the same system. Microbial communities in different units also showed typical representative characteristics affected by working conditions and influent concentrations. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant fungal genera in the phylum level of community composition. As to family and genus levels, Peptostreptococcaceae was distributed at various stages and the dominant in this system. This bacterium also played an important role in organic matter removal, particularly decomposition of the acidified middle metabolites. In addition, Rhodobacteraceae and Rhodocyclaceae were the formaldehyde-degrading bacteria found in the reactor.

  16. Processes of community development and responses of ecosystems to climate change. Progress report, September 28, 1988--September 27, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.

    1989-05-26

    Our studies focus on attempting to understand the role of decomposer-primary producer linkages in successional dynamics. We are testing a series of hypotheses that relate changes in plant species composition during succession to changes in activity and structure of the soil microfloral and faunal community, dynamics of soil organic matter, and availability of soil nutrients. As these successional patterns are identified, they are being applied to understanding specific processes and mechanics involved in ecosystem development during recovery from moderate and severe disturbances. These findings are then being used in conjunction with simulation models to assess potential effects of climate change on ecosystems. Our research involves field studies in northwestern Colorado and southeastern Washington, laboratory studies, and simulation modeling. Ongoing projects include studies of response patterns of primary producer and soil microbial communities to nutrient additions (N, P, and sucrose), the function of mycorrhizal fungi in plant community development, and the dynamics of litter decomposition under semiarid conditions. New studies are being implemented to investigate the significance of nutrient transfers from VAM fungi to plants and plant-root exudate interactions, and to relate this to understanding their roles in succession.

  17. Review of self-relations in the psychotherapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, John S

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process by J. Christopher Muran (see record 2000-16556-000). The self is alive and well and living in psychology, at least if the contributors to J. Christopher Muran's stimulating volume, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process, are to be taken seriously. The self is a central construct in psychoanalytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral theories, but nowadays even some radical behaviorists find the self to be an important concept. Thus, the present is a propitious time for a book that presents the major theoretical approaches to the self in psychotherapy and, fortunately for us, Muran, by gathering the views of leading psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, and radical behavioral thinkers, has assembled a volume of almost uniformly high quality. Inspired by postmodernism, especially by the growing popularity of dialogic and perspectival epistemologies, Muran has a constructed this book as a set of six dialogues among contributors of varying theoretical persuasions, and although I doubt that dialogic and perspectival epistemologies are necessarily postmodern, I nevertheless find that this volume's dialogic structure makes for interesting reading and adds to its intellectual contributions. Because Muran's contention, with which I agree, is that the self is not an isolated entity but rather part of a relational matrix, it is perhaps necessary for this book to be structured dialogically. Whether postmodern or not, this book is an important one, one that conveys a great deal about what it means to be human as we enter the 21st century. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  19. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  20. Informal learning processes in support of clinical service delivery in a service-oriented community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P

    The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies.

  1. Effects of Cu on metabolisms and enzyme activities of microbial communities in the process of composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingliang; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun; Chen, Zhixue; Shao, Li; Chen, Lin; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Weijuan; Chen, Shengnan; Liu, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    With the compost matrix of pig manure, wheat straw, and spent mushroom substrate, and then inoculated with the Compound Microbe Preparation, the study investigated the effects of the heavy metal Cu on the process of composting. Biolog EcoPlate™ test revealed that at a low content, Cu could improve the capacities of microbial communities to transform and exploit carbon sources in the form of polymer, thus speeding up the decomposition of agricultural wastes, and at a high content, Cu presented inhibiting effect on microbial communities to exploit complex macromolecular carbon sources, thus extending the decomposition of agricultural wastes. Enzyme activity testing showed that at a low content, Cu presented enzyme activity-activating effect at the early period of composting and inhibiting effect in the late period of composting, and at a high content, Cu presented enzyme activity-inhibiting effects through the process of composting.

  2. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J

    2017-08-15

    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (<2 hour/d) were more likely to complete S2, compared to noncaregivers. Eligibility and participation in the follow-up occupational survey were higher among those employed (vs. unemployed) at enrollment but were not associated with enrollment stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Engaging the underserved: a process model to mobilize rural community health coalitions as partners in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B; Ramsey, Katrina; Rollins, Nancy; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Buckley, David I; Stange, Kurt C; Fagnan, Lyle J

    2014-08-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly recognized as critical elements in research translation. Process models to develop CEnR partnerships in rural and underserved communities are needed. Academic partners transformed four established Community Health Improvement Partnerships (CHIPs) into Community Health Improvement and Research Partnerships (CHIRPs). The intervention consisted of three elements: an academic-community kickoff/orientation meeting, delivery of eight research training modules to CHIRP members, and local community-based participatory research (CBPR) pilot studies addressing childhood obesity. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of pre-/postsurveys, interviews, session evaluations, observational field notes, and attendance logs to evaluate intervention effectiveness and acceptability. Forty-nine community members participated; most (78.7%) attended five or more research training sessions. Session quality and usefulness was high. Community members reported significant increases in their confidence for participating in all phases of research (e.g., formulating research questions, selecting research methods, writing manuscripts). All CHIRP groups successfully conducted CBPR pilot studies. The CHIRP process builds on existing infrastructure in academic and community settings to foster CEnR. Brief research training and pilot studies around community-identified health needs can enhance individual and organizational capacity to address health disparities in rural and underserved communities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluating and improving hydrologic processes in the community land model for integrated earth system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Khamis, K.; Blaen, P. J.; Hainie, S.; Mellor, C.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This paper synthesises findings from previous and ongoing research in glacierized Alpine and Arctic river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand, Swedish Lapland and Svalbard), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-cryosphere-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning the consequences of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Using downscaled regional climate projections as inputs to a distributed hydrological model for a study basin in the French Pyrenees (i.e. an environment at the contemporary limit of valley glaciation), we show how shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter space-time dynamics in basin runoff. Notably, the timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and the proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff (cf. meltwater) may increase. Across our range of Alpine and Arctic study basins, we quantify observed links between relative water source contributions (% meltwater : % groundwater), physico-chemical habitat (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment and channel stability) and benthic communities. At the site scale, results point towards increased community diversity (taxonomic and functional) as meltwater contributions decline and physico-chemical habitat becomes less harsh. However, basin-scale biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water source contributions and habitats, and the

  5. Modeling Central Carbon Metabolic Processes in Soil Microbial Communities: Comparing Measured With Modeled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, P.; Fairbanks, D.; Miller, E.; Salpas, E.; Hagerty, S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating C cycling is hindered by our inability to directly observe and measure the biochemical processes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle in intact and complex microbial communities. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracer probing is proposed as a new way to study microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the quantification of C fluxes through the central C metabolic network processes (Dijkstra et al 2011a,b). We determined the 13CO2 production from U-13C, 1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, and 6-13C labeled glucose and 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate in parallel incubations in three soils along an elevation gradient. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the results indicate a high pentose phosphate pathway activity in soils. Agreement between modeled and measured CO2 production rates for the six C-atoms of 13C-labeled glucose indicate that the metabolic model used is appropriate for soil community processes, but that improvements can be made. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and (eco)physiology of intact microbial communities. Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J.C., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011a. Probing C flux patterns of soil microbial metabolic networks using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 126-132. Dijkstra, P., Dalder, J.J., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011b. Modeling soil metabolic processes using isotopologue pairs of position-specific 13C-labeled glucose and pyruvate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 1848-1857.

  6. COMMUNITY TOOLS FOR CARTOGRAPHIC AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSING OF MARS EXPRESS HRSC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Kirk

    2017-07-01

    , it was necessary to split observations into blocks of constant exposure time, greatly increasing the effort needed to control the images and collect DTMs. Here, we describe a substantially improved HRSC processing capability that incorporates sensor models with varying line timing in the current ISIS3 system (Sides 2017 and SOCET SET. This enormously reduces the work effort for processing most images and eliminates the artifacts that arose from segmenting them. In addition, the software takes advantage of the continuously evolving capabilities of ISIS3 and the improved image matching module NGATE (Next Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction, incorporating area and feature based algorithms, multi-image and multi-direction matching of SOCET SET, thus greatly reducing the need for manual editing of DTM errors. We have also developed a procedure for geodetically controlling the images to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA data by registering a preliminary stereo topographic model to MOLA by using the point cloud alignment (pc_align function of the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP; Moratto et al. 2010. This effectively converts inter-image tiepoints into ground control points in the MOLA coordinate system. The result is improved absolute accuracy and a significant reduction in work effort relative to manual measurement of ground control. The ISIS and ASP software used are freely available; SOCET SET, is a commercial product. By the end of 2017 we expect to have ported our SOCET SET HRSC sensor model to the Community Sensor Model (CSM; Community Sensor Model Working Group 2010; Hare and Kirk 2017 standard utilized by the successor photogrammetric system SOCET GXP that is currently offered by BAE. In early 2018, we are also working with BAE to release the CSM source code under a BSD or MIT open source license. We illustrate current HRSC processing capabilities with three examples, of which the first two come from the DTM comparison of 2007. Candor Chasma (h1235_0001 was a

  7. Is coral richness related to community resistance to and recovery from disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Y. Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More diverse communities are thought to be more stable—the diversity–stability hypothesis—due to increased resistance to and recovery from disturbances. For example, high diversity can make the presence of resilient or fast growing species and key facilitations among species more likely. How natural, geographic biodiversity patterns and changes in biodiversity due to human activities mediate community-level disturbance dynamics is largely unknown, especially in diverse systems. For example, few studies have explored the role of diversity in tropical marine communities, especially at large scales. We tested the diversity–stability hypothesis by asking whether coral richness is related to resistance to and recovery from disturbances including storms, predator outbreaks, and coral bleaching on tropical coral reefs. We synthesized the results of 41 field studies conducted on 82 reefs, documenting changes in coral cover due to disturbance, across a global gradient of coral richness. Our results indicate that coral reefs in more species-rich regions were marginally less resistant to disturbance and did not recover more quickly. Coral community resistance was also highly dependent on pre-disturbance coral cover, probably due in part to the sensitivity of fast-growing and often dominant plating acroporid corals to disturbance. Our results suggest that coral communities in biodiverse regions, such as the western Pacific, may not be more resistant and resilient to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Further analyses controlling for disturbance intensity and other drivers of coral loss and recovery could improve our understanding of the influence of diversity on community stability in coral reef ecosystems.

  8. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  9. Dynamics of bacterial communities in soils of rainforest fragments under restoration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael; Zucchi, Tiago; Taketani, Rodrigo; Andreote, Fernando; Cardoso, Elke

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10% of its original area still remains. Many projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different ages of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant diversity highly influenced the bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, one with the youngest (10 years) and the other with the oldest (native) site suggests their use as bioindicators of soil quality and soil recovery of forest fragments under restoration.

  10. Reconstruct the Comic Distance Duality Relation by Gaussian Process

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, the cosmic distance duality relation (CDDR) is reconstructed by gaussian process (GP) which is cosmological model independent. We will at least use GP two times to get a continuous $\\eta$ which denotes the deviation of the CDDR. The GP is needed to make the redshifts of the luminosity distance data (LD, $D_{L}$) and the angular diameter distance data (ADD, $D_{A}$) at the same point. Then, it is possible to construct the $\\eta$ sample. And, the GP is needed again to see the shape of the CDDR (or $\\eta$). The spherical sample of galaxy cluster (GC) which gives out the ADD data seems inconsistent with the CDDR. Our reconstructing results from the Union 2.1 and the elliptical sample of galaxy cluster show a nearly constant $\\eta$.

  11. Attachment and Health-Related Physiological Stress Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Powers, Sally I.

    2015-01-01

    People who are more securely attached to close partners show health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying this link are not well specified. We focus on physiological pathways that are potential mediators of the connection between attachment in childhood and adulthood and health and disease outcomes. Growing evidence indicates that attachment insecurity (vs. security) is associated with distinctive physiological responses to stress, including responses involving the HPA, SAM and immune systems, but these responses vary with type of stressor (e.g., social/nonsocial) and contextual factors (e.g., partner’s attachment style). Taking this more nuanced perspective will be important for understanding the conditions under which attachment shapes health-related physiological processes as well as downstream health and disease consequences. PMID:25729755

  12. Aerial Refueling Process Rescheduling Under Job Related Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2011-01-01

    The Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem (ARSP) can be defined as determining the refueling completion times for each fighter aircraft (job) on the multiple tankers (machines) to minimize the total weighted tardiness. ARSP assumes that the jobs have different release times and due dates. The ARSP is dynamic environment and unexpected events may occur. In this paper, rescheduling in the aerial refueling process with a time set of jobs will be studied to deal with job related disruptions such as the arrival of new jobs, the departure of an existing job, high deviations in the release times and changes in job priorities. In order to keep the stability and to avoid excessive computation, partial schedule repair algorithm is developed and its preliminary results are presented.

  13. Controlling the didactic relation: a case in process engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, Juha

    2014-07-01

    A case study was conducted during 1994-2013 on several groups of process engineering students to see what was needed to transform a single course from a teacher-centred to a student-centred learning environment (SCLE). Development work was done incrementally, using Herbart's didactic triangle as a theoretical framework. The effects of the changes in learning environment were analysed using quantitative (student attendance, pass rate, attrition, grades) and qualitative data (student feedback). Guiding the didactic relation, i.e. the studying done by students, by continuous assessment was found to be very useful. Using SCLEs that emphasise student responsibility and activity in learning has been found in this case to enhance student learning considerably.

  14. Process Evaluation of a Community Garden at an Urban Outpatient Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Gamble, Elizabeth; Jones, Robert; Chenault, Margaret C; Tooze, Janet A

    2016-11-29

    In addition to expediting patient recovery, community gardens that are associated with medical facilities can provide fresh produce to patients and their families, serve as a platform for clinic-based nutrition education, and help patients develop new skills and insights that can lead to positive health behavior change. While community gardening is undergoing resurgence, there is a strong need for evaluation studies that employ valid and reliable measures. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a community garden program at an urban medical clinic to estimate the prevalence of patient awareness and participation, food security, barriers to participation, and personal characteristics; garden volunteer satisfaction; and clinic staff perspectives in using the garden for patient education/treatment. Clinic patients (n = 411) completed a community garden participation screener and a random sample completed a longer evaluation survey (n = 152); garden volunteers and medical staff completed additional surveys. Among patients, 39% had heard of and 18% had received vegetables from the garden; the greatest barrier for participation was lack of awareness. Volunteers reported learning about gardening, feeling more involved in the neighborhood, and environmental concern; and medical staff endorsed the garden for patient education/treatment. Comprehensive process evaluations can be utilized to quantify benefits of community gardens in medical centers as well as to point out areas for further development, such as increasing patient awareness. As garden programming at medical centers is formalized, future research should include systematic evaluations to determine whether this unique component of the healthcare environment helps improve patient outcomes.

  15. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    between frying oil and food. In deep-frying the cooking fat is usually used more than once, and there comes a moment when one considers subjectively that the oil is not longer suitable for frying and is discarded. This can be of practical significance for the total lipid intake, since a not determined quantity of oil is discarded and is not ingested. Consecuently the theoretical lipid intake has been decreased and, at the same time, some compounds, included saturated fats, are eliminated from diet whit the discarded oil. For example, the lipid composition of meats is substantially improved because of the highly favorable monounsaturated fatty acids penetration into them from the frying olive oil. In of the most important features is the possibility of manipulating fat intake by reducing it and improving the quality of the fat really consumed, this is of special interest in the possible relation to degenerative diseases. These changes in the fatty acids composition of oils and foods are repeatedly seen in laboratory experiments. However, their interpretation is not easy, in part because of the complexity of the deep-frying process used in the test. On the other hand, you would have to see the results obtained in the laboratory coincide with the results at practical level as well in the households as in catering, and, in this sense, some of the first results which we are obtaining in the population of Madrid are presented in the second part of this report.

  16. Community relations and child-led microfinance: a case study of caregiving children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.

  17. Composition of processes and related partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ovidio, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    In this paper different types of compositions involving independent fractional Brownian motions $B^j_{H_j}(t)$, $t>0$, $j=1,2$ are examined. The partial differential equations governing the distributions of $I_F(t)=B^1_{H_1}(|B^2_{H_2}(t)|)$, $t>0$ and $J_F(t)=B^1_{H_1}(|B^2_{H_2}(t)|^{1/H_1})$, $t>0$ are derived by different methods and compared with those existing in the literature and with those related to $B^1(|B^2_{H_2}(t)|)$, $t>0$. The process of iterated Brownian motion $I^n_F(t)$, $t>0$ is examined in detail and its moments are calculated. Furthermore for $J^{n-1}_F(t)=B^1_{H}(|B^2_H(...|B^n_H(t)|^{1/H}...)|^{1/H})$, $t>0$ the following factorization is proved $J^{n-1}_F(t)=\\prod_{j=1}^{n} B^j_{\\frac{H}{n}}(t)$, $t>0$. A series of compositions involving Cauchy processes and fractional Brownian motions are also studied and the corresponding non-homogeneous wave equations are derived.

  18. Optimizing Feature Construction Process for Dynamic Aggregation of Relational Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayner Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The importance of input representation has been recognized already in machine learning. Feature construction is one of the methods used to generate relevant features for learning data. This study addressed the question whether or not the descriptive accuracy of the DARA algorithm benefits from the feature construction process. In other words, this paper discusses the application of genetic algorithm to optimize the feature construction process to generate input data for the data summarization method called Dynamic Aggregation of Relational Attributes (DARA. Approach: The DARA algorithm was designed to summarize data stored in the non-target tables by clustering them into groups, where multiple records stored in non-target tables correspond to a single record stored in a target table. Here, feature construction methods are applied in order to improve the descriptive accuracy of the DARA algorithm. Since, the study addressed the question whether or not the descriptive accuracy of the DARA algorithm benefits from the feature construction process, the involved task includes solving the problem of constructing a relevant set of features for the DARA algorithm by using a genetic-based algorithm. Results: It is shown in the experimental results that the quality of summarized data is directly influenced by the methods used to create patterns that represent records in the (n×p TF-IDF weighted frequency matrix. The results of the evaluation of the genetic-based feature construction algorithm showed that the data summarization results can be improved by constructing features by using the Cluster Entropy (CE genetic-based feature construction algorithm. Conclusion: This study showed that the data summarization results can be improved by constructing features by using the cluster entropy genetic-based feature construction algorithm.

  19. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Louise B; Moodie, Marj M; Simmons, Annie M; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2010-07-30

    Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008) project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices were seen by the teachers as

  20. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  1. Racial variations in processes of care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia

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    Whittle Jeff

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia (CAP have a substantial risk of death, but there is evidence that adherence to certain processes of care, including antibiotic administration within 8 hours, can decrease this risk. Although national mortality data shows blacks have a substantially increased odds of death due to pneumonia as compared to whites previous studies of short-term mortality have found decreased mortality for blacks. Therefore we examined pneumonia-related processes of care and short-term mortality in a population of patients hospitalized with CAP. Methods We reviewed the records of all identified Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for pneumonia between 10/1/1998 and 9/30/1999 at one of 101 Pennsylvania hospitals, and randomly selected 60 patients at each hospital for inclusion. We reviewed the medical records to gather process measures of quality, pneumonia severity and demographics. We used Medicare administrative data to identify 30-day mortality. Because only a small proportion of the study population was black, we included all 240 black patients and randomly selected 720 white patients matched on age and gender. We performed a resampling of the white patients 10 times. Results Males were 43% of the cohort, and the median age was 76 years. After controlling for potential confounders, blacks were less likely to receive antibiotics within 8 hours (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval 0.6, 0.4–0.97, but were as likely as whites to have blood cultures obtained prior to receiving antibiotics (0.7, 0.3–1.5, to have oxygenation assessed within 24 hours of presentation (1.6, 0.9–3.0, and to receive guideline concordant antibiotics (OR 0.9, 0.6–1.7. Black patients had a trend towards decreased 30-day mortality (0.4, 0.2 to 1.0. Conclusion Although blacks were less likely to receive optimal care, our findings are consistent with other studies that suggest better risk-adjusted survival

  2. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  3. Occupational therapy practice community: process evaluation by the participants and researchers

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    Sandra Maria Galheigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a participatory action research with occupational therapists in a community of practice which purpose was to discuss the care production provided by occupational therapy to hospitalized children and adolescents. The participants were nine occupational therapists from hospitals of the city of São Paulo. Ten face-to-face meetings were conducted and a Web-mediated environment was created for conducting virtual activities. The face meetings were recorded and tapped. This article aims to present the evaluation made by the participants and researchers about the process experienced in the community. Through content analysis, seventeen reporting units were identified and grouped into four main themes: the dialogic process; theoretical and practical implications; reflective process; participatory process and its barriers. The process evaluation showed that dialogue during the meetings contributed to a sense of belonging, integration, and awareness/group cohesion and made possible discussing and reflecting on topics relevant to the practice of occupational therapist. Direct communication proved to be the main form of exchange among the professionals in the group. The participants working conditions, the computers and virtual environments access issues, the surplus work generated by meetings and the displacement in urban centers were complicating factors for the participant’s greater adhesion. Evaluation showed that this strategy favored the construction of shared knowledge, and its implementation can foster reflection, research development and knowledge production, as well as contribute to the occupational therapist professional practice improvement.

  4. Relative Importance and Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plants in a Kichwa Community in the Ecuadorian Amazon

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    Brian Joseph Doyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor. We interviewed 18 men and 18 women between 9 and 74 years old in San José de Payamino, an indigenous community of the Kichwa ethnicity in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to determine if there are gender or age-associated differences in medicinal plant knowledge among the Payamino people and to identify the most important species from a sample of medicinal plants. Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community. Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora. These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge. While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts.

  5. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

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    Maureen Dobbins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  6. Knowledge transfer and exchange processes for environmental health issues in Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Susan M; Brooks, Sandy; Furgal, Chris M; Dobbins, Maureen

    2010-02-01

    Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  7. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  8. Evaluation of community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nare

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into “sessions” of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241 of 5 NTU. The communities in

  9. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia.

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    Laura Brandt

    Full Text Available To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect.89 healthy subjects (60% female, aged 19-71 years (M = 32.1. 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer.Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS; automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli; somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T; confounders: depression (BDI, affect (PANAS.Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10 and positive (r = .26, p < .05 verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01 and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01, but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42.Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples.

  10. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-05-16

    Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In

  11. RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE VALUES RESHAPED BY THE GLOBALIZED COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikolaevna SHEVCHENKO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented a description of the current standing of the globalizing world community assumed to settle on the shared scale of values. The study examined the chang-es in the scale of values Ukraine has undergone, taking for instance the Russian-Ukrainian relations. The paper re-vealed discrepancy in the values NATO declared with their factual actions aimed at inciting the Ukrainian conflict, and inferred that stabilizing the Russian-Ukrainian relations in prospect would depend on commitments the both coun-tries could make to mutual understanding and bilateral cooperation on the shared value basis.

  12. A community-based case-control study of asthma and chronic bronchitis in relation to occupation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, D.; Donan, P.T.; Cowie, H.A.; Miller, B.G.; Soutar, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    A community-based epidemiological study was conducted in the West Lothian and Central Regions of Scotland in 1994 by postal questionnaire to investigate the associations between occupations previously held and prevalent symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. 50% of the 34,000 questionnaires were returned. The prevalence of asthma was estimated to be 8% and that of chronic bronchitis was 15%. The prevalence of asthma and of chronic bronchitis related to work was estimated to be 0.5% and 2.2% respectively. Clinical assessments of a sample of respondents confirmed the reliability of diagnoses of asthma using a self-administered questionnaire, but suggested that the work-relatedness of asthma was less reliably diagnosed. Asthma symptoms were particularly implicated with employment in the food processing, catering and textiles industries. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with dusty jobs such as coal mining metal processing and manufacturing of electrical products.

  13. [Analysis of microbial community variation in the domestication process of sludge in a sulfate-reducing reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qu; Jia, Xiao-Shan; Zheng, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Li-Ping; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The variations of microbial community in the sludge of sulfate-reducing UASB during domestication period were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the diversity of microbial community was strongly related to the sulfate reduction and COD removal performance. The sulfate reduction rate of the reactor was about 95% when the Shannon index of microbial community was higher than 3.45. The preponderant bands in DGGE figure were excised and cloned, and the sequencing analysis indicated there were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus and Chloroflexi in the sludge, which accounted for 50.0%, 28.6% 14.3% and 7.1% of the total sequences of samples, respectively. The anaerobic fermentative bacteria of Clostridium sp. were predominant in the whole domestication period, but the predominant species was changing. Some anaerobic bacteria like Chloroflexi sp. and Geopsychrobacter sp. were detected to be dominant species, which then disappeared along with further domestication, but anaerobic bacteria Geobacter sp. became gradually predominant in the domestication process. Species of Desulfovibrio sp. were detected to be predominant only in the last two phases of domestication.

  14. Process and outcome constructs for evaluating community-based participatory research projects: a matrix of existing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jennifer A; Lucero, Julie; Oetzel, John; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Mau, Marjorie; Pearson, Cynthia; Tafoya, Greg; Duran, Bonnie; Iglesias Rios, Lisbeth; Wallerstein, Nina

    2012-08-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely used in public health research in the last decade as an approach to develop culturally centered interventions and collaborative research processes in which communities are directly involved in the construction and implementation of these interventions and in other application of findings. Little is known, however, about CBPR pathways of change and how these academic-community collaborations may contribute to successful outcomes. A new health CBPR conceptual model (Wallerstein N, Oetzel JG, Duran B et al. CBPR: What predicts outcomes? In: Minkler M, Wallerstein N (eds). Communication Based Participatory Research, 2nd edn. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Co., 2008) suggests that relationships between four components: context, group dynamics, the extent of community-centeredness in intervention and/or research design and the impact of these participatory processes on CBPR system change and health outcomes. This article seeks to identify instruments and measures in a comprehensive literature review that relates to these distinct components of the CBPR model and to present them in an organized and indexed format for researcher use. Specifically, 258 articles were identified in a review of CBPR (and related) literature from 2002 to 2008. Based on this review and from recommendations of a national advisory board, 46 CBPR instruments were identified and each was reviewed and coded using the CBPR logic model. The 46 instruments yielded 224 individual measures of characteristics in the CBPR model. While this study does not investigate the quality of the instruments, it does provide information about reliability and validity for specific measures. Group dynamics proved to have the largest number of identified measures, while context and CBPR system and health outcomes had the least. Consistent with other summaries of instruments, such as Granner and Sharpe's inventory (Granner ML, Sharpe PA. Evaluating community

  15. Relating triggering processes in lab experiments with earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro Urbea, J.; Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Charalampidou, E. M.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Vives, E.; Dresen, G.

    2016-12-01

    Statistical relations such as Gutenberg-Richter's, Omori-Utsu's and the productivity of aftershocks were first observed in seismology, but are also common to other physical phenomena exhibiting avalanche dynamics such as solar flares, rock fracture, structural phase transitions and even stock market transactions. All these examples exhibit spatio-temporal correlations that can be explained as triggering processes: Instead of being activated as a response to external driving or fluctuations, some events are consequence of previous activity. Although different plausible explanations have been suggested in each system, the ubiquity of such statistical laws remains unknown. However, the case of rock fracture may exhibit a physical connection with seismology. It has been suggested that some features of seismology have a microscopic origin and are reproducible over a vast range of scales. This hypothesis has motivated mechanical experiments to generate artificial catalogues of earthquakes at a laboratory scale -so called labquakes- and under controlled conditions. Microscopic fractures in lab tests release elastic waves that are recorded as ultrasonic (kHz-MHz) acoustic emission (AE) events by means of piezoelectric transducers. Here, we analyse the statistics of labquakes recorded during the failure of small samples of natural rocks and artificial porous materials under different controlled compression regimes. Temporal and spatio-temporal correlations are identified in certain cases. Specifically, we distinguish between the background and triggered events, revealing some differences in the statistical properties. We fit the data to statistical models of seismicity. As a particular case, we explore the branching process approach simplified in the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. We evaluate the empirical spatio-temporal kernel of the model and investigate the physical origins of triggering. Our analysis of the focal mechanisms implies that the occurrence

  16. River biofilm community changes related to pharmaceutical loads emitted by a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonova, Teofana; Labanowski, Jérôme; Cournoyer, Benoit; Chardon, Cécile; Keck, François; Laurent, Élodie; Mondamert, Leslie; Vasselon, Valentin; Wiest, Laure; Bouchez, Agnès

    2017-09-08

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are the main sources of a broad spectrum of pharmaceuticals found in freshwater ecosystems. These pollutants raise environmental health concerns because of their highly bioactive nature and their chronic releases. Despite this, pharmaceuticals' effects on aquatic environments are poorly defined. Biofilms represent a major part of the microbial life in rivers and streams. They can drive key metabolic cycles and their organizations reflect exposures to changing chemical, physical, and biological constraints. This study estimated the concentrations, over a 3-year period, of ten pharmaceuticals and five nutrients in a river contaminated by a conventional WWTP fed by urban and hospital wastewaters. Variations in these concentrations were related to biofilm bacterial community dynamics. Rock biofilms had developed over defined periods and were harvested at four locations in the river from the up- and downstream WWTP discharge point. Pharmaceuticals were found in all locations in concentrations ranging from not being detected to 192 ng L(-1). Despite the high dilution factor of the WWTP effluents by the receiving river, pharmaceuticals were found more concentrated downstream than upstream the WWTP. Shifts in bacterial community structures linked to the environmental emission of pharmaceuticals were superior to seasonal community changes. A community structure from a site located downstream but close to the WWTP was more strongly associated with high pharmaceutical loads and different from those of biofilm samples from the WWTP upstream or far downstream sites. These latter sites were more strongly associated with high nutrient contents. Low environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals can thus be transferred from WWTP effluents to a connected stream and induce bacterial aquatic community changes over time.

  17. Exploring the social relations of Roma employability: The case of rural segregated communities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreni Elena Baciu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on a qualitative study of Roma employability in Romania. Being the largest ethnic minority group in Europe, the Roma population is the object of profound marginalization in most of the countries where they reside, by measures such as spatial segregation and exclusion from the formal labour market. This article focuses particularly on the Roma living in rural segregated communities. Inspired by institutional ethnography, the aim is to explore the social organization of rural Roma employability from the standpoint of the Roma themselves. The main obstacles to employment, as they are known and shared by our interviewees, are a lack of available jobs within reach, their own lack of education and a rejection by employers on the grounds of them being Roma. As the analyses show, these obstacles, and the individual’s experiences and knowledge about them, are shaped and maintained by extended translocal relations of administration and governance, thus making the rural Roma dependent on a precarious secondary labour market of low-paid day work for neighbouring farmers. The uncertainty of this work, and the organization and work of everyday life it implies for the people inhabiting these communities, further increases the distance to formal employment. It is this complex set of relations coordinating people’s doings that produce the employability of Roma inhabiting the rural segregated communities.

  18. Plankton community dynamics in a subtropical lagoonal system and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETÍCIA DONADEL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes of the plankton community in a shallow, subtropical lagoonal system and its relation to environmental conditions were investigated during an annual cycle to provide information on its spatial and seasonal variation pattern. The study carried out at four sites (three in the Peixe lagoon and one in the Ruivo lagoon, which are located in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, southern Brazil. The system has a temporary connection to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow channel. The phytoplankton density was higher in the Peixe lagoon whereas the specific richness was higher in the Ruivo lagoon which is also a site with the lower salinity. The phytoplankton biomass near the channel showed seasonal variation with the highest value in fall and lowest in winter. Zooplankton richness was inversely correlated with salinity, and had the highest values in the Ruivo lagoon. Ordination analysis indicated seasonal and spatial patterns in plankton community in this lagoonal system, related to variation in salinity. In addition, the wind action and precipitation were important factors on the spatial and seasonal salinity changes in the lagoon with direct influence on the plankton community dynamics.

  19. Thinking left and right : neurocognitive studies on spatial relation processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ham, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In many of our interactions with our environment, we make use of spatial relations. These spatial relations can be either categorical or coordinate. Categorical spatial relations concern abstract relations like “left of” and “above”, whereas coordinate spatial relations are metric in nature and conc

  20. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  1. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    . The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits.......This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... nationwide in Sweden. One hundred and forty-four (63%) of those meeting the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented medication-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form. The drug-related problems were weighted by the number of patients served...

  2. Recognizing Community Voice and a Youth-Led School-Community Partnership in the School Climate Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…

  3. A Minimum Relative Entropy Controller for Undiscounted Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive control problems are notoriously difficult to solve even in the presence of plant-specific controllers. One way to by-pass the intractable computation of the optimal policy is to restate the adaptive control as the minimization of the relative entropy of a controller that ignores the true plant dynamics from an informed controller. The solution is given by the Bayesian control rule-a set of equations characterizing a stochastic adaptive controller for the class of possible plant dynamics. Here, the Bayesian control rule is applied to derive BCR-MDP, a controller to solve undiscounted Markov decision processes with finite state and action spaces and unknown dynamics. In particular, we derive a non-parametric conjugate prior distribution over the policy space that encapsulates the agent's whole relevant history and we present a Gibbs sampler to draw random policies from this distribution. Preliminary results show that BCR-MDP successfully avoids sub-optimal limit cycles due to its built-in mechanism to...

  4. AN APPROACH TO AUTOMATE THE RELATIONAL DATABASE DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana C. Uduwela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology improves the business competitiveness in both large scale enterprises as well as small and medium scale enterprises. Lack of technical knowledge in Information Communication Technology and the cost have been identified as challenges forsmall and medium enterprises to adopt ICT for their businesses. They can overcome this problem by using freely available tools/systems which aid to generate information systems automatically. However,they require the database structure; therefore, it is desirable to have a tool to automate the relational database design process. In the proposed approach, business forms were considered as the database requirement input sources among: learning from examples, natural language, structured input/output definition and schema definition and forms. The approach uses a functional dependency algorithm on the un-normalized data which is fed through the business form and then apply a normalization algorithm onthe discovered functional dependencies to have the normalized database structure. User intervention is needed to have the domain knowledgeof this approach. Finally, it develops the normalized database with all the keys and relationships; the accuracy of the out-come totally depend on the data fed by end users.

  5. Cell abundance and microbial community composition along a complete oil sand mining and reclamation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappé, M.; Schneider, B.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    (~0.37 mmol/L), whereas in the MFTs nitrate concentrations are much lower (~0.04 mmol/L). In some MFT samples sulphate appears to be the most abundant electron acceptor (up to 94 mmol/L) but no hydrogen sulphide could be detected. High cell counts in root-bearing layers might be related to a supply with otherwise unavailable nutrients, especially phosphorus. Another plausible explanation is that the cells are brought in the sand with the peat-mineral mix, because it seems that the mix contains a significant amount of roots. Samples with low amounts or no roots showed lower cell abundances. Sand and MFTs also differ in the microbial community composition. Molecular analysis of bacterial isolates of samples with different oil content show that β-Proteobacteria dominate the cultivable bacterial population in substrates with a high residual content of oil, whereas in the low oil content sand they play a minor role. The data of corresponding metagenomic analyses confirm these results. In MFTs β-Proteobacteria make up about 80% of the total bacterial population. The surprisingly stable cell abundance indicates that microbial processes take place throughout the entire production process. Rising cell numbers in root-bearing horizons show that a plant cover fosters microbial abundance and diversity, helping to restore full ecosystem functionality.

  6. Prevalence and Related Factors of Falls among the Elderly in an Urban Community of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU-LIN YU; ZHAO-HUI QIN; JING SHI; JUAN ZHANG; MEI-ZHE XIN; ZHENG-LAI WU; ZHEN-QIU SUN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence,consequences and risk factors of falls among urban community-dwelling elderly in Beijing. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Longtan Community,Beijing.A total of 1512 individuals aged 60 years or over were selected by stratified cluster sampling.Data regarding the frequency of falls in the previous year,as well as circumstances,consequence and related factors of falls were collected from the elderly through face-to-face interviews with questionnaires in their home. Results The prevalence of falls was 18.0% on the average among 1512 participants,higher in women (20.1%) than in men (14.9%) (P=0.006),and increased with age (X2 for trend=10.37,P=0.001).The total rate of falls-induced injuries among the fallers was 37.7%.Falls usually resulted in soft-tissues bruises (58.7%),fear of repeated episodes of falls (58.8%),loss of independence and confidence in movement (35.7%) and even in hip fracture.In addition to the burden of medical care,falls also generated a big economic burden.Occurrence of falls was significantly associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.The related factors of falls in the elderly included age≥60-70 years,femininity,less physical activities,fear of future falls,living alone,severely impaired vision,health problem-impacted activities of daily living,chronic diseases (diabetes,hypertension,postural hypotension,stroke sequela,cataract,arthritis,dementia and depression),medications (psychoactive,anti-diabetic),gait imbalance,high bed and faintly-lighted stairway.Conclusion The prevalence of falls among urban community-dwelling elderly in Beijing is closely associated with significant associated with intrinsic and extrinsic factors.Efforts to prevent fails in the elderly should be made at community level.

  7. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  8. Adherence to clinical practice guidelines on community acquired pneumonia and its relation to mortality rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Fragoso Marchante

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community acquired pneumonia is a common disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. In the General University Hospital ´´Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos, there are guidelines for the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but no studies have been conducted as to the relation between their compliance and the mortality rate. Objective: To assess the adherence to guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and its relation to mortality in hospitalized patients. Methods: A descriptive, observational and prospective case series study was conducted in all patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia or bronchopneumonia at the moment of admission and discharge from June 2006 to May 31, 2007. The relation between the different variables and the mortality rate was analyzed as to the different types of risks and the overall compliance with the guidelines for each risk with mortality. A multivariate analysis (logistic regression was performed, with a 95% confidence interval. Results: The results are presented in tables of numbers and percent. Variables independently associated with mortality were: age (over 65 years old people, radiological lesions in more than one lobe or bilateral, atypical pneumonia debut, negative assessments as to the adherence to guidelines and inadequate treatments. Conclusion: The variables included in the study were enough to explain the final outcome of the patients, so it could be determined, for the first time in Cienfuegos, that the non-compliance with the guidelines of good clinical practice is related to mortality rates.

  9. Relative roles of spatial processes, natural factors and anthropogenic stressors in structuring a lake macroinvertebrate metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongjiu; Xu, Hao; Vilmi, Annika; Tolonen, Kimmo T; Tang, Xiangming; Qin, Boqiang; Gong, Zhijun; Heino, Jani

    2017-12-01

    Studies of aquatic metacommunities have so far been focused almost entirely on relatively isolated systems, such as a set of streams, lakes or ponds. Here, we aimed to quantify the relative importance of spatial processes, natural factors and anthropogenic stressors in structuring of a macroinvertebrate metacommunity within a large, highly-connected shallow lake system. The roles of different drivers were evaluated for the entire metacommunity, 10 trait-based deconstructed metacommunities and four common species by incorporating extensive sampling and a large number of abiotic explanatory variables. Contrary to our expectations, we found that variation in community structure among sites was mostly correlated to spatial and wind-wave variables rather than anthropogenic disturbance factors even though the lake presented strong environmental gradients associated with long-term human pressures. In addition, the relative importance of the three groups of drivers varied slightly among the deconstructed trait matrices (i.e. based on dispersal ability, feeding mode and degree of occurrence). Importantly, the distributions of the most common species showed significant and strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating the prominent role of high dispersal rate for their distributions. These findings suggest that the influences of high dispersal rates and natural disturbance may even override the roles of anthropogenic stressors in metacommunity organization in highly-connected aquatic systems. Hence, we strongly encourage that spatial processes and natural drivers are taken into account in the development of bioassessment approaches in highly-connected aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial community structures and dynamics in the O3/BAC drinking water treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Cheng; Sun, Li-Chen; Hu, Zhang-Li

    2014-06-16

    Effectiveness of drinking water treatment, in particular pathogen control during the water treatment process, is always a major public health concern. In this investigation, the application of PCR-DGGE technology to the analysis of microbial community structures and dynamics in the drinking water treatment process revealed several dominant microbial populations including: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria during the whole process. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria before and after treatment, respectively. Firmicutes showed season-dependent changes in population dynamics. Importantly, γ-Proteobacteria, which is a class of medically important bacteria, was well controlled by the O3/biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment, resulting in improved effluent water bio-safety.

  11. Microbial Community Structures and Dynamics in the O3/BAC Drinking Water Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of drinking water treatment, in particular pathogen control during the water treatment process, is always a major public health concern. In this investigation, the application of PCR-DGGE technology to the analysis of microbial community structures and dynamics in the drinking water treatment process revealed several dominant microbial populations including: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria during the whole process. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria before and after treatment, respectively. Firmicutes showed season-dependent changes in population dynamics. Importantly, γ-Proteobacteria, which is a class of medically important bacteria, was well controlled by the O3/biological activated carbon (BAC treatment, resulting in improved effluent water bio-safety.

  12. Are auditory and visual processing deficits related to developmental dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, orthographic processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, auditory and visual processing, and reading fluency to 21 Grade 6 children with dyslexia, 21 chronological age-matched controls and 20 Grade 3 reading age-matched controls. The results indicated that the children with dyslexia did not experience auditory processing deficits, but about half of them showed visual processing deficits. Both orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming deficits were associated with dyslexia in our sample, but it is less clear that they were associated with visual processing deficits.

  13. An intervention to reduce kerosene-related burns and poisonings in low-income South African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Swart, Dehran; Simpson, Jennifer; Hobe, Phumla; Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor

    2009-07-01

    Unintentional injury rates in low- and middle-income countries are up to 50 times higher than high-income nations. In South Africa, kerosene (paraffin) is a leading cause of poisoning and burns, particularly in low-income communities where it serves as a primary fuel for light, cooking, and heating. This study tested a community-based intervention to reduce kerosene-related injury risk. The intervention used a train-the-trainers model, whereby expert trainers train local paraprofessionals, who in turn deliver educational materials to community residents. The intervention was theory-driven, pragmatically motivated, and culturally sensitive. Prospective quasi-experimental intervention design with nonequivalent case versus control groups. Three primary outcome measures were considered: self-reported knowledge of kerosene safety, observed practice of safe kerosene use, and self-reported recognition of risk for kerosene-related injury. ANOVA models suggest a large and significant increase in self-reported kerosene-related knowledge in the intervention community compared to the control community. There were smaller, but statistically significant changes, in kerosene-related safety practices and recognition of kerosene injury risk in the intervention community compared to the control community. The intervention was successful. A train-the-trainers model might be an effective educational tool to reduce kerosene-related injury risk in low-income communities within low- and middle-income countries.

  14. THE PROCESS OF SOCIO-COMMUNITY FORMATION IN VENEZUELAN UNIVERSITIES: A PERSPECTIVE FOR IMPROVEMENT / EL PROCESO DE FORMACIÓN SOCIO COMUNITARIA EN UNIVERSIDADES VENEZOLANAS: UNA PERSPECTIVA PARA SU PERFECCIONAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Antonio Rangel Parra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The research responds to the need for a new vision of curriculum management in the process of socio community formation of the university students, with the aim of contributing to overcome shortcomings in the community service they perform in Venezuela, which limits their training as a mutual transformational process to social development. This research, promotes and develops the critical and constructive reflection on concepts, principles and mechanisms that characterize the process of socio community training as a perspective that can undertake the development of community service of Venezuelan higher education students, once established by the "law of community service for the students of higher education" (2005 finally revealing the challenges that it poses to the guidance and management of the curriculum in the training of professionals of all races. Address the various elements which serve as basis for the process of socio-community training of the University student, with emphasis on its epistemological aspects that serve as support to the main results of the research. The study has allowed revealing the need for curriculum management supported from the epistemological and axiological essence of University social responsibility for the process of training partner community of the College student in relation to the diversity of the professional context. The current inconsistencies do not ensure a sufficient level of systematization in the process of socio community formation and curricular management from the relationship: University - University social responsibility - community and their integration with the University management.

  15. Marital Processes around Depression: A Gendered and Relational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence of the importance of marriage and marital processes for mental health, little is known about the interpersonal processes around depression within marriage and the extent to which these processes are gendered. We use a mixed methods approach to explore the importance of gender in shaping processes around depression within marriage; we approach this in two ways. First, using quantitative longitudinal analysis of 2,601 couples from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)...

  16. Improving the Financial Aid Process for Community College Students: A Literature Review of FAFSA Simplification, Information, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that community college and other low income students have the most need regarding the financial aid process. Community college students are less likely to complete the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) than students at public and private four-year and for-profit institutions. Surveys have shown that the complexity…

  17. An Exploration of Strategic Planning Perspectives and Processes within Community Colleges Identified as Being Distinctive in Their Strategic Planning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Community college leaders face unprecedented change, and some have begun reexamining their institutional strategic planning processes. Yet, studies in higher education strategic planning spend little time examining how community colleges formulate their strategic plans. This mixed-method qualitative study used an expert sampling method to identify…

  18. An Exploration of Strategic Planning Perspectives and Processes within Community Colleges Identified as Being Distinctive in Their Strategic Planning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Community college leaders face unprecedented change, and some have begun reexamining their institutional strategic planning processes. Yet, studies in higher education strategic planning spend little time examining how community colleges formulate their strategic plans. This mixed-method qualitative study used an expert sampling method to identify…

  19. Community Tools for Cartographic and Photogrammetric Processing of Mars Express HRSC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Edmundson, K.; Redding, B.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T.; Gwinner, K.

    2017-07-01

    necessary to split observations into blocks of constant exposure time, greatly increasing the effort needed to control the images and collect DTMs. Here, we describe a substantially improved HRSC processing capability that incorporates sensor models with varying line timing in the current ISIS3 system (Sides 2017) and SOCET SET. This enormously reduces the work effort for processing most images and eliminates the artifacts that arose from segmenting them. In addition, the software takes advantage of the continuously evolving capabilities of ISIS3 and the improved image matching module NGATE (Next Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction, incorporating area and feature based algorithms, multi-image and multi-direction matching) of SOCET SET, thus greatly reducing the need for manual editing of DTM errors. We have also developed a procedure for geodetically controlling the images to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data by registering a preliminary stereo topographic model to MOLA by using the point cloud alignment (pc_align) function of the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP; Moratto et al. 2010). This effectively converts inter-image tiepoints into ground control points in the MOLA coordinate system. The result is improved absolute accuracy and a significant reduction in work effort relative to manual measurement of ground control. The ISIS and ASP software used are freely available; SOCET SET, is a commercial product. By the end of 2017 we expect to have ported our SOCET SET HRSC sensor model to the Community Sensor Model (CSM; Community Sensor Model Working Group 2010; Hare and Kirk 2017) standard utilized by the successor photogrammetric system SOCET GXP that is currently offered by BAE. In early 2018, we are also working with BAE to release the CSM source code under a BSD or MIT open source license. We illustrate current HRSC processing capabilities with three examples, of which the first two come from the DTM comparison of 2007. Candor Chasma (h1235_0001) was a near

  20. Microbes in biological processes for municipal landfill leachate treatment: Community, function and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Duoying; Vahala, Riku; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachate (LFL) contains high strength of ammonium and complex organic substances including biodegradable volatile fatty acids (VFAs), refractory aquatic humic substances (AHS) and micro-scale xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs), which promotes the diverse microbial community in LFL...... treatment bioreactors. These microbes cooperate to remove nitrogen, biodegrade organic matters, eliminate the toxicity of XOCs and produce energy. In these diverse microbes, some show dominant in the bioreactor and are prevalent in many kinds of LFL treatment bio-processes, such as Brocadia from the phylum....... High ammonium loading, low DO (bacteria (AnAOB). In anaerobic LFL treatment bioreactors, Methanosaeta...

  1. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  2. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, A B; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn....... Previous participation in a study or activity on drug-related problems and the size of the pharmacy also had statistically significant effects on the problem detection rate. The use of open-ended questions to create a dialogue with the patient seemed to be a successful means to discover problems....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  3. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  4. Microbial community structure in fermentation process of Shaoxing rice wine by Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guangfa; Wang, Lan; Gao, Qikang; Yu, Wenjing; Hong, Xutao; Zhao, Lingyun; Zou, Huijun

    2013-09-01

    To understand the role of the community structure of microbes in the environment in the fermentation of Shaoxing rice wine, samples collected from a wine factory were subjected to Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing. De novo assembly of the sequencing reads allowed the characterisation of more than 23 thousand microbial genes derived from 1.7 and 1.88 Gbp of sequences from two samples fermented for 5 and 30 days respectively. The microbial community structure at different fermentation times of Shaoxing rice wine was revealed, showing the different roles of the microbiota in the fermentation process of Shaoxing rice wine. The gene function of both samples was also studied in the COG database, with most genes belonging to category S (function unknown), category E (amino acid transport and metabolism) and unclassified group. The results show that both the microbial community structure and gene function composition change greatly at different time points of Shaoxing rice wine fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Evaluating the Metal Tolerance Capacity of Microbial Communities Isolated from Alberta Oil Sands Process Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew L Frankel

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have resulted in the intensified use of water resources. For example, open pit bitumen extraction by Canada's oil sands operations uses an estimated volume of three barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. The waste tailings-oil sands process water (OSPW-are stored in holding ponds, and present an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous OSPW microbial communities have an enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we tested the capacity of planktonic and biofilm populations from OSPW to withstand metal ion challenges, using Cupriavidus metallidurans, a known metal-resistant organism, for comparison. The toxicity of the metals toward biofilm and planktonic bacterial populations was determined by measuring the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs and planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using the MBEC ™ assay. We observed that the OSPW community and C. metallidurans had similar tolerances to 22 different metals. While thiophillic elements (Te, Ag, Cd, Ni were found to be most toxic, the OSPW consortia demonstrated higher tolerance to metals reported in tailings ponds (Al, Fe, Mo, Pb. Metal toxicity correlated with a number of physicochemical characteristics of the metals. Parameters reflecting metal-ligand affinities showed fewer and weaker correlations for the community compared to C. metallidurans, suggesting that the OSPW consortia may have developed tolerance mechanisms toward metals present in their environment.

  6. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  7. Negotiation of Gender Relations Meaning among Female Interpretation Community in Housing and Village Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budi Lestari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sitcom of Husbands fearing Wives (SSTI-Suami-Suami Takut Istri, is one of the private television sitcoms which highlights violence as a joke to provoke laughter of its audiences. In SSTI, the joke involves the concept of gender, exchanging the role of women and men which has been socially and culturally constructed. One of the main objectives of this study is to analyze the role of the interpretation community in understanding the gender relations in SSTI sitcom. The study aims to discover the media interpretation by a group of female audiences living in the village and sub-district of Tembalang, Semarang. The results show that the negotiation of interpretation community on SSTI sitcom is not in line with the goal of the media; because the nature of men and women roles that are exchanged is interpreted as an “abnormal” relation. Therefore, the hierarchical power relation between men and women which tends to disadvantage women, for interpretation community is regarded as a normal & natural.Tayangan sinetron komedi Suami-suami Takut Istri (SSTI, merupakan salah satu program televisi swasta yang menonjolkan kekerasan sebagai lelucon untuk tujuan memancing tawa. Dalam prakteknya SSTI melibatkan konsep jender, yang mempertukarkan sifat-sifat perempuan dan laki-laki  sebagai hasil kontruksi secara sosial maupun kultural. Salah satu tujuan penelitian ini ingin menganalisis peran komunitas interpretasi dalam pemaknaan tentang relasi jender pada tayangan sinetron SSTI. Penelitian ini berlangsung pada penonton perempuan yang tinggal di perumahan dan perkampungan wilayah kecamatan Tembalang, kota Semarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa negosiasi komunitas interpretasi pada tayangan sinetron SSTI tidak sejalan dengan arahan media karena ternyata sifat laki-laki dan perempuan yang dipertuarkan dimaknai sebagai relasi yang tidak ‘normal’. Dengan demikian relasi kuasa hirarkis antara laki-laki dan perempuan  yang cenderung merugikan

  8. Patterns of carbon processing at the seafloor: the role of faunal and microbial communities in moderating carbon flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulds, Clare; Bouillon, Steven; Cowie, Gregory L.; Drake, Emily; Middelburg, Jack J.; Witte, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Marine sediments, particularly those located in estuarine and coastal zones, are key locations for the burial of organic carbon (C). However, organic C delivered to the sediment is subjected to a range of biological C-cycling processes, the rates and relative importance of which vary markedly between sites, and which are thus difficult to predict. In this study, stable isotope tracer experiments were used to quantify the processing of C by microbial and faunal communities in two contrasting Scottish estuarine sites: a subtidal, organic C rich site in Loch Etive with cohesive fine-grained sediment, and an intertidal, organic C poor site on an Ythan estuary sand flat with coarse-grained permeable sediments. In both experiments, sediment cores were recovered and amended with 13C labelled phytodetritus to quantify whole community respiration of the added C and to trace the isotope label into faunal and bacterial biomass. Similar respiration rates were found in Loch Etive and on the Ythan sand flat (0.64 ± 0.04 and 0.63 ± 0.12 mg C m-2h-1, respectively), which we attribute to the experiments being conducted at the same temperature. Faunal uptake of added C over the whole experiment was markedly greater in Loch Etive (204 ± 72 mg C m-2) than on the Ythan sand flat (0.96 ± 0.3 mg C m-2), and this difference was driven by a difference in both faunal biomass and activity. Conversely, bacterial C uptake over the whole experiment in Loch Etive was much lower than that on the Ythan sand flat (1.80 ± 1.66 and 127 ± 89 mg C m-2, respectively). This was not driven by differences in biomass, indicating that the bacterial community in the permeable Ythan sediments was particularly active, being responsible for 48 ± 18 % of total biologically processed C. This type of biological C processing appears to be favoured in permeable sediments. The total amount of biologically processed C was greatest in Loch Etive, largely due to greater faunal C uptake, which was in turn a result

  9. Depth-related distribution of bacterial community in sediments of eutrophic Guanting reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jianhang; YUAN Hongli; HUANG Huaizeng; WANG Entao

    2005-01-01

    In this study, DNAs were extracted from sediment samples at depths of 5, 35, and 69 cm from eutrophic Guanting reservoir, China. 16S rDNAs were amplified by PCR and clone libraries were constructed. The depth-related distribution of bacterial community in the sediment was characterized by using amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and sequencing of the dominant clones. The results indicated that species diversity in the sediment of Guanting reservoir was rather high with the Shannon-Wiener index about 5.8. Bacterial richness varied in different depths: the highest in the sample of 35 cm in depth; followed by the sample of 5 cm in depth; and the lowest bacterial richness in the sample of 69 cm. Dominant species from the three samples were different although there were some common clones. PhyIogenetic analysis showed that all of the dominant clones in the three layers were uncultured bacteria and distantly related to the previously reported species in beta or gamma subclass of proteobacteria, including bacterial groups that have the ability to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons, n-all:anes, chlorinated organic compounds, or to accumulate polyphosphate, etc. Changes of deptt-related bacterial community in the Guanting reservoir sediment might reflect the pollution history and the water quality of the reservoir. In addition, the cloned sequences from the Guanting reservoir sediment were all different from the presently reported ones, indicating that there were some particular bacteria in that environment.

  10. MLPA diagnostics of complex microbial communities: relative quantification of bacterial species in oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefework, Zewdu; Pham, Chi L; Prosperi, Anja C; Entius, Mark M; Errami, Abdellatif; van Spanning, Rob J M; Zaura, Egija; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2008-12-01

    A multitude of molecular methods are currently used for identification and characterization of oral biofilms or for community profiling. However, multiplex PCR techniques that are able to routinely identify several species in a single assay are not available. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) identifies up to 45 unique fragments in a single tube PCR. Here we report a novel use of MLPA in the relative quantification of targeted microorganisms in a community of oral microbiota. We designed 9 species specific probes for: Actinomyces gerencseriae, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Veillonella parvula; and genus specific probes for selected oral Streptococci and Lactobacilli based on their 16S rDNA sequences. MLPA analysis of DNA pooled from the strains showed the expected specific MLPA products. Relative quantification of a serial dilution of equimolar DNA showed that as little as 10 pg templates can be detected with clearly discernible signals. Moreover, a 2 to 7% divergence in relative signal ratio of amplified probes observed from normalized peak area values suggests MLPA can be a cheaper alternative to using qPCR for quantification. We observed 2 to 6 fold fluctuations in signal intensities of MLPA products in DNAs isolated from multispecies biofilms grown in various media for various culture times. Furthermore, MLPA analyses of DNA isolated from saliva obtained from different donors gave a varying number and intensity of signals. This clearly shows the usefulness of MLPA in a quantitative description of microbial shifts.

  11. [Implementation and evaluation of public relations activity in a community health program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y; Takahashi, M; Kasai, A; Nakashima, H; Kato, K; Yoshizane, M; Utsugi, M; Sone, T; Morita, T; Takemura, S

    2001-09-01

    This study evaluated public relations activity in a community health program in order to develop effective strategies to attract the public attention for the program. An intervention study was conducted on public relations for "Nutrition Seminar for Citizens," sponsored by the Health Department of Machida City, Tokyo, in October, 1999. One ward in the city was selected as an intervention area, and another ward which had similar demographic and geographic characteristics was chosen as a control area. Two target populations were defined; one was women in their 20s to 60s (#1) and the other was those who had previously never utilized community health programs sponsored by the city (#2). Handbills were used as the medium for public relations for the seminar. These announced the time, place and content of the nutrition seminar and were designed by authors with special attention to catchphrases, colors and fonts. Handbills were distributed in the intervention area through elementary schools, local voluntary organizations and local health volunteers. In addition, the authors directly handed them out to people in front of two supermarkets in the town. The sources of seminar information were requested from the participants of the Nutrition Seminar with a self-administered questionnaire. 1. The percentage of participants who received the seminar information from handbills was higher than that of those who used monthly newsletters from the city as a source of information. 2. The percentage of participants from the intervention area was higher than that from the control area. 3. Regarding target populations #1 and #2, there were no differences in participation rates between the intervention and control area. 4. Among the four distribution routes, the local voluntary organization route was the most effective for attracting participants. The results show that handbills can be an effective medium for pubic relations to increase the number of participants in community health

  12. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, Kalesita F; Moodie, Marj M; Mavoa, Helen M; Pomana, Siosifa; Schultz, Jimaima T; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2011-05-09

    The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were

  13. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomana Siosifa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider

  14. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  15. Doorways II: Community Counselor Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…

  16. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  17. Carbon Cycling in Restored Wisconsin Grasslands: Examining Linkages Between Plant Diversity, Microbial Communities and Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, K. N.; Kucharik, C. J.; Balser, T. C.; Foley, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    It is important to characterize the variability of carbon (C) fluxes and stocks and the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and C sequestration, a proposed strategy to help mitigate climate change. An observation site to study C cycling was established on land enrolled in the USDA Conservation Reserve Program in southwestern Wisconsin in spring 2002 on silt-loam soil. The site was converted from intensive row-crop agriculture in 1987 to three adjacent land cover types: an assortment of native C4 grasses, two C3 grasses and a nitrogen-fixer, and a disk planted, no-tillage food plot rotation of maize and soybeans. Key goals of the study were to characterize the effect of plant species composition and microbial community characteristics on carbon cycling in an attempt to link above- and below-ground processes. Measurements of soil surface CO2 efflux were made on a near-weekly basis during the growing season using a LICOR-6400, concurrently with soil surface moisture adjacent to the CO2 collars. Thermocouples were installed to record hourly average air temperature and soil temperature at 5 depths, from 2 to 70 cm, and water content sensors made hourly average measurements at 15 and 30 cm. Leaf area index measurements were made weekly, aboveground vegetation biomass was collected monthly, and belowground root biomass was collected bimonthly. Monthly microbial measurements included an assessment of community physiological profiles using BiOLOG, and assays of community composition (lipid analysis) and activity. Preliminary results suggest that land cover types significantly altered carbon cycling and microbial community structure and function, leading to different rates of C sequestration.

  18. The effect of metacognitive self on confirmation bias revealed in relation to community and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brycz Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of our study was to investigate the role of insight into one’s own biases (metacognitive self in the process of hypothesis validation in accordance to the two fundamental social perception domains (community and competence on the example of confirmation bias. The study was conducted on a group of 593 participants with the use of a confirmation bias procedure, a free recall procedure and the Metacognitive Self scale. We manipulated with the domain and the value of information given to the respondents. We suspected that individuals with a high metacognitive self, in opposition to low metacognitive self ones, would not process the given information according to the two fundamental social perception domains. The results verified the existence of an interaction effect of the metacognitive self (MCS and the domain of the information given about a perceived person on the susceptibility to follow the confirmation bias. Contrary to the low metacognitive self individuals, who show a higher tendency for the confirmation bias within the competence than the community domain, persons with a high insight into their own biases express the same level of confirmation bias in no respect to the domain of the information. The value of the information has no significant influence.

  19. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation.

  20. Recent advances in molecular techniques to study microbial communities in food-associated matrices and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justé, A; Thomma, B P H J; Lievens, B

    2008-09-01

    In the last two decades major changes have occurred in how microbial ecologists study microbial communities. Limitations associated with traditional culture-based methods have pushed for the development of culture-independent techniques, which are primarily based on the analysis of nucleic acids. These methods are now increasingly applied in food microbiology as well. This review presents an overview of current community profiling techniques with their (potential) applications in food and food-related ecosystems. We critically assessed both the power and limitations of these techniques and present recent advances in the field of food microbiology attained by their application. It is unlikely that a single approach will be universally applicable for analyzing microbial communities in unknown matrices. However, when screening samples for well-defined species or functions, techniques such as DNA arrays and real-time PCR have the potential to overtake current culture-based methods. Most importantly, molecular methods will allow us to surpass our current culturing limitations, thus revealing the extent and importance of the 'non-culturable' microbial flora that occurs in food matrices and production.

  1. Chronicity of Voice-Related Health Care Utilization in the General Medicine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth M; Lee, Hui-Jie; Roy, Nelson; Misono, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To examine voice-related health care utilization of patients in the general medical community without otolaryngology evaluation and explore factors associated with prolonged voice-related health care. Study Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Large, national administrative US claims database. Subjects and Methods Patients with voice disorders per International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification ( ICD-9-CM) codes from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, seen by a general medical physician, and who did not see an otolaryngologist in the subsequent year were included. Voice-related health care utilization, patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and index laryngeal diagnosis were collected. Logistic regression with variable selection was performed to evaluate the association between predictors and ≥30 days of voice-related health care use. Results In total, 46,205 unique voice-disordered patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 8.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% had voice-related health care use of ≥90, ≥60, and ≥30 days, respectively. Of the ≥30-day subset, 80.3% and 68.5%, respectively, had ≥60 and ≥90 days of voice-related health care utilization. The ≥30-day subset had more general medicine and nonotolaryngology specialty physician visits, more prescriptions and procedures, and 4 times the voice-related health care costs compared with those in the <30-day subset. Age, sex, employment status, initial voice disorder diagnosis, and comorbid conditions were related to ≥30 days of voice-related health care utilization. Conclusions Thirty days of nonotolaryngology-based care for a voice disorder may represent a threshold beyond which patients are more likely to experience prolonged voice-related health care utilization. Specific factors were associated with extended voice-related health care.

  2. Engaging the Underserved: A Process Model to Mobilize Rural Community Health Coalitions as Partners in Translational Research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B.; Ramsey, Katrina; Rollins, Nancy; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Buckley, David I.; Stange, Kurt C.; Fagnan, Lyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Community engagement (CE) and community‐engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly recognized as critical elements in research translation. Process models to develop CEnR partnerships in rural and underserved communities are needed. Method Academic partners transformed four established Community Health Improvement Partnerships (CHIPs) into Community Health Improvement and Research Partnerships (CHIRPs). The intervention consisted of three elements: an academic‐community kickoff/orientation meeting, delivery of eight research training modules to CHIRP members, and local community‐based participatory research (CBPR) pilot studies addressing childhood obesity. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of pre‐/postsurveys, interviews, session evaluations, observational field notes, and attendance logs to evaluate intervention effectiveness and acceptability. Results Forty‐nine community members participated; most (78.7%) attended five or more research training sessions. Session quality and usefulness was high. Community members reported significant increases in their confidence for participating in all phases of research (e.g., formulating research questions, selecting research methods, writing manuscripts). All CHIRP groups successfully conducted CBPR pilot studies. Conclusions The CHIRP process builds on existing infrastructure in academic and community settings to foster CEnR. Brief research training and pilot studies around community‐identified health needs can enhance individual and organizational capacity to address health disparities in rural and underserved communities. PMID:24837826

  3. Are Auditory and Visual Processing Deficits Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological…

  4. Process-related factors associated with disciplinary board decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Christensen, RD; Damsbo, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In most health care systems disciplinary boards have been organised in order to process patients' complaints about health professionals. Although, the safe-guarding of the legal rights of the involved parties is a crucial concern, there is limited knowledge about what role the complaint process p...

  5. Are Auditory and Visual Processing Deficits Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological…

  6. Exploring the nature of power distance on general practitioner and community pharmacist relations in a chronic disease management context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Allison Margaret

    2014-09-01

    To improve collaboration in Australian primary health care, there is a need to understand aspects of the general practitioner (GP)/community pharmacist relationship, its influence on collaborative chronic disease management (CDM) and if this influence can be explained by a pre-existing theory or concept. Adopting a grounded theory approach, 22 GP and 22 community pharmacist semi-structured interviews were undertaken. Analysis of the transcripts identified common themes regarding the GP/community pharmacist relationship. Trustworthiness of the themes identified was tested through negative case analysis and member checking. Hofstede's (in 1980) phenomenon of power distance was employed to illuminate the nature of GP/community pharmacist relations. The majority of GPs and community pharmacists described the characteristics of this phenomenon. The power distance was based on knowledge and expertise and was shown to be a barrier to collaboration between GPs and community pharmacists because GPs perceived that community pharmacists did not have the required expertise to improve CDM above what the GP could deliver alone. Power distance exists within the GP/community pharmacist relationship and has a negative influence on GP/community pharmacist collaborative CDM. Understanding and improving GP awareness of community pharmacist expertise has important implications for the future success of collaborative CDM.

  7. COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION OF THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY RELATED WITH THE NITROGEN CYCLING ON THE POTATO RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Maria Vanesa Florez Zapata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the S. tuberosum group phureja crops, mineral fertilizer and organic amendments are applied to meet the plants’ nutritional demands, however the effect of such practices on the associated rizospheric microbial communities are still unknown. Nitrogen plays an important role in agricultural production, and a great diversity of microorganisms regulates its transformation in the soil, affecting its availability for the plant. The aim of this study was to assess the structure of microbal[trm1]  communities related with the N cycle of S. tuberosum group phureja  rizospheric soil samples, with contrasting physical-chemical properties and fertilization strategy.  Few significant differences between the community composition at the phylum level were found, only Planctomycetes phylum was different between samples of different soil type and fertilization strategy. However, the analysis of nitrogen-associated functional groups made by ribotyping characterization, grouped soils in terms of such variables in a similar way to the physical-chemical properties. Major differences between soil samples were typified by higher percentages of the ribotypes from nitrite oxidation, nitrogen fixation and denitrification on organic amendment soils. Our results suggest that, the dominant rhizosphere microbial composition is very similar between soils, possibly as a result of population’s selection mediated by the rhizosphere effect. However, agricultural management practices in addition to edaphic properties of sampled areas, appear to affect some functional groups associated with the nitrogen cycling, due to differences found on soil’s physical-chemical properties, like the concentration of ammonium that seems to have an effect regulating the distribution and activity of nitrogen related functional groups in the S. tuberosum rhizosphere.  

  8. Impacts of shallow geothermal energy production on redox processes and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; Röling, Wilfred F M; Zaura, Egija; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; van Breukelen, Boris M

    2013-12-17

    Shallow geothermal systems are increasingly being used to store or harvest thermal energy for heating or cooling purposes. This technology causes temperature perturbations exceeding the natural variations in aquifers, which may impact groundwater quality. Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments on the effect of temperature variations (5-80 °C) on redox processes and associated microbial communities in anoxic unconsolidated subsurface sediments. Both hydrochemical and microbiological data showed that a temperature increase from 11 °C (in situ) to 25 °C caused a shift from iron-reducing to sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Bioenergetic calculations could explain this shift. A further temperature increase (>45 °C) resulted in the emergence of a thermophilic microbial community specialized in fermentation and sulfate reduction. Two distinct maxima in sulfate reduction rates, of similar orders of magnitude (5 × 10(-10) M s(-1)), were observed at 40 and 70 °C. Thermophilic sulfate reduction, however, had a higher activation energy (100-160 kJ mol(-1)) than mesophilic sulfate reduction (30-60 kJ mol(-1)), which might be due to a trade-off between enzyme stability and activity with thermostable enzymes being less efficient catalysts that require higher activation energies. These results reveal that while sulfate-reducing functionality can withstand a substantial temperature rise, other key biochemical processes appear more temperature sensitive.

  9. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  10. Community Interactive Processes and Rural Adolescents’ Educational Achievement: Investigating the Mediating Effects of Delinquency and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola A. Adedokun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper examines the effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement. Specifically, the paper explored the direct effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement and the indirect effects via self-esteem and delinquency. The method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a nationally representative panel study of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade. The results make a compelling case that communities are conduits for boosting self-esteem, facilitating normative behaviors and academic performance in rural adolescents.

  11. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  12. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  13. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  14. Some Examples of the Relations Between Processing and Damage Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2012-01-01

    Most structures made of laminated polymer matrix composites (PMCs) must be designed to some damage tolerance requirement that includes foreign object impact damage. Thus from the beginning of a part s life, impact damage is assumed to exist in the material and the part is designed to carry the required load with the prescribed impact damage present. By doing this, some processing defects may automatically be accounted for in the reduced design allowable due to these impacts. This paper will present examples of how a given level of impact damage and certain processing defects affect the compression strength of a laminate that contains both. Knowledge of the impact damage tolerance requirements, before processing begins, can broaden material options and processing techniques since the structure is not being designed to pristine properties.

  15. Hydrogen-methane separation processes and related phenomena. [112 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, J.T.; Wang, S.S.; Yang, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A thorough and up-dated literature survey has been conducted on processes for separating hydrogen and methane. This was done in conjunction with our work of developing a more energy-efficient and lower-cost process based on cyclic, fixed-bed processes using coal chars as the sorbents. Although the review has covered all hydrocarbon separation processes, the focuses were on physical adsorption phenomena and theories (for both single and mixed gases), surface and pore characteristics of coals and heat-treated coals, and the continuous or semi-continuous chromatographic separation methods. There has been a sharply increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years in developing processes for hydrocarbon separation based on adsorption/desorption; this is particularly true since the energy costs became increasingly higher recently. The rigorous work on competitive adsorption and on the cyclic (including parametric pumping) processes has all been done in the past 13 years. On the other hand, it is disappointing to find the absence of knowledge on adsorption on coal chars and the lack of it on adsorption on raw coals as well.

  16. Electrophysiological CNS-processes related to associative learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Gert R J; Schachtman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiology of human associative memory has been studied with electroencephalographic techniques since the 1930s. This research has revealed that different types of electrophysiological processes in the human brain can be modified by conditioning: sensory evoked potentials, sensory induced gamma-band activity, periods of frequency-specific waves (alpha and beta waves, the sensorimotor rhythm and the mu-rhythm) and slow cortical potentials. Conditioning of these processes has been studied in experiments that either use operant conditioning or repeated contingent pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (classical conditioning). In operant conditioning, the appearance of a specific brain process is paired with an external stimulus (neurofeedback) and the feedback enables subjects to obtain varying degrees of control of the CNS-process. Such acquired self-regulation of brain activity has found practical uses for instance in the amelioration of epileptic seizures, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It has also provided communicative means of assistance for tetraplegic patients through the use of brain computer interfaces. Both extra and intracortically recorded signals have been coupled with contingent external feedback. It is the aim for this review to summarize essential results on all types of electromagnetic brain processes that have been modified by classical or operant conditioning. The results are organized according to type of conditioned EEG-process, type of conditioning, and sensory modalities of the conditioning stimuli.

  17. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  18. Factors related to fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Oanh Tran Thi; Jullamate, Pornchai; Piphatvanitcha, Naiyana; Rosenberg, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between age, gender, history of falls, balance and gait status, general health perception, activities of daily living and depression to fear of falling in community-dwelling older people in Danang, Vietnam. Fear of falling is a common and consequential psychosocial problem for older people and can lead to decreased quality of life. There is only limited research on fear of falling in Vietnam. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. One hundred fifty-three community-dwelling older people were recruited from seven communities of different districts in Danang. Data were collected using six instruments: a demographic questionnaire, the Fall Efficacy Scale-International, the General Health Perception questionnaire, the Barthel Activities of Daily Living, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Timed Up and Go test. Data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. The mean Fall Efficacy Scale-International score was 35, indicating a high level of fear of falling. ADLs, general health perception and Timed Up and Go were significantly and negatively related to fear of falling (rp  = -0·80, rsp  = -0·77 and rp  = -0·75, respectively). Age, depression and history of falls were significantly and positively related to fear of falling (rp  = 0·54, rp  = 0·45 and rs  = 0·39, respectively). Women were significantly more likely than men to have higher fear of falling (rpb  = -0·28). Fear of falling is more common in older people who are female, have a history of falls, have poor balance and gait status, have poor health perception, have greater ADL dependency, are depressed and, within the older people population, are older. Further research could examine additional correlates of fear of falling and develop/evaluate factor-specific intervention strategies to reduce fear of falling among community-dwelling older people. Understanding correlates of fear of falling among older Vietnamese people contributes to

  19. Mining online community data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper; Liland, Kristian Hovde; Kvaal, Knut

    2017-01-01

    suggestion/solution words and expressions and it is these that make automatic idea detection possible. In addition we conclude that the nature of the ideas in the beer community seems to be related to the brewing process. The nature of the ideas in the Lego community seems to be related to new products...... to provide an answer to what is it that makes such automatic idea detection possible? Our study is based on two datasets from dialogue between members of two distinct online communities. The first community is related to beer. The second is related to Lego. We generate machine learning classifiers based...

  20. Attributions for relatives' behavior and perceived criticism: studies with community participants and patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L; Blake, Kimberly D; Simmons, Rachel A

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between perceived criticism from one's relative and attributions about that relative's behavior was examined in two studies. In Study 1, 50 community couples volunteered to participate in a study of marital interaction. Participants rated their interaction-specific perceived criticism after a 10-min problem-solving interaction and their attributions for their spouses' behavior during a review of the videotaped interaction. In Study 2, 70 outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n=41) or panic disorder with agoraphobia (n=29) completed a measure of global perceived criticism in their relationship with their spouse or other family member and on another occasion participated in a 10-min problem-solving interaction with that relative. Using interaction transcripts, coders extracted and coded attributions from patients' speech and, using the videotapes themselves, rated relatives' observable criticism. In both studies higher scores on negative attributions were related to higher perceived criticism ratings. In Study 2, negative attributions contributed to the prediction of perceived criticism above and beyond the contribution of observed criticism. These findings suggest that targeting attributions about perceived criticism may be fruitful in reducing the negative impact of perceived criticism on treatment outcome for a variety of psychiatric disorders.

  1. Succession of microbial community and enhanced mechanism of a ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge process treating chloronitrobenzenes wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang, E-mail: felix79cn@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jin, Jie [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lin, Haizhuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wenzhou Environmental Protection Design Scientific Institute, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Gao, Kaituo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Xiangyang, E-mail: xuxy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • The combined ZVI–UASB process was established for the degradation of chloronitrobenzenes. • There were the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for anaerobic acidification in the combined process. • Novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed. • Adaptive shift of microbial community was significant in ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge system. - Abstract: The combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process is established for the treatment of chloronitrobenzenes (ClNBs) wastewater, and the succession of microbial community and its enhanced mechanism are investigated in the study. Results showed that compared with the control UASB (R1), the stable COD removal, ClNBs transformation, and dechlorination occurred in the combined system (R2) when operated at influent COD and 3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DClNB) loading rates of 4200–7700 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and 6.0–70.0 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and R2 had the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for the anaerobic acidification. The dechlorination for the intermediate products of p-chloroanaline (p-ClAn) to analine (AN) occurred in R2 reactor after 45 days, whereas it did not occur in R1 after a long-term operation. The novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed in the combined system, and higher microbial activities including ClNB transformation and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} production were achieved simultaneously. The dominant bacteria were closely related to the groups of Megasphaera, Chloroflexi, and Clostridium, and the majority of archaea were correlated with the groups of Methanosarcinalesarchaeon, Methanosaetaconcilii, and Methanothrixsoehngenii, which are capable of reductively dechlorinating PCB, HCB, and TCE in anaerobic niche and EPS secretion.

  2. Interactive effects of wildfire and permafrost on microbial communities and soil processes in an Alaskan black spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Boreal forests contain significant quantities of soil carbon that may be oxidized to CO2 given future increases in climate warming and wildfire behavior. At the ecosystem scale, decomposition and heterotrophic respiration are strongly controlled by temperature and moisture, but we questioned whether changes in microbial biomass, activity, or community structure induced by fire might also affect these processes. We particularly wanted to understand whether postfire reductions in microbial biomass could affect rates of decomposition. Additionally, we compared the short-term effects of wildfire to the long-term effects of climate warming and permafrost decline. We compared soil microbial communities between control and recently burned soils that were located in areas with and without permafrost near Delta Junction, AK. In addition to soil physical variables, we quantified changes in microbial biomass, fungal biomass, fungal community composition, and C cycling processes (phenol oxidase enzyme activity, lignin decomposition, and microbial respiration). Five years following fire, organic surface horizons had lower microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations compared with control soils. Reductions in soil fungi were associated with reductions in phenol oxidase activity and lignin decomposition. Effects of wildfire on microbial biomass and activity in the mineral soil were minor. Microbial community composition was affected by wildfire, but the effect was greater in nonpermafrost soils. Although the presence of permafrost increased soil moisture contents, effects on microbial biomass and activity were limited to mineral soils that showed lower fungal biomass but higher activity compared with soils without permafrost. Fungal abundance and moisture were strong predictors of phenol oxidase enzyme activity in soil. Phenol oxidase enzyme activity, in turn, was linearly related to both 13C lignin decomposition and microbial respiration

  3. Improving the Intelligence Community’s Declassification Process and the Community’s Support to the National Declassification Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    scope, moreover, could be expanded at the discretion of the IMC chair to examine other declassification programs. Crafting declassification...System Network. JWICS is a Top Secret/ SCI network run by the Defense Intelligence Agency, and is used across the Department of Defense, Department of...identification. The NDC should now build on this success with new authorities, additional resources, and expanded declassification community

  4. Determinants of health-related quality of life among community dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Pradeep P; Heng, Bee Hoon; Wong, Lai Yin; Ng, Charis W L

    2014-01-01

    This study determines the associations between self-reported chronic conditions, limitations in activities of daily living and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among community dwelling elderly in Singapore. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 4200 residents from 58 blocks of dwellings in Marine Parade housing estate between April and May 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics; chronic disease profile, health screenings, healthcare utilisation, physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL) and functional ability and health related quality of life. Quality of life was assessed using European Quality of life 5 Domain (EQ-5D). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to identify independent predictors of health related quality of life. A total of 2454 respondents for included for analysis. Most of the respondents were females (57.2%) and aged between 65 and 74 years (48.5%). Among them, 79.1% of the respondents were Chinese. Approximately three-fourth (77.5%) of the survey respondents reported having at least one of the 13 chronic medical conditions; high blood pressure (57.7%), high blood cholesterol (51.6%), diabetes (22.9%) were the most commonly reported conditions. Independent predictors of HRQoL with greatest decrements in EQ-5D index and visual analog scores (VAS) were unemployment, self-reported depression, arthritis and osteoporosis and ADL limitations for activities such as "unable to shower", "unable to do housework" and elderly with depressive symptoms (GDS score≥5). The study had identified predictors of HRQoL in elderly Singapore residents and also provides community-based EQ-5D index and VAS scores associated with a wide variety of chronic conditions and ADL limitations.

  5. The interplay of glutathione-related processes in antioxidant defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnubben, N.H.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Wortelboer, H.; Zanden, J.J. van; Bladeren, P.J. van

    2001-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on glutathione (GSH) associated cellular processes that play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. GSH itself is a critical factor in maintaining the cellular redox balance and has been demonstrated to be involved in regulation of cell signallin

  6. Controlling the Didactic Relation: A Case in Process Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, Juha

    2014-01-01

    A case study was conducted during 1994-2013 on several groups of process engineering students to see what was needed to transform a single course from a teacher-centred to a student-centred learning environment (SCLE). Development work was done incrementally, using Herbart's didactic triangle as a theoretical framework. The effects of the…

  7. Children's Metacognition: Exploring Relations among Knowledge, Process, and Motivational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Beth E.; Borkowski, John G.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 60 first- and third-grade children were divided into three treatment groups receiving task-specific strategy instructions and/or metacognitive training. Results were discussed in terms of the interactive nature of knowledge, process, and motivational variables as determinants of strategy transfer. (Author/CI)

  8. Relating microstructure, sensory and instrumental texture of processed oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALMENKALLIO-MARTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instrumental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties were assessed. The microstructure of native, germinated, autoclaved and extruded grains of the hulled cv. Veli and hull-less cv. Lisbeth was examined by light microscopy, the texture was measured by determining the milling energy and hardness of the grains and sensory characteristics were evaluated with descriptive sensory profile analysis. In cv. Veli the cells of the starchy endosperm were smaller than in cv. Lisbeth and ß-glucan was concentrated in the subaleurone layer. In cv. Lisbeth ß-glucan was evenly distributed in the starchy endosperm. The grains of cv. Lisbeth were more extensively modified in the germination process than the grains of cv. Veli, otherwise the effects of processing on the grains of the two cultivars were similar. Germination caused cell wall degradation, autoclaving and extrusion cooking caused starch gelatinization. Autoclaving resulted in the hardest perceived texture in oat. Gelatinization of starch appeared to contribute more to the hardness of oat groats than the cell wall structure. Of the instrumental methods used in this study the milling energy measurement appeared to be the most useful method for the analysis of the effects of processing on grain structure.;

  9. Controlling the Didactic Relation: A Case in Process Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, Juha

    2014-01-01

    A case study was conducted during 1994-2013 on several groups of process engineering students to see what was needed to transform a single course from a teacher-centred to a student-centred learning environment (SCLE). Development work was done incrementally, using Herbart's didactic triangle as a theoretical framework. The effects of the…

  10. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  11. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  12. Process-related factors associated with disciplinary board decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkeland Søren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most health care systems disciplinary boards have been organised in order to process patients’ complaints about health professionals. Although, the safe-guarding of the legal rights of the involved parties is a crucial concern, there is limited knowledge about what role the complaint process plays with regard to board decision outcomes. Using complaint cases towards general practitioners, the aim of this study was to identify what process factors are statistically associated with disciplinary actions as seen from the party of the complainant and the defendant general practitioner, respectively. Methods Danish Patient Complaints Board decisions concerning general practitioners completed in 2007 were examined. Information on process factors was extracted from the case files and included complaint delay, complainant’s lawyer involvement, the number of general practitioners involved, event duration, expert witness involvement, case management duration and decision outcome (discipline or no discipline. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed on compound case decisions eventually involving more general practitioners (as seen from the complainant’s side and on separated decisions (as seen from the defendant general practitioner’s side. Results From the general practitioner’s side, when the number of general practitioners involved in a complaint case increased, odds of being disciplined significantly decreased (OR=0.661 per additional general practitioner involved, pcase management duration was associated with higher odds of discipline (OR=1.038 per additional month, p=0.010. No association could be demonstrated with regard to complaint delay, lawyer involvement, event duration, or expert witness involvement. There was lawyer involvement in 5% of cases and expert witness involvement in 92% of cases. The mean complaint delay was 3 months and 18 days and the mean case management duration was 14 months and 7

  13. Mapping Heat-related Risks for Community-based Adaptation Planning under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingjiu; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takayabu, Izuru

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recently, epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of the mortality impacts of extreme heat. This research has several aims: 1) to promote climate prediction services with spatial and temporal information on heat-related risks, using GIS (Geographical Information System), and digital mapping techniques; 2) to propose a visualization approach to articulating the evolution of local heat-health responses over time and the evaluation of new interventions for the implementation of valid community-based adaptation strategies and reliable actionable planning; and 3) to provide an appropriate and simple method of adjusting bias and quantifying the uncertainty in future outcomes, so that regional climate projections may be transcribed into useful forms for a wide variety of different users. Following the 2003 European heat wave, climatologists, medical specialists, and social scientists expedited efforts to revise and integrate risk governance frameworks for communities to take appropriate and effective actions themselves. Recently, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) methodology has made projections possible for anyone wanting to openly access state-of-the-art climate model outputs and climate data to provide the backbone for decisions. Furthermore, the latest high-solution regional climate model (RCM) has been a huge increase in the volumes of data available. In this study, we used high-quality hourly projections (5-km resolution) from the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM-5km), following the SRES-A1B scenario developed by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and observational data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The NHRCM-5km is a dynamic downscaling of results from the MRI-AGCM3.2S (20-km resolution), an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) driven by the

  14. From targets to ripples: tracing the process of developing a community capacity building appraisal tool with remote Australian Indigenous communities to tackle food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross; Coveney, John; Liberato, Selma

    2014-09-04

    The issue of food security is complex and requires capacity for often-unrelated groups to work together. We sought to assess the relevance and meaning of a commonly used set of community capacity development constructs in the context of remote Indigenous Australia and through this propose a model to support capacity. The assessment was conducted with four communities and took place over five steps that involved: (i) test of clarity of construct meaning; (ii) inductive derivation of community capacity constructs; (iii) application of these constructs to the capacity of community multi-sector food-interest groups; (iv) a cross-check of these constructs and their meanings to literature-derived constructs, and; (v) achieving consensus on tool constructs. Data were collected over a three-year period (2010-2012) that involved two on-site visits to one community, and two urban-based workshops. These data were augmented by food-interest group meeting minutes and reports. Eleven community capacity development constructs were included in the proposed model: community ownership, building on strengths, strong leadership and voice, making decisions together, strong partnerships, opportunities for learning and skill development, way of working, getting together the things you need, good strong communication, sharing the true story, and continuing the process and passing on to the next generation. The constructs derived from the literature and commonly used to appraise community capacity development were well accepted and could be used to identify areas needing strengthening. The specifics of each construct however differed from those derived from the literature yet were similar across the four communities and had particular meaning for those involved. The involvement of elders and communication with the wider community seemed paramount to forming a solid foundation on which capacity could be further developed. This study explored an approach for ascribing context specific

  15. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  16. Educative Processes in the Hip Hop: the celebration of the values of the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Tierno Siqueira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this inquiry was to understand and systemize the Educative Processes that characterize Practical the Social one of the Hip Hop of the city of São Carlos, interior of São Paulo; as these young ones if educate and as they educate other people of its communities, longing for to contribute for the valuation of the Movements of Youth and for the elaboration of politics that consider them. For in such a way, we follow some of its activities, as periodic weekly meetings, artistic events, educative activities and parties. The analysis of the data disclosed to some values gifts in the life of these people, as the love for what it becomes, the not arrogant, the necessity of the collective work, the responsibility and the belonging to a community. The men and the women of the Hip Hop invite-in opening the doors of the Schools and University, so that in we let us exempt them of the preconceptions that we construct every day, so that we learn with young of the Hip Hop, as well as with other people who fight for worthy conditions of life. We believe that this inquiry brings contributions to think the education that characterize Practical Social in not-pertaining to school spaces, as well as to rethink the education in the pertaining to school spaces.

  17. Indigenizing CBPR: evaluation of a community-based and participatory research process implementation of the Elluam Tungiinun (towards wellness) program in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Stacy M

    2014-09-01

    The process that community based participatory research (CBPR) implementation takes in indigenous community contexts has serious implications for health intervention outcomes and sustainability. An evaluation of the Elluam Tungiinun (Towards Wellness) Project aimed to explore the experience of a Yup'ik Alaska Native community engaged within a CBPR process and describe the effects of CBPR process implementation from an indigenous community member perspective. CBPR is acknowledged as an effective strategy for engaging American Indian and Alaska Native communities in research process, but we still know very little about the experience from a local, community member perspective. What are the perceived outcomes of participation in CBPR from a local, community member perspective? Qualitative methods were used to elicit community member perspectives of participation in a CBPR process engaged with one Yup'ik community in southwest Alaska. Results focus on community member perceptions of CBPR implementation, involvement in the process and partnership, ownership of the project with outcomes observed and perceived at the community, family and individual levels, and challenges. A discussion of findings demonstrates how ownership of the intervention arose from a translational and indigenizing process initiated by the community that was supported and enhanced through the implementation of CBPR. Community member perspectives of their participation in the research reveal important process points that stand to contribute meaningfully to implementation science for interventions developed by and for indigenous and other minority and culturally diverse peoples.

  18. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane McClymont Peace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design: The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods: Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results: Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions: Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.

  19. The importance of neutral and niche processes for bacterial community assembly differs between habitat generalists and specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingqiu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jie; Gao, Zhe; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of community assembly are a central focus in the field of microbial ecology. However, to what extent these mechanisms differ in importance by traits of groups is poorly understood. Here we quantified the importance of neutral and niche processes in community assembly for bacteria, habitat specialists and generalists in 21 plateau lakes of China. Results showed that both neutral and niche processes played a critical role in the assembly of entire bacterial communities, shaping a unique biogeographical pattern. A few habitat generalists and many specialists were identified. Interestingly, habitat specialists were only governed by niche process, with seven significant environmental variables-salinity, dissolved oxygen, water transparency, total phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, temperature and total nitrogen-independently explaining 40.3% of the biological variation. By contrast, habitat generalists were strongly driven by neutral process, with 50.9% of the variation of detection frequency explained in neutral community model. Only three environmental variables-salinity, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen-significantly affected the distribution of habitat generalists, independently explaining 13.6% of the variation. Governed by different assembly mechanisms, habitat specialists and generalists presented disparate biogeographical patterns. Our result emphasizes the importance of investigating the bacterial community assembly at more refined levels than entire communities.

  20. Relating transition-state spectroscopy to standard chemical spectroscopic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Hush, Noel S.

    2017-09-01

    Transition-state spectra are mapped out using generalized adiabatic electron-transfer theory. This simple model depicts diverse chemical properties, from aromaticity, through bound reactions such as isomerizations and atom-transfer processes with classic transition states, to processes often described as being ;non-adiabatic;, to those in the ;inverted; region that become slower as they are made more exothermic. Predictably, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is found inadequate for modelling transition-state spectra in the weak-coupling limit. In this limit, the adiabatic Born-Huang approximation is found to perform much better than non-adiabatic surface-hopping approaches. Transition-state spectroscopy is shown to involve significant quantum entanglement between electronic and nuclear motion.

  1. Oxidation processes in magneto-optic and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul A.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Danzinger, James L.; England, Craig D.

    1992-01-01

    The surface oxidation processes of thin films of magneto-optic materials, such as the rare-earth transition metal alloys have been studied, starting in ultrahigh vacuum environments, using surface analysis techniques, as a way of modeling the oxidation processes which occur at the base of a defect in an overcoated material, at the instant of exposure to ambient environments. Materials examined have included FeTbCo alloys, as well as those same materials with low percentages of added elements, such a Ta, and their reactivities to both O2 and H2O compared with materials such as thin Fe films coated with ultrathin adlayers of Ti. The surface oxidation pathways for these materials is reviewed, and XPS data presented which indicates the type of oxides formed, and a critical region of Ta concentration which provides optimum protection.

  2. Biofilms in bioremediation and wastewater treatment: characterization of bacterial community structure and diversity during seasons in municipal wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousra Turki; Mehri, Ines; Lajnef, Rim; Rejab, Asma Ben; Khessairi, Amel; Cherif, Hanene; Ouzari, Hadda; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2017-02-01

    The bacterial community structure and diversity were assessed at the scale of rotating biodisk procedure (RB) in a semi-industrial pilot plant. As well, the Salmonella community was particularly monitored, and the effects of ultraviolet (UV-C254) on the bacterial community were studied. The identification of dominant bacteria revealed the presence of beneficial and useful species that could play an important role in the process of wastewater purification. Several species as Enterobacter agglomerans, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pantoea agglomerans known for their bioremediation activities were revealed in the majority of biofilm samples. Common detection of Salmonella community provides evidence that the RB system did not seriously affect Salmonella. Furthermore, the investigation on the (UV)-C254 inactivation of the whole bacterial community, in secondary treated wastewater, showed variable UV resistance results. No Salmonella detection was registered at a dose of around 1440 mW s cm(-2) since a total disappearance of Salmonella was recorded.

  3. Information Processing Theory of Human Performance and Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    stimulus sampling models such as that of Estes (1972) or Bjork and Murray (1977)). Perceptual concepts. Perceptual concepts such as the Gestalt concept of...the stimulus. It may that this is appropriate although at least some Gestalt concepts have been assumed to result from inferential processes by their...learning and motivation research and therapy (Vol 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968. Atkinson, R. C. & Shiffrin, R. M. The control of short-term memory

  4. Processing art sculptures relative to the issue of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    KONEČNÁ, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of eating disorders. Objective of the thesis is definition of eating disorder, a description of the individual faults an as a practical part there is an artistic creation of specific disorders. Theoretical part includes characteristics, division and insight into history. There are described four forms of eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, obesity and bigorexia. In the practical part is the visual processing of transformation of two excessive eating disord...

  5. Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Benasich, April A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid auditory processing and acoustic change detection abilities play a critical role in allowing human infants to efficiently process the fine spectral and temporal changes that are characteristic of human language. These abilities lay the foundation for effective language acquisition; allowing infants to hone in on the sounds of their native language. Invasive procedures in animals and scalp-recorded potentials from human adults suggest that simultaneous, rhythmic activity (oscillations) between and within brain regions are fundamental to sensory development; determining the resolution with which incoming stimuli are parsed. At this time, little is known about oscillatory dynamics in human infant development. However, animal neurophysiology and adult EEG data provide the basis for a strong hypothesis that rapid auditory processing in infants is mediated by oscillatory synchrony in discrete frequency bands. In order to investigate this, 128-channel, high-density EEG responses of 4-month old infants to frequency change in tone pairs, presented in two rate conditions (Rapid: 70 msec ISI and Control: 300 msec ISI) were examined. To determine the frequency band and magnitude of activity, auditory evoked response averages were first co-registered with age-appropriate brain templates. Next, the principal components of the response were identified and localized using a two-dipole model of brain activity. Single-trial analysis of oscillatory power showed a robust index of frequency change processing in bursts of Theta band (3 - 8 Hz) activity in both right and left auditory cortices, with left activation more prominent in the Rapid condition. These methods have produced data that are not only some of the first reported evoked oscillations analyses in infants, but are also, importantly, the product of a well-established method of recording and analyzing clean, meticulously collected, infant EEG and ERPs. In this article, we describe our method for infant EEG net

  6. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  7. Severity of autism is related to children's language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavin, Edith L; Kidd, Evan; Prendergast, Luke; Baker, Emma; Dissanayake, Chery; Prior, Margot

    2014-12-01

    Problems in language processing have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with some research attributing the problems to overall language skills rather than a diagnosis of ASD. Lexical access was assessed in a looking-while-listening task in three groups of 5- to 7-year-old children; two had high-functioning ASD (HFA), an ASD severe (ASD-S) group (n = 16) and an ASD moderate (ASD-M) group (n = 21). The third group were typically developing (TD) (n = 48). Participants heard sentences of the form "Where's the x?" and their eye movements to targets (e.g., train), phonological competitors (e.g., tree), and distractors were recorded. Proportions of looking time at target were analyzed within 200 ms intervals. Significant group differences were found between the ASD-S and TD groups only, at time intervals 1000-1200 and 1200-1400 ms postonset. The TD group was more likely to be fixated on target. These differences were maintained after adjusting for language, verbal and nonverbal IQ, and attention scores. An analysis using parent report of autistic-like behaviors showed higher scores to be associated with lower proportions of looking time at target, regardless of group. Further analysis showed fixation for the TD group to be significantly faster than for the ASD-S. In addition, incremental processing was found for all groups. The study findings suggest that severity of autistic behaviors will impact significantly on children's language processing in real life situations when exposed to syntactically complex material. They also show the value of using online methods for understanding how young children with ASD process language. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. After Divorce: Personality Factors Related to the Process of Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra Paul

    1982-01-01

    Considered personality variables related to postdivorce adjustment using a sample of 58 females and 31 males. Found persons with the best adjustment scored significantly higher on dominance/assertiveness, self-assurance, intelligence, creativity/imagination, social boldness, liberalism, self-sufficiency, ego strength and tranquility. (Author/JAC)

  9. Home Visiting Processes: Relations with Family Characteristics and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…

  10. Evaluating the impact of electronic health records on nurse clinical process at two community health sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina S; Liao, Cindy; Chittams, Jesse L; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    We conducted two mixed methods studies in community-based health care settings to examine EHR use among nurses documenting direct patient care and EHR impact on nurse satisfaction. Quantitative methods included documentation time-to-completion data and a clinician satisfaction survey. Qualitative methods included observations and follow-up interviews. Qualitative data was merged with the quantitative data by comparing findings along themes. Results indicated nurses increased the number and timeliness of notes documented. Nurse use of the EHR as intended varied between the research sites. Barriers to EHR use included cumbersome functionalities that impacted nurse efficiency, lack of interoperability, and hardware issues. Facilitators to adoption included functionalities that provided memory prompts during the care process and enabled nurses to communicate about patient care. Interpretation of findings underscores the importance of the interaction of workflow, EHR functionality, and usability to impact nurse satisfaction, efficiency, and use of the EHR.

  11. Acclimation to extremely high ammonia levels in continuous biomethanation process and the associated microbial community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10 g NH4+-N L−1, was performed in mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors...... were co-digesting (20/80 based on volatile solid) cattle slurry and microalgae, a protein-rich, 3rd generation biomass. Throughout the acclimation period, methane production was stable with more than 95% of the uninhibited yield. Next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a dramatic microbiome...... change throughout the ammonia acclimation process. Clostridium ultunense, a syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria, increased significantly alongside with hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus spp., indicating strong hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity at extreme ammonia levels (>7 g NH4+-N L−1...

  12. Epidemlology of exercise-related transient abdominal pain at the Sydney City to Surf community run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R

    2005-06-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (pnutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.

  13. A STUDY ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN DIETARY PARAMETERS AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN 8 CHINESE COMMUNITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光胜; 袁晓源; 龚邦强; 黄友文; 董寿祺; 汪师贞; 张美祥; 张鸿修; 朱存

    1992-01-01

    Relations between 67 dietary parameters and blood pressure in 8 Chinese communities (745 men aged 40~59 years) were studied. Results showed. UNa, Na/K, Ca, Ca/Mg, parameters reflecting the protein-intake, serum levels of Sr, valine, cysteine,threonine, Vit A, Vit E, cholesterol, C16:0, C18:0, (saturated fatty acid)/(polyunsaturated fatty acid),(C20:5+C22:6 (ω3))/(C18:2+C20:3+C20:4 (ω6)), γ-glutamyl transferase (an index of alcohol consumption) and plasma glucose correlated positively with BP, while serum levels of K, Mg, glycine, phenylalanine, leucine, VitC, C18:2, Ni, V, Co, Cr and Cd, inversely. And also, a metabolic imbalance among BP, blood glucose and lipids was exhibited.

  14. Otitis media with effusion in relation to socio economic status: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddartha; Bhat, Vadisha; Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Shenoy, Vijaya; Rashmi

    2012-03-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the presence of non purulent effusion within the middle ear cleft. The symptoms of this disease are not alarming as in suppurative otitis media. The disease is common in young children. The main symptom of this disease is decreased hearing, which may sometime go unnoticed more so if the parents are not attentive. We conducted a community based study among 1,020 school children of the age group 5-10 years from schools of sub-urban areas of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, to explore the relationship of OME in relation to socioeconomic status. Diagnosis of OME was done by clinical examination and tympanometry. Prevalence of OME was 4.5%. Out of 46 cases, 4% belong to upper class, 26% to upper middle class, 26% to lower middle class, 43% to upper lower class.

  15. Bacterial communities and syntrophic associations involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane process of the Sonora Margin cold seeps, Guaymas Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Gayet, Nicolas; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The Sonora Margin cold seeps present on the seafloor a patchiness pattern of white microbial mats surrounded by polychaete and gastropod beds. These surface assemblages are fuelled by abundant organic inputs sedimenting from the water column and upward-flowing seep fluids. Elevated microbial density was observed in the underlying sediments. A previous study on the same samples identified anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as the potential dominant archaeal process in these Sonora Margin sediments, probably catalysed by three clades of archaeal anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME-1, ANME-2 and ANME-3) associated with bacterial syntrophs. In this study, molecular surveys and microscopic observations investigating the diversity of Bacteria involved in AOM process, as well as the environmental parameters affecting the composition and the morphologies of AOM consortia in the Sonora Margin sediments were carried out. Two groups of Bacteria were identified within the AOM consortia, the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus SEEP SRB-1a group and a Desulfobulbus-related group. These bacteria showed different niche distributions, association specificities and consortia architectures, depending on sediment surface communities, geochemical parameters and ANME-associated phylogeny. Therefore, the syntrophic AOM process appears to depend on sulphate-reducing bacteria with different ecological niches and/or metabolisms, in a biofilm-like organic matrix. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timpka Toomas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476 (response rate 56%. Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I structural indicators of social disorder; (II contact with disorderly behavior; and (III existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We

  17. Learning in the Permaculture Community of Practice in England: An Analysis of the Relationship between Core Practices and Boundary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Julie; Maye, Damian; Kirwan, James; Curry, Nigel; Kubinakova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article utilizes the Communities of Practice (CoP) framework to examine learning processes among a group of permaculture practitioners in England, specifically examining the balance between core practices and boundary processes. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical basis of the article derives from three participatory workshops…

  18. Learning in the Permaculture Community of Practice in England: An Analysis of the Relationship between Core Practices and Boundary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Julie; Maye, Damian; Kirwan, James; Curry, Nigel; Kubinakova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article utilizes the Communities of Practice (CoP) framework to examine learning processes among a group of permaculture practitioners in England, specifically examining the balance between core practices and boundary processes. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical basis of the article derives from three participatory workshops…

  19. The relative influence of the community and the health system on work performance: a case study of community health workers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S A; Larsen, D E

    1990-01-01

    A central component of the primary health care approach in developing countries has been the development and utilization of community-based health workers (CHWs) within the national health system. While the use of these front line workers has the potential to positively influence health behavior and health status in rural communities, there continues to be challenges to effective implementation of CHW programs. Reports of high turnover rates, absenteeism, poor quality of work, and low morale among CHWs have often been associated with weak organizational and managerial capacity of government health systems. However, no systematic research has examined the contribution of work-related factors to CHW job performance. The research reported in this paper examines the relative influence of reward and feedback factors associated with the community compared to those associated with the health system on the performance of CHWs. The data are drawn from a broader study of health promoters (CHWs) conducted in two departments (provinces) in Colombia in 1986. The research was based on a theoretical model of worker performance that focuses on job related sources of rewards and feedback. A survey research design was employed to obtain information from a random sample of rural health promoters (N = 179) and their auxiliary nurse supervisors about CHW performance and contributing factors. The findings indicate that feedback and rewards from the community have a greater influence on work performance (defined as degree of perceived goal attainment on job tasks) than do those stemming from the health system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Relationship between drug interactions and drug-related negative clinical outcomes in two community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug interactions may represent an iatrogenic risk that should be controlled in community pharmacies at the dispensing level. Aim: We analyzed the association between potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs and negative clinical outcomes.Methods: We used dispensing data from two community pharmacies: instances where drug dispensing was associated with a potential DDI and a comparison group of randomized dispensing operations with no potential DDI. In cases where potential DDIs were detected, we analyzed the underlying negative clinical outcomes. Age and gender data were included in the analysis.Results: During the study period, we registered 417 potential DDIs. The proportion of women and age were higher in the study group than in the comparison group. The average potential DDIs per patient was 1.31 (SD=0.72. The Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos (CGCOF database did not produce an alert in 2.4% of the cases. Over-the-counter medication use was observed in 5% of the potential DDI cases. The drugs most frequently involved in potential DDIs were acenocoumarol, calcium salts, hydrochlorothiazide, and alendronic acid, whereas the most predominant potential DDIs were calcium salts and bisphosphonates, oral antidiabetics and thiazide diuretics, antidiabetics and glucose, and oral anticoagulant and paracetamol. The existence of a drug-related negative clinical outcome was observed only in 0.96% of the potential DDI cases (50% safety cases and 50% effectiveness cases. Conclusions: Only a small proportion of the detected potential DDIs lead to medication negative outcomes. Considering the drug-related negative clinical outcomes encountered, tighter control would be recommended in potential DDIs with NSAIDs or benzodiazepines.

  1. Sustaining health in faith community nursing practice: emerging processes that support the development of a middle-range theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Chase, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    This article reveals processes that support theoretical development for holistic nursing in the context of a faith community. The emerging processes enhance the articulation of the holistically focused practice, add clarity to faith community nursing activities and outcomes, and contribute to theoretical clarification and development. Theoretical clarity is essential to guide faith community nursing practice, research, and education because there is tremendous potential for the specialty practice to contribute to the health of a community across the continuum of caring and because to date there has been no unifying model for this practice proposed. A lack of a theoretical basis can result in disparate and disconnected approaches to studying, testing, and promoting the practice.

  2. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  3. Detecting psychogeriatric problems in primary care: factors related to psychiatric symptoms in older community patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Javier; Benabarre, Sergio; Lorente, Teófilo; Rodriguez, Mariano; Barros, Alfonso; Quintana, Carmen; Pelegrina, Virtudes; Aldea, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the relationship and influence of different variables on the psychiatric symptomatology of older people who reside in the community, as detected by family practitioners.Design A cross-sectional and multi-centre study.Setting Twenty-eight general practices and two psychiatric practices in Huesca, Spain, from 19 primary care health centres.Subjects A sample of 324 patients aged over 65 years, representative of the older people who reside in the community in the province of Huesca.Main outcome measures Symptoms of depression (Yesavage GDS), cognitive impairment (MMSE), anxiety (GADS), psychotic symptoms, obsessive symptoms and hypochondriacal ideas (GMS) were measured by family practitioner and were detected following specific questions from the Geriatric Mental State (GMS-B) examination, following DSM-IV criteria, being defined as 'concern and fear of suffering, or the idea of having a serious disease based on the interpretation of somatic symptoms'. Sociodemographic, physical and somatic, functional and social data were evaluated. Analysis was carried out in three phases: univariate, bivariate and multivariate with logistic regression.Results At the time of the study, 46.1% of the older people studied suffered from some psychiatric symptom; 16.4% had cognitive impairment, 15.7% anxiety, 14.3% depression, 6.1% hallucinations and delusions, 7.2% hypochondriacal ideas and 4.4% obsessive symptoms. Female gender was significantly associated with depression (prevalence ration (PR) 3.3) and anxiety (PR 3.9). Age was a factor associated with cognitive impairment (PR 4.4). Depression was significantly related to severity of the physical illness (PR 61.7 in extremely severe impairment). Isolation (PR 16.3) and being single (PR 13.4) were factors which were strongly associated with anxiety; living in a nursing home was associated with psychotic symptoms (PR 7.6).Conclusions Severity of physical illness, isolation, living in a nursing home and

  4. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.

  5. Person Centered Therapy: Therapeutic Relation and the Process of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Person Centred Approach appeared as a reaction to the psychoanalytical and behaviourist paradigms proposing a rather different con- ception of the human being witch originated of a new form of therapy: the person-centred therapy. After characterizing this principles and values the author relates them to the Person- Centred Approach basic concepts. Person-centred therapy will be briefly presented the focus being upon the conditions necessary to that therapeutic change can occur.

  6. Capacity-Related Innovations Resulting from the Implementation of a Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Lawson, Hal A.; Iachini, Aidyn; Bean, Gerald; Flaspohler, Paul D.; Zullig, Keith

    2010-01-01

    A new genus of district and school improvement models entails partnerships with other organizations and new working relationships with families, community leaders, and youths. The Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement (OCCMSI) is one such model. It enables partners to leverage family and community resources for learning,…

  7. The Ties That Bind: Understanding the "Relationships" in Community College Alumni Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Twyla Casey

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges continue to be challenged to achieve the same level of philanthropic support as private and public colleges and universities. While nearly 50 percent of all undergraduates are educated at community colleges, only two percent of the nearly $8 billion donated annually by higher education alumni is contributed to community colleges…

  8. Functional traits dominate the diversity-related selection of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Kuramae, E.E.; De Hollander, M.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; van Veen, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the impact of community diversity on the selection of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere by comparing the composition and the functional traits of these communities in soil and rhizosphere. Differences in diversity were established by inoculating into sterilized soils diluted suspen

  9. Concave Majorants of Random Walks and Related Poisson Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Josh

    2010-01-01

    We offer a unified approach to the theory of concave majorants of random walks by providing a path transformation for a walk of finite length that leaves the law of the walk unchanged whilst providing complete information about the concave majorant. This leads to a description of a walk of random geometric length as a Poisson point process of excursions away from its concave majorant, which is then used to find a complete description of the concave majorant for a walk of infinite length. In the case where subsets of increments may have the same arithmetic mean, we investigate three nested compositions that naturally arise from our construction of the concave majorant.

  10. 78 FR 5496 - Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain..., certain processes for manufacturing or relating to same and certain products containing same and certain... shredders, certain processes for manufacturing or relating to same and certain products containing same and...

  11. Towards Delivering Disease Support Processes for Patient Empowerment Using Mobile Virtual Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Pawar, P.; Elloumi, Lamia; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2012-01-01

    In existing healthcare systems, the focus is on clinical processes to assess the health condition of patients, making clinical decisions and applying therapeutic procedures all under control of health professionals. However, patients with chronic diseases usually face many disease related problems

  12. Towards Delivering Disease Support Processes for Patient Empowerment Using Mobile Virtual Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijnum, van Bert-Jan; Pawar, Pravin; Elloumi, Lamia; Hermens, Hermie

    2012-01-01

    In existing healthcare systems, the focus is on clinical processes to assess the health condition of patients, making clinical decisions and applying therapeutic procedures all under control of health professionals. However, patients with chronic diseases usually face many disease related problems t

  13. Do online communities change power processes in healthcare? Using case studies to examine the use of online health communities by patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Laura M; Bleijenbergh, Inge L; Benschop, Yvonne W M; Van Riel, Allard C R; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-11-07

    Communication technologies, such as personal online health communities, are increasingly considered as a tool to realise patient empowerment. However, little is known about the actual use of online health communities. Here, we investigated if and how patients' use of online communities supports patient empowerment. A network of primary and secondary care providers around individual patients with Parkinson's disease. We conducted case studies to examine our research question. We interviewed 18 patients with Parkinson's disease and observed the use of online health communities of 14 of them for an average of 1 year. We analysed the interviews and the online conversations between patients and healthcare providers, using Foucault's framework for studying power processes. We observed that patient empowerment is inhibited by implicit norms that exist within these communities around the number and content of postings. First, patients refrained from asking too many questions of their healthcare providers, but felt obliged to offer them regular updates. Second, patients scrutinised the content of their postings, being afraid to come across as complainers. Third, patients were cautious in making knowledge claims about their disease. Changing implicit norms within online communities and the societal context they exist in seems necessary to achieve greater patient empowerment. Possibilities for changing these norms might lie in open dialogue between patient and healthcare providers about expectations, revising the curriculum of medical education and redesigning personal online health communities to support two-way knowledge exchange. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Community Trial on Heat Related-Illness Prevention Behaviors and Knowledge for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Takahashi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs, to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW, HHW and water delivery (HHW+W, and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047, water intake (p = 0.003, cooling body (p = 0.002 and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047 compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008. An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067 and cooling body (p = 0.095 behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly.

  15. The implementation and evaluation of a healthy communities process in central Alberta: some implications for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) by the David Thompson Health Region in central Alberta, Canada. The HCI model provided for a facilitated, community-based, strategic planning process. Its key steps include development of a shared vision of health, assessment of needs and strengths, selection of key priority areas for action, and implementation of strategies to achieve change. A three-level evaluation model was developed, which incorporates project-level evaluation, cluster-level evaluation, and critical reflection on the David Thompson Health Region's own capacity to engage in community development work.

  16. Natural decay process affects the abundance and community structure of Bacteria and Archaea in Picea abies logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinta-Kanto, J. M.; Sinkko, H.; Rajala, T.

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes colonize decaying wood and contribute to the degradation process, but the dynamics of prokaryotic communities during wood decay is still poorly understood. We studied the abundance and community composition of Bacteria and Archaea inhabiting naturally decaying Picea abies logs....... The results show that Bacteria and Archaea are an integral and dynamic component of decaying wood biota. The abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes increase as wood decay progresses. Changes in bacterial community composition are clearly linked to the loss of density of wood, while specific...

  17. Improving the process of community-based student nurse practice through a high-fidelity simulated clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Beth; Yeager, Shelley T

    2014-01-01

    Simulation can be used to facilitate knowledge and practice with clients/families in the community. Because student nurses appreciate the opportunity to practice skills in a nonthreatening environment, and faculty welcome the opportunity to observe all students providing a home visit to a similar type of client, the authors developed such a simulation. In this article, they outline the process taken to develop and evaluate a high-fidelity community simulated clinical experience.

  18. Scale Expansion of Community Investigations and Integration of the Effects of Abiotic and Biotic Processes on Maintenance of Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the maintenance of diversity patterns from regional to local scales is dispersed among academic fields due to the local focus of community ecology. To better understand these patterns, the study of ecological communities needs to be expanded to larger scales and the various processes affecting them need to be integrated using a suitable quantitative method. We determined a range of communities on a flora-subregional scale in Yunnan province, China (383210.02 km2. A series of species pools were delimited from the regional to plot scales. Plant diversity was evaluated and abiotic and biotic processes identified at each pool level. The species pool effect was calculated using an innovative model, and the contribution of these processes to the maintenance of plant species diversity was determined and integrated: climate had the greatest effect at the flora-subregional scale, with historical and evolutionary processes contributing ∼11%; climate and human disturbance had the greatest effect at the local site pool scale; competition exclusion and stress limitation explained strong filtering at the successional stage pool scale; biotic processes contributed more on the local community scale than on the regional scale. Scale expansion combined with the filtering model approach solves the local problem in community ecology.

  19. Shifts in Bacterial Community Structure in the Process of Composting of Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Galitskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using 454 pyrosequencing, changes in the community structure of composting bacteria were estimated over 270 days. The compost contained the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, sawdust polluted by oil, and sewage sludge. All of these wastes are typical for a Russian city and they were obtained in Kazan (Tatarstan Republic, Russia. In the initial stage of composting, the taxa Lactobacialles, Rhodospiralles, Burkholderiales, and Xanthmonadales dominated in the compost. By the end of the thermophilic stage, the dominant species changed: typical compost inhabitants belonging to the taxa Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae, and Bacterioidetes, as well as non-typical taxa Ectothiorhodospiraceae and Parvibaculum sp., were observed in the compost. The presence of the latter two taxa may be explained by the presence of oil-polluted sawdust in the composting mixture. In the later stage, the dominant taxa remained the same; however, their relative abundance declined.

  20. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.