WorldWideScience

Sample records for community raccolta sui

  1. Collection of main international documents on the ethical principles of research and the main regulations on bioethics of the United States and of European Community; Raccolta sui principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca e dei principali documenti legislativi degli Stati Uniti e della Comunita` Europea sulla bioetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuderi, G [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Immunologia

    1999-12-31

    The collection includes an Italian translation of the main international documents on ethical principles of scientific research (the Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration, the Belmont Report) as well as the regulatory text of the United States (the Code of Federal Regulation Title 45, Part 46, that is the 45 Cfr 46) and the regulations of the European Community (the Good Clinical Practice and the Convention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being regards to the application of biology and medicine: convention on human rights and biomedicine). The informed consent and the human rights of human subjects involved in a clinical trial are discussed. Moreover, in the regulatory texts, legal rights of particular subjects, i.e. pregnant women, minors, fetuses, embrions, prisoners, are discussed; as well as the bioethics of organ transplantations. [Italiano] Contiene una traduzione in lingua italiana dei principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca scientifica: il Codice di Norimberga, la dichiarazione di Helsinki e il rapporto Belmont; il testo legislativo degli Stati Uniti Code of Federal Regulation, capitolo 45 parte 46 (detto il 45 CFR 46) e la normativa della Comunita` Europea relativa alle norme di Good Clinical Practice e alla Convenzione per la protezione dei diritti dell`uomo e la dignita` dei soggetti umani relativamente alle applicazioni della biologia e medicina: Convenzione sui diritti dell`uomo e la biomedicina. Vengono trattati il consenso informato e i diritti umani delle persone che sono coinvolte in una sperimentazione clinica. Inoltre, nei testi normativi ci si riferisce anche ai diritti legali di soggetti particolari, ad esempio: donne in stato di gravidanza, minori, feti, embrioni, prigionieri; viene trattata, infine, l`etica dei trapianti d`organo.

  2. Collection of main international documents on the ethical principles of research and the main regulations on bioethics of the United States and of European Community; Raccolta sui principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca e dei principali documenti legislativi degli Stati Uniti e della Comunita` Europea sulla bioetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuderi, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Immunologia

    1998-12-31

    The collection includes an Italian translation of the main international documents on ethical principles of scientific research (the Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration, the Belmont Report) as well as the regulatory text of the United States (the Code of Federal Regulation Title 45, Part 46, that is the 45 Cfr 46) and the regulations of the European Community (the Good Clinical Practice and the Convention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being regards to the application of biology and medicine: convention on human rights and biomedicine). The informed consent and the human rights of human subjects involved in a clinical trial are discussed. Moreover, in the regulatory texts, legal rights of particular subjects, i.e. pregnant women, minors, fetuses, embrions, prisoners, are discussed; as well as the bioethics of organ transplantations. [Italiano] Contiene una traduzione in lingua italiana dei principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca scientifica: il Codice di Norimberga, la dichiarazione di Helsinki e il rapporto Belmont; il testo legislativo degli Stati Uniti Code of Federal Regulation, capitolo 45 parte 46 (detto il 45 CFR 46) e la normativa della Comunita` Europea relativa alle norme di Good Clinical Practice e alla Convenzione per la protezione dei diritti dell`uomo e la dignita` dei soggetti umani relativamente alle applicazioni della biologia e medicina: Convenzione sui diritti dell`uomo e la biomedicina. Vengono trattati il consenso informato e i diritti umani delle persone che sono coinvolte in una sperimentazione clinica. Inoltre, nei testi normativi ci si riferisce anche ai diritti legali di soggetti particolari, ad esempio: donne in stato di gravidanza, minori, feti, embrioni, prigionieri; viene trattata, infine, l`etica dei trapianti d`organo.

  3. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  4. Evaluation method for material flow and MSW calorific power object of differentiated collection; Metodo per la valutazione dei flussi di materia e del potere calorifico di RSU oggetto di raccolta differenziata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. [Rende, Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Dip. di Meccanica; Giordano, R.; Greco, G.

    1998-11-01

    The method developed in the present paper, starting from a knowledge of demographic data, the growth of refuse production and the material composition of solid urban refuse, allows the evaluation of the effects of the aims of differentiated collection, over a period of time, provided for by the norm in force (D.Lgs 22/97). This evaluation is effected both on the quantity of individual materials to be recovered and on the average MSW calorific power to be incinerated. The model was applied to the Region of Calabria and a parametric study was carried out on the average calorific power of the refuse produced by the two different strategies employed to attain the aims provided for by the Ronchi Act (mainly dry and mainly wet differentiated collection). [Italiano] La metodologia sviluppata nel presente lavoro, interamente automatizzata in ambiente Excel, permette, a partire dalla conoscenza di dati demografici, di crescita della produzione di rifiuti e della composizione merceologica del rifiuto solido urbano, di valutare, in un fissato periodo temporale, gli effetti degli obiettivi di raccolta differenziata previsti dalla norma vigente (D.Legs. 22/97) sia sui quantitativi dei singoli materiali da recuperare sia sul potere calorifico medio del RSU da incenerire. Oltre ad una applicazione alla Regione Calabria e` presentato, a titolo esemplificativo, uno studio parametrico sul potere calorifico medio del rifiuto per effetto di due diverse strategie di raggiungimento degli obiettivi previsti dal decreto Ronchi (raccolta differenziata a prevalenza secco e a prevalenza umido).

  5. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  6. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis

    OpenAIRE

    Geffner Sclarsky, D. E.; Moreno Muñoz, R.; Campillo Alpera, Mª.S.; Pardo Serrano, F.J.; Gómez Gómez, A.; Martínez-Lozano, Mª.D.

    2001-01-01

    La infección humana por Streptococcus suis (S. suis) es una zoonosis, con un riesgo ocupacional conocido y que suele presentarse como meningitis purulenta, que tiene baja mortalidad y frecuentes secuelas de hipoacusia y ataxia. Se han publicado menos de 150 casos humanos desde el informe original de hace 30 años. Hay una reconocida distribución geográfica viviendo la mayoría de los afectados en el norte de Europa y el sudeste Asiático. En España se han comunicado dos pacientes con enfermedad ...

  7. SUI CODICI UNIDIREZIONALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tallini

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Oltre ad una breve descrizione della problematica sui codici Unidirezionali è qui data la dimostrazione di una congettura di S. Al-Bassan e B. Bose che interviene nella teoria dei suddetti autori, sulla costruzione di codici ottimali nella classe dei codici bilanciati che si ottengono con il metodo della complementazione di Knuth.

  8. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-06-24

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains.

  9. Lexicon and Description of Sui Adjective Intensifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Stanford

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sui, an indigenous minority language of southwest China, has an elaborate system of adjective intensification. Adjectives are intensified with word-specific, bound morphemes that usually either rhyme with the base or alliterate with the base. Stanford (2007 notes morpho-phonological patterns that suggest reduplication, rhyme, alliteration, The Emergence of the Unmarked (McCarthy & Prince 1994, Yip 2001, identity avoidance, and “Copy But Don’t Repeat” (Kennard 2004. However, the adjective intensifiers defy a simple, fully predictable explanation in such terms; the intensifier lexicon may be best described as “patterned variety,” a case of lexicalized poetry or a poeticized lexicon. Word formation is guided by general patterns, but each specific intensifier may vary within those overall guidelines. Many adjectives have multiple intensifiers that bear subtle semantic and pragmatic distinctions. The current paper serves as a complement to Stanford (2007 by providing a detailed lexicon of the Sui adjective intensifiers for future reference and further analysis. This lexicon is based on the author’s fieldwork and represents the first detailed account of Sui adjective intensifiers for the wider linguistic community.

  10. La tradizione nella scienza il progresso scientifico come equilibrio dialettico tra idee innovatrici e tradizione in una raccolta di saggi inediti

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1982-01-01

    In questa raccolta di saggi (inediti per l'Italia), da lui stesso selezionati poco prima della morte, Heisenberg analizza da varie angolazioni i rapporti tra progresso scientifico e tradizione : la storia della scienza è soprattutto una storia di idee, e da un giusto equilibrio dialettico tra i nuovi concetti e la tradizione, che costituisce la base ideale per discuterli, scaturisce il progress scientifico.

  11. Streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halaby, T.; Hoitsma, E.; Hupperts, R.; Spanjaard, L.; Luirink, M.; Jacobs, J.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a zoonosis that has been mainly reported in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, often associated with cochleovestibular signs. The causative agent is Streptococcus suis serotype 2, found as a commensal in the

  12. Effectiveness of REDD programs in the protection of sui generis indigenous rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Infante M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the implementation of the United Nations Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Program, hereinafter UN REDD and its effectiveness in the protection of sui generis indigenous rights, meaning those different from the property right but derived from it, especially, the rights over the territories, natural resources and environmental services. The paper will cover the interconnection between sui generis indigenous rights and REDD programs including the relevance of land tenure and the sui generis rights derived from it. As we will emphasize, REDD programs are not only focused in the reduction of carbon emissions. In fact, REDD plus programs include as a main objective the sustainable management of forests and the protection to forest dependent communities.

  13. Streptococcus suis meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Gans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We present four patients with Streptococcus suis meningitis identified during a 3.5-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands. All cases were associated with exposure to pigs. Patients presented with classic symptoms and signs of bacterial meningitis. Outcome was characterized by severe

  14. [Streptococcus suis infection--clinical manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlović, Julijana; Milosević, Branko; Sasić, Neda; Pelemis, Mijomir; Sasić, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awarrness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairment, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatement with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one

  15. Differentiated mono and multimaterial waste collection methods; Sistemi di raccolta differenziata di rifiuti solidi urbani: metodologie tecnico-economiche applicate ad un ambito territoriale calabrese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitano, A [Calabria Univ., Arcavata di Rende, CS (Italy). Dipt. di Organizzazione Aziendale e Amministrazione Pubblica; Giacchino, P P

    1999-12-01

    The technical, economical and financial estimate of differentiated mono and multimaterial waste collection methods is the subject of this research. This is referred to a Calabrian (Italy) territorial ambit and it is divided in two stages: the first one is based on the evaluation of the possible technical achievement of the two alternatives; the second one lies in the formulation of foreseeing economic and capital accounts to which operative and financial methods are applied for the evaluation of investments. [Italian] La ricerca ha come oggetto la valutazione tecnica ed economico-finanziaria dei sistemi per la raccolta differenziata mono e multi-materiale dei rifiuti solidi urbani. Specificatamente riferita ad un ambito territoriale calabrese, si articola in due fasi: la prima e' focalizzata sulla realizzabilita' tecnica delle due alternative; la seconda consiste nella formulazione dei conti previsionali economico e di capitale, cui vengono, quindi, applicati i metodi operativi e finanziari per la valutazione degli investimenti.

  16. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.; Yao, W.; Perez-Gutierrez, O.N.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA

  17. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  18. Uptake of benzimidazoles by Trichuris suis in vivo in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Friis, Christian; Nejsum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is recognized that the clinical efficacy of single dose benzimidazoles (BZs) against the nematode, Trichuris suis of pigs and the closely related Trichuris trichiura in humans is only poor to moderate. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that a low uptake of fenbendazole (FBZ) in T. suis may...

  19. La raccolta delle rimese degli Italiani in Canada nei documento del Banco di Napoli (Servizio Emigrati: 1908-1927 =The collection of remittances of Italians in Canada in the documents of Banco di Napoli (Emigration Service: 1908-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Potito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’emigrazione italiana verso il continente americano ha rappresentato un fenomeno dell’età contemporanea di ingenti dimensioni: la grandissima comunità italiana negli Stati Uniti è stata oggetto di numerosi approfondimenti storiografici, letterari, cinematografici, oltre a costituire ormai parte integrante della storia, dell’economia e, in genere, della società americana. Tuttavia, una parte degli emigranti scelse differenti mete: l’America Latina, il Canada. Questo articolo si sofferma sulla nascita e l’integrazione nell’economia canadese della prima comunità italiana −a inizio ‘900− che avrebbe costituito la base per flussi migratori successivi più cospicui, nel secondo dopoguerra. La ricerca, di taglio storico-economico, mette in luce soprattutto l’aspetto finanziario della vicenda, e presenta un’analisi dettagliata –basata sulla documentazione del Servizio Emigrati dell’Archivio Storico del Banco di Napoli– del servizio di raccolta e spedizione in patria delle rimesse degli emigrati da parte delle banche canadesi incaricate: un fenomeno che andò incrementandosi con la crescita della comunità italo-canadese. The Italian emigration to America was a phenomenon of huge dimensions of the contemporary age: the large Italian community in the US has been the subject of numerous insights historiographical, literary, film, besides being now an integral part of the history, of the economy and, in general, of the American society. However, part of the emigrants chose different destinations: Latin America, Canada. This article focuses on the birth and the integration in the Canadian economy of the first Italian community −at the beginning of '900− which would have formed the basis for increased levels of migratory flows, after World War II. The research, historical-economic cutting, highlights especially the financial aspect of the story, and presents a detailed analysis −based on the documentation of the Migrant

  20. Detection and transmission of extracellular fac-tor producing Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, B.

    2009-01-01

    DETECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF EXTRACELLULAR FACTOR PRODUCING STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS SEROTYPE 2 STRAINS IN PIGS INTRODUCTION Streptococcus suis (S.suis) has been implicated in the etiology of many diseases among which meningitis in pigs. The virulent extracellular factor-positive strains of S.suis

  1. Hostos y el Positivismo sui Generis Latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guadarrama González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El positivismo fue asumido y cultivado en Latinoamérica de forma sui generis como una filosofía optimista llena de confianza en el hombre, en la capacidad creativa de su pensamiento, en la cultura, la educación, la ciencia, el progreso y el desarrollo industrial. Aliado al liberalismo y a la defensa de la democracia sus ideas resultaban muy avanzadas para los países latinoamericanos, recién liberados en su mayoría del colonialismo español y enfrascados entonces en profundas luchas entre las oligarquías retrogradas y la naciente burguesía nacional. Las ideas filosóficas y educativas de Hostos ponen de manifiesto la riqueza alcanzada por el pensamiento latinoamericano en el siglo XIX que aunque compartió algunas posiciones con el krausismo y el positivismo no se dejó arrastrar de forma unilateral por estas corrientes y supo aprovechar los elementos de valor contenidos especialmente en el positivismo que supo asumir de modo sui generis como la mayoría de los intelectuales latinoamericanos de esa época que se identificaron con él en correspondencia con una praxis educativa y política beneficiosa a los pueblos de América Latina.

  2. Safety design of next generation SUI of CANDU stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasimi, Elnara; Gabbar, Hossam A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of current SUI technologies and challenges. ► Propose a new type of SUI detectors. ► Propose a new SUI system architecture and layout. ► Propose implementation procedure for SUI with reduced risks. - Abstract: Due to the age and operating experience of Nuclear Power Plants, equipment ageing and obsolescence has become one of the main challenges that need to be resolved for all systems, structures and components in order to ensure a safe and reliable production of energy. This paper summarizes the research into a methodology for modernization of Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), both in-core and Control Room equipment, using a new generation of detectors and cables in order to manage obsolescence. The main objective of this research is to develop a new systematic approach to SUI installation/replacement procedure development and optimization. Although some additional features, such as real-time data monitoring and storage/archiving solutions for SUI systems are also examined to take full advantage of today's digital technology, the objectives of this study do not include detailed parametrical studies of detector or system performance. Instead, a number of technological, operational and maintenance issues associated with Start-Up Instrumentation systems at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) will be identified and a structured approach for developing a replacement/installation procedure that can be standardized and used across all of the domestic CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) stations is proposed.

  3. Immune receptors involved in Streptococcus suis recognition by dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Lecours

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent of septicemia and meningitis. Knowledge on host immune responses towards S. suis, and strategies used by this pathogen for subversion of these responses is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the immune receptors involved in S. suis recognition by dendritic cells (DCs. Production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs were shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize S. suis and become activated mostly through Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling. Supporting this fact, TLR2(-/- DCs were severely impaired in the release of several cytokines and the surface expression of CD86 and MHC-II. The release of IL-12p70 and CXC10, and the expression of CD40 were found to depend on signaling by both TLR2 and TLR9. The release of IL-23 and CXCL1 were partially dependent on NOD2. Finally, despite the fact that MyD88 signaling was crucial for DC activation and maturation, MyD88-dependent pathways were not implicated in S. suis internalization by DCs. This first study on receptors involved in DC activation by S. suis suggests a major involvement of MyD88 signaling pathways, mainly (but not exclusively through TLR2. A multimodal recognition involving a combination of different receptors seems essential for DC effective response to S. suis.

  4. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...... after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large...

  5. [Streptococcus suis meningitis in a meat factory employee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceuster, Laura M E; van Dillen, Jeroen J; Wever, Peter C; Rozemeijer, Wouter; Louwerse, Elisabeth S

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Streptococcus suis is a rare cause of meningitis. Over the past few years, the number of reported cases worldwide has increased. The bacterium is mainly isolated in pigs, but humans can also become infected. At the Emergency Department, a 60-year-old man presented with headache, confusion, fever and nuchal rigidity. He worked at a meat factory. Laboratory testing showed abnormalities linked to bacterial meningitis. S. suis was cultured from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with dexamethasone, ceftriaxone and later benzylpenicillin intravenously. He recovered well, but had bilateral perceptive hearing loss as a sequela. Particularly people who are in close contact with pigs have an increased risk of S. suis infection. S. suis meningitis can be very severe and lead to serious complications and even death. Rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment are critical. Permanent hearing loss is the most frequent sequela.

  6. Combination Therapy Strategies Against Multiple-Resistant Streptococcus Suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen, an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for meningitis, endocarditis and septicaemia followed by deafness in humans. The development of antimicrobial resistance in S. suis increases the risk for therapeutic failure in both animals and humans. In this study, we report the synergism of combination therapy against multi-resistant S. suis isolates from swine. Twelve antibiotic profiles were determined against 11 S. suis strains. To investigate their synergistic/antagonistic activity, checkerboard assay was performed for all the possible combinations. In-vitro killing curves and in-vivo treatment trials were used to confirm the synergistic activity of special combinations against S. suis dominant clones. In this study, 11 S. suis isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline with ratios of 80–100%, and the resistance percentages to enrofloxacin, florfenicol, and spectinomycin were ~50%. The checkerboard data identified two combination regimens, ampicillin plus apramycin and tiamulin plus spectinomycin which gave the greatest level of synergism against the S. suis strains. In-vitro kill-curves showed a bacterial reduction of over 3-logCFU with the use of combination treatments, whilst the application of mono-therapies achieve less than a 2-logCFU cell killing. In-vivo models confirm that administration of these two combinations significantly reduced the number of bacterial cells after 24 h of treatment. In conclusions, the combinations of ampicillin plus apramycin and tiamulin plus spectinomycin showed the greatest synergism and may be potential strategies for treatment of multi-resistant S. suis in animal.

  7. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  9. Population dynamics of Trichuris suis in trickle-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M; Petersen, H H; Kringel, H; Fredholm, M; Roepstorff, A

    2009-05-01

    The population dynamics of Trichuris suis in pigs was studied during long-term experimental infections. Twenty-three 10-week-old pigs were inoculated with 5 T. suis eggs/kg/day. Seven, 8, and 8 pigs were necropsied at weeks 4, 8, and 14 post-start of infection (p.i.), respectively. The median numbers of worms in the colon were 538 (min-max: 277-618), 332 (14-1140) and 0 (0-4) at 4, 8, and 14 weeks p.i. respectively, suggesting an increased aggregation of the worms with time and acquisition of nearly sterile immunity. The serum levels of T. suis specific antibodies (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) peaked at week 8 p.i. By week 14 p.i. the IgG2 and IgA antibody levels remained significantly elevated above the level of week 0. The population dynamics of T. suis trickle infections in pigs is discussed with focus on interpretation of diagnostic and epidemiological data of pigs, the use of pigs as a model for human Trichuris trichiura infections and the novel approach of using T. suis eggs in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Morphologic, biometric, and isoenzyme characterization of Trichuris suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, R; Cutillas, C; Arias, P; Guevara, D

    1998-06-01

    Trichuris suis isolates were collected from the cecum of Sus scrofa domestica (pig) and S. s. scrofa (wild boar). Morphology and biometry studies were carried out. Morphology studies showed the existence of typical caudal papillae in males of T. suis from wild boars, but no other difference was observed in the biometric parameters (total length, esophageal length, posterior-portion body length, and spicular length) of T. suis isolated from either host. Individual extracts were subjected to malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzyme analysis following starch-gel electrophoresis, and the isoenzyme patterns were compared with those obtained from other species of trichurids. MDH, ME, G6PD, LDH, and SOD isoenzyme patterns were identical for T. suis from both hosts. MDH isoenzyme patterns were characterized by the presence of one cathodic isoenzyme. ME, G6PD, and LDH isoenzyme patterns indicated the presence of three phenotypes, whereas the SOD isoenzyme pattern showed only one phenotype characterized by the existence of two (anodic and cathodic) bands. Different LDH and SOD isoenzyme patterns observed for T. suis, T. ovis, and T. skrjabini confirm once more that isoenzyme patterns have potential as a diagnostic tool for differentiation of different species of Trichuris.

  11. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Schultsz, Constance; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is the most common cause of meningitis in pork consuming and pig rearing countries in South-East Asia. We performed a systematic review of studies on S. suis meningitis to define the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome. Methodology Studies published between January 1, 1980 and August 1, 2015 were identified from main literature databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they were written in West-European languages and described at least 5 adult patients with S. suis meningitis in whom at least one clinical characteristic was described. Findings We identified 913 patients with S. suis meningitis included in 24 studies between 1980 and 2015. The mean age was 49 years and 581 of 711 patients were male (82%). Exposure to pigs or pork was present in 395 of 648 patients (61%) while other predisposing factors were less common. 514 of 528 patients presented with fever (97%), 429 of 451 with headache (95%), 462 of 496 with neck stiffness (93%) and 78 of 384 patients (20%) had a skin injury in the presence of pig/pork contact. The case fatality rate was 2.9% and hearing loss was a common sequel occurring in 259 of 489 patients (53%). Treatment included dexamethasone in 157 of 300 (52%) of patients and was associated with reduced hearing loss in S. suis meningitis patients included in a randomized controlled trial. Conclusion S. suis meningitis has a clear association with pig and pork contact. Mortality is low, but hearing loss occurs frequently. Dexamethasone was shown to reduce hearing loss. PMID:26505485

  12. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: First Case Reported in Quebec

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    Sophie Michaud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few Streptococcus suis infections in humans have been reported in Canada, although the condition is frequent in pigs. Meningitis, often accompanied by severe hearing loss, is the most common clinical manifestation. The disease is an occupational illness affecting persons in contact with pigs and may be underdiagnosed because of misidentification of the responsible bacterium. Since Quebec is the leading province for swine production in Canada, physicians and microbiologists should be aware of this infection, especially when a streptococcal meningitis is diagnosed in swine workers. The first case of S suis type 2 meningitis reported in Quebec is described.

  13. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  14. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

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    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about

  15. Whole genome investigation of a divergent clade of the pathogen Streptococcus suis

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    Abiyad eBaig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN and cpn60 did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70, of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.

  16. Influence of housing density on the number of road containers for selective collection. Methodology and analysis of the results; Influenza della densita' abitativa sul numero dei contenitori stradali per la raccolta differenziata: metodologia e analisi dei risultati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. [Calabria Univ., Arcavata di rende, RC (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica; Greco, G. [MI.GA. S.r.l., Rende, CS (Italy); Giordano, R.

    1999-10-01

    In planning the network of road bins for selective collection, housing density or the relationship between built-up area and population living, is significant. The influence of the above parameter on planning the system is formalised in this work and an evaluation method valid for the number of bins required for a generic material is developed. Application to a real case has enable the obtainable results with the proposed procedure to be indicate. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro viene formalizzata l'influenza del parametro sul dimensionamento del sistema della raccolta differenziata e viene presentato un metodo divalutazione del numero di contenitori valido per un generico materiale. Un'applicazione ad un caso reale ha permesso di evidenziare i risultati ottenuti con la procedura proposta.

  17. La raccolta archeologica del Museo Comunale di Fermo: note su alcune terrecotte architettoniche romane / The archaeological collection of Fermo’s Civic Museum: notes on a group of architectural terracotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Stortoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In questo lavoro sono enucleate alcune preliminari considerazioni riguardo ad un gruppo di terrecotte architettoniche, facenti parte della ricca ed interessante collezione archeologica del Museo Comunale di Fermo, ancora troppo poco nota alla letteratura scientifica. La raccolta, costituita ufficialmente nel 1890 anche grazie al contributo di eclettici cultori dell’antichità, come il Carducci e i De Minicis, si compone di qualche migliaio tra manufatti e monete, in gran parte di età proto-storica e romana, con significative testimonianze etrusche, greche e tardo-antiche. Nonostante l’eterogeneità, la pertinenza a differenti facies culturali, la frammentarietà e la mancanza di contestualizzazione dei reperti, la raccolta fermana rappresenta un prezioso esempio di collezionismo archeologico dell’area marchigiana tra XVIII e XIX sec. La possibilità, inoltre, di ricondurre, pur se genericamente, molti di questi materiali a Fermo e al suo territorio fa della raccolta anche un importante strumento di indagine per migliorare la lettura storico-archeologica di uno dei più antichi e vivaci centri piceni e romani del territorio regionale, qual è appunto Firmum Picenum. Lo studio sulle terrecotte architettoniche della raccolta, benché ancora incompleto, ne è una dimostrazione. Trattasi di un piccolo nucleo, composto da sima, antepagmenta, antefisse e acroteri, molto frammentari, probabili parti del rivestimento delle strutture lignee di edifici diversi, forse per lo più sacri. Le terrecotte in esame sono databili tra la fine del III sec. a.C. e gli inizi del I sec. a.C., ad eccezione di un solo manufatto ascrivibile al primo quarto del I sec. d.C. Gli ambiti cronologici individuati ben si contestualizzano con i periodi rispettivamente della prima e della seconda colonizzazione di Firmum Picenum.   This work presents some preliminary considerations concerning a group of terracotta architectural features held in the rich and interesting

  18. The Complete Genome of Brucella Suis 019 Provides Insights on Cross-Species Infection

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    Yuanzhi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella species are the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide and cause considerable harm to humans and animals. In this study, we presented the complete genome of B. suis 019 isolated from sheep (ovine with epididymitis. B. suis 019 has a rough phenotype and can infect sheep, rhesus monkeys and possibly humans. The comparative genome analysis demonstrated that B. suis 019 is closest to the vaccine strain B. suis bv. 1 str. S2. Further analysis associated the rsh gene to the pathogenicity of B. suis 019, and the WbkA gene to the rough phenotype of B. suis 019. The 019 complete genome data was deposited in the GenBank database with ID PRJNA308608.

  19. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Warneboldt; Saara J. Sander; Andreas Beineke; Peter Valentin-Weigand; Josef Kamphues; Christoph Georg Baums

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, th...

  20. Streptococcus suis Interactions with the Murine Macrophage Cell Line J774: Adhesion and Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 is an important etiological agent of swine meningitis, and it is also a zoonotic agent. Since one hypothesis of the pathogenesis of S. suis infection is that bacteria enter the bloodstream and invade the meninges and other tissues in close association with mononuclear phagocytes, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of S. suis type 2 to adhere to macrophages. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was standardized to simply...

  1. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae for studying the virulence of Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, Nadya; Kavanagh, Kevin; Wells, Jerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium and the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young pigs, resulting in considerable economic losses in the porcine industry. S. suis is considered an emerging zoonotic agent with increasing numbers of human cases over the

  2. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

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    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  3. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus suis has emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. The ingestion of undercooked pork is a risk factor for human S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) infection. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that the gastrointestinal tract is an entry site of...... be considered a food-borne pathogen. S. suis interaction with human and pig IEC correlates with S. suis serotype and genotype, which can explain the zoonotic potential of SS2....... of SS2 infection. Methods. We developed a noninvasive in vivo model to study oral SS2 infection in piglets. We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Results. Two out of 15 piglets showed clinical symptoms compatible with S. suis infection 24......Background. Streptococcus suis has emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. The ingestion of undercooked pork is a risk factor for human S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) infection. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that the gastrointestinal tract is an entry site...

  4. Establishment of a Cre recombinase based mutagenesis protocol for markerless gene deletion in Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, A; Willenborg, J; Bertram, R; Takamatsu, D; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R

    2014-12-01

    The lack of knowledge about pathogenicity mechanisms of Streptococcus (S.) suis is, at least partially, attributed to limited methods for its genetic manipulation. Here, we established a Cre-lox based recombination system for markerless gene deletions in S. suis serotype 2 with high selective pressure and without undesired side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DIPLOMASI TAKHTA SUCI SEBAGAI SUBJEK HUKUM INTERNASIONAL SUI GENERIS

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    Agustinus Supriyanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Holy See is different from the Vatican. The Vatican is a state, whereas the Holy See is the central governing institution of the Catholic Church. The position of the Holy See is in the Vatican State. The international status of the Holy See is very unique. It is a sui generis subject of international law. Although it is not a state, it enjoys international recognition. Its diplomacy consists of intern and extern aspect. The intern aspect of its diplomacy is that of church interest. The extern aspect is that of diplomacy itself. It is neutral in internationally political interests. It focuses on humanitarian and moral diplomacy.

  6. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

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    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  7. Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis

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    Wittenbrink Max M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these veterinary significant bacteria. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate PPi to inorganic phosphate Pi. PPases are essential and ubiquitous metal-dependent enzymes providing a thermodynamic pull for many biosynthetic reactions. Here, we describe the identification, recombinant production and characterization of the soluble (sPPase of Mycoplasma suis. Results Screening of genomic M. suis libraries was used to identify a gene encoding the M. suis inorganic pyrophosphatase (sPPase. The M. suis sPPase consists of 164 amino acids with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The highest identity of 63.7% was found to the M. penetrans sPPase. The typical 13 active site residues as well as the cation binding signature could be also identified in the M. suis sPPase. The activity of the M. suis enzyme was strongly dependent on Mg2+ and significantly lower in the presence of Mn2+ and Zn2+. Addition of Ca2+ and EDTA inhibited the M. suis sPPase activity. These characteristics confirmed the affiliation of the M. suis PPase to family I soluble PPases. The highest activity was determined at pH 9.0. In M. suis the sPPase builds tetramers of 80 kDa which were detected by convalescent sera from experimentally M. suis infected pigs. Conclusion The identification and characterization of the sPPase of M. suis is an additional step towards the clarification of the metabolism of hemotrophic mycoplasmas and, thus, important for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. As an antigenic and conserved

  8. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs

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    Franziska Warneboldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 1010 CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  9. First human case report of sepsis due to infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 31 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatrongjit, Rujirat; Kerdsin, Anusak; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Takeuchi, Dan; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Oishi, Kazunori; Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-09-30

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes invasive infections in humans and pigs. It has been reported that S. suis infection in humans is mostly caused by serotype 2. However, human cases caused by other serotypes have rarely been reported. This is the first report of a human case of infection with S. suis serotype 31 in Thailand. A 55-year-old male alcohol misuser with liver cirrhosis was admitted with sepsis to a hospital in the Central Region of Thailand. He had consumed a homemade, raw pork product prior to the onset of illness. He was alive after treatment with ceftriaxone and no complication occurred. An isolate from blood culture at the hospital was suspected as viridans group Streptococcus. It was confirmed at a reference laboratory as S. suis serotype 31 by biochemical tests, 16S rDNA sequencing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction for serotyping, but it was untypable by the co-agglutination test with antisera against recognized S. suis serotypes, suggesting loss of capsular material. The absence of a capsule was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The isolate was confirmed to be sequence type 221, with 13 putative virulence genes that are usually found in serotype 2 strains. We should be aware of the emergence of S. suis infections caused by uncommon serotypes in patients with predisposing conditions. Laboratory capacity to identify S. suis in the hospital is needed in developing countries, which can contribute to enhanced surveillance, epidemiological control, and prevention strategies in the prevalent area.

  10. Effect of spatial separation of pigs on spread of Streptococcus suis serotype 9.

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    Niels Dekker

    Full Text Available The spread of an infectious agent in a population can be reduced by interfering in the infectiousness or susceptibility of individuals, and/or in their contact structure. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of prevention of direct contact between infectious and susceptible pigs on the transmission of Streptococcus suis (S. suis. In three replicate experiments, S. suis-free pigs were housed in boxes either in pairs (25 pairs or alone (15 pigs. The distance between the boxes was ±1 m. At 7 weeks of age, one pig of each pair was inoculated intranasally with S. suis serotype 9; the other pigs were exposed to S. suis by either direct (pairs or indirect contact (individually housed pigs. Tonsillar brush and saliva swab samples from all pigs were collected regularly for 4 weeks post inoculation to monitor colonization with S. suis. All inoculated pigs became infected, and their pen mates became colonized within 2 days. Thirteen indirectly exposed pigs became positive within 7-25 days after exposure. The rate of direct transmission βdir was estimated to be 3.58 per pig per day (95% CI: 2.29-5.60. The rate of indirect transmission increased in time, depending on the cumulative number of days pigs tested positive for the presence of S. suis. The estimate β'ind was 0.001 (95% CI: 0.0006-0.0017 new infections per pig per day for each day that an infected pig was tested positive for S. suis. We conclude that prevention of direct contact reduces the rate at which susceptible pigs become colonized. Simulation studies using these parameters showed, however, that such intervention measure would not limit S. suis serotype 9 spread in a commercial pig farm to a relevant extent, implying that spatial separation of groups op pigs within a compartment would not be effective on a farm.

  11. Parasite population dynamics in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Andreasen, Annette; Kringel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the population dynamics and potential interactions between Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum in experimentally co-infected pigs, by quantification of parasite parameters such as egg excretion, worm recovery and worm location. Forty......-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into four groups. Group O was inoculated with 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and group T with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day. Group OT was inoculated with both 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day, while Group C was kept as an uninfected control group. All inoculations...

  12. Characterization of Streptococcus suis through serotyping, SE-AFLP and virulence profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco F. Calderaro

    Full Text Available Abstract: Streptococcus suis is one of most important pathogens in the swine industry worldwide. Despite its importance, studies of S. suis characterization in South America are still rare. This study evaluates S. suis isolates from distinct Brazilian states, from 1999 to 2004, and its molecular and serological characterization. A total of 174 isolates were studied. S. suis identification was confirmed by PCR and isolates were further serotyped and genotyped by SE-AFLP and amplification of virulence markers. Serotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 18, 22 and 32 were identified among the studied isolates, and only 4% were characterized as non-typeable. The mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype was the most frequent. The SE-AFLP analysis resulted in 29 patterns distributed in three main clusters with over 65% of genetic similarity. Isolates presented a slight tendency to cluster according to serotype and origin; however, no further correlation with virulence genotypes was observed.

  13. Virulence-associated gene profiling of Streptococcus suis isolates by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, L.M.G.; Baums, C.G.; Rehm, T.; Wisselink, H.J.; Goethe, R.; Valentin-Weigand, P.

    2006-01-01

    Definition of virulent Streptococcus suis strains is controversial. One successful approach for identification of virulent European strains is differentiation of capsular serotypes (or the corresponding cps types) and subsequent detection of virulence-associated factors, namely the extracellular

  14. Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 μg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 μg/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting...

  16. Interaction of Fibrinogen and Muramidase-released Protein Promotes the Development of Streptococcus suis Meningitis

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    Junping eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Muramidase-released protein (MRP is as an important virulence marker of Streptococcus suis (S. suis serotype 2. Our previous works have shown that MRP can bind human fibrinogen (hFg; however, the function of this interaction in S.suis meningitis is not known. In this study, we found that the deletion of mrp significantly impairs the hFg-mediated adherence and traversal ability of S. suis across human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3. Measurement of the permeability to Lucifer yellow in vitro and Evans blue extravasation in vivo show that the MRP-hFg interaction significantly increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In the mouse meningitis model, wild type S. suis caused higher bacterial loads in the brain and more severe histopathological signs of meningitis than the mrp mutant at day 3 post-infection. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence observations reveal that the MRP-hFg interaction can destroy the cell adherens junction protein p120-catenin of hCMEC/D3. These results indicate that the MRP-hFg interaction is important in the development of S. suis meningitis.

  17. Monographs in Tang Official Historiography: Perspectives from the Technical Treatises of the History of Sui (Sui shu)

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Daniel Patrick; Chaussende, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Finished in 656 as part of a larger project, the ten ‘treatises’ (zhi) of the current History of Sui (Sui shu) provide us with histories of such fields of technical knowledge as astronomy, astrology, omenology, economics, law, geography, metrology, and library science covering the five divided and short-lived dynasties, 502–618 CE, that were the predecessors of the Tang. This edited volume brings together young experts in these fields to reflect upon the way that their history has been writte...

  18. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    legate all'efficienza energetica e alla compatibilita' ambientale di questi prodotti e dall'altro per identificare possibili scenari di miglioramento. Viene qui descritto il lavoro svolto, con particolare attenzione alla raccolta dati e all'analisi del mercato e i principali risultati ottenuti. L'esperienza acquisita dall'ENEA e piu' in generale dal Gruppo di Lavoro Italiano potrebbe essere messa a frutto nei paesi dell'America Latina, dove progetti simili potrebbero supportare la definizione di misure per il miglioramento dell'efficienza energetica degli usi finali elettrici. La disponibilita' di dati attendibili e' infatti essenziale al superamento delle barriere all'introduzione di qualsiasi politica energetica. L'efficace implementazione e l'armonizzazione regionale di politiche e misure sono estremamente importanti nell'America del Sud, anche se difficili da perseguire e la cooperazione internazionale e' fondamentale. L'approccio sviluppato con i progetti SACHA puo' facilitare il raggiungimento di questi obiettivi rendendo disponibile una consolidata metodologia analitica ed uno schema di provata efficacia per la raccolta sistematica e l'analisi di dati ed informazioni.

  19. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

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    Jiaqi Tang

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2 is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes only sporadic cases of meningitis and sepsis in humans. Most if not all cases of Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS that have been well-documented to date were associated with the non-SS2 group A streptococcus (GAS. However, a recent large-scale outbreak of SS2 in Sichuan Province, China, appeared to be caused by more invasive deep-tissue infection with STSS, characterized by acute high fever, vascular collapse, hypotension, shock, and multiple organ failure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated this outbreak of SS2 infections in both human and pigs, which took place from July to August, 2005, through clinical observation and laboratory experiments. Clinical and pathological characterization of the human patients revealed the hallmarks of typical STSS, which to date had only been associated with GAS infection. Retrospectively, we found that this outbreak was very similar to an earlier outbreak in Jiangsu Province, China, in 1998. We isolated and analyzed 37 bacterial strains from human specimens and eight from pig specimens of the recent outbreak, as well as three human isolates and two pig isolates from the 1998 outbreak we had kept in our laboratory. The bacterial isolates were examined using light microscopy observation, pig infection experiments, multiplex-PCR assay, as well as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP and multiple sequence alignment analyses. Multiple lines of evidence confirmed that highly virulent strains of SS2 were the causative agents of both outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: We report, to our knowledge for the first time, two outbreaks of STSS caused by SS2, a non-GAS streptococcus. The 2005 outbreak was associated with 38 deaths out of 204 documented human cases; the 1998 outbreak with 14 deaths out of 25 reported human cases. Most of the fatal cases were characterized by STSS; some of them by meningitis or severe

  20. LA COMUNICAZIONE POLITICA SUI SOCIAL NETWORK: UN’ANALISI LINGUISTICA

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    Daniele Spoladore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro si propone di analizzare le scelte linguistiche dei soggetti politici che utilizzano Facebook e Twitter per rivolgersi al sempre più frammentato panorama dei potenziali elettori. In particolare, analizza le tendenze linguistiche comuni che questi social network hanno fatto emergere nel rapporto tra politica, web e lettori. Cominciando dall’analisi della presenza di parlamentari e senatori su Facebook e Twitter, si cerca di riassumere le principali caratteristiche delle due piattaforme, per giungere ad una classificazione dei testi prodotti attraverso di esse; si analizza la scrittura di post e tweet, sottolineando la presenza di espedienti tipici del mezzo e valutando il loro effetto sui lettori, e si studiano le scelte sintattiche e morfosintattiche in relazione alla struttura e alle possibilità dei due social network. In ultima analisi si osservano le scelte lessicali dei soggetti politici, studiandone i campi semantici e la quantità di tecnicismi. Infine, si cerca di compiere una valutazione delle due differenti tipologie di trasmesso scritto rinvenute nei campioni, osservando come ognuna di esse abbia uno scopo ben preciso nell’economia della comunicazione politica sui social network. Political communication policy in social networks: a language analysis  Daniele Spoladore This paper aims to analyze the linguistic choices of politicians who use Facebook and Twitter to address the increasingly fragmented landscape of potential voters. In particular, it analyzes the common language trends that these social networks have revealed in the relationship between politics, the web and readers. Starting from the analysis of the presence of MPs and senators on Facebook and Twitter, we try to summarize the key features of the two platforms, in order to arrive at a classification of the texts produced using them.  We analyzed posts and tweets, emphasizing the  typical characteristics of these means and evaluating their effect on

  1. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates as determined by comparative genome hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Hoa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes infections in young piglets. S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes. Results In this study, the correlation between gene content, serotype, phenotype and virulence among 55 S. suis strains was studied using Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH. Clustering of CGH data divided S. suis isolates into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A isolates could be discriminated from cluster B isolates based on the protein expression of extracellular factor (EF. Cluster A contained serotype 1 and 2 isolates that were correlated with virulence. Cluster B mainly contained serotype 7 and 9 isolates. Genetic similarity was observed between serotype 7 and serotype 2 isolates that do not express muramidase released protein (MRP and EF (MRP-EF-, suggesting these isolates originated from a common founder. Profiles of 25 putative virulence-associated genes of S. suis were determined among the 55 isolates. Presence of all 25 genes was shown for cluster A isolates, whereas cluster B isolates lacked one or more putative virulence genes. Divergence of S. suis isolates was further studied based on the presence of 39 regions of difference. Conservation of genes was evaluated by the definition of a core genome that contained 78% of all ORFs in P1/7. Conclusions In conclusion, we show that CGH is a valuable method to study distribution of genes or gene clusters among isolates in detail, yielding information on genetic similarity, and virulence traits of S. suis isolates.

  2. Capsular Sialyltransferase Specificity Mediates Different Phenotypes in Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus

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    David Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The capsular polysaccharide (CPS represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S. suis but α-2,3 for GBS. It is still unclear how sialic acid may affect CPS production and, consequently, the pathogenesis of the disease caused by these two bacterial pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of sialic acid and the putative effect of sialic acid linkage modification in CPS synthesis using inter-species allelic exchange mutagenesis. To this aim, a new molecular biogenetic approach to express CPS with modified sialic acid linkage was developed. We showed that sialic acid (and its α-2,6 linkage is crucial for S. suis CPS synthesis, whereas for GBS, CPS synthesis may occur in presence of an α-2,6 sialyltransferase or in absence of sialic acid moiety. To evaluate the effect of the CPS composition/structure on sialyltransferase activity, two distinct capsular serotypes within each bacterial species were compared (S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V. It was demonstrated that the observed differences in sialyltransferase activity and specificity between S. suis and GBS were serotype unrestricted. This is the first time that a study investigates the interspecies exchange of capsular sialyltransferase genes in Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained mutants represent novel tools that could be used to further investigate the immunomodulatory properties of sialylated CPSs. Finally, in spite of common CPS structural characteristics and similarities in the cps loci, sialic acid exerts

  3. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain. © 2015 IUMS.

  4. Swine infection by Streptococcus suis: a retrospective study Infecção em suínos por Streptococcus suis: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Del'Arco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic aspects of swine infections caused by Streptococcus suis were studied, focusing mainly on the occurrence of several serotypes. A total of 323 samples of S. suis were isolated from clinically ill animals, serotyped according to the co-agglutination procedure, and analyzed. The serotyping revealed that S. suis was present in several Brazilian states. The largest number was isolated from the states of Minas Gerais (62.5%, São Paulo (10.8%, and Paraná (9.3%. Serotype 2 was the most frequent (61.0%, followed by the serotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. The largest number of isolations was obtained from the brain (60.1%, followed by the lungs (10.4%. About 9.4% of the cases were due to septicemia.Estudaram-se os aspectos epidêmicos das infecções de suínos causadas por Streptococcus suis, enfocando, principalmente, a ocorrência de diferentes sorotipos. Foram analisadas 323 amostras isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes, as quais foram sorotipadas de acordo com o procedimento de co-aglutinação. Foi verificado que S. suis está presente em vários estados brasileiros e o maior número de isolados originou-se dos estados de Minas Gerais (62,5%, São Paulo (10,8% e Paraná (9,3%. O sorotipo 2 foi o mais freqüente (61.0%, seguido pelos sorotipos 1, 3, 4, 7 e 8. Os isolamentos foram obtidos principalmente de cérebro (60,1% e pulmões (10,4%. Os casos de septicemia representaram 9,4%.

  5. Extended semen for artificial insemination in swine as a potential transmission mechanism for infectious Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonic, G; Pasternak, J A; Käser, T; Meurens, F; Wilson, H L

    2016-09-01

    Although typically unnoticed, Chlamydia infections in swine have been shown to be both widespread and may impact production characteristics and reproductive performance in swine. Serum titers suggest Chlamydia infection within boar studs is common, and infected boars are known to shed chlamydia in their ejaculates. Although the transmission of viruses in chilled extended semen (ES) is well established, the inclusion of antibiotics in commercially available extender is generally believed to limit or preclude the transmission of infectious bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of ES used in artificial insemination to support transmission of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia suis (C suis) under standard industry conditions. First, the effect of C suis on sperm quality during storage was assessed by flow cytometry. Only concentrations above 5 × 10(5) viable C suis/mL caused significant spermicidal effects which only became evident after 7 days of storage at 17 °C. No significant effect on acrosome reaction was observed using any chlamydial concentration. Next, an in vitro infection model of swine testicular fibroblast cells was established and used to evaluate the effect of chilled storage on C suis viability under variable conditions. Storage in Androhep ES reduced viability by 34.4% at a multiplicity of infection of 1.25, an effect which increased to 53.3% when the multiplicity of infection decreased to 0.1. Interestingly, storage in semen extender alone (SE) or ES with additional antibiotics had no effect on bacterial viability. To rule out a secondary effect on extender resulting from metabolically active sperm, C suis was stored in fresh and expended SE and again no significant effect on bacterial viability was observed. Fluorescent microscopy of C suis in ES shows an association between bacteria and the remaining gel fraction after storage suggesting that the apparent reduction of bacterial viability in the presence

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid

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    Anna Koczula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq. In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism. In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments.

  7. Limited Interactions between Streptococcus Suis and Haemophilus Parasuis in In Vitro Co-Infection Studies

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    Annabelle Mathieu-Denoncourt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are normal inhabitants of the porcine upper respiratory tract but are also among the most frequent causes of disease in weaned piglets worldwide, causing inflammatory diseases such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Using an in vitro model of infection with tracheal epithelial cells or primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs, it was possible to determine the interaction between S. suis serotype 2 and H. parasuis strains with different level of virulence. Within H. parasuis strains, the low-virulence F9 strain showed higher adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells and greater association levels to PAMs than the high-virulence Nagasaki strain. Accordingly, the low-virulence F9 strain induced, in general, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than the virulent Nagasaki strain from both cell types. In general, S. suis adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells were similar to H. parasuis Nagasaki strain. Yet, S. suis strains induced a significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression from epithelial cells and PAMs than those observed with both H. parasuis strains. Finally, this study has shown that, overall and under the conditions used in the present study, S. suis and H. parasuis have limited in vitro interactions between them and use probably different host receptors, regardless to their level of virulence.

  8. Limited Interactions between Streptococcus Suis and Haemophilus Parasuis in In Vitro Co-Infection Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Annabelle; Letendre, Corinne; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Segura, Mariela; Aragon, Virginia; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are normal inhabitants of the porcine upper respiratory tract but are also among the most frequent causes of disease in weaned piglets worldwide, causing inflammatory diseases such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Using an in vitro model of infection with tracheal epithelial cells or primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), it was possible to determine the interaction between S. suis serotype 2 and H. parasuis strains with different level of virulence. Within H. parasuis strains, the low-virulence F9 strain showed higher adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells and greater association levels to PAMs than the high-virulence Nagasaki strain. Accordingly, the low-virulence F9 strain induced, in general, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than the virulent Nagasaki strain from both cell types. In general, S. suis adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells were similar to H. parasuis Nagasaki strain. Yet, S. suis strains induced a significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression from epithelial cells and PAMs than those observed with both H. parasuis strains. Finally, this study has shown that, overall and under the conditions used in the present study, S. suis and H. parasuis have limited in vitro interactions between them and use probably different host receptors, regardless to their level of virulence. PMID:29316613

  9. Stimulating the development of national Streptococcus suis guidelines in Viet Nam through a strategic research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman; Ha, Nguyen Hong; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Trinh, Dao Tuyet; Taylor, Walter; Ha, Nguyen Minh; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Kinh, Nguyen

    2010-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a common cause of adult bacterial meningitis in Viet Nam, and possibly other parts of Asia, yet this disabling infection has been largely neglected. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment are relatively straightforward and affordable but, in early 2007, no national diagnostic, case management or prevention guidelines existed in Viet Nam. Enhanced detection of S. suis infections was established in 2007 as part of a collaborative research programme between the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, a key national hospital with very close links to the Ministry of Health, and a research group affiliated with Oxford University based in Viet Nam. The results were reported directly to policy-makers at the Ministry of Health. Viet Nam is a low-income country with a health-care system that has seen considerable improvements and increased autonomy. However, parts of the system remain fairly centralized the Ministry of Health. Following the improved detection and reporting of S. suis cases, the Ministry of Health issued guidance to all hospitals in Viet Nam on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of S. suis. A public health laboratory diagnostic service was established at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology and training courses were conducted for clinicians and microbiologists. Ministry of Health guidance on surveillance and control of communicable diseases was updated to include a section on S. suis. Research collaborations can efficiently inform and influence national responses if they are well positioned to reach policy-makers.

  10. Saccharomyces boulardii administration can inhibit the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by Helicobacter suis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Tian, Zi-Bin; Yu, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Li, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Tao; Jing, Xue; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Ding, Xue-Li; Yang, Ruo-Ming; Zhang, Shuai-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter suis has a greater tendency to induce gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma compared with other Helicobacter species in humans and animals. Saccharomyces boulardii has been established as an adjunct to H. pylori eradication treatment, but the effect of S. boulardii administration alone on Helicobacter infection remains unclear. Here, we found that S. boulardii administration effectively decreased the bacterial load of H. suis and inhibited the formation of lymphoid follicles in the stomach post-infection. The levels of H. suis-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and secretory IgA in the gastric juice and small intestinal secretions and the production of mouse β-defensin-3 in the small intestinal secretions were significantly increased by S. boulardii administration at 12 weeks after H. suis infection. In addition, feeding with S. boulardii inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphoid follicle formation-related factors after H. suis infection. These results suggested that S. boulardii may be useful for the prevention and treatment of Helicobacter infection-related diseases in humans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Study on bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tien-Chun; Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis obtained as valuable by-products from animals used for meat production. The results showed that the components of natural Calculus Bovis were rich in bilirubin and biliverdin and had higher content of essential amino acids. The major amino acids of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis were identified as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and those for natural Calculus Bovis were found to be glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, and arginine. The methionine and cysteine contents of precursors for glutathione in natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The mineral contents of zinc, iron and manganese of natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The major bile acids in both products were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, respectively. The chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid content of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis was significantly higher than that of natural Calculus Bovis.

  12. Impact of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin on Streptococcus suis Capsule Gene Expression and Inflammatory Potential

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    Bruno Haas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S. suis, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains only partially understood. This study focuses on the response of S. suis P1/7 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. First, capsule expression was monitored by qRT-PCR when S. suis was cultivated in the presence of amoxicillin. Then, the pro-inflammatory potential of S. suis P1/7 culture supernatants or whole cells conditioned with amoxicillin was evaluated by monitoring the activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes and quantifying pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages. It was found that amoxicillin decreased capsule expression in S. suis. Moreover, conditioning the bacterium with sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin caused an increased activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes following exposure to bacterial culture supernatants and to a lesser extent to whole bacterial cells. This was associated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β by macrophages. This study identified a new mechanism by which S. suis may increase its inflammatory potential in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, a cell wall-active antibiotic, thus challenging its use for preventive treatments or as growth factor.

  13. The whipworm (Trichuris suis) secretes prostaglandin E2 to suppress proinflammatory properties in human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, Lisa C; Williams, Andrew R; Stavenhagen, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials have shown that administration of the nematode Trichuris suis can be beneficial in treating various immune disorders. To provide insight into the mechanisms by which this worm suppresses inflammatory responses, an active component was purified from T. suis soluble products (TsSPs)...

  14. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien De Puysseleyr

    Full Text Available Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C. The tet(C gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  15. Differentiation between serological responses to Brucella suis and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 after natural or experimental infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Vibeke; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    with responses of B. suis biovar 2-inoculated pigs. FPSR were limited to 2-9 weeks post-YeO:9 inoculation, while B. suis-infected pigs were test-positive throughout the 21-week period of investigation. Although YeO:9-inoculated pigs exhibited FPSR in Brucella tests for a limited period of time, the serological...

  16. Detection of Streptococcus suis by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and peroxidase-antiperoxidase assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Feenstra, Anne Avlund; Tegtmeier, Conny

    2000-01-01

    and the immunohistochemical methods were used for detection of S. suis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of brain, endocardium, and lung from pigs infected with S. suis. The methods developed were able to detect single cells of S. suis in situ in the respective samples, whereas no signal was observed from...

  17. Development, Hatching, and Intestinal Establishment of Trichuris suis, - in vivo and in vitro Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina

    Trichuris suis, the pig whipworm is a nematode parasite located in the large intestine of pigs. Embryonated eggs of T. suis (T. suis ova = TSO) constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a new medicinal product, which is currently tested in human clinical trials as a potential treat...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis.

  19. Bacteria-induced egg hatching differs for Trichuris muris and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Adelfio, Roberto; Keiser, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eggs of the porcine whipworm Trichuris suis are currently explored in human clinical trials as a treatment of immune-mediated diseases. In this context, only the infective, embryonated eggs, constitute the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). The rodent whipworm, Trichuris muris...... is commonly used as a laboratory model to study Trichuris biology. The embryonated eggs (containing a fully developed larva) are biologically active and will invade the large intestinal mucosa of the host. This study aims to assess the in vitro hatching of T. muris and T. suis eggs in various bacterial...... cultures as a measure for their biological activity. METHODS: Eggs of T. muris and T. suis were incubated with Escherichia coli strain (BL-21) at three concentrations in a slightly modified in vitro egg hatching assay previously developed for T. muris. Additionally, E. coli strains (M15, SG13009, PMC103...

  20. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  1. Use of Tetravalent Galabiose for Inhibition of Streptococcus Suis Serotype 2 Infection in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Krogfelt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen associated with a variety of infections such as meningitis, arthritis and septicemia. The bacterium is zoonotic and has been found to cause meningitis especially in humans occupationally exposed to infected pigs. Since adhesion is a prerequisite for colonization and subsequent infection, anti-adhesion treatment seems a natural alternative to traditional treatment with antibiotics. In order to optimize the inhibitory potency a multivalency approach was taken in the inhibitor design. A synthetic tetravalent galabiose compound was chosen which had previously shown promising anti-adhesion effects with S. suis in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of the compound using an infection peritonitis mouse model. As such S. suis serotype 2 infection and treatment were tested in vivo and the effects were compared to the effect of treatment with penicillin.

  2. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2011-01-01

    by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N......Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every......-hoc analyses of gastrointestinal reactions. Adverse events and severity (mild, moderate, severe) were recorded daily by subjects, classified by organ using MedDRA 10.0, and event rates compared between subjects on T. suis treatment vs. subjects on placebo. T. suis-specific serum IgG antibodies were measured...

  3. Pathway of oxfendazole from the host into the worm: Trichuris suis in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina V.A. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of a single oral dose of benzimidazoles against Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is poor, but is currently still used in control programmes against human trichuriasis. However, the route of the benzimidazoles from the treated host to Trichuris remains unknown. As parts of adult Trichuris are situated intracellularly in the caecum, they might be exposed to anthelmintic drugs in the intestinal content as well as the mucosa. In this study, the pathway of oxfendazole and its metabolites was explored using a T. suis-pig infection model, by simultaneously measuring drug concentrations within the worms and the caecal mucosa, caecal tissue, caecal content and plasma of pigs over time after a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg oxfendazole. Additionally, for comparison to the in vivo study, drug uptake and metabolism of oxfendazole by T. suis was examined after in vitro incubation. Oxfendazole and metabolites were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a strong and highly significant association between OFZ concentrations within T. suis and in plasma, along with a weaker association between OFZ concentrations in caecal tissue/mucosa and T. suis, suggesting that oxfendazole reaches T. suis after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and enters the worms by the blood-enterocyte pathway. The fenbendazole sulfone level in T. suis was highly affected by the concentrations in plasma. In addition, correlations between drug concentrations in the host compartments, were generally highest for this metabolite. In comparison to oxfendazole, the correlation between plasma and content was particularly high for this metabolite, suggesting a high level of drug movement between these compartments and the possible involvement of the enterohepatic circulation. Keywords: Trichuris, Benzimidazole, Drug efficacy, Drug pathway

  4. Molecular identification of Trichuris vulpis and Trichuris suis isolated from different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Cristina; de Rojas, Manuel; Ariza, Concepción; Ubeda, José Manuel; Guevara, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Trichuris suis was isolated from the cecum of two different hosts (Sus scrofa domestica -- swine and Sus scrofa scrofa -- wild boar) and Trichuris vulpis from dogs in Sevilla, Spain. Genomic DNA was isolated and internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction techniques. The sequence of T. suis from both hosts was 1,396 bp in length while that of T. vulpis was 1,044 bp. ITS1 of both populations isolated of T. suis was 661 nucleotides in length, while the ITS2 was 534 nucleotides in length. Furthermore, the ITS1 of T. vulpis was 410 nucleotides in length, while the ITS2 was 433 nucleotides in length. One hundred fifty-four nucleotides were observed along the 5.8S gene of T. suis and T. vulpis. Intraindividual and intraspecific variations were detected in the rDNA of both species. The presence of microsatellites was observed in all the individuals assayed. Sequence analysis of the ITSs and the 5.8S gene has demonstrated no sequence differences between T. suis isolated from both hosts (S. scrofa domestica -- swine and S. scrofa scrofa -- wild boar). Nevertheless, clear differences were detected between the ITS1 and ITS2 of T. suis and T. vulpis. Furthermore, a comparative molecular analysis between both species and the previously published ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence data of Trichuris ovis, Trichuris leporis, Trichuris muris, Trichuris arvicolae, and Trichuris skrjabini was carried out. A common homology zone was detected in the ITS1 sequence of all species of trichurids.

  5. Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis with seizure from raw pork ingestion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Teerasukjinda, Ornusa; Yee, Melvin; Chung, Heath H

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a rare but increasingly important condition. Good history taking will give clues to the diagnosis. This is the fourth case report in the United States. A 52-year-old Filipino man who recently returned from a trip to the Philippines was admitted with classic symptoms of bacterial meningitis. His cerebrospinal fluid culture grew Streptococcus suis. His clinical course was complicated by seizures, hearing loss, and permanent tinnitus. Clinicians should be aware of this emerging disease especially in patients with recent travel history to endemic areas. Early recognition and appropriate management could potentially prevent complications.

  6. Rischio ed emergenze sociali: la raccolta rifiuti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related with Fabio Sbattella's “Emergenze sociali e disgusto” and suggests some sociological reflections about the issues discussed in that work. In particular, in the first section, is maintained that the emergency phase (whether it manifests itself in a sudden and acute form or in a persistent form constitutes a possible element of the so-called “risk cycle”, which also comprises, before of the emergency itself, the time of prevention and risky decisions and, thereafter, that of reconstruction and reintegration of social systems. Although the emergency involves the implementation of specific interventions, which require the contribution of specialistic abilities, it is important to remember the systemic nature of risk presence and to develop an integrated and interdisciplinary work capacity. In the second section, some observations about the garbage-risk specific matter are proposed, underlining the necessary close complementarity between the “structural” interventions and the work aimed at changing individual and collective behaviours.

  7. On Furuto-sui in Chikuho coal field. Chikuho tanden no furutosui ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Akio [Kyushu Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1989-11-30

    This paper described the Furuto-sui(goaf water) in Chikuho Coal Field where coal mining was made for 100 years, remaining mined traces in wide range. This is called Furuto and water collected in or passed through Furuto is called Furuto-sui. The Furuto was made by coal layer mining and the distribution is coincident to the geological structure of coal layer. This Furuto structure is shallower to westward direction, deeper to eastward direction and identical to the north-southward direction. The Furuto can be said as the artificially built reservior for ground water. The coal mining was perfectly stopped in 1976 and the Furuto-sui filled in mined cavities. At low ground area, springs or humid areas appeared. Water quality is diverse but the typical ones are the type of Ca-SO{sub 4} of 3-5 pH, type of Na-HCO{sub 3}*SO{sub 4} of 8-9pH, and type of Na-SO{sub 4} of 7 pH. A part of Furuto-sui is utilized as the water for home use but must be utilized much more as water reservior. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Control of Competence for DNA Transformation in Streptococcus suis by Genetically Transferable Pherotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaccaria, E.; Baarlen, van P.; Greeff, de A.; Morrison, D.A.; Smith, H.; Wells, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that S. suis, a major bacterial pathogen of pigs and emerging pathogen in humans responds to a peptide pheromone by developing competence for DNA transformation. This species does not fall within any of the phylogenetic clusters of streptococci previously shown to regulate competence

  9. Expulsion of the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene

    demonstrating the potential use of its eggs as immunomodulators, treating patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases. The immune response induced by T. suis in its host and particularly, the resulting expulsion of worms is the focus of this thesis. Whipworms...

  10. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy...... for allergic disease, the helminth Trichuris suis has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease....

  11. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium suis in pre- and post-weaned pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítovec, J.; Hamadejová, K.; Landová, L.; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Sak, Bohumil

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2006), s. 239-243 ISSN 0931-1793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * piglets * pathogenicity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2006

  12. Immune and inflammatory responses in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Annette; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    effect on O. dentatum populations has been observed in co-infected pigs. Forty-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into 4 groups in a 2-factorial design. Two groups were trickle inoculated with either 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day (Group T) or 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day (Group O). Group OT was infected...

  13. Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant animal and human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ePalmieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen, has been receiving growing attention not only for its role in severe and increasingly reported infections in humans, but also for its involvement in drug resistance. Recent studies and the analysis of sequenced genomes have been providing important insights into the S. suis resistome, and have resulted in the identification of resistance determinants for tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, antifolate drugs, streptothricin, and cadmium salts. Resistance gene-carrying genetic elements described so far include integrative and conjugative elements, transposons, genomic islands, phages, and chimeric elements. Some of these elements are similar to those reported in major streptococcal pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae and share the same chromosomal insertion sites. The available information strongly suggests that S. suis is an important antibiotic resistance reservoir that can contribute to the spread of resistance genes to the above-mentioned streptococci. S. suis is thus a paradigmatic example of possible intersections between animal and human resistomes.

  14. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a rough Brucella suis vaccine delivered orally or parenterally to feral swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis strain 353-1 is a stable vaccine strain that is clinically safe, does not cause positive serologic responses on conventional brucellosis surveillance tests, and induces humoral and cellular immunity in swine after vaccination. In this study, we evaluated tissue clearance and immunologi...

  15. Immuogenicity and safety of a natural rough mutant of Brucella suis as a vaccine for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and clearance of the natural rough mutant of Brucella suis strain 353-1 (353-1) as a vaccine in domestic swine. In three studies encompassing 155 animals, pigs were inoculated with 353-1 by conjunctival (5 x 10**7 CFU), p...

  16. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M; Oviedo, Yisela; Sandoval, Carlos; Chico, Martha E; Stothard, J Russell; Cooper, Philip J; Nejsum, Peter; Betson, Martha

    2015-03-19

    Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. Adult Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according to host species. In PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) and 18S DNA (59 pig worms and 82 human worms), nearly all Trichuris exhibited expected restriction patterns. However, two pig-derived worms showed a "heterozygous-type" ITS-2 pattern, with one also having a "heterozygous-type" 18S pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit partitioned worms by host species. Notably, some Ecuadorian T. suis clustered with porcine Trichuris from USA and Denmark and some with Chinese T. suis. This is the first study in Latin America to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling.

  17. Draft genome sequences of nine Streptococcus suis strains isolated in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Additionally, it is a zoonotic agent that can cause severe infections in those in close contact with infected pigs and/or who consume uncooked or undercooked pork products. Here, we report nine draf...

  18. Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christine Soholm; Hasseldam, Henrik; Bacher, Idahella Hyldgaard

    2017-01-01

    , including parasites. Parasites are known to employ different immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. We have investigated the immunomodulation by the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis, by measuring the impact of oral administration of T...

  19. Incidence and presence of virulence factors of Streptococcus suis infection in slaughtered pigs from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padungtod, Pawin; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Junya, Supansa; Chaisowong, Warangkhana; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Makino, Souichi; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the incidence of Streptococcus suis infection in slaughtered pigs raised in industrial facility and backyard system in Chiang Mai City, Thailand. A total of 90 tonsils and submaxillary salivary gland/lymph node samples from slaughtered pigs raised in industrial facility and 122 samples from slaughtered pigs raised in backyard system were collected. Isolation and identification of S. suis were conducted using standard bacteriological methods. Farm management and risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Serotyping and presence of virulence factor genes, epf, mrp and sly, were determined by multiplex PCR assay. The overall incidence of S. suis in this study was 9% (n = 212) and the incidence is significantly higher in districts located at a greater distance south of Chiang Mai City. S. suis serotype 2 was present more in healthy pigs (43%) than ill pigs (10%). Every S. suis isolate carried mrp and sly and ill pigs carried epf (80%) more than healthy pigs (57%). However, the probability of S. suis serotype 2 with epf+ (0.245) detected in healthy pigs was higher than in ill pigs (0.08) indicating people may have a higher risk of being infected with S. suis from healthy than ill pigs.

  20. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina V A Hansen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. METHODOLOGY: We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro. The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm tissue when incubated for 72 hours in fenbendazole and albendazole respectively. The total drug concentrations (pmol/mg dry worm tissue were significantly lower within T. suis than O. dentatum whether killed or alive when incubated in all tested drugs (except in living worms exposed to fenbendazole. Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6-17.2% as compared to O. dentatum (0.8-0.9%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore, the relatively high occurrence of fenbendazole sulphone suggests a higher detoxifying capacity of T. suis as compared to O. dentatum.

  1. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Nejsum, Peter; Friis, Christian; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-04-01

    The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro. The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax) of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) when incubated for 72 hours in fenbendazole and albendazole respectively. The total drug concentrations (pmol/mg dry worm tissue) were significantly lower within T. suis than O. dentatum whether killed or alive when incubated in all tested drugs (except in living worms exposed to fenbendazole). Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6-17.2%) as compared to O. dentatum (0.8-0.9%). The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore, the relatively high occurrence of fenbendazole sulphone suggests a higher detoxifying capacity of T. suis as compared to O. dentatum.

  2. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  3. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every...... by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N...... of episodes with onset before day 42 was ≤ 14 days in 80% of affected subjects. Age, gender, total IgE, and recent intestinal symptoms at baseline did not predict gastrointestinal side effects. In conclusion, during the first 2 months, repeated ingestions of 2500 T. suis eggs caused frequent gastrointestinal...

  4. Virulence genes and genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerat, K; Yongkiettrakul, S; Kramomtong, I; Tongtawe, P; Tapchaisri, P; Luangsuk, P; Chaicumpa, W; Gottschalk, M; Srimanote, P

    2013-11-01

    Isolates of Streptococcus suis from different Western countries as well as those from China and Vietnam have been previously well characterized. So far, the genetic characteristics and relationship between S. suis strains isolated from both humans and pigs in Thailand are unknown. In this study, a total of 245 S. suis isolates were collected from both human cases (epidemic and sporadic) and pigs (diseased and asymptomatic) in Thailand. Bacterial strains were identified by biochemical tests and PCR targeting both, the 16S rRNA and gdh genes. Thirty-six isolates were identified as serotype 2 based on serotyping and the cps2-PCR. These isolates were tested for the presence of six virulence-associated genes: an arginine deiminase (arcA), a 38-kDa protein and protective antigen (bay046), an extracellular factor (epf), an hyaluronidase (hyl), a muramidase-released protein (mrp) and a suilysin (sly). In addition, the genetic diversities of these isolates were studied by RAPD PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Four virulence-associated gene patterns (VAGP 1 to 4) were obtained, and the majority of isolates (32/36) carried all genes tested (VAGP1). Each of the three OPB primers used provided 4 patterns designated RAPD-A to RAPD-D. Furthermore, MLST analysis could also distinguish the 36 isolates into four sequence types (STs): ST1 (n = 32), ST104 (n = 2), ST233 (n = 1) and a newly identified ST, ST336 (n = 1). Dendrogram constructions based on RAPD patterns indicated that S. suis serotype 2 isolates from Thailand could be divided into four groups and that the characteristics of the individual groups were in complete agreement with the virulence gene profiles and STs. The majority (32/36) of isolates recovered from diseased pigs, slaughterhouse pigs or human patients could be classified into a single group (VAGP1, RAPD-A and ST1). This genetic information strongly suggests the transmission of S. suis isolates from pigs to humans in Thailand. Our findings are

  5. The cell envelope subtilisin-like proteinase is a virulence determinant for Streptococcus suis

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    Gottschalk Marcelo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and zoonotic agent that mainly causes septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis. It has recently been suggested that proteinases produced by S. suis (serotype 2 are potential virulence determinants. In the present study, we screened a S. suis mutant library created by the insertion of Tn917 transposon in order to isolate a mutant deficient in a cell surface proteinase. We characterized the gene and assessed the proteinase for its potential as a virulence factor. Results Two mutants (G6G and M3G possessing a single Tn917 insertion were isolated. The affected gene coded for a protein (SSU0757 that shared a high degree of identity with Streptococccus thermophilus PrtS (95.9% and, to a lesser extent, with Streptococcus agalactiae CspA (49.5%, which are cell surface serine proteinases. The SSU0757 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 169.6 kDa and contained the catalytic triad characteristic of subtilisin family proteinases: motif I (Asp200, motif II (His239, and motif III (Ser568. SSU0757 also had the Gram-positive cell wall anchoring motif (Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly at the carboxy-terminus, which was followed by a hydrophobic domain. All the S. suis isolates tested, which belonged to different serotypes, possessed the gene encoding the SSU0757 protein. The two mutants devoid of subtilisin-like proteinase activity had longer generation times and were more susceptible to killing by whole blood than the wild-type parent strain P1/7. The virulence of the G6G and M3G mutants was compared to the wild-type strain in the CD1 mouse model. Significant differences in mortality rates were noted between the P1/7 group and the M3G and G6G groups (p Conclusion In summary, we identified a gene coding for a cell surface subtilisin-like serine proteinase that is widely distributed in S. suis. Evidences were brought for the involvement of this proteinase in S. suis virulence.

  6. Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India

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    Mrinalee Devi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67 and diseased (n=230 pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. suis by biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction targeting the housekeeping gene glutamate dehydrogenase. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the recovered isolates against nine antibiotic groups comprising 17 antimicrobial agents was studied by standard method. Results: Of the 497 samples examined, 7 (1.41% isolates were confirmed to be S. suis of which 5 (1.87% and 2 (0.87% were derived from clinically healthy and diseased pigs, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and erythromycin (100% followed by the penicillin group and enrofloxacin (85.71%, ceftriaxone, doxycycline HCL, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol (71.43%, to kanamycin, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole (42.85%. The isolates showed least susceptibility to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin (28.57%. All the five S. suis isolates from clinically healthy pigs were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxyclav, doxycycline HCl, gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, 80.00% isolates susceptible to ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, 60.00% to ceftriaxone, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, 40% to cefalexin, tetracycline, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Only 20.00% isolates were susceptible to streptomycin. Both the isolates recovered from diseased pigs were susceptible to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. On the other hand

  7. PK-PD Integration Modeling and Cutoff Value of Florfenicol against Streptococcus suis in Pigs

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    Zhixin Lei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish optimal doses and provide an alternate COPD for florfenicol against Streptococcus suis based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration modeling. The recommended dose (30 mg/kg b.w. were administered in healthy pigs through intramuscular and intravenous routes for pharmacokinetic studies. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-24h, AUC, Ke, t1/2ke, MRT, Tmax, and Clb, were estimated as 4.44 μg/ml, 88.85 μg⋅h/ml, 158.56 μg⋅h/ml, 0.048 h-1, 14.46 h, 26.11 h, 4 h and 0.185 L/h⋅kg, respectively. The bioavailability of florfenicol was calculated to be 99.14% after I.M administration. A total of 124 Streptococcus suis from most cities of China were isolated to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of florfenicol. The MIC50 and MIC90 were calculated as 1 and 2 μg/ml. A serotype 2 Streptococcus suis (WH-2, with MIC value similar to MIC90, was selected as a representative for an in vitro and ex vivo pharmacodynamics study. The MIC values of WH-2 in TSB and plasma were 2 μg/ml, and the MBC/MIC ratios were 2 in TSB and plasma. The MPC was detected to be 3.2 μg/ml. According to inhibitory sigmoid Emax model, plasma AUC0-24h/MIC values of florfenicol versus Streptococcus suis were 37.89, 44.02, and 46.42 h for the bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and elimination activity, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations the optimal doses for bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and elimination effects were calculated as 16.5, 19.17, and 20.14 mg/kg b.w. for 50% target attainment rates (TAR, and 21.55, 25.02, and 26.85 mg/kg b.w. for 90% TAR, respectively. The PK-PD cutoff value (COPD analyzed from MCS for florfenicol against Streptococcus suis was 1 μg/ml which could provide a sensitivity cutoff value. These results contributed an optimized alternative to clinical veterinary medicine and showed that the dose of 25.02 mg/kg florfenicol for 24 h could have a bactericidal action against

  8. Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress that affects intracellular replication in goat trophoblast cells in vitro

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    Xiangguo eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2 in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies demonstrated that B.suis.S2 was able to infect and proliferate to high titers, hamper the proliferation of GTCs and induce apoptosis due to ER stress. Tunicamycin (Tm, a pharmacological chaperone that strongly mounts ER stress-induced apoptosis, inhibited B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. In addition, 4 phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone that alleviates ER stress-induced apoptosis, significantly enhanced B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR chaperone molecule GRP78 also promoted B.suis.S2 proliferation in GTCs by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. We also discovered that the IRE1 pathway, but not the PERK or ATF6 pathway, was activated in the process. However, decreasing the expression of phosphoIRE1α and IRE1α proteins with Irestatin 9389 (IRE1 antagonist in GTCs did not affect the proliferation of B.suis.S2. Although GTC implantation was not affected upon B.suis.S2 infection, progesterone secretion was suppressed, and prolactin and estrogen secretion increased; these effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes. This study systematically explored the mechanisms of abortion in Brucella infection from the viewpoint of pathogen invasion, ER stress and reproductive endocrinology. Our findings may provide new insight for understanding the mechanisms involved in goat abortions caused by Brucella infection.

  9. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma

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    Sokoli Albina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.

  10. Sui Generis” Journalism? Visibility, Identities and Journalistic Practices in a 1990s Brazilian Gay Magazine

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    Ricardo Augusto de Saboia Feitosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Sui Generis magazine (1995-2000, one of the most relevant gay press magazines in Brazil. We study the importance of this publication and the field of journalism in terms of producing and reproducing representations and processes of identities and relations of gender and sexuality. The methodology involves a discursive reading of editorials, cover stories and reader letters published between January 1995 and March 2000, as well as a restructuring of journalistic work and daily practices in newsrooms through interviews with reporters, columnists and editors. We reached the conclusion that choosing a policy of visibility based on outing and concepts of gay "identities" and "communities" allowed the magazine to create specific and more valued ways of what homosexuality is, which leads to a critical reflection on what these policies have achieved, and what their limits and tensions are. O artigo propõe uma investigação da revista Sui Generis (1995-2000, título do segmento especializado designado como “imprensa gay” brasileira. Busca-se compreender a relevância da publicação e deste campo jornalístico como instâncias historicamente produtoras e reprodutoras tanto de representações como dos processos de agenciamento de identidades e relações de gênero e sexualidade. Adota-se como metodologia a leitura discursiva de editoriais, reportagens de capa e cartas dos leitores publicados entre janeiro de 1995 e março de 2000; e a reconstituição, por meio de entrevistas com repórteres, colunistas e editores, do fazer jornalístico e das práticas cotidianas da redação. A análise permite constatar que, ao eleger como estratégia uma política de visibilidade calcada no outing e na elaboração de noções de “identidade” e “comunidade” gays, forjam-se modos específicos e mais valorizados do que seria a homossexualidade, exigindo uma reflexão crítica das conquistas dessas políticas, dos seus limites e

  11. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

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    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  12. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. FINDINGS: Adult...... Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according...... to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling....

  13. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: isoenzymatic pattern in Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis and T. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, B; Cutillas, C; German, P; Guevara, D

    1991-12-01

    In the present communication we have studied the isoenzymatic pattern activity of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis and T. suis, parasites of Capra hircus (goat), Ovis aries (sheep) and Sus scrofa domestica (pig) respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Different phenotypes have been observed in the G6PD isoenzymatic pattern activity in males and females of Oesophagostomum venulosum. Furthermore, G6PD activity has been assayed in Trichuris ovis collected from Ovis aries and Capra hircus. No differences have been observed in the isoenzymatic patterns attending to the different hosts. All the individuals exhibited one single band or two bands; this suggests a monomeric condition for G6PD in T. ovis. In T. suis the enzyme G6PD appeared as a single electrophoretic band in about 85.7% of the individuals.

  14. Trichurs suis ova theraphy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, A.; Bager, P.; Garde, E.

    2015-01-01

    revealed 6 new or enlarged T2 lesions in the run-in period, 7 lesions in the early period and 21 lesions in the late treatment period. Two patients suffered a relapse before treatment and two during treatment. Eight patients developed eosinophilia. The expression of cytokines and transcription factors did...... not change. CONCLUSIONS: In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect....

  15. Isolamento di Brucella suis biovariante 2 da un cinghiale in Abruzzo, Italia

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    Fabrizio De Massis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Un cinghiale selvatico femmina, di circa due anni di età, è stato trovato morto dai Servizi Veterinari a Pianola di Roio a L'Aquila, Provincia situata nella Regione Abruzzo nell'Italia centrale. La carcassa è stata conferita all'Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale" di Teramo per l'esecuzione dell'esame autoptico. Dai linfonodi sotto-mandibolari di questo esemplare è stato isolato un ceppo di Brucella suis biovariante 2. Questa è la prima segnalazione d'isolamento di B. suis nella Regione Abruzzo. Diversi autori hanno accettato, in passato, l'ipotesi che B. suis biovariante 2 sia stata introdotta in Italia attraverso l'importazione di lepri provenienti dai paesi europei in cui l'infezione è endemica nelle popolazioni selvatiche. Questa considerazione ha portato le autorità italiane a rafforzare i controlli esistenti sulle lepri selvatiche importate a scopo di ripopolamento. Tuttavia, attualmente, non è in vigore alcuna disposizione (né lo è stata in passato per il controllo della brucellosi nei cinghiali movimentati, sia a livello nazionale che europeo. L'isolamento di B. suis biovariante 2 da cinghiali in altre Regioni italiane geograficamente distanti potrebbe suggerire che questa specie, piuttosto che le lepri importate, possa essere stata la fonte d'introduzione dell'infezione in tali aree. Le norme nazionali ed europee di gestione della brucellosi nella fauna selvatica dovrebbero essere indirizzate al controllo dello stato di salute dei cinghiali negli allevamenti prima delle movimentazioni o del rilascio, con l'obiettivo di prevenire la diffusione di questo patogeno in territori indenni.

  16. Marginal vitamin A deficiency in pigs experimentally infected with Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S; Saeed, I; Jensen, S K

    2001-01-01

    were marginally smaller (36.7 vs 40.2 mm; P = 0.08), more orally located (section 2.9 vs 3.9; P = 0.08) and had a higher proportion of males (0.58 vs 0.50; P = 0.08) whereas there were no effects of diet treatment on fecundity. The proportion of pigs with faecal T. suis egg excretion 12 weeks post...

  17. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 3-4 (2013), s. 504-508 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 022/2010/Z; Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 11/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Cryptosporidium suis * Eurasian wild boar * PCR * SSU Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  18. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

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    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  19. Pre-absorbed immunoproteomics: a novel method for the detection of Streptococcus suis surface proteins.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. In this study, a novel method for identifying bacterial surface proteins is presented, which combines immunoproteomic and immunoserologic techniques. Critical to the success of this new method is an improved procedure for generating two-dimensional electrophoresis gel profiles of S. suis proteins. The S. suis surface proteins identified in this study include muramidase-released protein precursor (MRP and an ABC transporter protein, while MRP is thought to be one of the main virulence factors in SS2 located on the bacterial surface. Herein, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter protein can bind to HEp-2 cells, which strongly suggests that this protein is located on the bacterial cell surface and may be involved in pathogenesis. An immunofluorescence assay confirmed that the ABC transporter is localized to the bacterial outer surface. This new method may prove to be a useful tool for identifying surface proteins, and aid in the development of new vaccine subunits and disease diagnostics.

  20. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...

  1. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  2. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

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    Iris Bosschem

    Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  3. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.

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    Thi Hoa Ngo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542 of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542 carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%. 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.

  4. Diagnosis Infeksi Streptococcus suis serotipe-2 pada Babi Secara Serologi dengan Muramidase Released Protein (SEROLOGICALLY DIAGNOSE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS SEROTYPE-2 INFECTION IN PIGS BASED ON MURAMIDASE RELEASED PROTEIN

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    Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a bacterial pathogen causing disease of pigs that characterized by meningitis,bronchopneumonia, arthritis, pericarditis, polyserositis and septicaemia. S. suis especially serotype 2 caninfect human (zoonotic with a special symptom of meningitis. The aim of this research was to detect S.suis infection based on muramidase released protein (MRP, as an important virulence marker of S. suis.S. suis serotype 2 strain P171 with phenotype of MRP+EF+ was used in this research. The MRP antigen wasextracted using lysozyme and separated by using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE. Balb/c mice were imunized with 136 kDa MRP to produce antibody against MRP. Theantibody was evaluated by using enzyme linkage immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results of the researchshowed that the antibody against MRP with molecular weight of 136 kDa could be produced on Balb/Cmice with the highest absorbance of 3,889 and could be used to detect field sera from infected pigs with200x dilution using ELISA antigen capture. Antibody against MRP could detect serologically of S. suisinfection in pigs in Papua with 50% seropositivy by using ELISA antigen capture and 40% by using dot blot.

  5. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  6. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis

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    Liping Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The postantibiotic effects (PAEs and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05 regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  7. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  8. Excreted/secreted Trichuris suis products reduce barrier function and suppress inflammatory cytokine production of intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiemstra, I. H.; Klaver, E. J.; Vrijland, K.

    2014-01-01

    The administration of helminths is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. Currently, the application of the helminth Trichuris suis as a treatment for Crohn's disease is being studied in large multi-center clinical trials....... The intestinal epithelium forms an efficient barrier between the intestinal lumen containing the microbial flora and helminths, and dendritic cells (DCs) present in the lamina propria that determine the TH response. Here, we investigated how excreted/secreted (E/S) products of T. suis affect the barrier function...... of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in order to reach the DCs and modulate the immune response. We show that T. suis E/S products reduce the barrier function and the expression of the tight junction proteins EMP-1 and claudin-4 in IEC CMT93/69 monolayers in a glycan-dependent manner. This resulted...

  9. Clinical management of Brucella suis infection in dogs and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D R; Golovsky, G; Thornton, J M; Goodchild, L; Havlicek, M; Martin, P; Krockenberger, M B; Marriott, Dje; Ahuja, V; Malik, R; Mor, S M

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella suis is a notifiable disease that has recently emerged in dogs in New South Wales (NSW). Given the potential for zoonotic transmission, euthanasia of affected dogs is recommended, but this action is not mandatory. We report the clinical management of three dogs that underwent treatment at their owners' request. A 14-month-old spayed female crossbreed originally obtained from an urban animal shelter underwent extensive investigations in 2011-12 for lameness and back pain, culminating in decompressive laminectomy. Diagnosis of multifocal discospondylitis and spinal empyema was made, with B. suis cultured from surgical biopsy specimens. The dog responded to long-term treatment using rifampicin and doxycycline. A second case of B. suis infection was diagnosed in January 2016 in a 3-year-old crossbreed pig-hunting dog with unilateral testicular enlargement. Following serological diagnosis the dog was given preliminary therapy using rifampicin and doxycycline, the affected testis was resected and the patient given a further month of combination therapy. In March 2016 a 7-year-old crossbreed pig-hunting dog with brucellosis was handled similarly, although both testes were removed. Brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of back pain, discospondylitis, lameness, abortion, prostatic abscessation and testicular/epididymal enlargement in dogs, especially if there is exposure to feral pigs or consumption of uncooked feral pig meat. Euthanasia is the only guarantee of reducing the public health risk to zero. However, where treatment is desired by the owner, combination therapy using rifampicin and doxycycline appears to be effective, when combined with surgical resection of infected tissues. Further monitoring of dogs during and after treatment is required to document cure. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. The Surface-Exposed Protein SntA Contributes to Complement Evasion in Zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Simin; Xu, Tong; Fang, Qiong; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Jiaqi; Chen, Long; Liu, Jiahui; Zhou, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing streptococcal toxic shock like syndrome (STSLS), meningitis, septicemia, and even sudden death in human and pigs. Serious septicemia indicates this bacterium can evade the host complement surveillance. In our previous study, a functionally unknown protein SntA of S. suis has been identified as a heme-binding protein, and contributes to virulence in pigs. SntA can interact with the host antioxidant protein AOP2 and consequently inhibit its antioxidant activity. In the present study, SntA is identified as a cell wall anchored protein that functions as an important player in S. suis complement evasion. The C3 deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation on the surface of sntA -deleted mutant strain Δ sntA are demonstrated to be significantly higher than the parental strain SC-19 and the complementary strain CΔ sntA . The abilities of anti-phagocytosis, survival in blood, and in vivo colonization of Δ sntA are obviously reduced. SntA can interact with C1q and inhibit hemolytic activity via the classical pathway. Complement activation assays reveal that SntA can also directly activate classical and lectin pathways, resulting in complement consumption. These two complement evasion strategies may be crucial for the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen. Concerning that SntA is a bifunctional 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase/3'-nucleotidase in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, these complement evasion strategies may have common biological significance.

  11. Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine is safe and protective against heterologous Brucella spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangquan; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Nan; Ding, Jiabo; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-12

    Brucellosis is a wide spread zoonotic disease that causes abortion and infertility in mammals and leads to debilitating, febrile illness in humans. Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis are the major pathogenic species to humans. Vaccination with live attenuated B. suis strain 2 (S2) vaccine is an essential and critical component in the control of brucellosis in China. The S2 vaccine is very effective in preventing brucellosis in goats, sheep, cattle and swine. However, there are still debates outside of China whether the S2 vaccine is able to provide protection against heterologous virulent Brucella species. We investigated the residual virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S2 vaccine in BALB/c mice by determining bacteria persistence in spleen, serum antibody response, cellular immune response and protection against a heterologous virulent challenge. The S2 vaccine was of low virulence as there were no bacteria recovered in spleen four weeks post vaccination. The vaccinated mice developed Brucella-specific IgG in 2-3 weeks, and a burst production of IFN-γ at one week as well as a two-fold increase in TNF-α production. The S2 vaccine protected mice from a virulent challenge by B. melitensis M28, B. abortus 2308 and B. suis S1330, and the S2 vaccinated mice did not develop any clinical signs or tissue damage. Our study demonstrated that the S2 vaccine is of low virulence, stimulates good humoral and cellular immunity and protects animals against infection by heterologous, virulent Brucella species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains isolated from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, B; Kelneric, Z; Hajsig, D; Madic, J; Naglic, T

    1996-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirty-three epidemiologicaly unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 were determined in relation to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, clavulanate-amoxicillin, penicillin G, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tylosin and doxycycline, using the microtitre broth dilution procedure described by the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Gentamicin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of 0.4 mg/L. Overall, 70% of strains were resistant to doxycycline (MIC(90) > or = 100.0 mg/L), followed by penicillin G (51% of strains) (MIC(90) + or = 100.0 mg/L). Resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin was 36.4% (MIC(90) 12.5 mg/L) and 33.3% (MIC(90) 50.0 mg/L), respectively. 15.2% of S. suis strains were resistant to streptomycin, tylosin and cephalexin with MIC90 values of 25.0 mg/L, 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively. A combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (MIC(90) 6.3 mg/L) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (MIC(90) 3.1 mg/L) as well as erythromycin (1.6 mg/L) were of the same efficacy, with a total of 9.1% resistant S. suis strains. This high percentage of resistance to doxycycline and penicillin G precludes the use of these antibiotics as empiric therapy of swine diseases.

  13. Protection against Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Infection Using a Capsular Polysaccharide Glycoconjugate Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzas, Cynthia; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Neubauer, Axel; Kempker, Jennifer; Roy, René; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an encapsulated bacterium and one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry. Despite decades of research for an efficient vaccine, none is currently available. Based on the success achieved with other encapsulated pathogens, a glycoconjugate vaccine strategy was selected to elicit opsonizing anti-capsular polysaccharide (anti-CPS) IgG antibodies. In this work, glycoconjugate prototypes were prepared by coupling S. suis type 2 CPS to tetanus toxoid, and the immunological features of the postconjugation preparations were evaluated in vivo. In mice, experiments evaluating three different adjuvants showed that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) induces very low levels of anti-CPS IgM antibodies, while the emulsifying adjuvants Stimune and TiterMax Gold both induced high levels of IgGs and IgM. Dose-response trials comparing free CPS with the conjugate vaccine showed that free CPS is nonimmunogenic independently of the dose used, while 25 μg of the conjugate preparation was optimal in inducing high levels of anti-CPS IgGs postboost. With an opsonophagocytosis assay using murine whole blood, sera from immunized mice showed functional activity. Finally, the conjugate vaccine showed immunogenicity and induced protection in a swine challenge model. When conjugated and administered with emulsifying adjuvants, S. suis type 2 CPS is able to induce potent IgM and isotype-switched IgGs in mice and pigs, yielding functional activity in vitro and protection against a lethal challenge in vivo, all features of a T cell-dependent response. This study represents a proof of concept for the potential of glycoconjugate vaccines in veterinary medicine applications against invasive bacterial infections. PMID:27113360

  14. A glimpse of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from comparative genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiaqi; Dong, Wei

    2007-01-01

    shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different......BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic...

  15. Evolution and genome specialization of Brucella suis biovar 2 Iberian lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa; Dias, Ricardo

    2017-09-12

    Swine brucellosis caused by B. suis biovar 2 is an emergent disease in domestic pigs in Europe. The emergence of this pathogen has been linked to the increase of extensive pig farms and the high density of infected wild boars (Sus scrofa). In Portugal and Spain, the majority of strains share specific molecular characteristics, which allowed establishing an Iberian clonal lineage. However, several strains isolated from wild boars in the North-East region of Spain are similar to strains isolated in different Central European countries. Comparative analysis of five newly fully sequenced B. suis biovar 2 strains belonging to the main circulating clones in Iberian Peninsula, with publicly available Brucella spp. genomes, revealed that strains from Iberian clonal lineage share 74% similarity with those reference genomes. Besides the 210 kb translocation event present in all biovar 2 strains, an inversion with 944 kb was presented in chromosome I of strains from the Iberian clone. At left and right crossover points, the inversion disrupted a TRAP dicarboxylate transporter, DctM subunit, and an integral membrane protein TerC. The gene dctM is well conserved in Brucella spp. except in strains from the Iberian clonal lineage. Intraspecies comparative analysis also exposed a number of biovar-, haplotype- and strain-specific insertion-deletion (INDELs) events and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could explain differences in virulence and host specificities. Most discriminative mutations were associated to membrane related molecules (29%) and enzymes involved in catabolism processes (20%). Molecular identification of both B. suis biovar 2 clonal lineages could be easily achieved using the target-PCR procedures established in this work for the evaluated INDELs. Whole-genome analyses supports that the B. suis biovar 2 Iberian clonal lineage evolved from the Central-European lineage and suggests that the genomic specialization of this pathogen in the Iberian Peninsula

  16. Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R; Dige, Anders; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2017-01-01

    Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature...... was also reflected to some extent in the peripheral circulation. These results, together with the first definitive observations that T. suis can mature to adult size and reproduce in humans, shed new light on the interaction between the human immune system and probiotic helminth treatment, which should...

  17. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Katy; LeBel, Geneviève; Frenette, Michel; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2). In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2) was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 89-1591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA') of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%), Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA-DC 198; 84

  18. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Vaillancourt

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2. In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2 was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 89-1591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA' of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%, Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA

  19. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part II – Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that may cause severe disease, mostly meningitis, in pigs and in humans having occupational contact with pigs and pork, such as farmers, slaughterhose workers and butchers. The first stage of the pathogenic process, similar in pigs and humans, is adherence to and colonisation of mucosal and/or epithelial surface(s of the host. The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes. If S. suis present in blood fails to cause fatal septicaemia, it is able to progress into the third stage comprising penetration into host’s organs, mostly by crossing the blood-brain barrier and/or blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier to gain access to the central nervous system (CNS and cause meningitis. The fourth stage is inflammation that plays a key role in the pathogen esis of both systemic and CNS infections caused by S. suis . The pathogen may induce the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that cause septic shock and/or the recruitment and activation of different leukocyte populations, causing acute inflammation of the CNS. Streptococcus suis can also evoke – through activation of microglial cells, astrocytes and possibly other cell types – a fulminant inflammatory reaction of the brain which leads to intracranial complications, including brain oedema, increased intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insults, and deafness, as a result of cochlear sepsis. In all stages of the pathogenic process, S. suis interacts with many types of immunocompetent host’s cells, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and microglia, using a range of versatile virulence factors for evasion of the innate and adaptive immune defence of the host, and for overcoming environmental stress. It is estimated that S. suis produces more than

  20. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B T; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  1. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-08-12

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. PMID:27342778

  3. Use of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Medicine as Exemplified by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.

  4. Detection of a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance to infection with Trichuris suis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    diarrhoea. A significant proportion of the variation in Trichuris faecal egg count (FEC) has been attributed to the host's genetic make-up. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic loci associated with resistance to T. suis in pigs. We used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to perform...

  5. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 184, 2/4 (2012), 122-125 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Mšk(CZ) 6007665806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Eurasian wild boar * SSU * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  6. Characterization of virulence of the Streptococcus suis serotype 2 reference strain Henrichsen S 735 in newborn gnotobiotic pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, U.; Wisselink, H.J.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Strain Henrichsen S 735 (NCTC 10234) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 reference and three other such strains (strains S 4005, S 3921 and T 141) were tested for virulence by inoculating pigs intranasally and intravenously. The taxonomical properties of each strain were determined. Phenotypes were

  7. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Tharavichitkul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig’s blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4% and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp+epf−sly− and only 12.9% were in mrp−epf−sly+ genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp+epf−sly− genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  8. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Takenami, Naoki; Pruksakorn, Sumalee; Fongcom, Achara; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Khanthawa, Banyong; Supajatura, Volaluk; Takai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig's blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4%) and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) and only 12.9% were in mrp (-) epf (-) sly (+) genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  9. Une étude de cas. Saint Sébastien dans “Je suis sang” de Jan Fabre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie Toran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan Fabre’s writing frequently displays a variety of quotations, especially visual ones. His 2001 Je suis sang (conte de fées médiéval is directly and indirectly inspired by Saint Sebastian’s iconography. This study examines the modalities and functions of this re-use in detail.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Genotypic Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Capsular Type 2 Isolated from Clinical Carrier Sows and Diseased Pigs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypic characterizations of S. suis 2 from carrier sows and diseased pigs remain largely unknown. In this study, 96 swine S. suis type 2, 62 from healthy sows and 34 from diseased pigs, were analyzed. High frequency of tetracycline resistance was observed, followed by sulfonamides. The lowest resistance of S. suis 2 for β-lactams supports their use as the primary antibiotics to treat the infection of serotype 2. In contrast, 35 of 37 S. suis 2 with MLSB phenotypes were isolated from healthy sows, mostly encoded by the ermB and/or the mefA genes. Significantly lower frequency of mrp+/epf+/sly+ was observed among serotype 2 from healthy sows compared to those from diseased pigs. Furthermore, isolates from diseased pigs showed more homogeneously genetic patterns, with most of them clustered in pulsotypes A and E. The data indicate the genetic complexity of S. suis 2 between herds and a close linkage among isolates from healthy sows and diseased pigs. Moreover, many factors, such as extensive use of tetracycline or diffusion of Tn916 with tetM, might have favored for the pathogenicity and widespread dissemination of S. suis serotype 2.

  11. Characterization of the Pivotal Carbon Metabolism of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 under ex Vivo and Chemically Defined in Vitro Conditions by Isotopologue Profiling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Huber, Claudia; Koczula, Anna; Lange, Birgit; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen that has to adapt to the nutritional requirements in the different host niches encountered during infection and establishment of invasive diseases. To dissect the central metabolic activity of S. suis under different conditions of nutrient availability, we performed labeling experiments starting from [13C]glucose specimens and analyzed the resulting isotopologue patterns in amino acids of S. suis grown under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. In combination with classical growth experiments, we found that S. suis is auxotrophic for Arg, Gln/Glu, His, Leu, and Trp in chemically defined medium. De novo biosynthesis was shown for Ala, Asp, Ser, and Thr at high rates and for Gly, Lys, Phe, Tyr, and Val at moderate or low rates, respectively. Glucose degradation occurred mainly by glycolysis and to a minor extent by the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore, the exclusive formation of oxaloacetate by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation became evident from the patterns in de novo synthesized amino acids. Labeling experiments with S. suis grown ex vivo in blood or cerebrospinal fluid reflected the metabolic adaptation to these host niches with different nutrient availability; however, similar key metabolic activities were identified under these conditions. This points at the robustness of the core metabolic pathways in S. suis during the infection process. The crucial role of PEP carboxylation for growth of S. suis in the host was supported by experiments with a PEP carboxylase-deficient mutant strain in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25575595

  12. A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Ning; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Qiu, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Chi-Young; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BRUCELLA SUIS IN PIGS AS ZOONOTIC DISEASE IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF EAST JAVA, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Emy Koestanti; Misaco, Wiwik; Chusniati, Sri; Maslachah, Lilik

    2018-01-01

    Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy. The purpose of this study was to isolated and identified Brucella suis as the causative agent. The survey area were the pig farm owned by breeder farmers in the area of East Java Indonesia, at Kediri, Malang, Blitar and Probolinggo district. Blood samples obtained were tested with RBT. Pigs are suspected of being infected with Brucella if the RBT was positive that characterized with agglutination in the test results. If RBT was positive, bacteriological examination will be performed, with samples of visceral foetus organ, ie liver, spleen, placenta and amniotic fluid. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis were used Brucella Broth and Brucella Agar, and if the bacteri growthwill be continued with biochemical test ie H2S, urease, citrate, catalase and oxidase test. The positive results of Brucella suis showed positive urease, catalase andoxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. RBT and bacteriolgical examination showed that 1 sample was positive Brucella suis , and 19 negative. The positive results showed positive urease, catalase and oxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Based on RBT test and bacteriological examination, there was 1 positive sample of brucellla suis, that is sample coming from Kediri district.

  14. Adhesion activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a Chinese Streptococcus suis type 2 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaicheng; Lu, Chengping

    2007-01-01

    A total of 36 streptococcal strains, including seven S. equi ssp.zooepidemicus, two S. suis type 1 (SS1), 24 SS2, two SS9, and one SS7, were tested for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gapdh). Except from non-virulent SS2 strain T1 5, all strains harboured gapdh. The gapdh of Chinese Sichuan SS2 isolate ZY05719 and Jiangsu SS2 isolate HA9801 were sequenced and then compared with published sequences in the GenBank. The comparison revealed a 99.9 % and 99.8 % similarity of ZY05719 and HA9801, respectively, with the published sequence. Adherence assay data demonstrated a significant ((p<0.05)) reduction in adhesion of SS2 in HEp-2 cells pre-incubated with purified GAPDH compared to non pre-incubated controls, suggesting the GAPDH mediates SS2 bacterial adhesion to host cells.

  15. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Enolase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anding; Chen, Bo; Mu, Xiaofeng; Li, Ran; Zheng, Pei; Zhao, Yaxin; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2009-02-25

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is a porcine and human pathogen with adhesive and invasive properties. The absence of suitable vaccine or virulent marker can be the bottleneck to control SS2 infection. In the present study, a novel immunogenic Enolase identified in the previous study was inducibly overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and confer efficient immunity against challenge with lethal dose of SS2 or SS7 infection in mouse model. The roles Enolase plays in pathogenicity of SS2 were also explored as reasons for which Enolase could be a protective antigen. The Enolase was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the indirect immunofluorescent assay and the inhibition assay. These suggested that Enolase could play important roles in pathogenicity and may serve as a novel vaccine candidate against SS2 infection.

  16. Molecular Basis of Resistance to Selected Antimicrobial Agents in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Mamata; Tamang, Migma Dorji; Moon, Dong Chan; Kim, Su-Ran; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Park, Yong-Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of 227 Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs during 2010 to 2013 showed high levels of resistance to clindamycin (95.6%), tilmicosin (94.7%), tylosin (93.8%), oxytetracycline (89.4%), chlortetracycline (86.8%), tiamulin (72.7%), neomycin (70.0%), enrofloxacin (56.4%), penicillin (56.4%), ceftiofur (55.9%), and gentamicin (55.1%). Resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolone was attributed to the tet gene, erm(B), erm(C), mph(C), and mef(A) and/or mef(E) genes, aph(3')-IIIa and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia genes, and single point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of ParC and GyrA, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant immunoglobulin G-binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Abdul Hamid; Chu, Fuliang; Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Qinagmin [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Qi, Jianxun [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Gao, George Fu, E-mail: gaof@im.ac.cn [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-08-01

    Crystallization of recombinant IgG-binding protein expressed in Escherichia coli using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method is described. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.98, b = 43.94, c = 78.17 Å. Streptococcus suis, an important zoonotic pathogen, expresses immunoglobulin G-binding protein, which is thought to be helpful to the organism in eluding the host defence system. Recombinant IgG-binding protein expressed in Escherichia coli has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.98, b = 43.94, c = 78.17 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to 2.60 Å resolution.

  18. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Tohya

    Full Text Available Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs, ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  19. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes. PMID:27433935

  20. Targeting TREM-1 signaling in the presence of antibiotics is effective against Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS caused by Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eYang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis, a major swine pathogen, is also a severe threat to human health. Infection with highly virulent strains of S. suis can cause human Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS, which is associated with high serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and a high mortality rate. Our previous study indicated that highly virulent S. suis infection could activate the TREM-1 signaling pathway, which promotes host clearance of S. suis during early infection. However, it remained to be elicited whether TREM-1 signaling could be a target against STSLS in the presence of antibiotic. In the present study, mice were infected with a highly virulent S. suis strain and then treated with rTREM-1 (the recombinant extracellular domain of TREM-1 to block TREM-1 signaling, antibiotics, both rTREM-1 and antibiotics, or PBS. The survival rates, clinical signs, serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and serum bacterial loads were evaluated. Treatment with rTREM-1 could aggravate the outcome of infection as described previously. Although the conventional treatment with antibiotics contributed to effective S. suis clearance, it did not improve survival significantly. In comparison, due to the reduction of the exaggerated pro-inflammatory response, treatment combined with rTREM-1 and antibiotics not only led to efficient bacterial clearance but also alleviated inflammation. In conclusion, TREM-1 signaling contributed to severe inflammatory response and benefited S. suis clearance. Therefore, blocking TREM-1 signaling could still be a target for the treatment of STSLS in the presence of antibiotics.

  1. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-05-27

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283-721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis.

  2. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Willenborg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system.

  3. Streptococcus suis, an important pig pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent—an update on the worldwide distribution based on serotyping and sequence typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Xu, Jianguo; Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen causing economic problems in the pig industry. Moreover, it is a zoonotic agent causing severe infections to people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although considered sporadic in the past, human S. suis infections have been reported during the last 45 years, with two large outbreaks recorded in China. In fact, the number of reported human cases has significantly increased in recent years. In this review, we present the worldwide distribution of serotypes and sequence types (STs), as determined by multilocus sequence typing, for pigs (between 2002 and 2013) and humans (between 1968 and 2013). The methods employed for S. suis identification and typing, the current epidemiological knowledge regarding serotypes and STs and the zoonotic potential of S. suis are discussed. Increased awareness of S. suis in both human and veterinary diagnostic laboratories and further establishment of typing methods will contribute to our knowledge of this pathogen, especially in regions where complete and/or recent data is lacking. More research is required to understand differences in virulence that occur among S. suis strains and if these differences can be associated with specific serotypes or STs. PMID:26038745

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of SAICAR synthase from Streptococcus suis serotype 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xia; Lu, Guangwen; Qi, Jianxun; Cheng, Hao; Gao, Feng; Wang, Jundong; Yan, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of SAICAR synthase from S. suis serotype 2 were obtained in the presence of 40 mM aspartic acid substrate; they belonged to space group P2 and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase (SAICAR synthase) plays an essential role in the de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides. In this study, the SAICAR synthase from Streptococcus suis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The subsequent product was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.2, b = 52.2, c = 153.9 Å, β = 102.8°

  5. MsmK, an ATPase, Contributes to Utilization of Multiple Carbohydrates and Host Colonization of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-Fang; Gao, Ting; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Yang, Xi; Zhu, Jia-Wen; Teng, Mu-Ye; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition and metabolism of carbohydrates are essential for host colonization and pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. Different bacteria can uptake different lines of carbohydrates via ABC transporters, in which ATPase subunits energize the transport though ATP hydrolysis. Some ABC transporters possess their own ATPases, while some share a common ATPase. Here we identified MsmK, an ATPase from Streptococcus suis, an emerging zoonotic bacterium causing dead infections in pigs and humans. Genetic and biochemistry studies revealed that the MsmK was responsible for the utilization of raffinose, melibiose, maltotetraose, glycogen and maltotriose. In infected mice, the msmK-deletion mutant showed significant defects of survival and colonization when compared with its parental and complementary strains. Taken together, MsmK is an ATPase that contributes to multiple carbohydrates utilization and host colonization of S. suis. This study gives new insight into our understanding of the carbohydrates utilization and its relationship to the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen.

  6. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Sroka, Jacek; Zając, Violetta; Wasiński, Bernard; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Kloc, Anna; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2017-12-23

    Streptococcus suis (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, S. suis strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. Streptococcus suis is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains, mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused by S. suis, both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012, followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as 'streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome' - STSLS), arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by S. suis, occurring in more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human cases due to S. suis has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642 cases of S. suis infections identified between 2002-2013 worldwide in humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of hands and/or arms, or by pig bite

  7. Epidemiological investigation of the first human brucellosis case in Spain due to Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao Bescós, Joaquín; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Muñoz Álvaro, Pilar María; Blasco Martínez, José María; Villuendas Usón, María Cruz

    2017-03-01

    No cases of human brucellosis caused by Brucella suis has been reported in Spain. This study involved interviews with the case and his co-workers, inspection of their workplace, checking infection control measures, and typing the Brucella strain isolated in the blood culture. Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330 was isolated from a patient who worked in a waste treatment plant. Food borne transmission, contact with animals, and risk jobs were ruled out. An accidental inoculation with a contaminated needle from a research laboratory waste container was identified as the most probable mode of transmission. There should be controls to ensure that waste containers are sealed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell-mediated immune responses differentiate infections with Brucella suis from Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jungersen, Gregers

    2007-01-01

    Due to almost identical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigens, infections with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9 (YeO:9) cause false positive serological reactions (FPSR) in tests for Brucella and thus cause problems in National Brucella surveillance programs. As LPS are strong inducers...... of antibody responses it was hypothesized that cell-mediated immune responses to non-LPS antigens of the two bacteria can be used to separate immune responses to these two biologically very different infections. Following subclinical experimental infections with Brucella suis biovar 2, high interferon......-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay responses with a commercial Brucella melitensis antigen preparation (Brucellergene OCB) preceded the development of antibodies. High IFN-gamma responses in the seven B. suis inoculated pigs with serological evidence of infection were consistent throughout a 20-week postinoculation...

  9. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I – Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987 is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, S. suis strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. Streptococcus suis is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4–10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains, mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused by S. suis , both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012, followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as ‘streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome’ – STSLS, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by S. suis , occurring in more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human cases due to S. suis has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642 cases of S. suis infections identified between 2002–2013 worldwide in humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of

  10. Serotype- and virulence-associated gene profile of Streptococcus suis isolates from pig carcasses in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawan, Kanruethai; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand.

  11. Detection of Multiple Parallel Transmission Outbreak of Streptococcus suis Human Infection by Use of Genome Epidemiology, China, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Zheng, Han; Zhou, Jieping; Lan, Ruiting; Ye, Changyun; Jing, Huaiqi; Jin, Dong; Cui, Zhigang; Bai, Xuemei; Liang, Jianming; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Chen; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus suis sequence type 7 emerged and caused 2 of the largest human infection outbreaks in China in 1998 and 2005. To determine the major risk factors and source of the infections, we analyzed whole genomes of 95 outbreak-associated isolates, identified 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and classified them into 6 clades. Molecular clock analysis revealed that clade 1 (responsible for the 1998 outbreak) emerged in October 1997. Clades 2-6 (responsible for the 2005 outbreak) emerged separately during February 2002-August 2004. A total of 41 lineages of S. suis emerged by the end of 2004 and rapidly expanded to 68 genome types through single base mutations when the outbreak occurred in June 2005. We identified 32 identical isolates and classified them into 8 groups, which were distributed in a large geographic area with no transmission link. These findings suggest that persons were infected in parallel in respective geographic sites.

  12. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infect...... and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research....

  13. DATABASES AND THE SUI-GENERIS RIGHT – PROTECTION OUTSIDE THE ORIGINALITY. THE DISREGARD OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LUPAȘCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on databases as they are regulated by Directive no.96/9/EC regarding the protection of databases. There are also several references to Romanian Law no.8/1996 on copyright and neighbouring rights which implements the mentioned European Directive. The study analyses certain effects that the sui-generis protection has on public domain. The study tries to demonstrate that the reglementation specific to databases neglects the interests correlated with the public domain. The effect of such a regulation is the abusive creation of some databases in which the public domain (meaning information not protected by copyright such as news, ideas, procedures, methods, systems, processes, concepts, principles, discoveries ends up being encapsulated and made available only to some private interests, the access to public domain being regulated indirectly. The study begins by explaining the sui- generis right and its origin. The first mention of databases can be found in “Green Paper on Copyright (1998,” a document that clearly shows, the database protection was thought to cover a sphere of information non-protectable from the scientific and industrial fields. Several arguments are made by the author, most of them based on the report of the Public Consultation sustained in 2014 in regards to the necessity of the sui-generis right. There are some references made to a specific case law, namely British Houseracing Board vs William Hill and Fixture Marketing Ldt. The ECJ’s decision în that case is of great importance for the support of public interest to access information corresponding to some restrictive fields that are derived as a result of the maker’s activities, because in the absence of the sui-generis right, all this information can be freely accessed and used.

  14. The Outcome of Repeated Mid Urethral Sling in SUI Treatment after Vaginal Excisions of Primary Failed Sling: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kociszewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid urethral sling is the standard in SUI treatment. Nevertheless, the risk of reoperation reaches 9%. There is no consensus as to the best treatment option for complications. A question is raised: what is the optimal way to achieve the best result in patients after primary failure? The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of repeat MUS surgery in patients after excision of the sling with recurrent SUI. We compared its effectiveness with uncomplicated cases treated with TVT. 27 patients who underwent the repeated MUS and 50 consecutive patients after primary TVT were enrolled in the study. After 6 months, we have found that 24 (88.46% patients from repeat sling group and 48 (96% patients after primary sling were dry (1-hour pad test, 2 g or less. The difference between groups was not significant. We showed statistically significant improvement of quality of life in both groups. In conclusion, we showed that repeated sling after MUS excision is almost as effective as primary MUS. We postulate that sling excision and repeated MUS may be the best option for persistent SUI and/or complications after MUS procedures. Further multicenter observations are ongoing as to provide results on bigger group of cases.

  15. Virulence Studies of Different Sequence Types and Geographical Origins of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in a Mouse Model of Infection

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    Jean-Philippe Auger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing previously identified three predominant sequence types (STs of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: ST1 strains predominate in Eurasia while North American (NA strains are generally ST25 and ST28. However, ST25/ST28 and ST1 strains have also been isolated in Asia and NA, respectively. Using a well-standardized mouse model of infection, the virulence of strains belonging to different STs and different geographical origins was evaluated. Results demonstrated that although a certain tendency may be observed, S. suis serotype 2 virulence is difficult to predict based on ST and geographical origin alone; strains belonging to the same ST presented important differences of virulence and did not always correlate with origin. The only exception appears to be NA ST28 strains, which were generally less virulent in both systemic and central nervous system (CNS infection models. Persistent and high levels of bacteremia accompanied by elevated CNS inflammation are required to cause meningitis. Although widely used, in vitro tests such as phagocytosis and killing assays require further standardization in order to be used as predictive tests for evaluating virulence of strains. The use of strains other than archetypal strains has increased our knowledge and understanding of the S. suis serotype 2 population dynamics.

  16. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  17. [Expression, purification and protective antigen analysis of cell wall protein MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-ping; Pian, Ya-ya; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Yu-ling; Jiang, Yong-qiang; Xiong, Zheng-ying

    2012-02-01

    To amplify the mrp gene of Streptococcus suis type 2 05ZYH33, express it in E.coli BL21 in order to acquire high purity recombinant protein MRP, then evaluate the protective antigen of recombinant protein MRP. Using PCR technology to obtain the product of mrp gene of 05ZYH33, and then cloned it into the expression vector pET28a(+). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography, later immunized New Zealand rabbit to gain anti-serum, then test the anti-serum titer by ELISA. The opsonophagocytic killing test demonstrated the abilities of protective antigen of MRP. The truncated of MRP recombinant protein in E.coli BL21 expressed by inclusion bodies, and purified it in high purity. After immunoprotection, the survival condition of CD-1 was significantly elevated. The survival rate of wild-type strain 05ZYH33 in blood was apparently decreased after anti-serum opsonophagocyticed, but the mutant delta; MRP showed no differences. MRP represent an important protective antigen activity.

  18. Le prime sensazioni al pianoforte restano per sempre? Indagine sui metodi pianistici per principianti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I metodi d’insegnamento del pianoforte utilizzati in Italia sono caratterizzati da percorsi basati su differenti ipotesi teoriche e indicazioni pratiche. Il primo libro di pianoforte, qualunque sia il suo valore, stabilisce il primo contatto con lo strumento, lasciando una forte impressione e tracciando il profilo delle competenze inizialmente sviluppate. Una più profonda comprensione di questi testi può mostrare quali sono le capacità e le strategie di apprendimento proposte dai metodi adottati e conseguentemente dagli insegnanti. L'obiettivo di questo studio è quello di identificare quali sono le scelte metodologiche più rappresentative nella didattica pianistica italiana degli ultimi 50 anni. I risultati sono basati sui dati raccolti dai questionari somministrati a 200 pianisti, di età compresa tra 20 e 60, ai quali è stato chiesto, insieme a informazioni generiche, quale fosse stato il loro primo libro pianoforte, quali aspetti positivi o negativi ricordavano maggiormente e quali ritenevano essere più utili. I dati suggeriscono una preferenza rilevante di cinque metodi, che sono stati analizzati secondo una serie di criteri metodologici e analitici. I risultati indicano un panorama metodologico concentrato principalmente sul rapporto iniziale con lo strumento e sulla lettura musicale. Questo studio contribuisce alla riflessione su due aspetti metodologici: lo sviluppo di nuovi repertori e la proposta di metodologie in grado di rispettare il mondo emotivo e cognitivo dei principianti.

  19. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility results for Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolated from swine clinical samples were obtained from January 1998 to October 2010 from the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, and used to describe variation in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to 4 drugs of importance in the Ontario swine industry: ampicillin, tetracycline, tiamulin, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Four temporal data-analysis options were used: visualization of trends in 12-month rolling averages, logistic-regression modeling, temporal-scan statistics, and a scan with the “What’s strange about recent events?” (WSARE) algorithm. The AMR trends varied among the antimicrobial drugs for a single pathogen and between pathogens for a single antimicrobial, suggesting that pathogen-specific AMR surveillance may be preferable to indicator data. The 4 methods provided complementary and, at times, redundant results. The most appropriate combination of analysis methods for surveillance using these data included temporal-scan statistics with a visualization method (rolling-average or predicted-probability plots following logistic-regression models). The WSARE algorithm provided interesting results for quality control and has the potential to detect new resistance patterns; however, missing data created problems for displaying the results in a way that would be meaningful to all surveillance stakeholders. PMID:25355992

  20. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  1. Possible pathogenic interplay between Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila abortus and PCV-2 on a pig production farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schautteet, K; Beeckman, D S A; Delava, P; Vanrompay, D

    2010-03-13

    A concurrent outbreak of chlamydial disease in boars, sows and gilts and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in weaned piglets was investigated on a large pig production farm in Estonia. Chlamydia suis DNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from boars, sows and gilts, but also in the faeces of boars and sows. Chlamydophila abortus DNA was found in semen, and in conjunctival swabs from sows; DNA was demonstrated by microarrays. Serum samples from boars were examined using a Chlamydiaceae-specific recombinant ELISA. All 10 serum samples examined were positive (1:960 to 1:3840). Chlamydiosis was characterised by reproductive failure and conjunctivitis. Piglets were not examined for Chlamydiaceae, as eye problems were not observed. Piglets showed wasting, respiratory signs, diarrhoea, enlargement of lymph nodes and increased mortality (10 per cent). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) was detected in the lymph nodes of piglets by immunohistochemistry, and PCV-2 antibodies were demonstrated in all 10 serum samples from sows examined using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay.

  2. In vitro sensitivity of Hungarian Actinobaculum suis strains to selected antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biksi, I; Major, Andrea; Fodor, L; Szenci, O; Vetési, F

    2003-01-01

    In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 12 Hungarian isolates and the type strain ATCC 33144 of Actinobaculum suis to different antimicrobial compounds was determined both by the agar dilution and by the disc diffusion method. By agar dilution, MIC50 values in the range of 0.05-3.125 micrograms/ml were determined for penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tylosin, pleuromutilins, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and lincomycin. The MIC50 value of oxytetracycline and spectinomycin was 6.25 and 12.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. For ofloxacin, flumequine, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim MIC50 values were in the range of 25-100 micrograms/ml. With the disc diffusion method, all strains were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporins examined, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, tetracyclines examined, pleuromutilins, lincomycin and tylosin. Variable sensitivity was observed for fluoroquinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin), most of the strains were susceptible to marbofloxacin. Almost all strains were resistant to aminoglycosides but most of them were sensitive to spectinomycin. A strong correlation was determined for disc diffusion and MIC results (Spearman's rho 0.789, p < 0001). MIC values of the type strain and MIC50 values of other tested strains did not differ significantly. Few strains showed a partially distinct resistance pattern for erythromycin, lincomycin and ampicillin in both methods.

  3. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Biofilms Inhibit the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Yi, Li; Yu, Ningwei; Wang, Guangyu; Ma, Zhe; Lin, Huixing; Fan, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) has emerged as a clinical problem in recent years. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an important mechanism for the trapping and killing of pathogens that are resistant to phagocytosis. Biofilm formation can protect bacteria from being killed by phagocytes. Until now, there have only been a few studies that focused on the interactions between bacterial biofilms and NETs. SS2 in both a biofilm state and a planktonic cell state were incubated with phagocytes and NETs, and bacterial survival was assessed. DNase I and cytochalasin B were used to degrade NET DNA or suppress phagocytosis, respectively. Extracellular DNA was stained with impermeable fluorescent dye to quantify NET formation. Biofilm formation increased up to 6-fold in the presence of neutrophils, and biofilms were identified in murine tissue. Both planktonic and biofilm cells induced neutrophils chemotaxis to the infection site, with neutrophils increasing by 85.1 and 73.8%, respectively. The bacteria in biofilms were not phagocytized. The bactericidal efficacy of NETs on the biofilms and planktonic cells were equal; however, the biofilm extracellular matrix can inhibit NET release. Although biofilms inhibit NETs release, NETs appear to be an important mechanism to eliminate SS2 biofilms. This knowledge advances the understanding of biofilms and may aid in the development of treatments for persistent infections with a biofilm component.

  4. New Features in the Lipid A Structure of Brucella suis and Brucella abortus Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabuono, Adriana C.; Czibener, Cecilia; Del Giudice, Mariela G.; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Ugalde, Juan E.; Couto, Alicia S.

    2017-12-01

    Brucellaceae are Gram-negative bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the most distributed worldwide zoonosis, transmitted to humans by contact with either infected animals or their products. The lipopolysaccharide exposed on the cell surface has been intensively studied and is considered a major virulence factor of Brucella. In the last years, structural studies allowed the determination of new structures in the core oligosaccharide and the O-antigen of this lipopolysaccharide. In this work, we have reinvestigated the lipid A structure isolated from B. suis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharides. A detailed study by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the positive and negative ion modes of the lipid A moieties purified from both species was performed. Interestingly, a new feature was detected: the presence of a pyrophosphorylethanolamine residue substituting the backbone. LID-MS/MS analysis of some of the detected ions allowed assurance that the Lipid A structure composed by the diGlcN3N disaccharide, mainly hexa-acylated and penta-acylated, bearing one phosphate and one pyrophosphorylethanolamine residue. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. [Isolation and identification of the temperate bacteriophage from isolated strains of Streptococcus suis serotype 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuling; Lu, Chengping; Fan, Hongjie

    2008-04-01

    A PCR assay was developed to study the distributional characteristics of phage integrase gene in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). A 323bp distinct DNA target can be amplified in 25 strains of virulent SS2, while can not be amplified in avirulent strain T15, 5 strains of other serotypes (SS1, SS7, SS9) and strains of group C Streptococcus strains from pigs, which suggested that the phage integrase gene may be related to the pathogenicity of SS2 and can be consider as a detection factor of the virulent gene of SS2. The sequencing and restriction endonuclease analysis of the PCR products were also done. Comparisons between the sequences of phage integrase gene with that of SS2 strain, showed a high homology with SS2 China strains 98HAH33, 05ZYH33 and North American strain 89-1591. Complete cell lysis was observed with SS2 virulent strains but not with avirulent strain T15 after the induction by mitomycin C. Electron microscopy analysis of the lysate from SS2 virulent strains HA9801 and ZY05719 revealed the presence of phage particles. The induced phage, named SS2-HA and SS2-ZY, both have a small isometric nucleocapsid approximately 50 nm in diameter and have no tail and is therefore a member of the Tectiviridae family. The phage integrase gene sequence of phage SS2-HA and SS2-ZY shared high homologue identities with virulent SS2 strains, which suggested that the phage integrase gene of SS2 has high specify. The temperate phage and phage integrase gene can only detected from SS2 virulent strains but not from avirulent strain, and the detection of phage integrase gene was related to the virulence-associate factors of SS2, such as the muramidase-released protein gene (mrp), which suggested that the temperate phage of SS2 may be related to the pathogenicity of SS2.

  6. Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 by NimbleGen tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies revealed that a new disease form of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS is associated with specific Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 strains. To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of SS2 at the whole-genome level, comparative genomic analysis of 18 SS2 strains, selected on the basis of virulence and geographic origin, was performed using NimbleGen tiling arrays. Results Our results demonstrate that SS2 isolates have highly divergent genomes. The 89K pathogenicity island (PAI, which has been previously recognized as unique to the Chinese epidemic strains causing STSS, was partially included in some other virulent and avirulent strains. The ABC-type transport systems, encoded by 89K, were hypothesized to greatly contribute to the catastrophic features of STSS. Moreover, we identified many polymorphisms in genes encoding candidate or known virulence factors, such as PlcR, lipase, sortases, the pilus-associated proteins, and the response regulator RevS and CtsR. On the basis of analysis of regions of differences (RDs across the entire genome for the 18 selected SS2 strains, a model of microevolution for these strains is proposed, which provides clues into Streptococcus pathogenicity and evolution. Conclusions Our deep comparative genomic analysis of the 89K PAI present in the genome of SS2 strains revealed details into how some virulent strains acquired genes that may contribute to STSS, which may lead to better environmental monitoring of epidemic SS2 strains.

  7. Genetic analysis of Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura recovered from humans and pigs in a sympatric setting in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2012-01-01

    The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis in humans and pigs, respectively, are believed to be two different species yet closely related. Morphologically, adult worms, eggs and larvae of the two species are indistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic variation....... suis-type) and three cases of ‘heterozygote’ worms in humans were identified. However, the analysis showed that sympatric Trichuris primarily assorted with host origin. Sequence analysis of a part of the genetically conserved ¿-tubulin gene confirmed two separate populations/species but also showed...... that the ‘heterozygote’ worms had a T. suis-like ¿-tubulin gene. A PCR-RFLP on the ITS-2 region was developed, that could distinguish between worms of the pig, human and ‘heterozygote’ type. The data suggest that Trichuris in pigs and humans belong to two different populations (i.e. are two different species). However...

  8. Characterization of a Streptococcus suis tet(O/W/32/O)-carrying element transferable to major streptococcal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Mingoia, Marina; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Ripa, Sandro; Varaldo, Pietro E; Facinelli, Bruna

    2012-09-01

    Mosaic tetracycline resistance determinants are a recently discovered class of hybrids of ribosomal protection tet genes. They may show different patterns of mosaicism, but their final size has remained unaltered. Initially thought to be confined to a small group of anaerobic bacteria, mosaic tet genes were then found to be widespread. In the genus Streptococcus, a mosaic tet gene [tet(O/W/32/O)] was first discovered in Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant pig and human pathogen. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of a tet(O/W/32/O) gene-carrying mobile element from an S. suis isolate. tet(O/W/32/O) was detected, in tandem with tet(40), in a circular 14,741-bp genetic element (39.1% G+C; 17 open reading frames [ORFs] identified). The novel element, which we designated 15K, also carried the macrolide resistance determinant erm(B) and an aminoglycoside resistance four-gene cluster including aadE (streptomycin) and aphA (kanamycin). 15K appeared to be an unstable genetic element that, in the absence of recombinases, is capable of undergoing spontaneous excision under standard growth conditions. In the integrated form, 15K was found inside a 54,879-bp integrative and conjugative element (ICE) (50.5% G+C; 55 ORFs), which we designated ICESsu32457. An ∼1.3-kb segment that apparently served as the att site for excision of the unstable 15K element was identified. The novel ICE was transferable at high frequency to recipients from pathogenic Streptococcus species (S. suis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae), suggesting that the multiresistance 15K element can successfully spread within streptococcal populations.

  9. Long-term outcomes of patients with Streptococcus suis infection in Viet Nam: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu T L; Long, Hoang B; Kinh, Nguyen V; Ngan, Ta T D; Dung, Vu T V; Nadjm, Behzad; van Doorn, H Rogier; Hoa, Ngo T; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic cause of severe meningitis and sepsis in humans. We aimed to assess the long-term outcomes in patients who survived S. suis infection, in particular the progress and impact of vestibulocochlear sequelae. This case-control study evaluated outcomes of S. suis infection at discharge and 3 and 9 months post-discharge for 47 prospectively enrolled cases and at 11-34 months for 31 retrospectively enrolled cases. Outcomes in patients were compared to 270 controls matched for age, sex and residency. The prevalence ratio (PR) of moderate-to-complete hearing loss was 5.0(95%CI 3.6-7.1) in cases at discharge, 3.7(2.5-5.4) at 3 months, 3.2(2.2-4.7) at 9 months, and 3.1(2.1-4.4) in retrospective cases compared to controls. Hearing improvement occurred mostly within the first 3 months with a change in hearing level of 11.1%(95%CI 7.0-15.1%) compared to discharge. The PR of vestibular dysfunction was 2.4(95%CI 1.7-3.3) at discharge, 2.2(1.4-3.1) at 3 months, 1.8(1.1-2.5) at 9 months, and 1.8(1.1-2.6) for retrospective cases compared to controls. Cases also indicated more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities. Both hearing and vestibular impairment were common and persist in cases. Appropriate patient management strategies are needed to reduce the incidence and impact of these sequelae. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Parasite-specific IL-4 responses in Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis-infected pigs evaluated by ELISPOT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N. R.; Kringel, H.; Roepstorff, A.

    2007-01-01

    method is a valuable tool for future experimental settings as it enables repeated and parasite-specific measurement of IL-4 at protein level when investigating, for example, immunomodulatory properties of helminths. Furthermore, the method could be used to identify specific parasite antigens inducing IL......The objective of the present study was to develop an ELISPOT method to measure parasite-specific IL-4 producing cells during experimental Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs. In many experimental settings it is useful to be able to measure changes in specifically induced cytokines...

  11. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Treatments and Vaccination Regimens for Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Streptococcus suis Coinfection of Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbur, P.; Thanawongnuwech, R.; Brown, G.; Kinyon, J.; Roth, J.; Thacker, E.; Thacker, B.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-six, crossbred, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-free pigs were weaned at 12 days of age and randomly assigned to seven groups of 10 to 11 pigs each. Pigs in group 1 served as unchallenged controls. Pigs in groups 2 to 7 were challenged intranasally with 2 ml of high-virulence PRRSV isolate VR-2385 (104.47 50% tissue culture infective doses per 2 ml) on day 0 of the study (30 days of age). Seven days after PRRSV challenge, pigs in groups 2 to 7 were challenged intranasally with 2 ml of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (108.30 CFU/2 ml). Group 2 pigs served as untreated positive controls. Antimicrobial treatments included daily intramuscular injection with 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G per kg of body weight on days 8 to 10 (group 3), drinking water medication with 23.1 mg of tiamulin per kg during days 8 to 10 (group 4), and daily intramuscular injection of 5.0 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride per kg on days 8 to 10 (group 5). Vaccination regimens included two intramuscular doses of an autogenous killed S. suis vaccine (group 6) prior to S. suis challenge or a single 2-ml intramuscular dose of an attenuated live PRRSV vaccine (group 7) 2 weeks prior to PRRSV challenge. Mortality was 0, 63, 45, 54, 9, 40, and 81% in groups 1 to 7, respectively. Ceftiofur treatment was the only regimen that significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mortality associated with PRRSV and S. suis coinfection. The other treatments and vaccinations were less effective. We conclude that ceftiofur administered by injection for three consecutive days following S. suis challenge was the most effective regimen for minimizing disease associated with PRRSV and S. suis coinfection. PMID:10699012

  12. Clinical utility of the MMPI-2-RF SUI items and scale in a forensic inpatient setting: Association with interview self-report and future suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Burchett, Danielle; Martinez, Jennifer; Gomez, Anthony

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined whether the 5 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) items (93, 120, 164, 251, and 334) would provide incremental suicide-risk assessment information after accounting for information garnered from clinical interview questions. Among 229 forensic inpatients (146 men, 83 women) who were administered the MMPI-2-RF, 34.9% endorsed at least 1 SUI item. We found that patients who endorsed SUI items on the MMPI-2-RF concurrently denied conceptually related suicide-risk information during the clinical interview. For instance, 8% of the sample endorsed Item 93 (indicating recent suicidal ideation), yet denied current suicidal ideation upon interview. Conversely, only 2.2% of the sample endorsed current suicidal ideation during the interview, yet denied recent suicidal ideation on Item 93. The SUI scale, as well as the MMPI-2-RF Demoralization (RCd) and Low Positive Emotions (RC2) scales, correlated significantly and meaningfully with conceptually related suicide-risk information from the interview, including history of suicide attempts, history of suicidal ideation, current suicidal ideation, and months since last suicide attempt. We also found that the SUI scale added incremental variance (after accounting for information garnered from the interview and after accounting for scores on RCd and RC2) to predictions of future suicidal behavior within 1 year of testing. Relative risk ratios indicated that both SUI-item endorsement and the presence of interview-reported risk information significantly and meaningfully increased the risk of suicidal behavior in the year following testing, particularly when endorsement of suicidal ideation occurred for both methods of self-report. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis . Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species ( Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes , and S. suis ) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICE Sp 1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICE Sa 2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICE Sa 2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs.

  14. Evolution and diversity of the antimicrobial resistance associated mobilome in Streptococcus suis: a probable mobile genetic elements reservoir for other streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR determinants. Although previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs, prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and S. suis revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICESp1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICESa2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs’ expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICESa2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs.

  15. Development of a Chlamydia suis-specific antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the use of a B-cell epitope of the polymorphic membrane protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Puysseleyr, K; Kieckens, E; De Puysseleyr, L; Van den Wyngaert, H; Ahmed, B; Van Lent, S; Creasy, H H; Myers, G S A; Vanrompay, D

    2018-04-01

    Chlamydia suis infections lead to economic loss in the pork industry. Chlamydia suis infections could be successfully treated with tetracyclines until the appearance of a tetracycline resistant phenotype, which was acquired via horizontal gene transfer of the tet(C) gene. Given the importance of C. suis as a swine pathogen and as a recently emerged tetracycline resistant pathogen with zoonotic potential, our aim was to develop a sensitive C. suis-specific antibody ELISA based on the polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps). Chlamydia Pmps are important virulence factors and candidate antigens for serodiagnosis. We identified nine Pmps (PmpA to I) in C. suis strain MD56 using a recently developed Hidden-Markov model. PmpC was the most promising candidate for the development of a C. suis-specific antibody ELISA as the protein was absent in C. abortus, C. pecorum and C. psittaci which also infect pigs and as the protein contained C. suis-specific amino acid regions, absent in C. trachomatis PmpC. We identified an immunodominant B-cell epitope in C. suis PmpC using experimental porcine sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the PmpC ELISA was compared to the complement fixation test (CFT) and to a recombinant MOMP ELISA using experimental sera. The PmpC ELISA detected all positive control sera and was in contrast to CFT and the rMOMP ELISA 100% C. suis specific as positive control sera against other Chlamydia species did not react in the PmpC ELISA. The test was successfully validated using slaughterhouse sera and sera from clinically affected pigs. The PmpC ELISA could assist in diminishing the spread of C. suis infections in the pork industry. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms.

  17. Multifunctional Thioredoxin-Like Protein from the Gastrointestinal Parasitic Nematodes Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis Affects Mucosal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ditgen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite’s mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM. Further analysis applying an in vitro mucosal 3D-cell culture model revealed that the secreted Trx-lps were able to bind to monocytic and intestinal epithelial cells and induce the time-dependent release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-22, and TSLP. In addition, the redox proteins also possessed chemotactic activity for monocytic THP-1 cells and fostered epithelial wound healing activity. These results confirm that the parasite-secreted Trx-lps are multifunctional proteins that can affect the host intestinal mucosa.

  18. ANALYSIS OF REMOTE SENSING ARCHAEOLOGY ON TRAFFIC FUNCTION TRANSFORMATION OF TONGJI GRAND CANAL IN SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-yuan; HE Hui; ZHOU Ying-qiu; GAO Chao; HAN Shuang-wang

    2006-01-01

    In China, most directions of river flowing are from west to east. During historic period, since the water traffic played an important role, it was very important to form a cross-horizontal net of water carriage route. Canals should be dug so as to make up the lack of north-south river. Tongji Grand Canal, dug in the first year of Daye (605 A.D.) in the Sui Dynasty, was the important component of north-south system of Grand Canals in China. It promoted economic and social development of the Sui, Tang and Song dynasties (605 A.D.-1279 A.D.). As Tongji Canal (i.e.Tongji Grand Canal) flowed across the Huaibei Plain, which is aggraded by abundant mud and sand deposit resulted from the Huanghe (Yellow) River flooding, many traces (such as old channel) and human culture heritages were buried under mud-sand. Tongji Canal was silted up, and disappeared in the Jin Dynasty (1115 A.D.-1234 A.D.). From then on, there were many different stories about the flowing route of the canal in historical literature. Based on space-bone and air-bone remote sensing imagery, we attempt to search the old channel of Tongji Canal, and supplement historical record. The paper discusses transformation process of Tongji Canal's traffic function, and resumptively summarizes the reasons of the transformation, which results from synthetic function of physical geographical, political, economic, and social conditions.

  19. La raccolta storico-topografica della città e del territorio di Perugia di Achille Bertini Calosso fra estetica idealistica e tardo positivismo storico / The historical-topographic collection of Perugia by Achille Bertini Calosso between idealistic aesthetics and late historic positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dragoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La “Raccolta Storico-Topografica della Città e del Territorio di Perugia”, che Achille Bertini Calosso, Soprintendente ai Monumenti e alle Gallerie dell’Umbria, allestisce nel 1946, con il progetto di farne il “Museo di Perugia”, rispecchia fedelmente la cultura museale maturata nella prima metà del Novecento in Italia e, per molti aspetti, in altri paesi europei. Da un lato, infatti, sia per la sua origine, che può farsi risalire all’“Esposizione Generale Umbra” del 1899 e al conseguente progetto per un museo del Risorgimento, nonché alla “Mostra di Antica Arte Umbra” del 1907, sia per i modelli italiani e stranieri ai quali si richiama, a partire dal Musée Carnavalet, manifesta un impianto concettuale di matrice tardo-positivistica. D’altra parte, poiché l’intento con cui era stata realizzata era anche quello di riunirvi  oggetti di importanza documentaria, ma di scarsa o nulla qualità artistica che, se esposti insieme alle altre opere della Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria, si riteneva ne avrebbero compromesso il complessivo valore estetico, procurando addirittura nei visitatori “confusione e persino disgusto”, essa riflette il dibattito museografico apertosi all’inizio degli anni Trenta, codificato a livello internazionale a Madrid nel 1934 e in Italia nel 1938, durante il Convegno dei Soprintendenti tenuto alla vigilia delle leggi di tutela del 1939, e praticamente adottato negli interventi museografici del dopoguerra. The “Historical-Topographic Collection of the Town of Perugia and the Perugia Area,” which Achille Bertini Calosso, superintendent of Monuments and of the Galleries of Umbria, set up in 1946 with the plan of making it the “Museum of Perugia,” faithfully reflects the museum culture that took shape in the first half of the 20th century in Italy and, in many respects, in other European countries. Indeed, it shows a late positivist conceptual arrangement, both for its origins

  20. [Bladder injury during sling operation in the treatment of SUI--review of literature and case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałczyński, Krzysztof; Futyma, Konrad; Bar, Krzysztof; Rechberger, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    Sling operations have been performed for over 15 years. In recent years these operations have become the gold standard in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) due to their efficacy safety and low invasiveness. Approximately 4% of women will undergo a surgery for SUI in the course of their life. As with any surgical intervention, there may be some technical problems, as well as intra- and postoperative complications, the most common of which is bladder injury Other complications encountered during mid-urethral slings procedures include bleeding (retropubic or vaginal hematomas), urethral perforation, urinary tract infections, postoperative vaginal or urethral erosions, bowel perforation, chronic pelvic pain, wound infection, nerve injury transient and persistent voiding dysfunction such as de novo urgency incomplete bladder emptying or urinary retention. Below we present a case of a patient with diagnosed vesicovaginal fistula after sling operation (TVT-tension-free vaginal tape). Upon admission the patient reported dysuria, persistent urinary leakage and abnormal, abundant vaginal discharge. Case report and review of literature concerning surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence and its complications. Analysis of medical documentation of the patient treated at the Second Department of Gynecology Medical University of Lublin. Review of abstracts or papers in the Medline database related to surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and its complications. Bladder perforation is one of the most common complications of the retropubic approach for MUS placement. The presence of mesh within the bladder may arise from direct bladder perforation or from subsequent erosion of the sling. Such lesions do not cause any serious health consequences for patients on condition they are detected intraoperatively and appropriately repaired, but when unrecognized, they results in the development of considerable symptoms and negatively influence the quality of

  1. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing

  2. Identification and characterization of two temperature-induced surface-associated proteins of Streptococcus suis with high homologies to members of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus pyogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterhoff, N.; Goethe, R.; Gruening, P.; Rohde, M.; Kalisz, H.; Smith, H.E.; Valentin-Weigand, P.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to identify stress-induced putative virulence proteins of Streptococcus suis. For this, protein expression patterns of streptococci grown at 32, 37, and 42°C were compared by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Temperature shifts from 32 and 37 to 42°C

  3. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Salmon, S.A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested:

  4. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis vector delivering SaoA antigen confers protection against Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 7 in mice and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-An; Ji, Zhenying; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shifeng; Shi, Huoying

    2017-12-21

    Streptococcus suis is one of the major pathogens that cause economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. However, current bacterins only provide limited prophylactic protection in the field. An ideal vaccine against S. suis should protect pigs against the clinical diseases caused by multiple serotypes, or at least protect against the dominant serotype in a given geographic region. A new recombinant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis vaccine vector, rSC0011, that is based on the regulated delayed attenuation system and regulated delayed antigen synthesis system, was developed recently. In this study, an improved recombinant attenuated Salmonella Choleraesuis vector, rSC0016, was developed by incorporating a sopB mutation to ensure adequate safety and maximal immunogenicity. In the spleens of mice, rSC0016 colonized less than rSC0011. rSC0016 and rSC0011 colonized similarly in Peyer's patches of mice. The recombinant vaccine rSC0016(pS-SaoA) induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses in mice and swine against SaoA, a conserved surface protein that is present in many S. suis serotypes, than did rSC0011(pS-SaoA) without sopB or rSC0018(pS-SaoA), which is an avirulent, chemically attenuated vaccine strain. rSC0016(pS-SaoA) provided 100% protection against S. suis serotype 2 in mice and pigs, and full cross-protection against SS7 in pigs. This new vaccine vector provides a foundation for the development of a universal vaccine against multiple serotypes of S. suis in pigs.

  5. The transcriptome of Trichuris suis--first molecular insights into a parasite with curative properties for key immune diseases of humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic infection of humans with Trichuris suis (a parasitic nematode of swine is being evaluated or promoted as a biological, curative treatment of immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and ulcerative colitis, in humans. Although it is understood that short-term T. suis infection in people with such diseases usually induces a modified Th2-immune response, nothing is known about the molecules in the parasite that induce this response.As a first step toward filling the gaps in our knowledge of the molecular biology of T. suis, we characterised the transcriptome of the adult stage of this nematode employing next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques. A total of ∼65,000,000 reads were generated and assembled into ∼20,000 contiguous sequences ( = contigs; ∼17,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, protein motifs and gene ontology and biological pathway mapping.These analyses provided interesting insights into a number of molecular groups, particularly predicted excreted/secreted molecules (n = 1,288, likely to be involved in the parasite-host interactions, and also various molecules (n = 120 linked to chemokine, T-cell receptor and TGF-β signalling as well as leukocyte transendothelial migration and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which are likely to be immuno-regulatory or -modulatory in the infected host. This information provides a conceptual framework within which to test the immunobiological basis for the curative effect of T. suis infection in humans against some immune diseases. Importantly, the T. suis transcriptome characterised herein provides a curated resource for detailed studies of the immuno-molecular biology of this parasite, and will underpin future genomic and proteomic explorations.

  6. Use of a Mycoplasma suis-PCR protocol for screening a population of captive peccaries (Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu pecari Uso de um protocolo de PCR para a detecção de Mycoplasma suis para avaliação de uma população de catetos e queixadas de cativeiro (Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu pecari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma suis is a hemotropic bacteria of red blood cells and the causative agent of swine eperythrozoonosis. Diagnosis of infection may be reached by direct examination of blood smears; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the 16S RNA gene of M. suis improves the sensitivity and specificity of detection. The aim of this study was to screen peccaries (Tayassu tajacu and T. pecari for M. suis infection using a specific conventional PCR. A total of 28 blood samples from captive collared and white-lipped peccaries were collected, DNA extracted and a specific M. suis PCR assay performed. All samples were negatives by both blood smear examination and PCR testing. To verify the presence of amplifiable DNA, PCR for beta-actin gene was performed in all samples. This study was part of an active surveillance program, which is crucial for monitoring animal health status, particularly in wildlife species.Mycoplasma suis é uma bactéria hemotrópica dos eritrócitos e é o agente causador da eperitrozoonose suína. O diagnóstico da infecção pode ser realizado pelo exame direto de esfregaços sanguíneos; entretanto, o uso da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR baseada no gene 16S RNA de M. suis aumenta a sensibilidade e especificidade da detecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar catetos e queixadas (Tayassu tajacu e T. pecari para a infecção por M. suis, utilizando PCR convencional específico. Um total de 28 amostras de sangue de catetos e queixadas de cativeiro foram coletadas, o DNA foi extraído e a PCR específica para a detecção de M. suis realizada. Todas as amostras foram negativas pelo esfregaço sanguíneo e PCR. Para verificar a presença de DNA amplificável, PCR para o gene da beta actina foi realizada em todas as amostras. Este estudo foi parte de um programa de vigilância ativa, o qual é crucial para o monitoramento do estado de saúde animal, particularmente em espécies selvagens.

  7. [Identification and detection of trag: a new infection-related gene expressed in vivo from isolates of Streptococcus suis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haodan; Gu, Hongwei; Lu, Chengping

    2008-12-01

    The trag (transfer gene G) was one of the novel infection-related factors identified by in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) from Streptococcus suis type 2 expression libraries with swine convalesecent sera in our former research. We detected the distribution of trag in different Streptococcus suis isolates and identify the differential expression of the new infection-related factor between in vivo and in vitro condition. According to the sequence of trag of North American strain 89/1591, a pair of primers were designed to detect the distribution of trag in total 43 SS isolates. Another pair of primers were designed to amplify the ORF of trag of 5 SS representive strains (ZY05719, HA9801, 98012, SH040805, SH040917). Partial gene of trag was cloned and inserted into expression vector pET28a(+), and induced by IPTG to express recombinant TRAG. The recombinant protein was probed with swine convalescent sera and immune sera respectively. The trag was detected in the most of SS2 isolates (30/32), in SS9 isolates (4/6), and 1 isolate of SS7, while it was not found in SS2 European strain ATCC43765, avirulent strain SS2 T15, 1 isolates of SS1, 1 isolates of SS1/2 and 2 isolates of group C streptococcal strains from pigs. Comparisons between the sequences of TRAG of 5 isolates with that of SS isolates, showed a high homology (>97%) with North American strain 89/1589 and China strains 98HAH33, 05ZYH33. The immunoreactivity was only presented with convalescent sera. The trag was detected from virulent SS isolates but not from avirulent strain, which suggested that this gene may be related to the pathogenicity of SS. The special reactivity was only present with convalescent sera, and it indicated that TRAG might play a role during SS2 invasive course.

  8. A data bank about wild rodent specimens of Italy / Una banca dati sui roditori selvatici d'Italia

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    Giovanni Amori

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The setting up of a "data bank" dealing with the findings of Rodents specimens (Families: Gliridae, Arvicolidae, Muridae of peninsular and insular Italy available for 1950-1981 years in the italian museums and collections. The file, wherever possible, has been filled up with cartographic, bioclimatic and synanthropic data. With the use of a microcomputer has thus become possible to make inquires related both to biological and environmental data. Data management allows the following function: file maintenance (insert, delete and modify record; cross - reference search; search index; report generation. In the first phase challenges have been formulated, requiring simple data processing. Some informations were obtained as reply about the prevalences in the capturing referred to sex and season, as well as the connections between Rodents coenosis and bioclimatic condition of the territory. Riassunto È stata avviata una "banca dati" dei rinvenimenti di esemplari di Roditori (Famiglie: Gliridae, Arvicolidae, Muridae dell'Italia peninsulare ed insulare catalogati negli anni 1950-1981 nei Musei e collezioni italiani. L'archivio, laddove possibile, è stato completato con i dati cartografici, bioclimatici e sinantropici. L'uso del microcomputer ha permesso di formulare domande incrociate sia sui dati biologici che su quelli ambientali. La gestione dei dati consente le seguenti funzioni: gestione dell'archivio (inserimento, cancellazione e modifica del record; ricerca incrociata; ricerca per indice; stampa. In una prima fase sono state formulate alcune domande richiedenti semplici elaborazioni sulle preponderanze delle catture in rapporto al sesso ed alla stagione, nonché sui rapporti tra cenosi a Roditori ed assetto bioclimatico del territorio.

  9. Construction, characterization and evaluation of the protective efficacy of the Streptococcus suis double mutant strain ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC as a live vaccine candidate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; You, Wujin; Wang, Bin; Hu, Xueying; Tan, Chen; Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) causes sepsis and meningitis in piglets and humans, and results in one of the most serious bacterial diseases affecting the production of commercial pigs around the world. Due to the failure of the current inactivated vaccine to protect against the disease, development of a new attenuated live vaccine against S. suis 2 by deleting essential virulence factors is urgently needed. We have previously reported the construction and characterization of an SsPep single gene deletion mutant strain ΔSsPep based on S. suis 2. Our previous results have shown that SsPep plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2. In this study, a precisely defined double-deletion mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC of S. suis 2 without antibiotic-resistance markers was constructed based on ΔSsPep, and the levels of virulence of the wild-type (WT) and ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC were compared in a mouse experimental infection model. We demonstrated that the double mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC was less virulent than the WT, and could induce a noticeable antibody response. Analysis of IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) indicated that both Th1 and Th2 responses were induced by ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC, although the IgG2a (Th1) response predominated over the IgG1 (Th2) response. Moreover, ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC could confer 90% protective efficacy against challenge with a lethal dose of fully virulent S. suis 2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC can be used as an effective live vaccine and provide a novel strategy against infection of S. suis 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de oito antimicrobianos frente isolados de Streptococcus suis

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    Felipe Masiero Salvarani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The minimun inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined toward amoxicilin, ampicilin, penicillin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, lincomycin, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and tetracycline for 75 strains of Streptococcus suis. The MIC was performed on sheep blood agar plates containing concentrations varying from 0,25 to 256 µg/ml of the antibiotic described above. The amoxicilin in the concentrations of 1 and 2 µg/ml, florfenicol in the concentration of 1 µg/ml and trimethoprim-sulfadiazine in the concentrations of 2 e 8 µg/ml, were the antibiotics that presented minor resistance. In contrast, the ampicilin, tetracycline, ceftiofur and lincomycin, presented MIC of 64 and 128 µg/ml, 64 and 128 µg/ml, 128 and 256 µg/ml and >;256 µg/ml, respectively. The results of this study show that the amoxicilin and florfenicol are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of diseases by S. suis in swine.

  11. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis isolates from pigs with or without streptococcal disease in England between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Juan; Wang, Jinhong; Restif, Olivier; Holmes, Mark A; Mather, Alison E; Weinert, Lucy A; Wileman, Thomas M; Thomson, Jill R; Langford, Paul R; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis, a global zoonotic pathogen of pigs, has been mostly studied only in diseased animals using surveys that have not evaluated changes over time. We compared patterns of resistance between S. suis isolates from clinical cases of disease (CC) and non-clinical case (NCC) pigs in England, collected over two discrete periods, 2009-2011 and 2013-2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 17 antimicrobials (nine classes) were determined on 405 S. suis isolates categorised by sampling period and disease association to assess changes in resistance over time and association with disease. First, isolates were characterized as resistant or susceptible using published clinical breakpoints. Second, epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFF) were derived from MIC values, and isolates classified as wild type (WT) below the ECOFF and non-wild type (NWT) above the ECOFF. Finally, isolate subsets were analysed for shifts in MIC distribution. NCC isolates were more resistant than CC isolates to cephalosporins, penams, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines in both study periods. Resistance levels among CC isolates increased in 2013-2014 relative to 2009-2011 for antimicrobials including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The prevalence of isolates categorised as NWT for five or more classes of antimicrobials was greater among NCC than CC isolates for both time periods, and increased with time. This study used standardised methods to identify significant shifts in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of S. suis isolated from pigs in England, not only over time but also between isolates from known clinical cases or disease-free pigs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. New view on the age-specificity of pig Cryptosporidium by species-specific primers for distinguishing Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeníková, M.; Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, 2/3 (2011), 120-125 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Mixed infection * Age-specificity * Species-specific primers Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  13. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:...

  14. Long-term clinical outcomes with the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure compared to Burch colposuspension for correcting stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdø, Bjørn; Verelst, Margareta; Svenningsen, Rune; Milsom, Ian; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2017-11-01

    The retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure replaced Burch colposuspension as the primary surgical method for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in women in our department in 1998. In this study we compared the short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures. Using a case series design, we compared the last 5 years of the Burch procedure (n = 127, 1994-1999) with the first 5 years of the retropubic TVT procedure (n = 180, 1998-2002). Information from the medical records was transferred to a case report form comprising data on perioperative and long-term complications as well as recurrence of UI, defined as bothersome UI or UI in need of repeat surgery. Other endpoints were rates of perioperative and late complications and the rates of prolapse surgery after primary surgery. The data were analyzed with the chi-squared and t tests and survival analysis using SPSS. The cumulative recurrence rate of SUI in women with preoperative SUI was significantly higher after the Burch procedure, but no difference was observed in women with MUI. There were no significant differences in rates of perioperative and late complications. At 12 years there was a significant increase in rates of repeat surgery for incontinence and prolapse in women after the Burch procedure. The long-term efficacy of TVT surgery was superior to that of Burch colposuspension in women with SUI. In addition, the rate of late prolapse surgery was significantly higher after the Burch procedure.

  15. First insights into the protective effects of a recombinant swinepox virus expressing truncated MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyan; Zhu, Haodan; Lin, Huixing; Xu, Jiarong; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    To explore the potential of the swinepox virus (SPV) as vector for Streptococcus suis vaccines, a vector system was developed for the construction of a recombinant SPV carrying bacterial genes. Using this system, a recombinant virus expressing truncated muramidase-released protein (MRP) of S. suis type 2 (SS2), designated rSPV-MRP, was produced and identified by PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The rSPV-MRP was found to be only slightly attenuated in PK-15 cells, when compared with the wild-type virus. After immunization intramuscularly with rSPV-MRP, SS2 inactive vaccine (positive control), wild-type SPV (negative control) and PBS (blank control) respectively, all CD1 mice were challenged with a lethal dose or a sublethal dose of SS2 highly virulent strain ZY05719. While SS2 inactive vaccine protected all mice, immunization with rSPV-MRP resulted in 60% survival and protected mice against a lethal dose of the highly virulent SS2 strain, compared with the negative control (P MRP had a significantly reduced bacterial burden in all organs examined, compared to negative controls and blank controls (P MRP-vaccinated group were significantly higher (P MRP provided mice with protection from systemic SS2 infection. If SPV recombinants have the potential as S. suis vaccines for the use in pigs has to be evaluated in further studies.

  16. A Hashtag Worth a Thousand Words: Discursive Strategies Around #JeNeSuisPasCharlie After the 2015 Charlie Hebdo Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Giglietto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a shooting attack by two self-proclaimed Islamist gunmen at the offices of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo on 7 January 2015, there emerged the hashtag #JeSuisCharlie on Twitter as an expression of solidarity and support for the magazine’s right to free speech. Almost simultaneously, however, there was also #JeNeSuisPasCharlie explicitly countering the former, affirmative hashtag. Based on a multimethod analysis of 74,047 tweets containing #JeNeSuisPasCharlie posted between 7 and 11 January, this article reveals that users of the hashtag under study employed various discursive strategies and tactics to challenge the mainstream framing of the shooting as the universal value of freedom of expression being threatened by religious extremism, while protecting themselves from the risk of being viewed as disrespecting victims or endorsing the violence committed. The significance of this study is twofold. First, it extends the literature on strategic speech acts by examining how such acts take place in a social media context. Second, it highlights the need for a multidimensional and reflective methodology when dealing with data mined from social media.

  17. Serological patterns of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis in pig herds affected by pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgren, Per; Nörregård, Erik; Molander, Benedicta; Persson, Maria; Ehlorsson, Carl-Johan

    2016-10-04

    Respiratory illness is traditionally regarded as the disease of the growing pig, and has historically mainly been associated to bacterial infections with focus on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These bacteria still are of great importance, but continuously increasing herd sizes have complicated the scenario and the influence of secondary invaders may have been increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae and M. hyopneumoniae, as well as that of the secondary invaders Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis by serology in four pig herds (A-D) using age segregated rearing systems with high incidences of pleuritic lesions at slaughter. Pleuritic lesions registered at slaughter ranged from 20.5 to 33.1 % in the four herds. In herd A, the levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae exceeded A 450  > 1.5, but not to any other microbe searched for. The seroconversion took place early during the fattening period. Similar levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae were also recorded in herd B, with a subsequent increase in levels of antibodies to P. multocida. Pigs seroconverted to both agents during the early phase of the fattening period. In herd C, pigs seroconverted to P. multocida during the early phase of the fattening period and thereafter to A. pleuropneumoniae. In herd D, the levels of antibodies to P. multocida exceeded A 450  > 1.0 in absence (A 450  hyopneumoniae and to S. suis remained below A 450  hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period (herd B-D), or not at all (herd A). Different serological patterns were found in the four herds with high levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, either alone or in combination with each other. Seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period or not at all, confirmed the positive effect of age segregated rearing in preventing or delaying infections with M

  18. RegA Plays a Key Role in Oxygen-Dependent Establishment of Persistence and in Isocitrate Lyase Activity, a Critical Determinant of In vivo Brucella suis Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Abdou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For aerobic human pathogens, adaptation to hypoxia is a critical factor for the establishment of persistent infections, as oxygen availability is low inside the host. The two-component system RegB/A of Brucella suis plays a central role in the control of respiratory systems adapted to oxygen deficiency, and in persistence in vivo. Using an original “in vitro model of persistence” consisting in gradual oxygen depletion, we compared transcriptomes and proteomes of wild-type and ΔregA strains to identify the RegA-regulon potentially involved in the set-up of persistence. Consecutive to oxygen consumption resulting in growth arrest, 12% of the genes in B. suis were potentially controlled directly or indirectly by RegA, among which numerous transcriptional regulators were up-regulated. In contrast, genes or proteins involved in envelope biogenesis and in cellular division were repressed, suggesting a possible role for RegA in the set-up of a non-proliferative persistence state. Importantly, the greatest number of the RegA-repressed genes and proteins, including aceA encoding the functional IsoCitrate Lyase (ICL, were involved in energy production. A potential consequence of this RegA impact may be the slowing-down of the central metabolism as B. suis progressively enters into persistence. Moreover, ICL is an essential determinant of pathogenesis and long-term interactions with the host, as demonstrated by the strict dependence of B. suis on ICL activity for multiplication and persistence during in vivo infection. RegA regulates gene or protein expression of all functional groups, which is why RegA is a key regulator of B. suis in adaptation to oxygen depletion. This function may contribute to the constraint of bacterial growth, typical of chronic infection. Oxygen-dependent activation of two-component systems that control persistence regulons, shared by several aerobic human pathogens, has not been studied in Brucella sp. before. This work

  19. Effect of Early-Life Treatment of Piglets with Long-Acting Ceftiofur on Colonization of Streptococcus suis Serotype 7 and Elicitation of Specific Humoral Immunity in a Farm Dealing with Streptococcal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Unterweger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In newborn piglets treatment with long-acting ceftiofur is a common approach to reduce losses due to streptococcal diseases on farms, even if problems start after weaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a single early-life treatment on Streptococcus (S. suis colonization, transmission, immunoreaction, and drug resistance over an observation period of 14 weeks. In a farm with a history of streptococcal disease and isolation of a S. suis cps 7 mrp+, arcA+ isolate from diseased piglets, half of each litter was treated with a long-acting ceftiofur on day 1. S. suis-isolates were profiled and serum samples were tested for opsonizing antibodies. Treated and untreated pigs did not differ according to average daily weight gains, S. suis-isolation rates and level of opsonizing antibodies. Although the invasive cps 7 strain was not detected in a single piglet over 14 weeks, all animals developed bactericidal activity. No resistance to ceftiofur, but resistance to tetracyclins (100%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (53% was shown. Our results indicate that early treatment with ceftiofur does not prevent colonization and transmission of S. suis or the induction of bactericidal humoral immunity in nursery and fattening pigs. The necessity of continuous usage should be reconsidered.

  20. Sorotipagem de amostras de Streptococcus suis isoladas de suínos em granjas dos Estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná Serotyping of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila J.R. Pagnani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Infecções causadas por Streptococcus suis são muito comuns em países onde a indústria de carne suína é desenvolvida. Estas infecções estão relacionadas a casos clínicos de broncopneumonia, meningite, artrite, pericardite, miocardite, endocardite, poliserosite fibrinosa, septicemia, rinite e aborto. Esta bactéria também foi descrita como patógeno de ruminantes e humanos. No Brasil há evidências clínicas da existência de processos infecciosos causados por S. suis afetando mais de 50% das granjas em Estados como São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná. No presente estudo foram isoladas 51 amostras de S. suis de granjas do Estados acima referidos, coletadas de diferentes casos clínicos como septicemia, meningite, artrite e pneumonia, tendo sido obtidas ou em cultura pura ou como patógeno de maior predominância nos tecidos de suínos. Este material foi semeado em Columbia ágar sangue adicionado de 5% de sangue bovino e incubado a 37°C por 24 horas. Para a identificação bioquímica as colônias que apresentavam a-hemólise, bem como as amostras padrão, foram submetidas a testes convencionais para a confirmação da espécie S. suis, tais como: hidrólise de arginina, teste de Voges-Proskauer, e produção de ácido a partir de vários carboidratos (inulina, salicina, trealose, lactose, sacarose, sorbitol, manitol e glicerol. As amostras também foram testadas para habilidade de crescimento em meio de TSA com 6,5% de NaCl e para a produção de amilase. Todas as amostras que fizeram parte desta pesquisa foram testadas pelo sistema Api 20 Strep para confirmação dos resultados obtidos nos testes convencionais. Para a sorotipagem foram produzidos antissoros de 1 a 8. Outras amostras não pertencentes a estes sorotipos também foram sorotipadas. O antissoro produzido em coelhos foi titulado pelo teste de aglutinação em tubo com 2-mercaptoetanol e pelo teste de reação capsular e, quando adequados, foram usados no teste de co

  1. HP1330 Contributes to Streptococcus suis Virulence by Inducing Toll-Like Receptor 2- and ERK1/2-Dependent Pro-inflammatory Responses and Influencing In Vivo S. suis Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2 has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS in China. Excessive inflammation stimulated by SS2 is considered a hallmark of STSLS, even it also plays important roles in other clinical symptoms of SS2-related disease, including meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death. However, the mechanism of SS2-caused excessive inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, a novel pro-inflammatory protein was identified (HP1330, which could induce robust expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in RAW264.7 macrophages. To evaluate the role of HP1330 in SS2 virulence, an hp1330-deletion mutant (Δhp1330 was constructed. In vitro, hp1330 disruption led to a decreased pro-inflammatory ability of SS2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo, Δhp1330 showed reduced lethality, pro-inflammatory activity, and bacterial loads in mice. To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory activity of HP1330 depended on the recognition of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that HP1330 contributes to SS2 virulence by inducing TLR2- and ERK1/2-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and influencing in vivo bacterial loads, implying that HP1330 may be associated with STSLS caused by SS2.

  2. Detección de Mycoplasma suis en casos clínicos de síndrome del desmedro multisistémico posdestete en porcinos Detection of Mycoplasma suis in clinical cases with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Pereyra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma suis es un parásito obligado de los eritrocitos del cerdo. Produce anemia aguda o crónica y afecta a distintas categorías de animales. El síndrome del desmedro multisistémico posdestete (PMWS se considera causado por el circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2, aunque muchos aspectos de la patogenia del síndrome permanecen sin aclarar. Se manifiesta a través de retraso del crecimiento, anemia e ictericia en cerdos de 5 a 12 semanas de edad, en los que se produce una inmunosupresión que deriva en coinfecciones bacterianas. Se estudiaron tres granjas porcinas con sintomatología asociada a la presencia de estos dos agentes etiológicos. Se observaron formas compatibles con M. suis en extendidos de sangre y en lesiones histopatológicas indicativas de PMWS, en cortes de tejidos. Esta es la primera comunicación acerca de la asociación clínica entre las dos entidades mencionadas.Mycoplasma suis is a swine erythrocyte obligatory parasite. Its presence may result in chronic or acute anaemia in different pig categories. It is considered that the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS is caused by porcine circovirus type 2, but some aspects of the pathogenesis remain unknown. PMWS signs are impaired weight gain, anaemia and jaundice in 5 to 12 week-old pigs that suffer from immunosuppression and bacterial co-infections. The pigs with signs of these diseases on three porcine farms were studied. Compatible M. suis forms in blood smears and typical PMWS lesions in tissue cuts were seen. This is the first communication of the clinical association between these two entities.

  3. The non-conserved region of MRP is involved in the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Fu, Yang; Ma, Caifeng; He, Yanan; Yu, Yanfei; Du, Dechao; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-10-03

    Muramidase-released protein (MRP) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important epidemic virulence marker with an unclear role in bacterial infection. To investigate the biologic functions of MRP, 3 mutants named Δmrp, Δmrp domain 1 (Δmrp-d1), and Δmrp domain 2 (Δmrp-d2) were constructed to assess the phenotypic changes between the parental strain and the mutant strains. The results indicated that MRP domain 1 (MRP-D1, the non-conserved region of MRP from a virulent strain, a.a. 242-596) played a critical role in adherence of SS2 to host cells, compared with MRP domain 1* (MRP-D1*, the non-conserved region of MRP from a low virulent strain, a.a. 239-598) or MRP domain 2 (MRP-D2, the conserved region of MRP, a.a. 848-1222). We found that MRP-D1 but not MRP-D2, could bind specifically to fibronectin (FN), factor H (FH), fibrinogen (FG), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Additionally, we confirmed that mrp-d1 mutation significantly inhibited bacteremia and brain invasion in a mouse infection model. The mrp-d1 mutation also attenuated the intracellular survival of SS2 in RAW246.7 macrophages, shortened the growth ability in pig blood and decreased the virulence of SS2 in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, antiserum against MRP-D1 was found to dramatically impede SS2 survival in pig blood. Finally, immunization with recombinant MRP-D1 efficiently enhanced murine viability after SS2 challenge, indicating its potential use in vaccination strategies. Collectively, these results indicated that MRP-D1 is involved in SS2 virulence and eloquently demonstrate the function of MRP in pathogenesis of infection.

  4. Differentiation of highly virulent strains of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 according to glutamate dehydrogenase electrophoretic and sequence type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Russell; Okwumabua, Ogi

    2008-10-01

    The glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes of 19 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains, consisting of 18 swine isolates and 1 human clinical isolate from a geographically varied collection, were analyzed by activity staining on a nondenaturing gel. All seven (100%) of the highly virulent strains tested produced an electrophoretic type (ET) distinct from those of moderately virulent and nonvirulent strains. By PCR and nucleotide sequence determination, the gdh genes of the 19 strains and of 2 highly virulent strains involved in recent Chinese outbreaks yielded a 1,820-bp fragment containing an open reading frame of 1,344 nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 448 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 49 kDa. The nucleotide sequences contained base pair differences, but most were silent. Cluster analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences separated the isolates into three groups. Group I (ETI) consisted of the seven highly virulent isolates and the two Chinese outbreak strains, containing Ala(299)-to-Ser, Glu(305)-to-Lys, and Glu(330)-to-Lys amino acid substitutions compared with groups II and III (ETII). Groups II and III consisted of moderately virulent and nonvirulent strains, which are separated from each other by Tyr(72)-to-Asp and Thr(296)-to-Ala substitutions. Gene exchange studies resulted in the change of ETI to ETII and vice versa. A spectrophotometric activity assay for GDH did not show significant differences between the groups. These results suggest that the GDH ETs and sequence types may serve as useful markers in predicting the pathogenic behavior of strains of this serotype and that the molecular basis for the observed differences in the ETs was amino acid substitutions and not deletion, insertion, or processing uniqueness.

  5. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Nejsum, Peter; Friis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low...... treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. METHODOLOGY: We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro....... The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax) of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS...

  7. Semi-Preparative Isolation and Purification of Three Tauro-Conjugated Cholic Acids from Pulvis Fellis Suis by HSCCC Coupled with ELSD Detection

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jiao; Zhang, Yongmin; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2011-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was applied to the separation and purification of three tauro-conjugated cholic acids of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) and taurohyocholic acid (THCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:4:2:0.3, v/v/v/v) was selected for the one-step...

  8. The Fast-Growing Brucella suis Biovar 5 Depends on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase but Not on Fbp and GlpX Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatases or Isocitrate Lyase for Full Virulence in Laboratory Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Brucella infect a range of vertebrates causing a worldwide extended zoonosis. The best-characterized brucellae infect domestic livestock, behaving as stealthy facultative intracellular parasites. This stealthiness depends on envelope molecules with reduced pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as revealed by the low lethality and ability to persist in mice of these bacteria. Infected cells are often engorged with brucellae without signs of distress, suggesting that stealthiness could also reflect an adaptation of the parasite metabolism to use local nutrients without harming the cell. To investigate this, we compared key metabolic abilities of Brucella abortus 2308 Wisconsin (2308W, a cattle biovar 1 virulent strain, and B. suis 513, the reference strain of the ancestral biovar 5 found in wild rodents. B. suis 513 used a larger number of C substrates and showed faster growth rates in vitro, two features similar to those of B. microti, a species phylogenomically close to B. suis biovar 5 that infects voles. However, whereas B. microti shows enhanced lethality and reduced persistence in mice, B. suis 513 was similar to B. abortus 2308W in this regard. Mutant analyses showed that B. suis 513 and B. abortus 2308W were similar in that both depend on phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis for virulence but not on the classical gluconeogenic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases Fbp-GlpX or on isocitrate lyase (AceA. However, B. suis 513 used pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PpdK and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PckA for phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis in vitro while B. abortus 2308W used only PpdK. Moreover, whereas PpdK dysfunction causes attenuation of B. abortus 2308W in mice, in B. suis, 513 attenuation occurred only in the double PckA-PpdK mutant. Also contrary to what occurs in B. abortus 2308, a B. suis 513 malic enzyme (Mae mutant was not attenuated, and this independence of Mae and the role of PpdK was confirmed by the lack of

  9. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Shujie; Li, Linxi; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wu, Jiabin; Li, Liqin; Rong, Fulong; Xu, Mingming; Sun, Guangli; Xiang, Hua; Cai, Xuehui

    2010-08-09

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV)-infected pigs (4/12) and the coinfected pigs (8/10); however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10) than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12) and SS7-infected pigs (0/10). The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  10. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  11. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

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    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  12. Effects of a new community-based reproductive health intervention on knowledge of and attitudes and behaviors toward stress urinary incontinence among young women in Shanghai: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; He, Yuan; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Ke-qin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to introduce a new community-based reproductive health intervention. We then evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention. In this cluster-randomized trial, 2100 participants aged 18-40 years were divided randomly into an intervention group (IG, 1400 women) and a control group (CG, 700 women). The CG received traditional community intervention, cmprising limited reproductive information and education; the IG received the new community-based reproductive health intervention model, comprising self-designed handbooks, health lectures, and free medical consultations, in addition to the traditional community intervention. All participants were surveyed face to face using a self-designed questionnaire before and after the 6-month intervention. In Shanghai, the prevalence rate of SUI was 14.3 %. No difference was observed between groups regarding mean knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) about SUI and the total score at baseline (P > 0.05). The IG scored significantly higher than the CG on the KAP questions at follow-up, and a significant improvement was observed in the IG after the intervention. Total scores increased with age, educational level, income, and time spent working in Shanghai per year but decreased with gravidity and the number of abortions. Native respondents scored higher than did migrants. The prevalence of SUI is high in Shanghai, and the new community-based reproductive health intervention model is both effective and easily implemented. This intervention should focus on women with a low income, women with low education levels, young women, migrant women, and women who have had multiple abortions or pregnancies.

  13. Overcoming function annotation errors in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus suis by a proteomics-driven approach

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    Bárcena José A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annotation of protein-coding genes is a key step in sequencing projects. Protein functions are mainly assigned on the basis of the amino acid sequence alone by searching of homologous proteins. However, fully automated annotation processes often lead to wrong prediction of protein functions, and therefore time-intensive manual curation is often essential. Here we describe a fast and reliable way to correct function annotation in sequencing projects, focusing on surface proteomes. We use a proteomics approach, previously proven to be very powerful for identifying new vaccine candidates against Gram-positive pathogens. It consists of shaving the surface of intact cells with two proteases, the specific cleavage-site trypsin and the unspecific proteinase K, followed by LC/MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The identified proteins are contrasted by computational analysis and their sequences are inspected to correct possible errors in function prediction. Results When applied to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, of which two strains have been recently sequenced and annotated, we identified a set of surface proteins without cytoplasmic contamination: all the proteins identified had exporting or retention signals towards the outside and/or the cell surface, and viability of protease-treated cells was not affected. The combination of both experimental evidences and computational methods allowed us to determine that two of these proteins are putative extracellular new adhesins that had been previously attributed a wrong cytoplasmic function. One of them is a putative component of the pilus of this bacterium. Conclusion We illustrate the complementary nature of laboratory-based and computational methods to examine in concert the localization of a set of proteins in the cell, and demonstrate the utility of this proteomics-based strategy to experimentally correct function annotation errors in sequencing projects. This

  14. Contractual framework of private-public partnership: The sui generis nature of PPP as a result of the holistic approach

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    Cvetković Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The holistic (comprehensive] approach to the methodological framework for the analysis of public-private partnership is essential presumption for the transformation of the public and private interests from the conflicting ones to the parallel and convergent ones. Private and public interests are to be regarded not as the divided particulars but as the element of the dynamics of PPP as a whole. The holistic approach facilitates interaction which brings new 'added values' in the exercise of the public interest by using the PPP construction: economic, social and political. This concept allows the PPP to 'take the best of both worlds' (the protection of the public interest and solidarity from the public sector, and the entrepreneurial logic from the private sector]. In light of the sui generis structure of mutual relations between the public and the private partner in the PPP framework, the contractual basis of public-private partnership has the character of relational contracts. Relational contracts differ from traditional contracting mechanisms. The parties to traditional contracts have equal information at their disposal, which enables them to define ex ante the terms of the transaction insofar as the consequences of performance or non-performance are anticipated at the time of contract conclusion. On the other hand, relational contracts are incomplete agreements: the parties to relational contracts mutually agree that it is impossible or economically inefficient to define ex ante the possible difficulties and circumstances of the transaction at issue (which is possible in classical contracts]. In this respect, in relational contracts the rationale for commitment is relatively flexible. The public-private partnership agreement is a relational contract. Relational contracts within the PPP framework limit the opportunistic behaviour on both parties and promote the development of their co-operation and exchange of information. Relational contracts

  15. Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    .p.) the offspring was slaughtered serially every 2 weeks for parasite recovery. Faeces were collected regularly for parasite egg counts and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content as an indicator of geophagy. Weaning took place week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated in mid-June (O....... dentatum) and late November (O. dentatum and T. suis) using helminth naïve tracer pigs. Soil and vegetation samples were collected regularly. Despite a high initial contamination by the seeder pigs, O. dentatum paddock infectivity was negligible to low throughout the raising of the experimental piglets.......p. The experimental pigs initially had a high faecal level of AIA though it decreased over time. The results are discussed in relation to the biological characteristics of the 2 parasites and their occurrence in organic pig production....

  16. A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Trichuris suis ova in Active Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölmerich, Jürgen; Fellermann, Klaus; Seibold, Frank W

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three different dosages of embryonated, viable eggs of Trichuris suis [TSO] versus placebo for induction of remission in mildly-to-moderately active ileocolonic, uncomplicated Crohn's disease [CD]. Methods: Adults with active CD [n.......2%, and 47.2% of TSO 250, TSO 2500, and TSO 7500 patients, respectively, and in 42.9% of placebo recipients. TSO induced a dose-dependent immunological response. There was no response regarding laboratory markers of inflammation. Other secondary efficacy variables also showed no advantage of TSO over placebo...... for treatment of active CD. Administration of TSO did not result in any serious adverse drug reaction. Review of non-serious suspected adverse drug reactions following TSO did not reveal any safety concerns. Conclusions: Administration of 250-7500 TSO fortnightly over 12 weeks was safe and showed a dose...

  17. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  18. Je suis un zombie : Études récentes sur Richard Matheson et le mort-vivant

    OpenAIRE

    Ransom, Amy J.; Trudel, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Dans ce texte nous résumons quatre essais récents sur le phénomène actuel du zombie ainsi qu’un collectif sur l’œuvre de Richard Matheson dont la première version filmique du roman Je suis une légende a servi d’inspiration à l’ur-film de zombies, La nuit des morts vivants de George A. Romero. Tandis que Pierre Cassou-Noguès et Maxime Coulombe signent des traitements plus philosophiques du zombie, leurs ouvrages diffèrent beaucoup dans leur forme et leur fonction. Pour leur part, Amélie Pépin ...

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N terminal domain of Fhb, a factor H binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunmao [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijng Institute of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, No. 20 Dongda Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China); Yu, You [Key Laboratory for Protein Sciences of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing (China); Yang, Maojun, E-mail: maojunyang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Protein Sciences of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing (China); Jiang, Yongqiang, E-mail: jiangyq@bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijng Institute of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, No. 20 Dongda Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Fhb is a surface virulence protein from Streptococcus suis, which could aid bacterial evasion of host innate immune defense by recruiting complement regulator factor H to inactivate C3b deposited on bacterial surface in blood. Here we successfully expressed and purified the N terminal domain of Fhb (N-Fhb) and obtained crystals of the N-Fhb by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method with a resolution of 1.50 Å. The crystals belong to space group C2 with unit cell parameters a = 127.1 Å, b = 77.3 Å, c = 131.6 Å, α = 90°, β = 115.9°, γ = 90°. The structure of N-Fhb was determined by SAD method and the core structure of N-Fhb is a β sandwich. We speculated that binding of Fhb to human factor H may be mainly mediated by surface amino acids with negative charges. - Highlights: • We expressed N-Fhb as the soluble protein in Escherichia coli. • Crystals of N-Fhb were grown by sitting drop vapor diffusion method. • Crystals of N-Fhb could diffracted to 1.5 Å. • The core structure of N-Fhb was a β sandwich. • A part of the surface of N-Fhb was rich with negative charges.

  20. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron adstringens and Lafoensia pacari and oil resins from Copaifera sp. and Pterodon emarginatus against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marques Faria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In vitro bioassay using Sarcoptes scabiei as a test microorganism is a viable method of study for diverse drugs with acaricidal properties. A great amount of assays proves the diverse and efficient biological activity of extracts and compounds from Brazilian savanna plants. This study had as main object, test and compare the acaricidal activity of four Brazilian Cerrado bioproducts: Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart., Copaifera sp., Lafoensia pacari A. St Hil. and Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, 1837. To perform this test S. scabiei mites were collected from crusts removed on ears of highly infected sows. The mites were selected and separated in Petri dishes with three different concentrations (25, 50 and 75% of each bioproduct, to evaluate their potential acaricidal activity. The mortality of the mites was counted in each Petri dish every hour, during five hours. The statistical analyses demonstrated differences between the bioproducts tested. The oleoresin of Copaifera sp. and P. emarginatus presented the best results with 100% of mites mortality after treatment. The ethanolic extracts of S. adstringens and L. pacari demonstrated lower acaricidal activity when compared to the oleoresins, with little or no difference among the control groups tested. This bioassay demonstrated to be efficient, reliable, low cost and easy accomplishment. Oil resins from Copaifera sp. and P. emarginatus have in vitro acaricidal activity against adult females of S. scabiei var. suis.

  1. Application of Well Log Analysis to Assess the Petrophysical Parameters of the Early Eocene Sui Main Limestone (SML in Kharnhak-1 Well, Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Zia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The petrophysical analysis of the early Eocene Sui Main Limestone (SML has been conducted in Kharnhak-1 well for the prospect of the hydrocarbon exploration of the Khairpur-Jacobabad High, Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan. The petrophysical analysis of SML is carried out on the basis of well logs including gamma ray, spontaneous potential, resistivity, neutron, and density logs. These analyses lead to interpreting the vertical distribution of porosity and permeability in order to measure the reservoir potential of the SML. The Archie equation was used to assess the petrophysical characteristics. The SML has good porosity and poor permeability with positive correlation coefficient between the two parameters. The average volume of shale is 18%. The log signature of SML shows dominance of carbonates (limestone. The reservoir quality of the SML in Kharnhak-1 well is such that it is 77% water saturated. The porosity (x varies inversely with formation resistivity factor (F and compressional wave velocity (Vp. However, F and Vp are directly related with each other. Thus, the electric and elastic properties of the carbonate rocks can be influenced by postdepositional alterations, which include porosity enhancement and reduction processes respectively.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N terminal domain of Fhb, a factor H binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunmao; Yu, You; Yang, Maojun; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fhb is a surface virulence protein from Streptococcus suis, which could aid bacterial evasion of host innate immune defense by recruiting complement regulator factor H to inactivate C3b deposited on bacterial surface in blood. Here we successfully expressed and purified the N terminal domain of Fhb (N-Fhb) and obtained crystals of the N-Fhb by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method with a resolution of 1.50 Å. The crystals belong to space group C2 with unit cell parameters a = 127.1 Å, b = 77.3 Å, c = 131.6 Å, α = 90°, β = 115.9°, γ = 90°. The structure of N-Fhb was determined by SAD method and the core structure of N-Fhb is a β sandwich. We speculated that binding of Fhb to human factor H may be mainly mediated by surface amino acids with negative charges. - Highlights: • We expressed N-Fhb as the soluble protein in Escherichia coli. • Crystals of N-Fhb were grown by sitting drop vapor diffusion method. • Crystals of N-Fhb could diffracted to 1.5 Å. • The core structure of N-Fhb was a β sandwich. • A part of the surface of N-Fhb was rich with negative charges.

  3. Expression of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis in Escherichia coli using an arabinose-inducible plasmid vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Wittenbrink, M M

    2003-10-01

    The ompA genes encoding the 40 kDa major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were cloned into the arabinose-inducible plasmid vector pBADMycHis, and recombinant MOMPs (rMOMP) from the three chlamydial species were expressed at high levels in Escherichia (E.) coli. The proteins lacking the 22 aa N-terminal signal peptide were expressed as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusion bodies which were readily purified using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The rMOMPs including the N-terminal signal peptide were expressed and translocated as a surface-exposed immunoaccessible protein into the outer membrane of E. coli. Transformants expressing this full-length rMOMP were significantly reduced in viability. Purified native elementary bodies (EB) and rMOMPs of the three chlamydial species purified from the E. coli cytoplasm were used for immunization of rabbits. The resulting sera were analysed for their ability to recognize homologous and heterologous rMOMP and native EB. When testing rMOMP antisera against rMOMP and EB antigens, marked cross-reactivities were detected between the three species. Using EB antisera and rMOMPs as antigens, a significant species-specific reactivity was measured.

  4. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  5. Semi-Preparative Isolation and Purification of Three Tauro-Conjugated Cholic Acids from Pulvis Fellis Suis by HSCCC Coupled with ELSD Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Zhang, Yongmin; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2011-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was applied to the separation and purification of three tauro-conjugated cholic acids of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) and taurohyocholic acid (THCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:4:2:0.3, v/v/v/v) was selected for the one-step separation where the lower phase was used as the mobile phase in the head to tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 1.5 ml/min and 25°C respectively. From 100 mg of the crude extract, 10.2 mg of TCDCA, 11.8 mg of THDCA and 5.3 mg of THCA were obtained with the purity of 94.6%, 96.5% and 95.4%, respectively. in one step separation The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three tauro-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  6. A Review of Comparison of Complications of Vaginal Hysterectomy with and without Concomitant Surgery for SUI: A 5 Years’ Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheela Mohsin Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was performed to review the complications of surgery for POP with or without surgery for SUI. This included the need for second procedure two years after the primary surgery. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional comparative study at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM was used to identify women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with anterior/posterior repair alone and those with concomitant tension-free vaginal tape surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence. Results. The 28 cases of VH/repair combined with TVT were compared for complications with 430 cases of VH with repair alone. The basic characteristics like age, BMI, and degree of prolapse showed no statistical difference among two groups. The main comorbidities in both groups were hypertension, diabetes, and bronchial asthma. We observed no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative complications except for cuff abscess, need for medical intervention, and readmission following discharge from hospital, which were higher in cases with vaginal hysterectomy with concomitant TVT. Conclusions. Vaginal hysterectomy is an efficient treatment for uterovaginal prolapse with a swift recovery, short length of hospital stay, and rare serious complications. The addition of surgery for USI does not appear to increase the morbidity.

  7. 隋前正史医事伦理探骊%Discussion on Medical Ethics Based on the History before the Sui Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仁龙; 任杰

    2015-01-01

    征引隋前正史中医学史料,从高层之医学人文关怀、医学教育及医学传播三个伦理方面进行论述,认为:医与政有着天然紧密相连的渊源关系,医政充分体现了政府有无政治作为和是否实施人文关怀;汉魏南北朝时期太学、地方官学、私学都很活跃,在医学教育方面,也有深刻的进步理念;中医药作为加强民族间交流和融合的友好使者,对当今的中国优秀传统文化对外传播有着重要的引领意义。%Based on the TCM historical information before the history of Sui Dynasty, from the top of the medi-cal humanistic care, medical education and medical communication, the essay discusses three ethical, think: the medical is closely combined with politics have a natural origin, medical administration embodies the government whether any politics as and humanistic care;Jun business, local authority, private and southern and northern dy-nasties period is active, in terms of medical education, also has a profound progress idea; Chinese medicine as strengthen communication and integration between national goodwill ambassador, in today′s Chinese excellent tradi-tional culture of foreign communication has important guide meaning.

  8. AB194. A 12-year retrospective evaluation of TVT and TVT-O in the surgical management of SUI in females and the analysis of influence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kejia; Liu, Yaxiao; Chen, Fan; Cheng, Shanshan; Yang, Yue; Shi, Benkang

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluate the clinical effect of TVT and TVT-O slings in the surgical management of SUI in women at mostly 12-year follow-ups and the factors that influence it. Methods In this retrospective analysis, 94 women with stress incontinence treated by TVT (14 cases) or TVT-O (80 cases) were included. Subjective evaluation included ICIQ-SF, KHQ, PGI-I and patient satisfaction, and we recorded the objective data of the procedures. We analyzed whether the age, BMI, disease duration, surgery history, postoperative follow-up duration or other factors were related to the subjective cure rate. Results Eight cases of TVT and 59 cases of TVT-O completed the follow-up. Patients were followed up for 1.3–12 years in TVT and 0.2–9.2 years in TVT-O group. The rates of subjectively assessed success were 87.5% and 84.7%, respectively (P=1.00). The total KHQ were (21.93±30.42) and (16.89±25.85) (P=0.55). The operation duration were (59.29±21.02) in TVT group and (29.87±12.04) in TVT-O group (P=0.00). The postoperative days of indwelling catheter were (4.14±1.79) and (3.11±1.51) (P=0.02), and the post-operation hospitalization days were (5.64±2.06) and (5.01±1.77) (P=0.27). The factors above didn’t affect the subjective cure rate. Conclusions The patient reported long-term success rate were both high and had no significant differences between the groups. Operation duration and postoperative durations of indwelling catheter of TVT-O was shorter. The factors above didn’t affect the subjective cure rate.

  9. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  10. SUI LIMITI DELLA DIGNITÀ KANTIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MĂGDICI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary culture, due to a loss of transcendence and the spread of the so-called ‘Hume's law’ (the famous is-ought problem, there is ever more propagation of the idea that morality cannot be deduced from ‘on high’ (metaphysics, nor from ‘below’ (empiric reality. The demarcation between good and bad, in other words, would be the outcome of a mere human convention. It is evident therefore that even the concept of ‘dignity’ appears like a type of empty and arbitrary intellectualization. Starting with Kant, in fact, the ancient invitation of the Stoics to act in conformity with the rationality-divinity of the cosmos and the successive foundation of morality based in a transcendent source were substituted with the imperative of ‘autonomous’ reason, of that reason which would participate, with its universal moral law, in the “kingdom of ends”. The Kantian foundation of dignity, however, is very controversial in our days because the so-called ‘autonomy’ reveals itself as too subjective and weak, conditioned by the environment and social conventions; those who pay the consequences are the people who mostly need to be defended, the disinherited of history, that is, human beings without a face and voice.

  11. SUI LIMITI DELLA DIGNITÀ KANTIANA

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIAN MĂGDICI

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary culture, due to a loss of transcendence and the spread of the so-called ‘Hume's law’ (the famous is-ought problem), there is ever more propagation of the idea that morality cannot be deduced from ‘on high’ (metaphysics), nor from ‘below’ (empiric reality). The demarcation between good and bad, in other words, would be the outcome of a mere human convention. It is evident therefore that even the concept of ‘dignity’ appears like a type of empty and arbitrary intellectualizat...

  12. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  13. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  14. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  15. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  16. Community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  17. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  18. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  19. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  20. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  1. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... The Role of Research in Social Marketing: The Community Eye. Outreach Clinic .... Serious thought was given to the possibility of establishing static eye care .... Information obtained included vital statistics, work history, job.

  2. Daniel Gallego Hernández (Ed.. Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suiça: Editorial Peter Lang, 2015. 254 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tolosa Igualada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n2p291 Daniel Gallego Hernández (Ed.. Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suiça: Editorial Peter Lang, 2015. 254 p.

  3. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  4. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  5. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  6. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  7. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...

  8. Compilation of the opinions expressed by the CCTN in 1997; Raccolta dei pareri espressi dalla CCTN nel 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina del Lavoro

    1999-12-31

    The advice expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1997 are presented. Among the most important advice, the following may be mentioned: (1) air quality criteria for CO and NO{sub 2}; (2) risk evaluation associated to the presence of mixtures of pesticide residues in food; (3) re-evaluations of the toxic properties of DDT; (4) evaluations of the carcinogenic evidences of several active substances of antiblastic drugs. [Italiano] Vengono presentati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel 1997. Tra i piu` importanti possono essere menzionati i pareri riguardanti: 1) criteri di qualita` dell`aria per il CO e l`NO{sub 2}; 2) rischio tossicologico da residui di miscele di pesticidi presenti negli alimenti; 3) rivalutazione delle proprieta` tossiche del DDT; 4) valutazione dell`evidenza di cancerogenita` di alcuni principi attivi di chemioterapici antiblastici.

  9. Compilation of the opinions expressed by the CCTN in 1997; Raccolta dei pareri espressi dalla CCTN nel 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina del Lavoro

    1998-12-31

    The advice expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1997 are presented. Among the most important advice, the following may be mentioned: (1) air quality criteria for CO and NO{sub 2}; (2) risk evaluation associated to the presence of mixtures of pesticide residues in food; (3) re-evaluations of the toxic properties of DDT; (4) evaluations of the carcinogenic evidences of several active substances of antiblastic drugs. [Italiano] Vengono presentati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel 1997. Tra i piu` importanti possono essere menzionati i pareri riguardanti: 1) criteri di qualita` dell`aria per il CO e l`NO{sub 2}; 2) rischio tossicologico da residui di miscele di pesticidi presenti negli alimenti; 3) rivalutazione delle proprieta` tossiche del DDT; 4) valutazione dell`evidenza di cancerogenita` di alcuni principi attivi di chemioterapici antiblastici.

  10. Compilation of opinion expressed by CCTN in 1995; Raccolta dei pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale nel 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, Nicolina [ISPESL, Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy); Camoni, Ivano [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata, Rome (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    The opinions expressed by the National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) of Italy in 1995 are presented. Among the most important opinions the following may be mentioned: (1) adaption of the allocations of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive-toxicity to the criteria elaborated by the CCTN in 1994; (2) lung cancer risk estimation associated with exposure to polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons from motor-vehicle exhaust emission; (3) cancerogenicity of the antiblastic drugs.

  11. Compilation of the opinions expressed by the CCTN in 1996; Raccolta dei pareri espressi dalla CCTN nel 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina del Lavoro

    1997-06-01

    The opinion expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1996 are presented. Among the most important opinions the following may be mentioned: (1) toxic properties of substances deriving from Cannabis sativa; (2) reproductive-toxicity of friazolic pesticides; (3) re-evaluations of the carcinogenic evidences of several chemical substances.

  12. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  13. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  14. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  15. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2004-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  16. Involving the Community

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Step 3: Identifying the different community groups and other stakeholders concerned .... How can two-way communication enhance community participation in ...... for maintenance and the rights of specific community groups to drinkable water.

  17. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2003-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  18. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jr, Elton L

    2007-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  19. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  20. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  1. On Community Education and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Dušana Findeisen introduces community education and development. She particularly insists upon the fact that in the future our life will not be organised around a paid full time job and that we will be forced into searching other ways of getting involved into society and to acquire our social identity. Community education is one of the ways we could eventually choose. Since community development education in Slovenia has not developed yet the author begins by describing some basic concepts like community and history of community education and community development movement. Further on, she introduces the Andragogical Summer School based in a small Slovenian town, its aim being to encourage Slovenian adult educators to encourage community development projects.

  2. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  3. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August John Hoffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.

  4. Community Involvement - Outreach / Development

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Tonya Aiken: Horse Program Success. Kyle Cecil: Natural Resources and the Extension Educator. Karol Dyson: Building Strong Communities through Empowerment. Lisa Dennis: "Food Smart". Theresa M. Ferrari: Community Service Experiences & 4-H Teens. t. Stacey Harper: Connecting the Youth with the Community. Joseph G. Hiller: Extension Work in Indian Country. Alice P. Kersey: Outreach to the NR Community. Carla M. Sousa: Learning from Latino Community Efforts.

  5. Indagine critica sui modelli di atmosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ELIA

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Nella prima parte del lavoro E individuato il modello
    piu attendibile di atmosfera, clie deve dunque essere adottato nei calcoli
    relativi a problemi aeronautici e missilistici.
    Nella seconda parte vengono scritte le equazioni deH'atmosfera considerata
    come campo fluidodinamico costituito da piu componenti elettricamente
    conduttivi e reagenti. Con una serie di successive approssimazioni
    sono derivate le equazioni sempliflcate clie attualmente sono usate per il
    calcolo delle tabelle dell'atmosfera; da un sistema complesso di equazioni,
    ma determinato matematicamente, si ottiene un sistema semplice, ma doppiamente
    indeterminato; alia inderminatezza si deve sopperire con sondaggi
    sperimentali.
    Nell'ultima parte del lavoro si fa una critica alia base di calcolo del
    piu attendibile modello, rilevando tra l'altro che esso e relativo alle condizioni
    di un punto singolare (Port Churchill, nel Canada posto in prossimita
    del polo magnetico.

  6. Sui monosillabi nel pentametro: elegia ed epigramma

    OpenAIRE

    Magnelli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Questo studio offre un’analisi di prima mano sull’uso di monosillabi alla fine del primo emisticho del pentametro, nell’elegia e nell’epigramma greco fino all’età di Giustiniano. Nessun tipo di restrizione sembra riguardare i monosillabi appartenenti a una ‘parola metrica’. I dati riguardanti i monosillabi indipendenti – ossia non appositivi e non preceduti da un’appositiva – sono meno facili da interpretare, e non è chiaro se i poeti greci cercassero di evitarne la collocazione i...

  7. [)IE SUI[).AFRIKAA~SE LEERKOLLEGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die gebou waarin die skool gehuisves is ondersoek word. Net na die verowering van Pretoria in 1900 het die Britse besettingsmagte. 'n soldate- kantien op die ou Markplein aan die Kerk- straatkant in Pretoria opgerig. In die twee jaar wat daarop gevolg het, is 'n wins van. £20000 gemaak en het lord Kitchener besluit.

  8. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  9. University-Community Research Partnership for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the existing university–community partnership in research in Tanzania and proposes a bottom-top model instead of the traditional top-bottom approach which works with perceived needs of communities rather than real needs. Given their core missions, many universities assume that they achieve their ...

  10. A la Carte Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Brincker, Benedikte

    2010-01-01

    and shows that there are high levels of virtual as well as face-to-face interaction among the members. The participants feel that they belong to the community and many also feel that they are recognised as part of the community. However, the members do not share common values neither in relation to software......The exchange of open source software is a phenomenon that is becoming in- creasingly significant to IT users. This article presents the results of a study of the TYPO3 community, a community related to an open source CMS software. The article explores the community, identity and values of TYPO3...... pro- duction nor generally. Instead, they stress that you are free to choose your own values. Against this background, the authors introduce the notion of an ‘a la carte community', i.e. a community where individuals pick and choose their degree of participation and integra- tion into the community...

  11. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The phytoplankton community can vary within hours (physiology) to years (climatic and anthropogenic responses), and monitoring at different timescales is relevant for understanding community functioning and assessing changes. However, standard techniques used in monitoring programmes are time...

  12. Bayesian community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N

    2012-01-01

    Many networks of scientific interest naturally decompose into clusters or communities with comparatively fewer external than internal links; however, current Bayesian models of network communities do not exert this intuitive notion of communities. We formulate a nonparametric Bayesian model...... for community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...... consistent with ground truth, and on real networks, it outperforms existing approaches in predicting missing links. This suggests that community structure is an important structural property of networks that should be explicitly modeled....

  13. Student Engagement with Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-McKenna, Mary; Felten, Peter; Darby, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Student engagement in the local community comes with both risks and rewards. This chapter explains the cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcomes of student learning in the community, along with noting the importance of preparation and reflection.

  14. Unsewered Communities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The unsewered communities file was originally conceived as a representation of communities without a municipal sewer system or on-site septic systems. The selection...

  15. Witness, Service, and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen Mary

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the mission of Catholic schools as defined by the church and Vatican II. Suggests that schools be responsive to their communities, implement fair policies, remain faithful to the Catholic tradition, and foster participation in the community. (JDI)

  16. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  17. Community Nursing Home (CNH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...

  18. Knowledge Communities in fives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern knowledge intensive organisations rely on knowledge sharing communities, often called ‘communities of practice. These communities can be found in many organisations, but their forms and functions appear to be quite diverse. This implies that questions concerning the functioning of

  19. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  20. The Learning Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Mary Richardson; Decker, Larry E.

    This guide to community education offers strategies and suggestions for responding to the call for more community involvement in partnership efforts that will benefit education and society. First, a brief introduction summarizes the philosophy of community education, defining it as a belief that learning is lifelong and that self-help efforts…

  1. Discourse Communities and Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer...... production at different Danish workplaces (a consulting engi-neering company, a university department and a bank) and discusses their significance in the context of co-located as well as geographically distrib-uted communities....

  2. Loyalty in Online Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Zhang, Justine; Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-05-01

    Loyalty is an essential component of multi-community engagement. When users have the choice to engage with a variety of different communities, they often become loyal to just one, focusing on that community at the expense of others. However, it is unclear how loyalty is manifested in user behavior, or whether certain community characteristics encourage loyalty. In this paper we operationalize loyalty as a user-community relation: users loyal to a community consistently prefer it over all others; loyal communities retain their loyal users over time. By exploring a large set of Reddit communities, we reveal that loyalty is manifested in remarkably consistent behaviors. Loyal users employ language that signals collective identity and engage with more esoteric, less popular content, indicating that they may play a curational role in surfacing new material. Loyal communities have denser user-user interaction networks and lower rates of triadic closure, suggesting that community-level loyalty is associated with more cohesive interactions and less fragmentation into subgroups. We exploit these general patterns to predict future rates of loyalty. Our results show that a user's propensity to become loyal is apparent from their initial interactions with a community, suggesting that some users are intrinsically loyal from the very beginning.

  3. Mining with communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Marcello M.; Scoble, Malcolm; McAllister, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    To be considered as sustainable, a mining community needs to adhere to the principles of ecological sustainability, economic vitality and social equity. These principles apply over a long time span, covering both the life of the mine and post-mining closure. The legacy left by a mine to the community after its closure is emerging as a significant aspect of its planning. Progress towards sustainability is made when value is added to a community with respect to these principles by the mining operation during its life cycle. This article presents a series of cases to demonstrate the diverse potential challenges to achieving a sustainable mining community. These case studies of both new and old mining communities are drawn mainly from Canada and from locations abroad where Canadian companies are now building mines. The article concludes by considering various approaches that can foster sustainable mining communities and the role of community consultation and capacity building. (author)

  4. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  5. Career guidance in communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    for the development of a critically reflexive career guidance practice. The considerations are organised around seven elements. 1. Creating opportunity, structure and access 2. Entering a community and increasing visibility 3. Providing guidance in communities 4. Exploring potentials in guidance situations 5...... in career guidance practices as well as in the lives of the people in the communities. This paper falls into two parts: The first part considers the collective as the starting point for the development of meaningful career guidance activities. Based on previous research on career guidance in communities......The aim of this paper is to inspire practitioners and professionals to leave their offices to bring career guidance into communities that might not identify with career guidance in the first instance. By making the effort to engage with communities, practitioners may bring about a critical change...

  6. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...... is an organizational model called the collaborative community of firms. This chapter addresses an important organizational role in a collaborative community, that of the shared services provider. The shared services provider acts as a facilitator in the community, helping member firms collaborate with one another...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....

  7. Interrupting Mythic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnell Secomb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available If nation is increasingly perceived as a less than honourable institution formed through war, invasion and geo-political territorialisation, and government is widely denounced as the site of political intrigue and the means of subjectification of citizen–voters, community appears to escape this critique and to be viewed as an idyllic formation based on bonds of affinity. However, this romancing of community is disrupted by trans-cultural and sub-cultural formations that expose the fantasy of a harmonious, homogenous community. While community is often conceived as arising organically from familial, tribal or cultural similarity, or as constituted through a common history and shared cultural institutions, this totalising conception of community is interrupted by the demands of difference and heterogeneity and by a questioning of the idyll of community authenticated in myths of archaic origin.

  8. Community impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Industrial expansion, whether for resource extraction, refining, production or distribution and particularly the construction of energy facilities, usually has many effects on communities. In the early 1970s, as more experience was gained with large projects and as communities became more sensitive to their needs and rights, the negative effects of projects gained some prominence. Communities questioned whether it was in their best interest to accept changes that large corporations would impose on them. It is in this context that Ontario Hydro, in 1977, set up the first of four community impact agreements for the construction of generating stations. This paper discusses these community impact agreements and how they have become the framework for the management of community impacts. Also, the paper discusses a model for compensating social impacts

  9. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  10. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  11. Communities running energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The conditions for the evolution of community renewable energy are right in some parts of the country. This article reports on some recent developments, with opportunities for business and local government. Many communities across Australia are developing wind and solar projects, but only a fraction are actually generating power. Nicky Ison, researcher of community renewable energy (CRE) at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, is director of the Community Power Agency. The latter is behind a new coalition lobbying the federal government in Australia to establish a $50 million grant program to support the development stage of CRE projects.

  12. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  13. Nuclear Community in network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, E.

    2014-01-01

    The internet has revolutionized the ways of communication and many companies/ organizations have adapted to the change but others have not, or have done it halfway. This presentation is a review of the main characteristics of virtual communities and their typology. The status of the Nuclear Online Community, both pro nuclear and antinuclear is analysed , and their main similarities and differences are discussed. The Pro nuclear Online Community is formed gradually. This presentation attempts to define some ways to increase the scope of the Community and encourage greater dissemination of the characteristics of nuclear energy. (Author)

  14. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  15. EMI New User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M

    2013-01-01

    This document provides pieces of information about new user communities that directly or indirectly take advantage of EMI Products. Each user community is described via one specific EMI product use case to understand and communicate the current usage of EMI Products in practice.

  16. Community as Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Chow, Patricia; Schechter, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a project involving teachers, parents, and university researchers in collaborations to support multilingual children's development and use of language. Strategies for fostering an inclusive climate included building on the interests and resources of the local community, involving community members in curriculum development,…

  17. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  18. Decoding communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection. The only difference in the interpretation is that a noisy channel replaces a stochastic network model. However, the different perspective gives the opportunity to take advantage of the rich set of tools of coding theory to generate novel insights on the problem of community detection. In this paper, we illustrate two main applications of standard coding-theoretical methods to community detection. First, we leverage a state-of-the-art decoding technique to generate a family of quasioptimal community detection algorithms. Second and more important, we show that the Shannon's noisy-channel coding theorem can be invoked to establish a lower bound, here named as decodability bound, for the maximum amount of noise tolerable by an ideal decoder to achieve perfect detection of communities. When computed for well-established synthetic benchmarks, the decodability bound explains accurately the performance achieved by the best community detection algorithms existing on the market, telling us that only little room for their improvement is still potentially left.

  19. Caring for the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Roxane

    2004-01-01

    Nurses can play a unique role in caring for their communities. The first and most obvious role is the direct care of patients, the underlying raison d'etre of nursing, and second is the indirect care of the patients' families and friends. The hands-on healing image of nurses is held by many people and personified through the years by such real-life examples as Clara Barton. It is also the image that attracts many to nursing and is fueled by desire--the desire to help, to make a positive difference, and to serve people. It is often a powerful one-on-one connection between caregiver and receiver, nurse and patient, that defines the role of nursing. Yet, nurses can--and should--play broader roles in caring for their communities. This includes the internal community within one's own organization, the environment in which nurses work, and the larger external community--or communities--in which one lives. By reaching out and caring for the broader communities, nurses have the opportunity to grow while the communities benefit from their participatory caring. In addition, the image of nursing is enhanced externally. The nurse as community caregiver melds the heart and soul of nursing for a new 21st century model of caring.

  20. Decoding communities in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection. The only difference in the interpretation is that a noisy channel replaces a stochastic network model. However, the different perspective gives the opportunity to take advantage of the rich set of tools of coding theory to generate novel insights on the problem of community detection. In this paper, we illustrate two main applications of standard coding-theoretical methods to community detection. First, we leverage a state-of-the-art decoding technique to generate a family of quasioptimal community detection algorithms. Second and more important, we show that the Shannon's noisy-channel coding theorem can be invoked to establish a lower bound, here named as decodability bound, for the maximum amount of noise tolerable by an ideal decoder to achieve perfect detection of communities. When computed for well-established synthetic benchmarks, the decodability bound explains accurately the performance achieved by the best community detection algorithms existing on the market, telling us that only little room for their improvement is still potentially left.

  1. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The concept of “communities of practice” is of relatively recent date. The concept gained momentum with Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger’s book from 1991, Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Since then, the notion of “communities of practice” has been a focus of attention, not least...

  2. An Enriching Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  3. Community Research Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldern, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This article is dedicated to an in-depth discussion of the theme community and the implications the multiple meanings of community hold for the field of qualitative research. This theme surfaced from Walderns 2003 study entitled Resistance to Research in Vancouvers Downtown Eastside, which dealt with participant resistance to joining research…

  4. Community Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew

    Information is provided on technological and social trends as background for a workshop designed to heighten the consciousness of workers in community information systems. Initially, the basic terminology is considered in its implications for an integrated perspective of community information systems, with particular attention given to the meaning…

  5. Alaska Community Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Information Human Services Funding 5310 5316 (Repealed) 5317 (Repealed) Alaska Mental Health Trust Department of Transportation & Public Facilities/ Alaska Community Transit Search DOT&PF State of Alaska Photo banner DOT&PF> Program Development > Alaska Community Transit Home About Us

  6. Community-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of healthcare options ... day care centers are either in churches or community centers. Adult day care is commonly used to care for people who ...

  7. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice......A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice...

  8. Community Colleges Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…

  9. It Takes a Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Reuben; Villarreal, Lisa; Muñoz, José; Mahaffey, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Community schools are a sound education reform strategy that gets results. They start by asking local students and their families what they need to succeed in school, then they reach out to relevant community partners and use the school as the hub for organizing partnerships, services, and supports. By listening closely to the assets and needs of…

  10. The Ethic of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  11. UNM in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum: Research & Scholarship, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Profiles 10 University of New Mexico community programs: University Art Museum, Rio Grande and Four Corners Writing Projects, Blacks in the Southwest (exhibit), New Mexico Engineering Research Institute's Environmental Finance Center, Adolescent Social Action Program, Minority Engineering Programs, Rural Community College Initiative, Valencia…

  12. Creating Learning Communities: An Introduction to Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Larry E.; Boo, Mary Richardson

    Schools cannot succeed without collaboration with parents and the community. Defining community education as active community involvement in the education of children, this booklet describes aspects of community education. Community education, the booklet points out, can take place at physical locations such as formal school buildings, which lie…

  13. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  14. Predictability in community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Moulton, Derek E; Blois, Jessica; Enquist, Brian J; Graae, Bente J; Macias-Fauria, Marc; McGill, Brian; Nogué, Sandra; Ordonez, Alejandro; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-03-01

    The coupling between community composition and climate change spans a gradient from no lags to strong lags. The no-lag hypothesis is the foundation of many ecophysiological models, correlative species distribution modelling and climate reconstruction approaches. Simple lag hypotheses have become prominent in disequilibrium ecology, proposing that communities track climate change following a fixed function or with a time delay. However, more complex dynamics are possible and may lead to memory effects and alternate unstable states. We develop graphical and analytic methods for assessing these scenarios and show that these dynamics can appear in even simple models. The overall implications are that (1) complex community dynamics may be common and (2) detailed knowledge of past climate change and community states will often be necessary yet sometimes insufficient to make predictions of a community's future state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM TERHADAP PENGETAHUAN OBAT-OBATAN TRADISIONAL DALAM REZIM HAK KEKAYAAN INTELEKTUAL (HKI INDONESIA (Studi Pada Masyarakat Tradisional Sasak / LEGAL PROTECTION TOWARD TRADITIONAL MEDICINE KNOWLEDGE IN INDONESIA’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT REGIME (A Study in The Sasak Traditional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Martini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konteks kekinian Pengetahuan Obat Tradisional (POT masyarakat adat Sasak merupakan aset ekonomi bernilai tinggi mengingat kegunaannya sebagai pengetahuan dasar (milestone dalam penemuan obat modern. Sebagai suatu wujud kemampuan intelektual manusia, POT diatur di bawah rezim HKI-TRIPs, padahal POT memiliki perbedaan karakter yang mencolok dengan HKI. Hal ini memunculkan persoalan dalam hal bentuk POT masyarakat adat Sasak, pengaturan perlindungannya dalam rezim HKI dan pranata hukum ideal untuk mewujudkan perlindungan hukum tersebut. POT Sasak mayoritas ditransmisikan secara lisan, sebagian kecil ada yang tercatat dalam babon (kitab tetamba/oat dan lontar usada. Dalam rezim HKI hanya terdapat pengaturan tidak langsung terhadap POT seperti termuat dalam Undang-Undang Paten dan Perlindungan Varietas Tanaman. Idealnya, terdapat suatu peraturan daerah yang mengatur secara khusus skema perlindungan POT Sasak demi mencegah tindakan misappropriation. Dengan demikian, masih terdapat kekosongan hukum karena belum ada peraturan perundang-undangan sui generis mengenai perlindungan POT. In the modern context, the Traditional Medicine Knowledge (TMK of Sasak community is a valuable economic asset considering its usage as a basic knowledge (milestone in the modern medicine discovery. As a form of human intellectual ability, TMK is regulated under the IPRs-TRIPs regime, whereas TMK have prominent opposite characters with IPRs. This fact raises particular issues in terms of: the form of Sasak community’s TMK, regulation of its protection under the IPRs regime and the ideal legal institution to realize the protection. The majority of Sasak’s TMK are transmitted verbally, a fraction of it was written in babon (book of tetamba/oat and lontar Usada. The IPRs-TRIPs regime only provides indirect regulation toward TMK, as contained in Patent and Plant Variety Protection Law. Ideally, there should be a local Law that particularly regulates protection on

  16. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  17. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  18. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....

  19. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  1. Assessing Community Informatics: A Review of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Community Networks and Community Technology Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Dara

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the emerging community informatics evaluation literature to develop an understanding of the indicators used to gauge project impacts in community networks and community technology centers. The study finds that community networks and community technology center assessments fall into five key areas: strong democracy; social capital;…

  2. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.

  3. Alcune note sugli effetti dell'inflazione sui bilanci aziendali, e sul problema della rivalutazione monetaria dei beni d'imprese. (Some notes on the effects of inflation on business balance sheets, and on the problem of the appreciation of business assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VISCO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gli effetti dell'inflazione sui bilanci delle imprese negli ultimi anni sono stati oggetto di numerosi studi . Questi hanno evidenziato le distorsioni causate dagli aumenti dei prezzi e hanno suggerito modi per eliminare o mitigarne l'effetto, come l'uso di metodi di indicizzazione , sistemi modificati di contabilità e interventi legislativi specifici e periodici. Il presente lavoro si propone di chiarire la portata degli effetti dell'inflazione sulle voci più significative dei bilanci delle imprese . Inoltre , cerca di analizzare le logiche , le conseguenze e le limitazioni dei meccanismi apprezzamento per beni aziendali adottate in Italia in passato e recentemente proposto di nuovo .The effects of inflation on firms’ balance sheets in recent years have been the subject of numerous studies. These have highlighted the distortions caused by the rises in prices and have suggested ways to eliminate or mitigate them, such as the use of indexing methods, modified systems of accounting and specific and periodic legislative interventions. The present work aims to clarify the scope of the effects of inflation on the most significant items of firms’ balance sheets. Moreover, it seeks to analyse the logic, consequences and limitations of the appreciation mechanisms for business assets adopted in Italy in the past and recently proposed again.JEL: E31, M41

  4. Engaging the Community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Claassen observes, "There is an interesting co-existence of traditional culture and modern ideas and also "African" religion and Christianity. Traditional leaders and community members were very open and most helpful in the research." Photos: Photo...

  5. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  6. Police Community Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.

  7. FEMA DFIRM Community Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table is a lookup table that contains community map repository details and map history information that is shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) legend...

  8. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  9. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution......Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... of community transition of individual users, adaptive to the noisy behavior. Experiments on real data sets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method....

  10. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  11. Small Community Training & Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  12. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  13. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  14. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  15. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  16. Assessing Community Telecentres

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the impacts of telecentres on their programs, such as youth employment or ..... the community's satisfaction with its performance (see Table 10), and basic ..... The result (average rural income) is compared with the estimated capital cost of ...

  17. Community Points of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View locations of Cary’s community centers, fire, police and EMS stations, hospitals, libraries, Cary Convenience Center, schools and post offices. Note commercial...

  18. Mobilizing community energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, Elizabeth; McEwen, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.

  19. Designing for Communities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Mark Boulton's small design firm won the project to redesign drupal.org home to the Drupal open source content management project and its community of over 400,000 users and developers. Designing for open source communities has its challenges: it is a developer-centric environment where discussion, debate and consensus rules and where design processes are often viewed sceptically. To help dispel some misconceptions behind the design process, Mark's team worked completely openly with the Drupal community - and broader the web design community - throughout the project. This talk will walk through some of the challenges and solutions for designing for large communities. Mark will share the successes - and the horror stories - of how a traditional design process was challenged every step of the way and how the Drupal community became an integral part of that new process. Mark and his team will be working with the Communication Group on an open project to r...

  20. Creating one planet communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilts, R.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discussed low carbon communities that used a variety of sustainable energy technologies to reduce energy consumption and waste. The presentation was given by a company who has adopted a One Planet framework to ensure the development of zero carbon, zero waste, sustainable communities.The Dockside Green project was awarded North America's highest leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) score. The community includes a waste biomass plant and an on-site wastewater treatment plant. Excess heat produced by the community's greenhouse gas (GHG) neutral biomass district heating system is sold to neighbouring communities. The BedZED project in the United Kingdom uses a high-density format to support a community living and workspace environment that uses rainwater harvesting, passive solar heating, high performance envelopes, and green roofs. The site includes 40 electric car charging stations. A combined heat and power (CHP) biomass plant provides electricity and hot water to all buildings. Neighbourhood-scale sustainable development is expected to have a significant impact on the ecological footprint of North American cities. Carbon neutral projects in Canada were also listed. tabs., figs.

  1. Community Involvement in School: Social Relationships in a Bedroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe how community involvement in school is associated with the social relationships existing/lacking within a bedroom community. Thirty-five interviews with school council members, teachers, and community members highlighted that traditional forms of community involvement in school generate…

  2. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  3. Athena Community Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Núnez, S.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Bozzo, E.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Gómez, S.; Monterde, M. P.; Rau, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Athena Community Office (ACO) has been established by ESA's Athena Science Study Team (ASST) in order to obtain support in performing its tasks assigned by ESA, and most specially in the ASST role as "focal point for the interests of the broad scientific community". The ACO is led by the Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), and its activities are funded by CSIC and UC. Further ACO contributors are the University of Geneva, MPE and IRAP. In this poster, we present ACO to the Spanish Astronomical Community, informing about its main responsibilities, which are: assist the ASST in organising and collecting support from the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; organise and maintain the documentation generated by the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; manage the Working Group and Topical Panel membership lists; assist the ASST in promoting Athena science capabilities in the research world, through conferences and workshops; keep a record of all papers and presentations related to Athena; support the production of ASST documents; produce and distribute regularly an Athena Newsletter, informing the community about all mission and science developments; create and maintain the Athena Community web portal; maintain an active communication activity; promote, organise and support Athena science-related public outreach, in coordination with ESA and other agencies involved when appropriate; and, design, produce materials and provide pointers to available materials produced by other parties. In summary, ACO is meant to become a focal point to facilitate the scientific exchange between the Athena activities and the scientific community at large, and to disseminate the Athena science objectives to the general public.

  4. Marketing of the online communities

    OpenAIRE

    Pražan, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "Marketing of the online communities" is devoted to online virtual communities, one of the phenomena of the current Internet. Goal of this thesis is to determine the factors that predispose the successful operation of online communities. The thesis defines the essentials features of social media, characterized by online communities and their role in marketing. It deals with strategic and tactical aspects of building and maintaining successful online communities. Based on t...

  5. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  6. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...... of the natural that could better accommodate women and nonmarital children. Her attempts were futile, however, and in 1793 she was sentenced to death according to a newly written law meant to prosecute enemies of the Republic’s natural community....

  7. Community gardens: lessons learned from California Healthy Cities and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiss, Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; Rilveria, Liz

    2003-09-01

    Community gardens enhance nutrition and physical activity and promote the role of public health in improving quality of life. Opportunities to organize around other issues and build social capital also emerge through community gardens. California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) promotes an inclusionary and systems approach to improving community health. CHCC has funded community-based nutrition and physical activity programs in several cities. Successful community gardens were developed by many cities incorporating local leadership and resources, volunteers and community partners, and skills-building opportunities for participants. Through community garden initiatives, cities have enacted policies for interim land and complimentary water use, improved access to produce, elevated public consciousness about public health, created culturally appropriate educational and training materials, and strengthened community building skills.

  8. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  9. The Community College Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Ahearn, Caitlin; Rosenbaum, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to promote college for all for all has opened college doors to a broad range of students. But college--and career success after college--doesn't have to mean a bachelor's degree. Community college credentials, such as associate's degrees and one-year certificates, can lead to further degrees or jobs that offer more benefits than students…

  10. Emerging Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Communities of practice are emerging as an innovative approach to faculty development. While collaborative learning is becoming popular in the classroom, autonomy and individualism continue to dominate the culture of higher education for faculty. However, as we begin to recognize that old solutions to new problems are no longer effective, there is…

  11. Social Innovation Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrustegui, Alfonso Unceta; Castro-Spila, Javier; Luna, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of hybridity and governance have been an important line of research in the context of social companies and public institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore these notions in the framework of hybrid communities of social innovation by showing the importance of intangible capital in the improvement of functional skills,…

  12. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  13. Violence and Community Capabilities:

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ous cities boast community-based initiatives that significantly reduce the ..... account the ambiguous yet critical role that gangs can play at the local level. .... promote and exercise other forms of violence, such as extortion, sexual abuse, and ... of employment that comes without any rights or protection, and making informal.

  14. Joining the Global Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Knoester, Jocelyn

    2002-01-01

    Canada World Youth enables young Canadians to live in another part of Canada with youths from a developing country for several months while volunteering in community projects. Then they move as a group to the partner country for several months where the program structure is the same. Participants acquire the skills and values necessary to…

  15. Participatory academic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    2015-01-01

    understanding of participation in edu-cation can move educatees’ learning beyond institutions through focusing on educatees as researchers, participat-ing in society, building a research community and obtaining academic citizenship. Further, the article discusses how a value-based, vision-driven approach...

  16. BNFL and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions made by BNFL to community relations are described in an illustrated booklet under the headings: introduction (general policy); donations and sponsorships; BNFL talks service; brochures and public information; visits; local liaison committees; industrial training; sponsored students; apprentices. (U.K.)

  17. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  18. For Community Sake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether religious education plays a role in the promotion of harmonious international relations, arguing that a broad religious education with a dialogical approach goes to the heart of what it means to be a citizen in a global community. Christian theologian Hans Kung argues in his book "Judaism: Between Yesterday and…

  19. One Community Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    In the city of San Jose, more than half of all public school students tested are not proficient in their grade-level skills. This article discusses how school, civic and community leaders have joined forces with the goal of eliminating the achievement gap in San Jose by 2020. This wide and highly inclusive collaboration is made possible by an…

  20. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link

  1. Leveraging disjoint communities for detecting overlapping community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Network communities represent mesoscopic structure for understanding the organization of real-world networks, where nodes often belong to multiple communities and form overlapping community structure in the network. Due to non-triviality in finding the exact boundary of such overlapping communities, this problem has become challenging, and therefore huge effort has been devoted to detect overlapping communities from the network.In this paper, we present PVOC (Permanence based Vertex-replication algorithm for Overlapping Community detection), a two-stage framework to detect overlapping community structure. We build on a novel observation that non-overlapping community structure detected by a standard disjoint community detection algorithm from a network has high resemblance with its actual overlapping community structure, except the overlapping part. Based on this observation, we posit that there is perhaps no need of building yet another overlapping community finding algorithm; but one can efficiently manipulate the output of any existing disjoint community finding algorithm to obtain the required overlapping structure. We propose a new post-processing technique that by combining with any existing disjoint community detection algorithm, can suitably process each vertex using a new vertex-based metric, called permanence, and thereby finds out overlapping candidates with their community memberships. Experimental results on both synthetic and large real-world networks show that PVOC significantly outperforms six state-of-the-art overlapping community detection algorithms in terms of high similarity of the output with the ground-truth structure. Thus our framework not only finds meaningful overlapping communities from the network, but also allows us to put an end to the constant effort of building yet another overlapping community detection algorithm. (paper)

  2. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  3. Handling Pressures of Community Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...... with an experimental vignette study of the effects of clan and kinship ties on recruitment and selection decisions in Kazakhstan, followed by qualitative interviews....

  4. Community Cookbooks: Sponsors of Literacy and Community Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the various ways that communities can be "read" through their cookbooks. Recipes and collections can reveal much about communities, including shared memories/traditions, geographical identifications, and representations of class.

  5. Community Satisfaction in Czech Rural Communities: A Multilevel Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernard, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2015), s. 205-226 ISSN 0038-0199 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : community satisfaction * rural communities * contextual effects Subject RIV: AO - Sociology , Demography Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  6. Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ... the local population and resources to do that which the governments had failed to do. ... country with a view to reducing poverty and developmental imbalance in Nigeria.

  7. Community Solar Value Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, John T [Extensible Energy; Cliburn, Jill [Cliburn and Associates

    2017-11-30

    The Community Solar Value Project (CSVP) is designed to assist electric utilities in designing better community solar programs. Better programs seek new sources of value to promote “win-win” solutions between utilities and their customers. The CSVP focused on five “challenge areas” in identifying new sources of value: - Strategic solar design for community solar projects (including technology choices, siting, orientation, and related issues) - Market research and targeted marketing approaches (for program design and for customer recruitment) - Procurement and financing (for establishing best practices that can bring economies of scale and economies of expertise) - Integration of “companion measures” (such as storage and demand-response options that can benefit customer and utility net load shapes) - Pricing in program design (including best practices for integration of identified value in program prices or credits) The CSVP directly engaged the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), and more than a dozen other utilities to develop improved community solar program designs. The outcomes include a plan at SMUD for over 100 MW or more of community and shared solar and support for new or expanded programs at 15 other utilities so far. Resulting best-practice solutions have not only informed program applications, but also have generated discussion among experts and industry associations about the new opportunities and challenges CSVP has brought forth. In these ways, the CSVP has impacted community solar programs and DER plans, competitive innovations and policies nationwide. The CSVP team has been led by Extensible Energy under John Powers, President and CEO. Jill Cliburn, of Santa Fe, NM-based Cliburn and Associates, has served as Principal Investigator. The team also benefitted from expertise from Navigant, Olivine Inc. and Millennium Energy, LLC, in addition to the collaborative and cost

  8. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  9. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  10. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  11. [Identification of community leaders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S; Dedobbeleer, N; Tremblay, M

    1995-01-01

    Although many methods of measuring leadership have been developed in sociological studies, there are few articles on the feasibility of these methods. The goal of this study was to verify the feasibility of the "modified positional-reputational approach" developed by Nix. The study was conducted in a small community located north of Montreal. Nix's questionnaire was translated, adapted and administered to 49 key informants. Two hundred and fourteen leaders were selected. Three types of leaders were identified: the legitimizers, the effectors and the activists. Through a sociometric analysis, we established links between the different leaders and we described the power structure of the community. Despite a few shortcomings, Nix's approach was found extremely useful.

  12. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. A Professional Learning Community Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maliszewski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four teachers (three classroom teachers and a teacher-librarian explain how their school applied a professional learning community framework to its operational practices. They discuss the process, the benefits, and the challenges of professional learning communities.

  14. Service Station for the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Margaret E.; Blank, Gordon C.

    1977-01-01

    Western Piedmont Community College adopted the concept of a people-oriented Learning Resources Center with services offered to the entire college community through a learning laboratory, audiovisual center and library. (JG)

  15. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Community Based Health Insurance Scheme is a social service organized at community level. It is a mutual health ... As part of her corporate social responsibility. Shell in .... Schmidt J. The benefits and challenges of shows the ...

  16. Community Resources and Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jim

    1977-01-01

    In cooperation with the chamber of commerce, various businesses, associations, and other community agencies, the Sarasota schools (Florida) supplement their own job placement and follow-up efforts with community job development strategies for placing high school graduates. (JT)

  17. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  18. The invertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FloBner, D.; Kasprzak, P.; Mothes, G.; Ronneberger, D.; Schonborn, W.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of invertebrate communities have been carried out to a certain extent in the whole Lake Stechlin area, but especially with reference to Lake Stechlin. The chapter summarizes important results of detailed investigations over a long period, made by several researchers in the periods before and after the nuclear power plant came into operation. The following sections deal with the combination of species, frequency, types of life-form, structure and dynamics of the living community of zoobenthos and zooplankton. Not dealt with or only considered in passing are Amoebina, Heliozoa, Ciliata, Turbellaria (excl. Tricladida), Nematoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha, and partly Oligochaeta. The research into micro-and meiooobenthos are limited to the years 1959-1968. Data after the bringing into operation of the nuclear power plant refer only to macrozoobenthos. Before the operation of the nuclear power plant the planktonic Rotaroria and Crustacea were examined only qualitatively. The first quantitative analysis of the zooplankton-community was undertaken in 1968, and only from 1978 onwards has continuous and comprehensive research information about the zooplankton in Lake Stechlin been available

  19. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1990-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Can community carers cope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) leads to severe social, psychological, and financial consequences for affected families and communities. In response to this stress, service organizations in both developed and developing countries are providing support both to People with AIDS (PWAs) and to their caregivers. In New York, for example, Gay Men's Health Crisis volunteers visit PWAs in hospitals, assist PWAs after discharge with daily chores such as shopping and getting to medical appointments, and provide psychological support through peer and group counseling. The 1st self-help group in Africa, Uganda's AIDS Service Organization (TASO), was established by the widow of an AIDS victim in response to the abandonment of many PWAs by their families. TASO helps families with the practical and financial burdens of caring for AIDS patients, seeks to overcome the fears and misconceptions surrounding the disease, operates a center where those infected with the AIDS virus can gather, and offers income-generating opportunities to PWAs. In the Kagera region of Tanzania, where at least 4000 children have been orphaned by AIDS, villages have allocated community funds for the needs of these children. Other voluntary organizations have focused on providing legal advice to PWAs who have faced discrimination in the workplace or in housing. The World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS has reiterated its commitment to work with community-based organizations.

  1. Modern community care program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Going into the next millennium do we see nuclear energy? Yes we will see an expanding nuclear sector in the modem community. he modem community that cares for people, health and environment needs nuclear. Energy saves lives. Electricity is efficient use of energy. Energy will be the key to a sustainable society, energy is life. Nuclear energy protects the environment. Nuclear is an integral part of the modern community caring for people, health and environment. The dynamics of the public opinion-forming process and its effects on the nuclear industry are a challenge of the global nuclear industry. Current communications strategy and its consequences are on of the key issues. The nuclear industry must be perceived in certain ways in order to move towards achieving the vision and avoiding the harassment scenario. Each perception goal does not bear the same function within the communications process. As the nuclear industry is oe of the keys to a sustainable society, it must achieve legitimacy in its capacity as an interesting agenda-setter for tackling problems and as an expert. We have to build our communication activities on an open and honest attitude and we have to establish trust and confidence. The nuclear industry must also prove its ability and performance. If this could be achieved there will be an option for the future

  2. Report to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braungart, S.; Ripley, M.

    2001-10-01

    In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs

  3. [Community Service Program, Westmont College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christina

    This report describes a 2-year project at Westmont College, California, which established a Community Service Program with the purposes of decreasing student debt and increasing student participation in community organizations. Eligible students worked 8-10 hours per week for a qualified community agency and received credit towards tuition for the…

  4. Cooking up an Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    As museum professionals conceptualize community building, they must now consider the virtual realm. Websites in and of themselves will not generate a community, as it takes sustained communication and interaction by staff to encourage growth. Online communities are complex forces that bring about systematic dualities that in turn stimulate…

  5. The Power of Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capers, Natasha; Shah, Shital C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shital Shah, who supports community schools as assistant director for educational issues at the American Federation of Teachers, and Natasha Capers, a coordinator for the New York City Coalition for Educational Justice (CEJ), a parent-led collaborative of unions and community organizations, discuss the community schools movement…

  6. Building a Just Adolescent Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Mary Schaefer; Schaefer, Lawrence V.; Schaefer, Patricia S.; Schaefer, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist, coined the term "Just Community" to describe a community built on trust and resolution, in which each member participates democratically in the development of the rules and regulations that govern their community life (Kohlberg, 1985). In a school, this means that students and teachers alike actively participate…

  7. Community gardening and social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.J.; Bock, B.B.; Berg, Van den W.; Visser, A.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Community gardens vary in several ways: they are cultivated by different kinds of communities in various locations, entail individual or communal plots and the extent of active participation (e.g. gardening) differs. In this paper, we study seven community gardens with varying organisational

  8. Enhancing Community Service Learning Via Practical Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Ronen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community would further implement student teachers' community social involvement while enhancing responsibility in their field of action. A questionnaire aimed to present the student teachers' attitudes involving all aspects of studying in the learning community and their social activity in the community was conducted. The findings pinpointed that there were positive contributions of the learning communities from a personal aspect such as developing self-learning, and learning about “me”, as well as broaden their teaching skills, through methodology for teacher training, and developing reflective thought. These insights can also be implemented in various educational frameworks and during service learning as part of teacher training.

  9. Community interaction and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dai bisogni di salute al consumo di risorse sanitarie in provincia di Bergamo: profilo degli indicatori di bisogno, domanda, offerta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zucchi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: la complessità interpretativa dei dati relativi ad alcuni fenomeni sanitari a livello territoriale impone la necessità di uno strumento semplice di lettura “epidemiologica”; tale lettura si fonda sull’utilizzo di una serie di “indicatori”, fondamenta di un processo dinamico di monitoraggio temporale e spaziale in grado di descrivere sinteticamente fenomeni di per sé complessi, al fine di fornire al decisore un supporto sintetico ma scientificamente solido.

    Obiettivi: istituzione di un sistema di monitoraggio sanitario community-based; definizione di indicatori sanitari comparabili tramite un esame critico dei dati esistenti; sviluppo di metodologie per la raccolta e la validazione dei dati; supporto alla creazione di un sistema efficace e affidabile di trasferimento e scambio dei dati e degli indicatori stessi con uso spinto della tecnologia telematica; elaborazione di metodi e di strumenti necessari alla produzione di analisi e relazioni.

    Materiali e metodi: gli indicatori analizzati fanno riferimento
    all’elenco definito dal decreto ministeriale n. 27 del 12 dicembre 2001 “sistema di garanzie per il monitoraggio dell’assistenza sanitaria”. A questo elenco ne sono stati aggiunti altri, per un totale di 127, divisi in grandi capitoli tematici: assistenza sanitaria, assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera, indicatori stato di salute, consumo di risorse sanitarie (cui è stato dato particolare enfasi, indicatori di domanda/accessibilità. Per definire infine un
    profilo di sintesi di questi grandi capitoli e delle relative
    eterogeneità territoriali si è successivamente applicata la tecnica statistica dello “z-score”.
    Risultati: le differenze emerse a livello distrettuale hanno permesso di disegnare una ‘mappa’ degli indicatori sanitari in provincia di Bergamo.

    Conclusioni:i risultati di

  11. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  12. The Entrepreneurial Community College: Bringing Workforce, Economic and Community Development to Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes creating an entrepreneurial college within the community college that will offer non-credit courses to the community and workforce. States that the courses would focus on the training needs of community industry, with the employer as the customer, rather than the student. Adds that the proposed college would also focus on community…

  13. Sharing Resources in Educational Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush Margarayn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the implications of mobility within educational communities for sharing and reuse of educational resources. The study begins by exploring individuals’ existing strategies for sharing and reusing educational resources within localised and distributed communities, with particular emphasis on the impact of geographic location on these strategies. The results indicate that the geographic distribution of communities has little impact on individuals’ strategies for resource management, since many individuals are communicating via technology tools with colleagues within a localised setting. The study points to few major differences in the ways in which individuals within the localised and distributed communities store, share and collaborate around educational resources. Moving beyond the view of individuals being statically involved in one or two communities, mobility across communities, roles and geographic location are formulated and illustrated through eight scenarios. The effects of mobility across these scenarios are outlined and a framework for future research into mobility and resource sharing within communities discussed.

  14. Community Psychology and Community Mental Health: A Call for Reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brown, Molly; Sylvestre, John

    2018-03-01

    Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups. Following a review of the state of community mental health scholarship in the field's two primary journals since 1973, the remaining articles center on four thematic areas: (a) the community experience of individuals with serious mental illness; (b) the utility of a participatory and cross-cultural lens in our engagement with community mental health; (c) Housing First implementation, evaluation, and dissemination; and (d) emerging or under-examined topics. In reflection, we conclude with a series of challenges for community psychologists involved in future, transformative, movements in community mental health. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  15. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    -consuming and/or expensive, limiting sampling frequency. The use of faster methods, such as flow cytometry, has become more frequent in phytoplankton studies, although comparisons between this technique and traditional ones are still scarce. This study aimed to assess if natural phytoplankton communities...... carbon biomass with PFCM, applying the same conversion factors as for microscopy. Biomasses obtained with PFCM, estimated from live cells, were higher than microscopy for natural samples. We conclude that PFCM results are comparable to classical techniques, yet the data from PFCM had poor taxonomic...

  16. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  17. Auditing Community Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mészáros Gergely

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European efforts related to Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, in Hungary a special department called LRL-IBEK has been formed which is designated under the Disaster Management. While specific security issues of commercial applications are well understood and regulated by widely applied standards, increasing share of information systems are developed partly or entirely in a different way, by the community. In this paper different issues of the open development style will be discussed regarding the high requirements of Critical Information Infrastructures, and possible countermeasures will be suggested for the identified problems.

  18. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  19. Community Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  20. Towards sustainable urban communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapio, Appu

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: ► The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. ► The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. ► Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.

  1. Community assembly and coexistence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vályi, Kriszta; Mardhiah, Ulfah; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are asexual, obligately symbiotic fungi with unique morphology and genomic structure, which occupy a dual niche, that is, the soil and the host root. Consequently, the direct adoption of models for community assembly developed for other organism groups is not evident. In this paper we adapted modern coexistence and assembly theory to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We review research on the elements of community assembly and coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, highlighting recent studies using molecular methods. By addressing several points from the individual to the community level where the application of modern community ecology terms runs into problems when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are concerned, we aim to account for these special circumstances from a mycocentric point of view. We suggest that hierarchical spatial structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities should be explicitly taken into account in future studies. The conceptual framework we develop here for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is also adaptable for other host-associated microbial communities.

  2. Community Health Warriors: Marshallese Community Health Workers' Perceptions and Experiences with CBPR and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2017-01-01

    Our manuscript highlights the viewpoints and reflections of the native Marshallese community health workers (CHWs) engaged in research with the local Marshallese community in Northwest Arkansas. In particular, this paper documents the vital role Marshallese CHWs play in the success of programs and research efforts. The negative health effects of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands has been passed down through many generations, along with unfavorable attitudes toward the U.S. government and researchers. However, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach used by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has allowed the native Marshallese CHWs to become advocates for the Marshallese community. The use of native CHWs has also leveled the power dynamics that can be a barrier to community-based research, and has strengthened trust with community stakeholders. Our paper shows how using Marshallese CHWs can produce positive health outcomes for the Marshallese community.

  3. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature about Community Psychiatry and Culture, Communities, and Social Inequity and Mental Health.Results: The authors start by reviewing the meaning  of  Community and the  defining principles of Community Psychiatry in their relationships with  cultural  sensitivity.  This aspect is illustrated with two examples of the impact of culture and alterity in the understanding of Mental Health and Service Organization, one at the level of International and Global Mental Health, and the other at the local communities’ level. In this context, participatory action research is highlighted.Conclusions: Psychiatry,  in  particular Community  Psychiatry,  by acknowledging a  wide  range  of  methodologies  and  being open  to transdisciplinary  models, is in a privileged position of electing communities as a field of investigation and integrate it in its praxis.

  4. Communities matter: Institutional preconditions for community renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions are high on political agendas. From a practical viewpoint, community approaches are deemed essential in order to transition from a predominantly centralized energy supply to a decentralized one, and to exploit the potential of renewable energies. In this paper, I discuss how the emergence of community-based energy projects can be analyzed from an institutional perspective. In this context, a ‘community’ is treated as an individual institutional order that shapes decisions. I examine how community structures the implementation of biogas cooperatives in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol in Northern Italy. My findings suggest that ‘community spirit’, a cooperative tradition, and the norms of locality and responsibility are central drivers behind the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives. Not only do these institutional features of community influence the decision concerning which farmers are in or out but also plant location and scale. I argue that ‘community’ is a necessary analytical category for understanding community energy. - Highlights: • I analyze the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives in South Tyrol. • Emerging processes and the principal constitutions are similar. • Institutional forces influenced the biogas cooperatives' emergence and constitution. • Biogas cooperatives are decisively shaped by community spirit and local tradition. • The concept of community is used as an explanatory category for community energy

  5. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  6. Community Members Draw the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freeland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a community-based task force’s redistricting plan in Ventura County, California, positively affected fair representation, social equity issues, community interests, and the electoral process. Examination and evaluation of the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the task force’s redistricting process find that the Board of Supervisors districts that members of the community drew were successful in improving and maintaining fair representation. This finding is based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies with community members’ votes on state propositions and local measures, in addition to conducting interviews with task force members, politicians, and community activists. This study finds that citizen participation in governmental processes improves overall community health and political participation.

  7. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  8. What is microbial community ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-11-01

    The activities of complex communities of microbes affect biogeochemical transformations in natural, managed and engineered ecosystems. Meaningfully defining what constitutes a community of interacting microbial populations is not trivial, but is important for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include the analysis of functional pathways for nutrient resource and energy flows, mechanistic understanding of interactions between microbial populations and their environment, and the emergent properties of the complex community. Some emergent properties mirror those analyzed by community ecologists who study plants and animals: biological diversity, functional redundancy and system stability. However, because microbes possess mechanisms for the horizontal transfer of genetic information, the metagenome may also be considered as a community property.

  9. Civic communities and urban violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Jessica M; Lee, Matthew R

    2015-07-01

    Civic communities have a spirit of entrepreneurialism, a locally invested population and an institutional structure fostering civic engagement. Prior research, mainly confined to studying rural communities and fairly large geographic areas, has demonstrated that civic communities have lower rates of violence. The current study analyzes the associations between the components of civic communities and homicide rates for New Orleans neighborhoods (census tracts) in the years following Hurricane Katrina. Results from negative binomial regression models adjusting for spatial autocorrelation reveal that community homicide rates are lower where an entrepreneurial business climate is more pronounced and where there is more local investment. Additionally, an interaction between the availability of civic institutions and resource disadvantage reveals that the protective effects of civic institutions are only evident in disadvantaged communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  11. Community colleges and economic mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia A. Kolesnikova

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of community colleges in the U.S. higher education system and their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, it discusses the population of community college students and economic returns to community college education for various demographic groups. It offers new evidence on the returns to an associate's degree. Furthermore, the paper uses data from the National Survey of College Graduates to compare educational objectives, progress, and labor market outcomes ...

  12. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2014-05-04

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current community detection algorithms is in demand, and we present two approaches to tackle this issue -A K-core based framework that can accelerate existing community detection algorithms significantly; -A parallel inference algorithm via stochastic block models that can distribute the workload.

  13. Growth Hacking a Global Community

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkkinen, Laura; Rauhala, Marita

    2015-01-01

    As technology is developing at a fast phase people are engaging in community activities more and more online, either by extending their offline social life or by creating themselves a whole new parallel life as a member of virtual community. Companies behind communities are rivaling for attention and need to come up with increasingly clever tactics to attract and engage new members. In this thesis the relatively new phenomenon of growth hacking, the use of unconventional methods in order ...

  14. A nuclear community's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This submission delineates a perspective derived from the experience of a community which has lived with the nuclear industry since its beginnings in Canada, 45 years ago. Much has been accomplished in both basic and applied research in that time, and the industry continues to be recognized worldwide as a leader in solving high-technology problems. However, recent funding cuts have seriously jeopardized the industry's ability to maintain this high standard. Current anti-nuclear attitudes among our elected and appointed officials respond more to today's political fashions than tomorrow's evident needs. The town of Deep River believes that the industry has demonstrated a superb safety record in the past. If common sense prevails in matters of safety, and if appropriate levels of funding are maintained, the nuclear industry will continue to be a source of pride for all concerned

  15. Urban Climate Risk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of Beck’s forward-looking agenda for a post-Euro-centric social science, outlines the contours of such an urban-cosmopolitan ‘realpolitik’ of climate risks, as this is presently unfolding across East Asian world cities. Much more than a theory-building endeavour, the essay suggests, Beck’s sociology......Ulrich Beck’s cosmopolitan sociology affords a much-needed rethinking of the transnational politics of climate change, not least in pointing to an emerging inter-urban geography of world cities as a potential new source of community, change and solidarity. This short essay, written in honour...... provides a standing invitation for further transnational dialogue and collaborative empirical work, in East Asia and beyond, on what are, arguably, the defining challenges for the 21st century world of global risks....

  16. Communities under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of species on Earth and the interactions among them are tightly linked to historical and contemporary climate, so that global climate change will transform the world in which we live. Biological models can now credibly link recent decadal trends in field data to climate change......, but predicting future impacts on biological communities is a major challenge. Attempts to move beyond general macroecological predictions of climate change impact on one hand, and observations from specific, local-scale cases, small-scale experiments, or studies of a few species on the other, raise a plethora...... of unanswered questions. On page 1124 of this issue, Harley (1) reports results that cast new light on how biodiversity, across different trophic levels, responds to climate change....

  17. Communities and Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    is clearly illustrated by a by now rather standard approach to we-ness, which seeks to locate this property either in the subject of a given attitude (which, most perspicuously, is used to being characterized as an intention), or in the mode of the attitude or in its content. This view also suggests...... that there is one prototypical notion of group which conceptually has to be traced back to one of the three constituents of an intentional attitude and that the main way to access the notion of a group is by means of the concept of intention and/or intentional action. The present paper tackles a fairly divergent...... approach to the ontology of groups put forward by Dietrich von Hildebrand in his book on the Metaphysics of Community. First, von Hildebrand argues that there are different kinds of social groups and that, accordingly, individuals can be ‘together’ in radically different ways. In particular, he...

  18. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological

  19. The community comes to campus: the Patient and Community Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Kline, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Community-based learning connects students with local communities so that they learn about the broad context in which health and social care is provided; however, students usually interact with only one or a few organisations that serve a particular population. One example of a community-based learning activity is the health fair in which students provide health promotion and screening for local communities. We adapted the health fair concept to develop a multi-professional educational event at which, instead of providing service, students learn from and about the expertise and resources of not-for-profit organisations. The fair is an annual 1-day event that students can attend between, or in place of, classes. Each community organisation has a booth to display information. One-hour 'patient panels' are held on a variety of topics throughout the day. Evaluation methods include questionnaires, exit interviews and visitor tracking sheets. Over 5 years (2009-2013), the fair increased in size with respect to estimated attendance, number of participating organisations, number of patient panels and number of students for whom the fair is a required curriculum component. Students learn about a range of patient experiences and community resources, and information about specific diseases or conditions. The fair is an efficient way for students to learn about a range of community organisations. It fosters university-community engagement through continuing connections between students, faculty members and community organisations. Lessons learned include the need for community organisations to have techniques to engage students, and ways to overcome challenges of evaluating an informal 'drop-in' event. The fair is an efficient way for students to learn about a range of community organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...

  1. Parasite communities: patterns and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esch, Gerald W; Bush, Albert O; Aho, John M

    1990-01-01

    .... Taking examples from many hosts including molluscs, marine and freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, this book shows how parasitic communities are influenced by a multitude...

  2. Community Engagement in a Graduate-Level Community Literacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Bowen, Lauren; Arko, Kirsti; Beatty, Joel; Delaney, Cindy; Dorpenyo, Isidore; Moeller, Laura; Roberts, Elsa; Velat, John

    2014-01-01

    A case study of a graduate-level community literacy seminar that involved a tutoring project with adult digital literacy learners, this essay illustrates the value of community outreach and service-learning for graduate students in writing studies. Presenting multiple perspectives through critical reflection, student authors describe how their…

  3. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mohammad Kais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1 the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2 emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions.

  4. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Shaikh Mohammad; Islam, Md Saidul

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1) the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2) emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions. PMID:27929448

  5. Designing to support community gardens by going beyond community gardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wakkary, R.; Rau, P.-L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Community gardens connect to many organizations in order to receive and offer resources and services. The complex sociotechnical systems in which community gardens inhabit bring both opportunities and challenges for designers who endeavor to support them. In this study, we investigated three

  6. Indigenous knowledge systems, local community and community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the paper requires some brief reflection on the main topics implied. It is appropriate to start off with a definition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) as well as a statement regarding the constitutional status of a community. Thereafter I will expand on the merits of IKS towards community development as well as ...

  7. The community ecology of pathogens: coinfection, coexistence and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Gross, Kevin; Kendig, Amy E; Lacroix, Christelle; Mitchell, Charles E; Mordecai, Erin A; Power, Alison G

    2015-04-01

    Disease and community ecology share conceptual and theoretical lineages, and there has been a resurgence of interest in strengthening links between these fields. Building on recent syntheses focused on the effects of host community composition on single pathogen systems, we examine pathogen (microparasite) communities using a stochastic metacommunity model as a starting point to bridge community and disease ecology perspectives. Such models incorporate the effects of core community processes, such as ecological drift, selection and dispersal, but have not been extended to incorporate host-pathogen interactions, such as immunosuppression or synergistic mortality, that are central to disease ecology. We use a two-pathogen susceptible-infected (SI) model to fill these gaps in the metacommunity approach; however, SI models can be intractable for examining species-diverse, spatially structured systems. By placing disease into a framework developed for community ecology, our synthesis highlights areas ripe for progress, including a theoretical framework that incorporates host dynamics, spatial structuring and evolutionary processes, as well as the data needed to test the predictions of such a model. Our synthesis points the way for this framework and demonstrates that a deeper understanding of pathogen community dynamics will emerge from approaches working at the interface of disease and community ecology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Community Connections. Time Warner Community Responsibility Report, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jane; Stein, Carol

    This report highlights efforts by Time Warner personnel to strengthen community connections through various programs and services aimed at supporting: education, the arts, volunteerism, diversity, and business-community action. The report is divided into sections focusing on each of these areas. The first section, Education, describes programs…

  9. Science and Community Engagement: Connecting Science Students with the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael; Schiebel, Amy

    2018-01-01

    In this article we describe a course on science outreach that was developed as part of our college's goal that all students participate in a meaningful community engagement experience. The Science & Community Engagement course provides a way for students with science or science-related majors to learn how to effectively communicate scientific…

  10. Community Currency in Korea : How do we envision Community Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kang (Joonmo); B.E. Hong (Baeg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCommunity currency schemes were first introduced in Korea in 1998. Since then, there have been many efforts to use them but no report or academic research on the topic in Korea. Thus, we conducted a field investigation to identify the scope of community currency schemes in Korea and as

  11. From Campuses to Communities: Community-Based Cultism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...

  12. Role of Community Radio for Community Development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowarul Arif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Community radio is a medium of expressing and sharing views, thoughts, ideas, problems and prospects of rural, disadvantaged, vulnerable and hard to reach population with the mainstream population. As the media of root level people of the disadvantaged areas, Community radio has become popular in recent years and it has opened a new arena for both the policy makers as well as grassroots people to be involved in the development process of their community. There are about 17 Community Radios broadcasting 135 hours programmes in a day across the country. The Community Radio can help us in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, water and sanitation and disaster related issues more effectively and strategically. In order to highlight the importance and effectiveness of community radio for the community development of Bangladesh, this study has been conducted based on the secondary data. This is a group effort that has become successful by the co-operation of many individuals and institutions. Access to Information (a2i Programme would like to express sincere gratitude to Monisha Mohonto, Project Focal and Bakul Mohonto, Program Assistant, BTV for introducing such an innovative project. As this is a new concept, there is no significant study has been conducted. Therefore the study has been directed to explore the importance of community FM radio in Bangladesh particularly in remote and rural areas.

  13. Renewal Strategy and Community Based Organisations in Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    organisations in the study areas and Community-Based Poverty Reduction. Programme ... regions or areas. In Nigeria, for ... industries in the growing and developing urban areas. ..... Security network is also provided by the community. To ..... Development Efforts in Nigeria: Case Study of Anambra and Oyo State, NISER.

  14. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Is a community still a community? Reviewing definitions of key terms in community ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, James T.; Bush, Michael R.; Ladd, Mark C.; Nowicki, Robert J.; Shantz, Andrew A.; Sweatman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Community ecology is an inherently complicated field, confounded by the conflicting use of fundamental terms. Nearly two decades ago, Fauth et?al. (1996) demonstrated that imprecise language led to the virtual synonymy of important terms and so attempted to clearly define four keywords in community ecology; ?community,? ?assemblage,? ?guild,? and ?ensemble?. We revisit Fauth et?al.'s conclusion and discuss how the use of these terms has changed over time since their review. An update...

  16. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  17. Trust Discovery in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, John

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to discover interpersonal trust in online communities. Two novel trust models are built to explain interpersonal trust in online communities drawing theories and models from multiple relevant areas, including organizational trust models, trust in virtual settings, speech act theory, identity theory, and common bond theory. In…

  18. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  19. Marketing Model for Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahin, Jaime

    In order to survive projected enrollment decreases and to better serve nontraditional students, community colleges must develop marketing plans that make effective use of five community resources: local school system personnel, business and industry, civic and social service agencies, college personnel, and the local media. In approaching these…

  20. Distance Learning for Community Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the influence of technology on curriculum and teaching. It specifically examines the new wave of available technology and the opportunity for schools to make inroads into community outreach by engaging new, technological learning methods. The relationship among community education, public school relations, and distance…

  1. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  2. Opening up closed policy communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic cases of closed policy communities, facing pressure to open up. However attempts to involve new stakeholders slowly move forward. This paper addresses the question why it is so difficult to open up agricultural communities and what might help to

  3. A Community Patient Demographic System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, James M.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A Community Patient Demographic System is described. Its purpose is to link patient identification, demographic and insurance information among multiple organizations in a community or among multiple registration systems within the same organization. This function requires that there be a competent patient identification methodology and clear definition of local responsibilities for number assignment and database editing.

  4. Community College Employee Wellness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…

  5. Otitis Media, Learning and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwan, David; Clinch, Emma; Store, Ron

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year research project in Queensland (Australia) implemented educational and health strategies to ameliorate effects of otitis media at three schools in remote Aboriginal communities. The interdisciplinary model brought together health and education professionals, teacher aides, and the community, with the school being the lead agency. However,…

  6. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  7. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Gardi, Ciro

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use...

  8. What's Pragmatic about Community Organizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, educational researchers and scholars have turned new attention to the theory and practice of community organizing as a method for addressing education injustices. While there are diverse traditions of community organizing work, by far the most influential model in US contexts is that of Saul Alinsky, whose "Rules for Radicals"…

  9. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  10. Microbial communities in blueberry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities thrive in the soil of the plant root zone and it is clear that these communities play a role in plant health. Although blueberry fields can be productive for decades, yields are sometimes below expectations and fields that are replanted sometimes underperform and/or take too lo...

  11. Online Education in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejda, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the tremendous growth in the use of the Internet to deliver distance education at community colleges. The author examines various definitions of online education, including the types of courses, programs, and degrees available and the types of community colleges that offer greater amounts of online programming. Considerations…

  12. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  13. The Community Psychology Evaluation Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jeffrey A.; Wolfe, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the American Evaluation Association (AEA) added community psychology (CP) to its roster of topical interests groups (TIG). One of the highlights of the CP TIG program at the 2012 AEA Conference and the genesis of this "American Journal of Evaluation" Forum was a panel of accomplished community psychologists and evaluation…

  14. A Professional Learning Community Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides insights into how Life Sciences teachers in the Eastern Cape can be supported through professional learning communities (PLCs) as a potential approach to enhancing their biodiversity knowledge. PLCs are communities that provide the setting and necessary support for groups of classroom teachers to ...

  15. Community Orientation and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Kurt; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship among media use, participation in local shopping and leisure activities, and orientation toward the local community. Reexamines Robert Merton's Cosmopolitan scale, finding it to have both localite (exclusively local orientation) and cosmopolite (orientation to events outside the local community) dimensions. (MM)

  16. Introduction: Diverse Perspectives on Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes J. Pamela; Dorothy Anderson

    2000-01-01

    A glance through the table of contents of any social science journal illustrates that social science disciplines define community quite differently. For example, geographers emphasize spatial aspects, economists emphasize work and markets, and sociologists emphasize social interactions and networks in their definitions of communities. As a scientific concept,...

  17. Inroduction: diverse perspectives on community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Dorothy Anderson

    2000-01-01

    A glance through the table of contents of any social science journal illustrates that social science disciplines define community quite differently. For example, geographers emphasize spatial aspects, economists emphasize work and markets, and sociologists emphasize social interactions and networks in their definitions of communities. As a scientific concept,...

  18. Community Music in Cultural Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Quirijn; Bisschop Boele, Evert; Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Higgins, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Community Music presents a contested field. Its art status, its methods and its effects all are under scrutiny as the various actors involved in community music practices frequently have very different backgrounds and different objectives. Aesthetic intentions, social objectives and economic

  19. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  20. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...

  1. Global Journal of Community Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Community Medicine is aimed at promoting research in all areas of community or public health. It addresses issues of primary and tertiary health care. It deals with problems and solutions of health problems at the grassroots and daily livings. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: ...

  2. Democratic Leadership for Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Verna D.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Because educators continue to face challenges when seeking to educate all children, there is a growing recognition that schools must work with communities to maximize their collective educational potential (Murphy, Beck, Crawford, Hodges, & McGauphy, 2001). Although community schools are still in the emergent stages of development, their emphasis…

  3. Positive feedback in species communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes the eventual population densities in a species community depend on the initial densities or the arrival times of species. If arrival times determine species composition, a priority effect has occurred. Priority effects may occur if the species community exhibits alternative stable states

  4. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  5. Iowa Community Colleges Accounting Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…

  6. Tenure and America's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2012-01-01

    America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…

  7. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  8. Coalfield communities and their environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, E

    1985-01-01

    Three main issues threaten the future of the coalfield communities: the coal industry is creating new capacity as the demand for coal slumps against predicted growth; the western democracies in general, and Britain in particular, are undergoing an economic restructuring under a financial management strategy which yields high levels of unemployment; the coalfield communities live in environments determined by the nature and history of their own local coal industry. The paper considers the effects of these issues on the coalfield communities. Topics covered are: the coalfield communities; opportunities to work; land use planning and the coal industry; spoil disposal; land reclamation; access; housing; tourism and leisure; open cast mining; coalfield community action zones; the financial scene.

  9. Do we need community geriatrics?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hanlon, S

    2012-01-30

    Community geriatrics has evolved as a specific aspect of geriatric medicine in the UK. In Ireland there is uncertainty as to how it should be planned. This is the first national survey of consultants, specialist registrars and general practitioners to seek their opinions. Most consultants and GPs reported already having a community aspect to their current practice, e.g. nursing home visits or community hospital visits, whereas most SpRs did not. Forty three of 62 respondents (69%) agreed that there is a need for community geriatricians and that there should be integration with hospital medicine. Fifty seven of 62 respondents (92%) felt that there would be a beneficial effect on GP services, though some expressed concern about work overlap. Thirteen of the 25 SpRs (52%) in training hoped to begin practice in community geriatrics in the future.

  10. Community Capacity Building for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Traverso-Yepez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of literature examining the benefits and relevance of community participation and community capacity building in health promotion and disease prevention endeavors. Academic literature embracing principles and commitment to community participation in health promotion practices often neglects the complexities involved and the flexibility required to work within this approach. This article addresses some of these challenges through a case study of two projects funded by Provincial Wellness Grants in Newfoundland and Labrador, a province in Canada with a strong tradition of community ties and support systems. In addition to addressing the unique circumstances of the community groups, this research allowed the authors to examine the situational context and power relations involved in the provision of services as well as the particular forms of subjectivity and citizenship that the institutional practices support. Recognizing this complex interdependency is an important step in creating more effective intervention practices.

  11. Community attitudes toward nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many effects of the accident at Three Mile Island are impacts upon other communities that currently host nuclear-power reactors. Because studies on communities' reactions not immediately available, this chapter reviews existing studies and speculates about possible effects. The patterns and variations in impacts on and responses of nuclear host communities have been the subject of studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) since 1972. This essay presents results from four post-licensing studies of host communities - Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut (PL-1), and Brunswick, North Carolina, and Appling-Toombs counties, Georgia (PL-2) - along with case study and attitude survey information from two additional communities in which reactors are under construction: Hartsville, Tennessee, and Cherokee County, South Carolina. Differences and similarities between the sites have been assessed in terms of differences in input and social structure; factors affecting the generally favorable attitudes toward local nuclear plants are discussed

  12. Paradoxes unbounded: Practising community making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Maginess

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this paper is a discussion of the paradoxes contained in definitionsof the word 'community' and deliberately foregrounds and makes problematicconflicting meanings before arguing for a third definition and practice of community.This third definition and practice celebrates and even transcends contradictions withinan active learning model of education in the community, aimed at tackling inequalityand prejudice. The second section offers an autocritical narrative account of aneducation in the community project that illustrates how such a practice of communitymaking can be achieved within an educational framework in which pupil is teacher andteacher is pupil and in which an imaginative, creative approach is deployed toconstruct a community making practice. The paper draws on understandings fromcommunity development, inclusive and creative education, emancipatory actionresearch, postcolonial and post-structuralist theory.

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  14. From Community to Meta-Community Mental Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bouras

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, we have witnessed the development and growth of community mental health care that continues to dominate mental health policy and practice. Several high-income countries have implemented community mental health care programmes but for many others, including mostly low- and middle-income countries, it remains an aspiration. Although community mental health care has been positive for many service users, it has also had severe shortcomings. Expectations that it would lead to fuller social integration have not been fulfilled and many service users remain secluded in sheltered or custodial environments with limited social contacts and no prospect of work. Others receive little or no service at all. In today’s complex landscape of increasingly specialised services for people with mental health problems, the number of possible interfaces between services is increasing. Together with existing uneven financing systems and a context of constant change, these interfaces are challenging us to develop effective care pathways adjusted to the needs of service users and their carers. This discussion paper reviews the developments in community mental health care over the recent years and puts forward the concept of “Meta-Community Mental Health Care”. “Meta-Community Mental Health Care” embraces pluralism in understanding and treating psychiatric disorders, acknowledges the complexities of community provision, and reflects the realities and needs of the current era of care.

  15. Analysis of coping styles of elderly women patients with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Elderly female patients with SUI differ in the factors that influence their coping styles; therefore, clinical and community medical staff should include a comprehensive analysis that takes these factors into consideration when working with patients with SUI to guide them in adopting a positive coping style.

  16. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  17. Grandi Eventi: indicatori di classificazione e incidenza sui sistemi urbani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available I grandi eventi sono ritenuti una opportunità per le città in quanto sono uno straordinario catalizzatore di investimenti mirati alla trasformazione della città. L’azione dei grandi eventi non è confinata solo nel periodo di svolgimento dell’evento stesso ma si estende ad un periodo molto più ampio, prima e, soprattutto, dopo il suo termine. Nell’organizzazione delle manifestazioni più recenti le trasformazioni urbane hanno interessato in modo sempre maggiore parti già in precedenza urbanizzate, al punto che l’evento diviene l’occasione per trasformare la città costruita e per modificarne il profilo. Il paper approfondisce l’argomento della classificazione degli eventi e del loro impatto sul sistema urbano sviluppandosi in tre parti. Nella prima si analizzano due tipologie di grandi eventi (le esposizioni internazionali e i giochi olimpici con l’obiettivo di pervenire ad una definizione condivisa. Nella seconda parte si identificano i più importanti fattori ed indicatori per l’analisi di questa specifica categoria di avvenimenti. Infine, nella terza parte, si approfondiscono i fattori connessi all’impatto sul sistema urbano e all’organizzazione della sua mobilità. In particolare, viene approfondito il concetto di “effetto pulsar”, ossia gli effetti moltiplicativi sulla evoluzione urbana dipendenti dalla organizzazione di eventi multipli in parallelo o in sequenza. Uno degli elementi più negativi connessi alla organizzazione di un grande evento è la dispersione nel tempo dei benefici acquisiti grazie ad esso; per evitare ciò è necessario che l’evento sia seguito da politiche strategiche continue in modo da preservare i vantaggi acquisiti.

  18. Note critiche sui rapporti tra diritto ed economia

    OpenAIRE

    Tuzet, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Il saggio inquadra teoricamente i principali rapporti fra diritto ed economia e analizza i vari metodi e approcci dell'analisi economica del diritto, rilvandone gli aspetti critici e discutendo infine gli approcci comportamentali e la "nudge theory".

  19. Enfermedades Autoinmunes, tratamiento con Trichuris suis y otros helmintos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Pallardo Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La "Hipótesis de la Higiene" postula sobre los efectos inmunomoduladores inducidos por agentes infecciosos en los seres humanos. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es indagar sobre las evidencias de esa hipótesis y sobre sus aplicaciones en el campo del tratamiento de las enfermedades autoinmunes, haciendo especial hincapié tanto en los mecanismos de acción en los que se basan estas aplicaciones como en los resultados reales obtenidos. Además analizará la posible evolución de estas terapias, especialmente a la sombra de las controversias éticas que surgen de la aplicación de estos tratamientos en relación a si es lícito causar una infección para curar otra patología, como es el caso que nos ocupa. Resultados: Actualmente existen resultados prometedores de ensayos clínicos sobre terapias helmínticas aplicadas al tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes como son la enfermedad de Crohn y la colitis ulcerosa, resumidos en el apartado de resultados de este artículo. Igualmente prometedora es la gran variedad de ensayos clínicos que actualmente están en curso sobre la aplicación de la terapia helmíntica al tratamiento de diversas patologías en las que está involucrado el sistema inmunológico, como son: asma, rinitis alérgica, artritis reumatoide, esclerosis múltiple, diabetes Mellitus tipo I, encefalomielitis autoinmune, obesidad, autismo, etc que han llevado a identificar cuáles son los parásitos indicados en el tratamiento de este amplio espectro de enfermedades. Sin embargo es necesario indicar que no todos los helmintos son inmunorreguladores y, por lo tanto útiles en el tratamiento de estas enfermedades y que, los que lo son, no son útiles en el tratamiento de todas las enfermedades de origen inmunológico sino que presentan una marcada especificidad. Es más, la utilidad de éstos presenta una variabilidad importante, no sólo dependiente de la enfermedad de origen inmunológico a tratar, sino también de las condiciones del paciente. Es por ello que actualmente no existen terapias helmínticas aprobadas por las principales agencias del medicamento; aún quedan muchos aspectos por desvelar, lo que hace que la hipótesis de la higiene no haya pasado de ser una hipótesis. Sin embargo lo prometedor de estas terapias ha traído consigo la autorización de algunas de ellas como "productos en fase de investigación clínica". Conclusiones: Es necesario seguir investigando sobre las terapias helmínticas. Además es especialmente prometedor el empleo de productos solubles de parásitos en el tratamiento de estas enfermedades en lugar de la infección helmíntica e incluso, el diseño de análogos sintéticos que sean más efectivos y presenten menos riesgos. La utilización de este último tipo de productos traerá consigo un aumento en el número de ensayos clínicos, justificados por las facilidades de patente de éstos frente a la utilización directa de estados de los parásitos. Sin embargo todavía es necesaria más investigación para conocer las biomoléculas presentes en los parásitos que son responsables de su efecto terapéutico.

  20. Paradossi e realtà saggio sui fondamenti della microfisica

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    1987-01-01

    Impostasi come l'interpretazione ultma e definitiva del mondo fisico, la meccanica quantistica rivela invece ampie falle a un'analisi più attenta dei suoi fondamenti. Con un'argomentazione serrata, Selleri mette a nudo in questo libro le implicite basu filosofiche della teoria dei quanti, e mostra come le più recenti proposte di esperimenti possono rivalutare la posizione realista di Einstein, Schrödinger, de Broglie. Una splendida sintesi di storia e filosofia che ci introduce alle problematiche più attuali della scienza fisica.